CN102626030B - Cultivation method for growing tissue-cultured Oriental lily bulbs in 18 months - Google Patents

Cultivation method for growing tissue-cultured Oriental lily bulbs in 18 months Download PDF

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CN102626030B
CN102626030B CN 201210123726 CN201210123726A CN102626030B CN 102626030 B CN102626030 B CN 102626030B CN 201210123726 CN201210123726 CN 201210123726 CN 201210123726 A CN201210123726 A CN 201210123726A CN 102626030 B CN102626030 B CN 102626030B
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liquid
days
soil
ball
next year
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CN102626030A (en
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杨森
杨俊成
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DALI RUNSEN FLOWER DEVELOPMENT Co Ltd
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DALI RUNSEN FLOWER DEVELOPMENT Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention relates to a cultivation method for growing tissue-cultured Oriental lily bulbs in 18 months, which comprises the steps of: making preparations of seeds and farmland before the planting every year; planting in April, and advancing the planting to the period from March 15 or delaying the planting to May 15; implementing the seedling management after the emergence in about 20 days to June; implementing final-period management from July to October; implementing overwinter management from November to the next March; implementing the seedling management from March to June in the nextyear; implementing the final-period management from July to October in the next year; and carrying out the harvesting in the next October and completing the growth cultivation of the tissue-cultured Oriental lily bulbs in 18 months. By adopting the method, temperature inside an ordinary farmland is not required to increase, the cost is low, compared with the imported Holland seed bulb, the produced Oriental lily seed bulbs have little difference on the aspect of the number of flowers or the quality of the flowers, and a promising popularization prospect can be realized.

Description

18 months balling-up cultivation methods of a kind of oriental hybrid lily group training ball
Technical field
The present invention relates to the arviculture technology, 18 months balling-up cultivation methods of especially a kind of oriental hybrid lily group training ball.
Background technology
Existing oriental hybrid lily group training ball will through 30 months conventional cultivation, just can have 70% balling ratio.
Summary of the invention
The objective of the invention is to propose a kind of new oriental hybrid lily group training ball balling-up cultivation method, by 18 months cultivation, can make balling ratio reach 80%.
The present invention is achieved like this, and makes preparations for sowing before the annual plantation and standby field; Plant April, also can advance to March 15 or extend to May 15; Emerge about 20 days and carry out afterwards seedling management to June; Carry out final-period management July to October; Carry out overwinter management March November to next year; Carry out the next year seedling management March next year to June; Carry out the next year final-period management July next year to October; Gather October next year, finishes oriental hybrid lily group training ball balling-up in 18 months cultivation.
Further step of the present invention is as follows:
One, make preparations for sowing before the annual plantation and standby field:
1, makes preparations for sowing: will be prepended under 3-5 ℃ the low temperature spare part 60-65 days under the group of the girth 1-3 ㎝ training ball, or will be prepended under 2-4 ℃ the low temperature spare part 55-60 days under the girth 1-3 ㎝ detoxification offspring scale cuttage seed ball, or planted under the low temperature spare part that is prepended to 1-3 ℃ under the seed ball 55-60 days the detoxification offspring of girth 3 ㎝ is naturally numerous;
2, standby field: adjusting soil acidity or alkalinity is 5.5-6.5 to the suitable soil pH value of oriental hybrid lily; Plough or the degree of depth 30cm that ploughs, the rate of balking is less than 1%, and hack is even, and plow layer does not contain the above soil block of diameter 2cm; Every mu of phoxim or fenaminosulf with 5kg is admixed disinfecting soil, or every mu of 600-800 times of liquid with 25% carbendazim of 4kg evenly sprays sterilization to soil; Before applying fertilizer to the subsoil, the plot is carried out slightly whole, flat high pad is low, loses the serious plot backfill soil of soil, is no more than 20 ㎝ with the plot discrepancy in elevation on every side; The foreign material such as the plastics of noresidue, deadwood; Thick whole plot is carried out carefully whole, make the drainage grade of 1/1000-2/1000 according to drainage direction; Do not stay hollow hole after smooth, do not stay the high ridge, smoothly draining after guaranteeing to grow seedlings; Then trench digging is made bed, high bed specification base area block size and deciding, general wide by 1.2, high 0.25M, the wide 0.30M of pavement, reach " three flat, three thin, three straight ", be that the residential quarter is flat, bed surface flat, pavement is flat, hack is thin, do that bed is thin, bed cubsoil earth is tiny, loose, byroad is straight, pavement is straight, the bed shoulder directly, be in line; Then execute ripe cow dung 1500 ㎏ and potassium sulphate 25-30 ㎏ every per mu sparing, apply interior 20 a ㎝ place;
Two, plant April, also can advance to March 15 or extend to May 15: fill with end water behind the trench digging, ooze lower rear penalty kick until open fire.Lily group training ball is evenly put into the ditch of holding successfully, and the kind ball density of 1-3 cm is pressed 80 Li/㎡, line-spacing 20 ㎝, and spacing in the rows is decided according to ball.To plant the spherical pendulum positive direction, root system downwards, terminal bud upwards, earthing 4 ㎝, the high 1500 times of liquid of generation that in time restrain with 600 times of liquid or the 1500-2000 of 70% tpn of every mu 250 gram after plantation finishes evenly spray sterilization to soil;
Three, carry out seedling management to June after plantation was emerged in about 20 days: execute when emergence rate reaches 90% fertile for the first time, every mu first with 500 times of the urea of 5 ㎏ carry out the blade face, soil sprays, and uses the cow dung 60-65 ㎏ organic fertilizer that becomes thoroughly decomposed for every mu again; The interval is executed fertile for the second time after 20 days, apply nitrate of lime 10 ㎏/mus, potassium nitrate 5-10 ㎏/mu; The interval is executed fertile for the third time after 30 days, apply potassium sulphate 15 ㎏/mus, nitrate of lime 5 ㎏/mus; The interval is the 4th fertilising after 25 days, execute two parts of potassium nitrate for every mu and add a nitrate of lime 15 ㎏, or four parts of potassium dihydrogen phosphates adds a ammonium phosphate 20 ㎏; 600 times of liquid of 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate that 400 times of liquid of iron and soil spray every mu of 1.2-1.5 ㎏ will be closed according to 0.1% Ao that growing state carries out every mu of 1 ㎏ of foliage-spray about 10 days in the interval between each fertilizer application period; Every soil EC value of monitoring in 7 days (soil conductivity: the solubility salinity in the soil is electrolyte, and their forms with charged ion in the aqueous solution exist, the effect that therefore has conduction), when being higher than 1.0ms/cm, should stop soil application; Will keep soil moisture regime seedling stage, field capacity 60-70%, and later stage soil moisture is suitable, moist, but ten million can not accumulated water; When emergence rate reaches 90%, every mu of 500 times of liquid irrigating roots of 70% fenaminosulf with 2-2.5 ㎏ of for the first time soil disinfection; Interval 10 days afterwards for the second time, every mu of 70% tpn 600-800 times liquid that sprays 2-2.5 ㎏; The interval after 10 days for the third time, every mu of 1000 times of liquid of 50% Sukeling that spray 2-2.5 ㎏; Interval after 10 days the 4th time, every mu is sprayed the 50% Sukeling 1500-2000 times liquid of 1 ㎏ and the 25% carbendazim 400-600 times liquid of 1.2-2.5 ㎏, or with the 65% zineb 600-1000 times liquid of 1 ㎏ and the mould clever 1500-2000 times liquid irrigating root of 50% evil of 2.5-3 ㎏; Every mu of the 10 days anti-aphid in interval is sprayed 1000 times of liquid of 40% flolimat 3 times of 2.5-3 ㎏ during this time, and 200 times of liquid of self-control bordeaux mixture that anti-gray mold is sprayed 2-2.5 ㎏ spray or fill with root 3 times; Cutting weeds is main technologies in the lily breeding and culturing, also is the link of comparatively taking a lot of work.Need to be repeated multiple times, prevent the farmland running to weeds, when weeds grow to 5-10 cm, timely weeding; Oriental hybrid lily seedling sunshade in summer 50%, the cloudy day is opened sunshade net, attention is ventilated, and daytime, the maximum air temperature was not higher than 25 ℃.When bud is grown to 0.5-1 ㎝, in time extract, prevent from consuming too much nutrition;
Four, carry out final-period management July to October: 7, be the key period that lily ball expands August, every 7-10 days every mu spray three times continuously 600 times of 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphates of every mu of 600 times in 0.2% potassium nitrate that carries out foliage-spray 1000-1500 gram and 1000-1500 gram every about 10 days with the bordeaux mixture of 200 times of liquid of 2-2.5 ㎏.9, mainly keep soil moisture 50-60% October, can not accumulated water, observation is once in time irrigated according to soil moisture content weekly.
Five, carry out overwinter management March November to next year: remove then all foreign material November, fill with roots with 200 times of liquid of formalin of 40% of 2.5-3 ㎏ and 75% tpn 1000 of 3 ㎏ for every mu by the end of December; Cover the seedbed with the straw-made articles of good permeability simultaneously, cover with 70% sunshade net again and begin underground natural behind whole plot and survive the winter; Make the overwintering phase can protect the dormancy of lily root system, guarantee the development growth that base was taken root when next year emerged.Base is taken root and is had the effect that absorbs nutrient and support acrial part, and the growth of root system is closely related with the temperature of soil, and 3-5 sprays clear water and keeps the skin wet to protective layer in week after surviving the winter, and humidity is advisable with 30%; Process the growth of the lily stem-root in vegetative period of emerging after appropriately promoting to survive the winter, to reducing common burning leaf phenomenon, improve kind of ball quality most important;
Six, carry out the next year seedling management March next year to June: after 4000 times of liquid disinfectants of 72% streptomycin of every mu of usefulness 1 ㎏ of rear seeding stage that survives the winter March next year are filled with root, manage according to the seedling management mode of First Year, fertile, dose increases by 5%;
Seven, carry out the next year final-period management July next year to October: the final-period management mode according to First Year manages, and fertile, dose increases by 5%;
Eight, gather November next year: use spade to carry out artificial balling-up, the end from the seedbed during balling-up begins inwardly to advance gradually, when pick is dug, and spade under oblique kind of ball of kind of ball 15 ㎝, excavating depth 20 ㎝ guarantee that root system is complete.In time cleaning is concentrated after excavating, and avoids kind of a ball to be buried in the earth, and removes earth and withered caulom, and large microspecies ball is put into respectively the Different Package case; Focus on clean respectively afterwards, classification, sterilization, packing, warehouse-in, sale.
Since the water content of open country overwintering period oriental hybrid lily bulb, the variation no significant difference of dry matter content, unit weight; Bud length, gemmule ratio, soluble sugar content, improving activity of root system and respiratory intensity in the bulb is in stable slowly growth mid-March, afterwards sharp increase.Adopt method of the present invention need not heat in common farmland, with low cost, the lily ball of producing is planted ball with the Holland of import and is compared, and no matter all difference is little on flower quantity or flower quality, has good promotion prospect.
Embodiment
Embodiment one:
One, make preparations for sowing before the annual plantation and standby field:
1, makes preparations for sowing: will be prepended under 3-5 ℃ the low temperature spare part 60-65 days under the group of the girth 1-3 ㎝ training ball;
2, standby field: adjusting soil acidity or alkalinity is 5.5-6.5 to the suitable soil pH value of oriental hybrid lily; Plough (turning over) degree of depth 30cm, the rate of balking is less than 1%, and hack is even, and plow layer does not contain the above soil block of diameter 2cm; Every mu of phoxim or fenaminosulf with 5kg is admixed disinfecting soil, or every mu of 600-800 times of liquid with 25% carbendazim of 4kg evenly sprays sterilization to soil; Before applying fertilizer to the subsoil, the plot is carried out slightly whole, flat high pad is low, loses the serious plot backfill soil of soil, is no more than 20 ㎝ with the plot discrepancy in elevation on every side; The foreign material such as the plastics of noresidue, deadwood; Thick whole plot is carried out carefully whole, make the drainage grade of 1/1000-2/1000 according to drainage direction; Do not stay hollow hole after smooth, do not stay the high ridge, smoothly draining after guaranteeing to grow seedlings; Then trench digging is made bed, high bed specification base area block size and deciding, general wide by 1.2, high 0.25M, the wide 0.30M of pavement, reach " three flat, three thin, three straight ", be that the residential quarter is flat, bed surface flat, pavement is flat, hack is thin, do that bed is thin, bed cubsoil earth is tiny, loose, byroad is straight, pavement is straight, the bed shoulder directly, be in line; Then execute ripe cow dung 1500 ㎏ and potassium sulphate 25-30 ㎏ every per mu sparing, apply interior 20 a ㎝ place;
Two, plant April, also can advance to March 15 or extend to May 15: fill with end water behind the trench digging, ooze lower rear penalty kick until open fire.Lily group training ball is evenly put into the ditch of holding successfully, and the kind ball density of 1-3 cm is pressed 80 Li/㎡, line-spacing 20 ㎝, and spacing in the rows is decided according to ball.To plant the spherical pendulum positive direction, root system downwards, terminal bud upwards, earthing 4 ㎝, the high 1500 times of liquid of generation that in time restrain with 600 times of liquid or the 1500-2000 of 70% tpn of every mu 250 gram after plantation finishes evenly spray sterilization to soil;
Three, carry out seedling management to June after plantation was emerged in about 20 days: execute when emergence rate reaches 90% fertile for the first time, every mu first with 500 times of the urea of 5 ㎏ carry out the blade face, soil sprays, and uses the cow dung 60-65 ㎏ organic fertilizer that becomes thoroughly decomposed for every mu again; The interval is executed fertile for the second time after 20 days, apply nitrate of lime 10 ㎏/mus, potassium nitrate 5-10 ㎏/mu; The interval is executed fertile for the third time after 30 days, apply potassium sulphate 15 ㎏/mus, nitrate of lime 5 ㎏/mus; The interval is the 4th fertilising after 25 days, execute two parts of potassium nitrate for every mu and add a nitrate of lime 15 ㎏, or four parts of potassium dihydrogen phosphates adds a ammonium phosphate 20 ㎏; 600 times of liquid of 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate that 400 times of liquid of iron and soil spray every mu of 1.2-1.5 ㎏ will be closed according to 0.1% Ao that growing state carries out every mu of 1 ㎏ of foliage-spray about 10 days in the interval between each fertilizer application period; Every soil EC value of monitoring in 7 days (soil conductivity: the solubility salinity in the soil is electrolyte, and their forms with charged ion in the aqueous solution exist, the effect that therefore has conduction), when being higher than 1.0ms/cm, should stop soil application; Will keep soil moisture regime seedling stage, field capacity 60-70%, and later stage soil moisture is suitable, moist, but ten million can not accumulated water; When emergence rate reaches 90%, every mu of 500 times of liquid irrigating roots of 70% fenaminosulf with 2-2.5 ㎏ of for the first time soil disinfection; Interval 10 days afterwards for the second time, every mu of 70% tpn 600-800 times liquid that sprays 2-2.5 ㎏; The interval after 10 days for the third time, every mu of 1000 times of liquid of 50% Sukeling that spray 2-2.5 ㎏; Interval after 10 days the 4th time, every mu is sprayed the 50% Sukeling 1500-2000 times liquid of 1 ㎏ and the 25% carbendazim 400-600 times liquid of 1.2-2.5 ㎏, or with the 65% zineb 600-1000 times liquid of 1 ㎏ and the mould clever 1500-2000 times liquid irrigating root of 50% evil of 2.5-3 ㎏; Every mu of the 10 days anti-aphid in interval is sprayed 1000 times of liquid of 40% flolimat 3 times of 2.5-3 ㎏ during this time, and 200 times of liquid of self-control bordeaux mixture that anti-gray mold is sprayed 2-2.5 ㎏ spray or fill with root 3 times; Cutting weeds is main technologies in the lily breeding and culturing, also is the link of comparatively taking a lot of work.Need to be repeated multiple times, prevent the farmland running to weeds, when weeds grow to 5-10 cm, timely weeding; Oriental hybrid lily seedling sunshade in summer 50%, the cloudy day is opened sunshade net, attention is ventilated, and daytime, the maximum air temperature was not higher than 25 ℃.When bud is grown to 0.5-1 ㎝, in time extract, prevent from consuming too much nutrition;
Four, carry out final-period management July to October: 7, be the key period that lily ball expands August, every 7-10 days every mu spray three times continuously 600 times of 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphates of every mu of 600 times in 0.2% potassium nitrate that carries out foliage-spray 1000-1500 gram and 1000-1500 gram every about 10 days with the bordeaux mixture of 200 times of liquid of 2-2.5 ㎏.9, mainly keep soil moisture 50-60% October, can not accumulated water, observation is once in time irrigated according to soil moisture content weekly.
Five, carry out overwinter management March November to next year: remove then all foreign material November, fill with roots with 200 times of liquid of formalin of 40% of 2.5-3 ㎏ and 75% tpn 1000 of 3 ㎏ for every mu by the end of December; Cover the seedbed with the straw-made articles of good permeability simultaneously, cover with 70% sunshade net again and begin underground natural behind whole plot and survive the winter; Make the overwintering phase can protect the dormancy of lily root system, guarantee the development growth that base was taken root when next year emerged.Base is taken root and is had the effect that absorbs nutrient and support acrial part, and the growth of root system is closely related with the temperature of soil, and 3-5 sprays clear water and keeps the skin wet to protective layer in week after surviving the winter, and humidity is advisable with 30%; Process the growth of the lily stem-root in vegetative period of emerging after appropriately promoting to survive the winter, to reducing common burning leaf phenomenon, improve kind of ball quality most important;
Six, carry out the next year seedling management March next year to June: after 4000 times of liquid disinfectants of 72% streptomycin of every mu of usefulness 1 ㎏ of rear seeding stage that survives the winter March next year are filled with root, manage according to the seedling management mode of First Year, fertile, dose increases by 5%;
Seven, carry out the next year final-period management July next year to October: the final-period management mode according to First Year manages, and fertile, dose increases by 5%;
Eight, gather November next year: use spade to carry out artificial balling-up, the end from the seedbed during balling-up begins inwardly to advance gradually, when pick is dug, and spade under oblique kind of ball of kind of ball 15 ㎝, excavating depth 20 ㎝ guarantee that root system is complete.In time cleaning is concentrated after excavating, and avoids kind of a ball to be buried in the earth, and removes earth and withered caulom, and large microspecies ball is put into respectively the Different Package case; Focus on clean respectively afterwards, classification, sterilization, packing, warehouse-in, sale.
Embodiment two:
One, make preparations for sowing before the annual plantation and standby field:
1, makes preparations for sowing: will be prepended under 2-4 ℃ the low temperature spare part 55-60 days under the girth 1-3 ㎝ detoxification offspring scale cuttage seed ball;
2, standby field: adjusting soil acidity or alkalinity is 5.5-6.5 to the suitable soil pH value of oriental hybrid lily; Plough (turning over) degree of depth 30cm, the rate of balking is less than 1%, and hack is even, and plow layer does not contain the above soil block of diameter 2cm; Every mu of phoxim or fenaminosulf with 5kg is admixed disinfecting soil, or every mu of 600-800 times of liquid with 25% carbendazim of 4kg evenly sprays sterilization to soil; Before applying fertilizer to the subsoil, the plot is carried out slightly whole, flat high pad is low, loses the serious plot backfill soil of soil, is no more than 20 ㎝ with the plot discrepancy in elevation on every side; The foreign material such as the plastics of noresidue, deadwood; Thick whole plot is carried out carefully whole, make the drainage grade of 1/1000-2/1000 according to drainage direction; Do not stay hollow hole after smooth, do not stay the high ridge, smoothly draining after guaranteeing to grow seedlings; Then trench digging is made bed, high bed specification base area block size and deciding, general wide by 1.2, high 0.25M, the wide 0.30M of pavement, reach " three flat, three thin, three straight ", be that the residential quarter is flat, bed surface flat, pavement is flat, hack is thin, do that bed is thin, bed cubsoil earth is tiny, loose, byroad is straight, pavement is straight, the bed shoulder directly, be in line; Then execute ripe cow dung 1500 ㎏ and potassium sulphate 25-30 ㎏ every per mu sparing, apply interior 20 a ㎝ place;
Two, plant April, also can advance to March 15 or extend to May 15: fill with end water behind the trench digging, ooze lower rear penalty kick until open fire.Lily group training ball is evenly put into the ditch of holding successfully, and the kind ball density of 1-3 cm is pressed 80 Li/㎡, line-spacing 20 ㎝, and spacing in the rows is decided according to ball.To plant the spherical pendulum positive direction, root system downwards, terminal bud upwards, earthing 4 ㎝, the high 1500 times of liquid of generation that in time restrain with 600 times of liquid or the 1500-2000 of 70% tpn of every mu 250 gram after plantation finishes evenly spray sterilization to soil;
Three, carry out seedling management to June after plantation was emerged in about 20 days: execute when emergence rate reaches 90% fertile for the first time, every mu first with 500 times of the urea of 5 ㎏ carry out the blade face, soil sprays, and uses the cow dung 60-65 ㎏ organic fertilizer that becomes thoroughly decomposed for every mu again; The interval is executed fertile for the second time after 20 days, apply nitrate of lime 10 ㎏/mus, potassium nitrate 5-10 ㎏/mu; The interval is executed fertile for the third time after 30 days, apply potassium sulphate 15 ㎏/mus, nitrate of lime 5 ㎏/mus; The interval is the 4th fertilising after 25 days, execute two parts of potassium nitrate for every mu and add a nitrate of lime 15 ㎏, or four parts of potassium dihydrogen phosphates adds a ammonium phosphate 20 ㎏; 600 times of liquid of 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate that 400 times of liquid of iron and soil spray every mu of 1.2-1.5 ㎏ will be closed according to 0.1% Ao that growing state carries out every mu of 1 ㎏ of foliage-spray about 10 days in the interval between each fertilizer application period; Every soil EC value of monitoring in 7 days (soil conductivity: the solubility salinity in the soil is electrolyte, and their forms with charged ion in the aqueous solution exist, the effect that therefore has conduction), when being higher than 1.0ms/cm, should stop soil application; Will keep soil moisture regime seedling stage, field capacity 60-70%, and later stage soil moisture is suitable, moist, but ten million can not accumulated water; When emergence rate reaches 90%, every mu of 500 times of liquid irrigating roots of 70% fenaminosulf with 2-2.5 ㎏ of for the first time soil disinfection; Interval 10 days afterwards for the second time, every mu of 70% tpn 600-800 times liquid that sprays 2-2.5 ㎏; The interval after 10 days for the third time, every mu of 1000 times of liquid of 50% Sukeling that spray 2-2.5 ㎏; Interval after 10 days the 4th time, every mu is sprayed the 50% Sukeling 1500-2000 times liquid of 1 ㎏ and the 25% carbendazim 400-600 times liquid of 1.2-2.5 ㎏, or with the 65% zineb 600-1000 times liquid of 1 ㎏ and the mould clever 1500-2000 times liquid irrigating root of 50% evil of 2.5-3 ㎏; Every mu of the 10 days anti-aphid in interval is sprayed 1000 times of liquid of 40% flolimat 3 times of 2.5-3 ㎏ during this time, and 200 times of liquid of self-control bordeaux mixture that anti-gray mold is sprayed 2-2.5 ㎏ spray or fill with root 3 times; Cutting weeds is main technologies in the lily breeding and culturing, also is the link of comparatively taking a lot of work.Need to be repeated multiple times, prevent the farmland running to weeds, when weeds grow to 5-10 cm, timely weeding; Oriental hybrid lily seedling sunshade in summer 50%, the cloudy day is opened sunshade net, attention is ventilated, and daytime, the maximum air temperature was not higher than 25 ℃.When bud is grown to 0.5-1 ㎝, in time extract, prevent from consuming too much nutrition;
Four, carry out final-period management July to October: 7, be the key period that lily ball expands August, every 7-10 days every mu spray three times continuously 600 times of 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphates of every mu of 600 times in 0.2% potassium nitrate that carries out foliage-spray 1000-1500 gram and 1000-1500 gram every about 10 days with the bordeaux mixture of 200 times of liquid of 2-2.5 ㎏.9, mainly keep soil moisture 50-60% October, can not accumulated water, observation is once in time irrigated according to soil moisture content weekly.
Five, carry out overwinter management March November to next year: remove then all foreign material November, fill with roots with 200 times of liquid of formalin of 40% of 2.5-3 ㎏ and 75% tpn 1000 of 3 ㎏ for every mu by the end of December; Cover the seedbed with the straw-made articles of good permeability simultaneously, cover with 70% sunshade net again and begin underground natural behind whole plot and survive the winter; Make the overwintering phase can protect the dormancy of lily root system, guarantee the development growth that base was taken root when next year emerged.Base is taken root and is had the effect that absorbs nutrient and support acrial part, and the growth of root system is closely related with the temperature of soil, and 3-5 sprays clear water and keeps the skin wet to protective layer in week after surviving the winter, and humidity is advisable with 30%; Process the growth of the lily stem-root in vegetative period of emerging after appropriately promoting to survive the winter, to reducing common burning leaf phenomenon, improve kind of ball quality most important;
Six, carry out the next year seedling management March next year to June: after 4000 times of liquid disinfectants of 72% streptomycin of every mu of usefulness 1 ㎏ of rear seeding stage that survives the winter March next year are filled with root, manage according to the seedling management mode of First Year, fertile, dose increases by 5%;
Seven, carry out the next year final-period management July next year to October: the final-period management mode according to First Year manages, and fertile, dose increases by 5%;
Eight, gather November next year: use spade to carry out artificial balling-up, the end from the seedbed during balling-up begins inwardly to advance gradually, when pick is dug, and spade under oblique kind of ball of kind of ball 15 ㎝, excavating depth 20 ㎝ guarantee that root system is complete.In time cleaning is concentrated after excavating, and avoids kind of a ball to be buried in the earth, and removes earth and withered caulom, and large microspecies ball is put into respectively the Different Package case; Focus on clean respectively afterwards, classification, sterilization, packing, warehouse-in, sale.
Embodiment three:
One, make preparations for sowing before the annual plantation and standby field:
1, makes preparations for sowing: planted under the low temperature spare part that is prepended to 1-3 ℃ under the seed ball 55-60 days the detoxification offspring of girth 3 ㎝ is naturally numerous;
2, standby field: adjusting soil acidity or alkalinity is 5.5-6.5 to the suitable soil pH value of oriental hybrid lily; Plough (turning over) degree of depth 30cm, the rate of balking is less than 1%, and hack is even, and plow layer does not contain the above soil block of diameter 2cm; Every mu of phoxim or fenaminosulf with 5kg is admixed disinfecting soil, or every mu of 600-800 times of liquid with 25% carbendazim of 4kg evenly sprays sterilization to soil; Before applying fertilizer to the subsoil, the plot is carried out slightly whole, flat high pad is low, loses the serious plot backfill soil of soil, is no more than 20 ㎝ with the plot discrepancy in elevation on every side; The foreign material such as the plastics of noresidue, deadwood; Thick whole plot is carried out carefully whole, make the drainage grade of 1/1000-2/1000 according to drainage direction; Do not stay hollow hole after smooth, do not stay the high ridge, smoothly draining after guaranteeing to grow seedlings; Then trench digging is made bed, high bed specification base area block size and deciding, general wide by 1.2, high 0.25M, the wide 0.30M of pavement, reach " three flat, three thin, three straight ", be that the residential quarter is flat, bed surface flat, pavement is flat, hack is thin, do that bed is thin, bed cubsoil earth is tiny, loose, byroad is straight, pavement is straight, the bed shoulder directly, be in line; Then execute ripe cow dung 1500 ㎏ and potassium sulphate 25-30 ㎏ every per mu sparing, apply interior 20 a ㎝ place;
Two, plant April, also can advance to March 15 or extend to May 15: fill with end water behind the trench digging, ooze lower rear penalty kick until open fire.Lily group training ball is evenly put into the ditch of holding successfully, and the kind ball density of 1-3 cm is pressed 80 Li/㎡, line-spacing 20 ㎝, and spacing in the rows is decided according to ball.To plant the spherical pendulum positive direction, root system downwards, terminal bud upwards, earthing 4 ㎝, the high 1500 times of liquid of generation that in time restrain with 600 times of liquid or the 1500-2000 of 70% tpn of every mu 250 gram after plantation finishes evenly spray sterilization to soil;
Three, carry out seedling management to June after plantation was emerged in about 20 days: execute when emergence rate reaches 90% fertile for the first time, every mu first with 500 times of the urea of 5 ㎏ carry out the blade face, soil sprays, and uses the cow dung 60-65 ㎏ organic fertilizer that becomes thoroughly decomposed for every mu again; The interval is executed fertile for the second time after 20 days, apply nitrate of lime 10 ㎏/mus, potassium nitrate 5-10 ㎏/mu; The interval is executed fertile for the third time after 30 days, apply potassium sulphate 15 ㎏/mus, nitrate of lime 5 ㎏/mus; The interval is the 4th fertilising after 25 days, execute two parts of potassium nitrate for every mu and add a nitrate of lime 15 ㎏, or four parts of potassium dihydrogen phosphates adds a ammonium phosphate 20 ㎏; 600 times of liquid of 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate that 400 times of liquid of iron and soil spray every mu of 1.2-1.5 ㎏ will be closed according to 0.1% Ao that growing state carries out every mu of 1 ㎏ of foliage-spray about 10 days in the interval between each fertilizer application period; Every soil EC value of monitoring in 7 days (soil conductivity: the solubility salinity in the soil is electrolyte, and their forms with charged ion in the aqueous solution exist, the effect that therefore has conduction), when being higher than 1.0ms/cm, should stop soil application; Will keep soil moisture regime seedling stage, field capacity 60-70%, and later stage soil moisture is suitable, moist, but ten million can not accumulated water; When emergence rate reaches 90%, every mu of 500 times of liquid irrigating roots of 70% fenaminosulf with 2-2.5 ㎏ of for the first time soil disinfection; Interval 10 days afterwards for the second time, every mu of 70% tpn 600-800 times liquid that sprays 2-2.5 ㎏; The interval after 10 days for the third time, every mu of 1000 times of liquid of 50% Sukeling that spray 2-2.5 ㎏; Interval after 10 days the 4th time, every mu is sprayed the 50% Sukeling 1500-2000 times liquid of 1 ㎏ and the 25% carbendazim 400-600 times liquid of 1.2-2.5 ㎏, or with the 65% zineb 600-1000 times liquid of 1 ㎏ and the mould clever 1500-2000 times liquid irrigating root of 50% evil of 2.5-3 ㎏; Every mu of the 10 days anti-aphid in interval is sprayed 1000 times of liquid of 40% flolimat 3 times of 2.5-3 ㎏ during this time, and 200 times of liquid of self-control bordeaux mixture that anti-gray mold is sprayed 2-2.5 ㎏ spray or fill with root 3 times; Cutting weeds is main technologies in the lily breeding and culturing, also is the link of comparatively taking a lot of work.Need to be repeated multiple times, prevent the farmland running to weeds, when weeds grow to 5-10 cm, timely weeding; Oriental hybrid lily seedling sunshade in summer 50%, the cloudy day is opened sunshade net, attention is ventilated, and daytime, the maximum air temperature was not higher than 25 ℃.When bud is grown to 0.5-1 ㎝, in time extract, prevent from consuming too much nutrition;
Four, carry out final-period management July to October: 7, be the key period that lily ball expands August, every 7-10 days every mu spray three times continuously 600 times of 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphates of every mu of 600 times in 0.2% potassium nitrate that carries out foliage-spray 1000-1500 gram and 1000-1500 gram every about 10 days with the bordeaux mixture of 200 times of liquid of 2-2.5 ㎏.9, mainly keep soil moisture 50-60% October, can not accumulated water, observation is once in time irrigated according to soil moisture content weekly.
Five, carry out overwinter management March November to next year: remove then all foreign material November, fill with roots with 200 times of liquid of formalin of 40% of 2.5-3 ㎏ and 75% tpn 1000 of 3 ㎏ for every mu by the end of December; Cover the seedbed with the straw-made articles of good permeability simultaneously, cover with 70% sunshade net again and begin underground natural behind whole plot and survive the winter; Make the overwintering phase can protect the dormancy of lily root system, guarantee the development growth that base was taken root when next year emerged.Base is taken root and is had the effect that absorbs nutrient and support acrial part, and the growth of root system is closely related with the temperature of soil, and 3-5 sprays clear water and keeps the skin wet to protective layer in week after surviving the winter, and humidity is advisable with 30%; Process the growth of the lily stem-root in vegetative period of emerging after appropriately promoting to survive the winter, to reducing common burning leaf phenomenon, improve kind of ball quality most important;
Six, carry out the next year seedling management March next year to June: after 4000 times of liquid disinfectants of 72% streptomycin of every mu of usefulness 1 ㎏ of rear seeding stage that survives the winter March next year are filled with root, manage according to the seedling management mode of First Year, fertile, dose increases by 5%;
Seven, carry out the next year final-period management July next year to October: the final-period management mode according to First Year manages, and fertile, dose increases by 5%;
Eight, gather November next year: use spade to carry out artificial balling-up, the end from the seedbed during balling-up begins inwardly to advance gradually, when pick is dug, and spade under oblique kind of ball of kind of ball 15 ㎝, excavating depth 20 ㎝ guarantee that root system is complete.In time cleaning is concentrated after excavating, and avoids kind of a ball to be buried in the earth, and removes earth and withered caulom, and large microspecies ball is put into respectively the Different Package case; Focus on clean respectively afterwards, classification, sterilization, packing, warehouse-in, sale.

Claims (1)

1. 18 months balling-up cultivation methods of an oriental hybrid lily group training ball is characterized in that making preparations for sowing and standby field before the annual plantation; Plant April, perhaps advances to March 15 or extend to May 15; Emerge about 20 days and carry out afterwards seedling management to June; Carry out final-period management July to October; Carry out overwinter management March November to next year; Carry out the next year seedling management March next year to June; Carry out the next year final-period management July next year to October; Gather November next year, finishes oriental hybrid lily group training ball balling-up in 18 months cultivation; Concrete steps are as follows:
One, make preparations for sowing before the annual plantation and standby field:
(1), makes preparations for sowing: will be prepended under 3-5 ℃ the cryogenic conditions 60-65 days under the group of the girth 1-3 ㎝ training ball, or will be prepended under 2-4 ℃ the cryogenic conditions 55-60 days under the girth 1-3 ㎝ detoxification offspring scale cuttage seed ball, or planted under the cryogenic conditions that is prepended to 1-3 ℃ under the seed ball 55-60 days the detoxification offspring of girth 3 ㎝ is naturally numerous;
(2), standby field: adjusting soil acidity or alkalinity is 5.5-6.5 to the suitable soil pH value of oriental hybrid lily; The degree of depth of ploughing 30cm, the rate of balking is less than 1%, and hack is even, and plow layer does not contain the above soil block of diameter 2cm; Every mu of phoxim or fenaminosulf with 5kg is admixed disinfecting soil, or every mu of 600-800 times of liquid with 25% carbendazim of 4kg evenly sprays sterilization to soil; Before applying fertilizer to the subsoil, the plot is carried out slightly whole, flat high pad is low, loses the serious plot backfill soil of soil, is no more than 20 ㎝ with the plot discrepancy in elevation on every side; The plastics of noresidue, deadwood foreign material; Thick whole plot is carried out carefully whole, make the drainage grade of 1/1000-2/1000 according to drainage direction; Do not stay hollow hole after smooth, do not stay the high ridge, smoothly draining after guaranteeing to grow seedlings; Then trench digging is made bed, high bed specification base area block size and deciding, wide 1.2m, high 0.25m, the wide 0.30m of pavement, reach " three flat, three thin, three straight ", be that the residential quarter is flat, bed surface flat, pavement is flat, hack is thin, do that bed is thin, bed cubsoil earth is tiny, loose, byroad is straight, pavement is straight, the bed shoulder directly, be in line; Then execute ripe cow dung 1500 ㎏ and potassium sulphate 25-30 ㎏ every per mu sparing, apply interior 20 a ㎝ place;
Two, plant April, perhaps advance to March 15 or extend to May 15: fill with end water behind the trench digging, ooze lower rear penalty kick until open fire, lily group training ball is evenly put into the ditch of holding successfully, the kind ball density of 1-3 cm is by 80 Li/㎡, line-spacing 20 ㎝, spacing in the rows is decided according to ball, will plant the spherical pendulum positive direction, and root system is downward, terminal bud makes progress, earthing 4 ㎝, the high 1500 times of liquid of generation that in time restrain with 600 times of liquid or the 1500-2000 of 70% tpn of every mu 250 gram after plantation finishes evenly spray sterilization to soil;
Three, carry out seedling management to June after plantation was emerged in 20 days: execute fertilely for the first time when emergence rate reaches 90%, every mu is carried out the blade face with 500 times of liquid of the urea of 5 ㎏ first and soil sprays, and uses the cow dung 60-65 ㎏ organic fertilizer that becomes thoroughly decomposed for every mu again; The interval is executed fertile for the second time after 20 days, apply nitrate of lime 10 ㎏/mus, potassium nitrate 5-10 ㎏/mu; The interval is executed fertile for the third time after 30 days, apply potassium sulphate 15 ㎏/mus, nitrate of lime 5 ㎏/mus; The interval is the 4th fertilising after 25 days, execute two parts of potassium nitrate for every mu and add a nitrate of lime 15 ㎏, or four parts of potassium dihydrogen phosphates adds a ammonium phosphate 20 ㎏/mus; 400 times of liquid of 0.1% chelated iron of every mu of 1 ㎏ of foliage-spray and 600 times of liquid of 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate that soil sprays every mu of 1.2-1.5 ㎏ will be carried out according to growing state in 10 days in the interval between each fertilizer application period; Every soil EC value of monitoring in 7 days, when being higher than 1.0ms/cm, should stop soil application; Will keep soil moisture regime, field capacity 60-70% seedling stage; When emergence rate reaches 90%, every mu of 500 times of liquid irrigating roots of 70% fenaminosulf with 2-2.5 ㎏ of for the first time soil disinfection; Interval 10 days afterwards for the second time, every mu of 70% tpn 600-800 times liquid that sprays 2-2.5 ㎏; The interval after 10 days for the third time, every mu of 1000 times of liquid of 50% Sukeling that spray 2-2.5 ㎏; Interval after 10 days the 4th time, every mu is sprayed the 50% Sukeling 1500-2000 times liquid of 1 ㎏ and the 25% carbendazim 400-600 times liquid of 1.2-2.5 ㎏, or with the 65% zineb 600-1000 times liquid of 1 ㎏ and the mould clever 1500-2000 times liquid irrigating root of 50% evil of 2.5-3 ㎏; Every mu of the 10 days anti-aphid in interval is sprayed 1000 times of liquid of 40% flolimat 3 times of 2.5-3 ㎏ during this time, and 200 times of liquid of self-control bordeaux mixture that anti-gray mold is sprayed 2-2.5 ㎏ spray or fill with root 3 times; When weeds grow to 5-10 cm, timely weeding; Oriental hybrid lily seedling sunshade in summer 50%, the cloudy day is opened sunshade net, attention is ventilated, and daytime, the maximum air temperature was not higher than 25 ℃, in time extractd when bud is grown to 0.5-1 ㎝;
Four, carry out final-period management July to October: 7, be the key period that lily ball expands August, every 7-10 days every mu spray three times continuously with the bordeaux mixture of 200 times of liquid of 2-2.5 ㎏, every 10 days every mu carry out 600 times of liquid of 0.2% potassium nitrate of foliage-spray 1000-1500 gram and 600 times of liquid of 0.1% potassium dihydrogen phosphate of 1000-1500 gram; 9, mainly keep soil moisture 50-60% October, observation is once in time irrigated according to soil moisture content weekly;
Five, carry out overwinter management March November to next year: remove then all foreign material November, every mu with 200 times of liquid of formalin of 40% of 2.5-3 ㎏ and 1000 times of liquid irrigating roots of 75% tpn of 3 ㎏ by the end of December; Cover the seedbed with the straw-made articles of good permeability simultaneously, cover whole plot with 70% sunshade net again; 3-5 sprays clear water and keeps the skin wet to protective layer in week after surviving the winter, and humidity is 30%;
Six, carry out the next year seedling management March next year to June: after 4000 times of liquid disinfectants of 72% streptomycin of every mu of usefulness 1 ㎏ of rear seeding stage that survives the winter March next year are filled with root, manage according to the seedling management mode of First Year, fertile, dose increases by 5%;
Seven, carry out the next year final-period management July next year to October: the final-period management mode according to First Year manages, and fertile, dose increases by 5%;
Eight, gather November next year: use spade to carry out artificial balling-up, the end from the seedbed during balling-up begins inwardly to advance gradually, when pick is dug, and spade under oblique kind of ball of kind of ball 15 ㎝, excavating depth 20 ㎝; Remove earth and withered caulom after the excavation, large microspecies ball is put into respectively the Different Package case; After cleaning, classification and sterilization, can pack.
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