CN102257918A - High-quality efficient cultivation method for interplanting amorphopallus xiei H.Li and young-growing hevea brasiliensis - Google Patents

High-quality efficient cultivation method for interplanting amorphopallus xiei H.Li and young-growing hevea brasiliensis Download PDF

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CN102257918A
CN102257918A CN 201110121145 CN201110121145A CN102257918A CN 102257918 A CN102257918 A CN 102257918A CN 201110121145 CN201110121145 CN 201110121145 CN 201110121145 A CN201110121145 A CN 201110121145A CN 102257918 A CN102257918 A CN 102257918A
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konjaku
taro
plant
soil
fertilizer
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梁艳丽
李建
陈军文
谢庆华
谢世清
李军
赵庆云
张云峰
吴诗斌
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Yunnan Agricultural University
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Yunnan Agricultural University
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Abstract

The invention relates to a high-quality efficient cultivation technical method for interplanting amorphopallus xiei H.Li and young-growing hevea brasiliensis. The high-quality efficient cultivation method comprises the following technical measures of: selecting lands, performing land preparation, selecting seeds, disinfecting soil and seed tubers, sowing, planting rationally and closely, performing water management, applying a base fertilizer, performing an additional fertilizer during the seedling stage, applying a tuber swelling fertilizer, weeding, preventing and controlling plant diseases and insect pests comprehensively, harvesting in good time, storing the tubers safely and the like. By interplanting the amorphopallus xiei H.Li and the young-growing hevea brasiliensis, land resources of rubber forests can be utilized effectively, and non-rubber production revenue is increased to solve the problem of economic sources before the hevea brasiliensis planted for 1 to 7 years is cut, change disadvantages into advantages, boost the adjustment of an industrial structure of agriculture, cultivate new economic growth points for hevea brasiliensis areas, and open up a new path for promoting the sustainable development of forest areas.

Description

Thank monarch's konjaku and the young high-quality and efficient cultivation method that age, rubber was interplanted
Technical field
The present invention relates to the efficiency cultivation technology for high field of forest and konjaku intercropping, be specifically related to the efficiency cultivation technology for high that the good novel species of konjaku (Amorphophallus sp.) is thanked monarch's konjaku and rubber interplanting; Belong to the plant cultivation method technical field.
Background technology
Konjaku (Amorphallus) has another name called mill Yu Huo Amorphophalus rivieri, belongs to Araeceae (Areaceae) Amorphophallus (Amorphophallus Bl.ex Decne).The economic organ of konjaku is a stem tuber, includes abundant Glucomannan (40%~50%), pectin, and alkaloid, starch and 17 seed amino acids and various trace elements are unique plants that contains Glucomannan in a large number of finding at present.Multiple unique physical and chemical properties such as the Glucomannan tool is water-soluble, water holding, thickening, stable, suspension, gelling, gluing.The purposes of konjaku contains medical treatment, chemical industry, and food, oil, industries such as weaving mainly can be divided into 3 classes: the one, edible, it is that heat is low, the traditional food of high-cellulose; The 2nd, medicinal: its poison of dispelling of can subsiding a swelling, to diabetes, hypertension all has preventive and therapeutic effect; The 3rd, industrial: as to utilize fabulous water-soluble of konjaku glucomannan, film forming, gelling, fresh-keeping property, multiple function such as emulsibility.Therefore, konjaku all has a value of exploiting and utilizing edible, medicinal, industrial.Konjaku is typical perennial perennial root herbaceous plant, belongs to the system of fibrous root, originates from the bottom vegetation of tropical rain forest, like warmly, avoids high temperature, likes the scattered light and the low light level, avoids the high light direct projection, belongs to half heliophobous plant.Traditional cultivation method be before the room behind the house, border small stream limit, unoccupied place, limit, field plantation konjaku, this method helps making full use of the land resources in mountain area, but planting scale is little, manages lack of standardizationly, is difficult to guarantee output and quality.Generally utilize the contour stalk crop of corn now,, utilize long-stalked crop to shelter from heat or light, can reach the scale and the standardization of konjaku plantation for konjaku with the konjaku intercropping.But this kind method occupies cultivated land in a large number, and konjaku and other cereal crops strive the particularly thorny of ground.Bamboo grows (Hevea brasiliensis) is a kind of perennial tropical woody plant, and the system of taproot originates in jungle, likes the environment of warm and high light intensity.The bamboo grows kind is implanted with the period of immaturity of 5-7, accounts for 1/4th of its economic life, causes the feature of rubber planting investment year limit for length, slow operation, late income, affects China and plants developing rapidly of glue cause.Seeding row spacing between the children bamboo grows in age is bigger simultaneously, and line-spacing also causes the huge waste of natural resourcess such as glue woods soil, light, temperature generally at 8-10 rice.
Summary of the invention
The invention provides the good novel species of a kind of konjaku--thank monarch's konjaku (Amorphophallus xieiH.Li) and the young high-quality and efficient culture technique that age, rubber was interplanted.Overcome in the existing plantation konjaku pattern konjaku and cereal crops and strive the contradiction that accounts for the arable land, improved rubber woods land utilization rate in young age simultaneously, solved rubber planting 1-7 and do not opened source of finance before cutting, with short support long, solve gum and support the pipe problem, for developing rural economy has been opened up new approach.
Technical scheme of the present invention is:
The steps include:
1, the forest land is selected: select soil layer deep, quality is loose, is rich in organic matter, and the loam of good air permeability and sandy loam, the 3-5 that has a good transport service rubber woods in young age are easily poured water in easily draining;
2, wholely, soil disinfection: every mu is spread quicklime 50kg and carries out soil disinfection, ploughs deeply thin ploughing then, and the degree of depth of digging 25~30cm, soil are carefully flat; The ridging plantation, row spacing 70-80cm, the high 20-25cm in ridge, furrow width 30cm;
3, apply fertilizer to the subsoil: every mu of use fertilizer 1000-1500kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, join composite fertilizer 10kg, phosphate fertilizer 25kg, potash fertilizer 20kg again and fully mix and mix the back thoroughly as base fertilizer;
4, seed selection, stripping and slicing, sterilization, vernalization: the bulb of plant that taro selects that the bud nest is little, mouthful flat, sturdy, anosis, the no wound of terminal bud, smooth surface, individuality are moderate is as kind of a taro; Plant the above stripping and slicing plantation of taro 200g, the stripping and slicing size with ash or cement plastering tangent plane, reduces courses of infection at 150g, takes out airing 1 day; Germination accelerating method: will plant the shady dark dry place of taro placement and carry out vernalization, and when bud is emerged, can plant;
5, sowing: sow line-spacing 100cm, spacing in the rows 35cm, every mu of plantation 1900 strains in mid-April to mid-May; Can carry out to narrower tableland and steeper hillside fields that the pool is broadcast or drilling; After will planting taro and sowing, cover a farmyard manure and a fine earth 15-20cm on kind of taro top;
6, water management: konjaku is beneficial to the konjaku growth with 75% soil moisture content and bulb expands from the growth in seeding stage early stage and bulb expanding stage, if soil is wet excessively, air capacity of soils reduces, unfavorable root growth and bulb growth; In the growth later stage (the 9-10 month), soil moisture content about 60% helps the synthetic and accumulation of nutriment in the bulb; Excess moisture, the bulb skin crack causes soft rot to take place, and causes field or duration of storage to rot, and reduces yield and quality; Therefore, in water management, can irritate in the time of should accomplishing arid, can arrange during waterlogging;
7, weeding in good time: konjaku needs artificial weeding 2~3 times at the plantation growing period, but can want damaged blade, petiole and root with hoe or other weeding by machine, and is not susceptible easily after the damage; Can before not emerging, spray konjaku sowing band with " paraquat " weed killer herbicide (character is with the no track of gram);
8, impose seed manure: emerging when konjaku reaches 80%, and per hectare is executed nitrogen 150kg, composite fertilizer 105kg, potassium 75kg, and to do ablactation fertile, and method is apart from the row replacement of ditching about seedling base portion 20cm, blinding immediately after executing;
9, the heavy dressing stem tuber expands fertilizer: stem tuber expands the stage just after the konjaku seedling leaf launches fully, and per hectare imposes with urea 150kg, potassium sulphate 105kg, composite fertilizer 124kg, and favourable stem tuber expands;
10, integrated pest prevention and control:
Black light lamp, sugar-vinegar liquid trapping adult (promptly use 2 parts of sugar, 1 part of wine, 2 parts in water, 2 parts of vinegar add a small amount of chlorophos and make after mixing well) are adopted in insect pest; With 800 times of liquid of 90% chlorophos, or 400 times of liquid sprayings of 25% sevin wetting powder, the poisoning adult; Egg production peak time manual removal ovum and larva;
The konjaku disease mainly to put prevention first, is converted water 30kg with the agricultural streptomycin of 1,000 ten thousand units and is sprayed plant after 70% konjaku is emerged; Adopted 1500 times of liquid of methyl Tobe Feng of 1000 times of liquid cooperations 70% of agricultural streptomycin of 1,000 ten thousand units to spray for the second time in 15-20 days, konjaku interior spraying times in vegetative period is no less than 4 times; If find the konjak soft rot diseased plant, be with soil to dig out plant immediately, to carry out buried or burn, and be sprinkling upon in the pool with quicklime, compacting prevents that germina infection from spreading; With 3000 times of liquid sprayings of 72% agricultural streptomycin plant leaf, plant base portion and surrounding soil, every spray in 7 days once, 2-3 time continuously; Southern blight is contained the phase of sending out in the 8-9 month, can lime near konjaku and soil are shown to contact in mid or late July, prevents that southern blight from taking place; Concrete grammar is that per hectare is executed 225kg, divides and has executed for three times, executes once every a week, notes not wanting excessive using at every turn, otherwise growth has certain inhibitory action to konjaku; Available 50% powder become rusty 500 times of 5000 times of liquid of clever agent, 600 times of liquid of carbendazim of 50% or 50% methyl Tobe Feng irritate root, the generation that can alleviate disease from the konjaku petiole base;
11, gather in the crops: konjaku falls seedling after 10 days naturally, selects fine day to dig taro in good time; Konjaku after receipts are dug can be used as the commodity taro and sells more than the 500g, the following stem tuber of 500g can be used as kind of taro and stores;
12, plant the taro storage: dry part storage kind of taro 3-4 days, make the stem tuber epidermis become brown earlier, water content reduces 15%-20%, uses 2: 1 ash and quicklime mixture seed dressing then, will plant the taro size fractionation after, again with doing husky layering storage; The eye that maybe will plant taro is downward, places on the built on stilts hedge or bamboo mat; For breeding field piece, can when March in next year, receive again and dig konjaku, to reduce the susceptible probability of kind of taro.
Wherein: described konjaku is planted in the rubber woods of crown density 0.4-0.6 and is advisable; Crown density can be assisted by shade net less than 0.4.Institute's nitrogen fertilizer application is a urea, and phosphate fertilizer is normal superphosphate, and potash fertilizer is potassium sulphate.Described sowing is for broadcasting on the konjaku pool or ditch sowing time, should sow kind of taro is tilting, plants taro top and covers farmyard manure and fine earth; And on the face of soil railway carriage or compartment, in time covering the stalk of one deck pine tag or crop, thickness is 3-5cm, is advisable to lose soil; Insect pest is primarily aimed at Autographa spp, and disease is primarily aimed at konjak soft rot and konjaku southern blight;
Thanking to monarch's konjaku Amorphophallus xiei (Araceae) H.Li, is with Yunnan Prov Agriculture University's fame name that Puritanism awards of passing away, with its good quality, and high yield and good resistance against diseases and become the most potential konjaku novel species.When ripe,, be referred to as by the peasant " red konjaku " because it has the berry of red stem tuber, petiole and purple.Thank to monarch's konjaku stem tuber oblate spheroid, diameter 16cm, thick 7-8cm, appearance dark brown, the inner pink of stem tuber.Leaf Dan Sheng; The long 60-80cm of petiole, smooth, the base portion pink upwards for the green bottle green that arrives, also has unconspicuous hickie sometimes; Blade (the leaf width of cloth) diameter is 60-120cm, and 4-9 the gas green-ball stem of also growing nonparasitically upon another plant on blade; Gas green-ball stem is a brown, on oblate spheroid piece bulb surface many conoid protuberance things is arranged, and the diameter that is positioned at a gas green-ball stem at center has 3cm, other littler.Berry is cylindrical, yellowish green or purple, long 1.5cm, 5 millimeters of diameters.
With konjaku and rubber interplanting, bamboo grows can play the effect of sheltering from heat or light for konjaku, helps the konjaku growth; The interplanting konjaku not only can effectively utilize rubber sylvan life land resources, improves utility rate of luminous energy, can suppress weed growth simultaneously, saves the labour, increases soil fertility, and reduces the plantation management cost, increases the income that non-glue is produced.The present invention, makes a cover and thanks monarch's konjaku and the young high-quality and efficient culture technique that age, rubber was interplanted according to its difference to illumination, nutrition and moisture requirement from the growth and development characteristics of konjaku and bamboo grows.By rational deployment, the reasonable technical measures such as ground, soil and the sterilization of kind taro, rational close planting, in good time water and fertilizer management, integrated pest prevention and control, timely collecting and kind taro safe storage of selecting, improve konjaku output, the growth of promotion rubber, increase farmers' income.
Embodiment:
Embodiment 1:
Thanked to monarch's konjaku in Man Gangna village, Mengla County, Jinghong City, state, Xishuangbanna in 2010 and interplant 69 mu of demonstration plants with children's rubber in age, plantation peasant household 58 families, the rubber age of tree of interplanting is 3 years, crown density 0.4.Soil is sandy loam, to soil and the disinfection of kind taro.
1. wholely, soil disinfection: every mu of scattered lime 50kg carries out soil disinfection, ploughs deeply thin ploughing then, and the degree of depth of digging 30cm, soil are carefully flat.The ridging plantation, row spacing 80cm, the high 25cm in ridge, furrow width 30cm.
2. apply fertilizer to the subsoil: every mu of use fertilizer 1000kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, join composite fertilizer 10kg, normal superphosphate 25kg, potassium sulphate 20kg again and fully mix and mix the back thoroughly as base fertilizer.
3. seed selection, stripping and slicing, sterilization, vernalization: the bulb that kind taro selection bud nest is little, mouth is flat, terminal bud is sturdy, anosis, do not have wound, the smooth surface individuality is moderate is as kind of a taro.Plant the above stripping and slicing plantation of taro 200g, the stripping and slicing size with ash or cement plastering tangent plane, reduces courses of infection at 150g, takes out airing 1 day; Germination accelerating method: will plant the shady dark dry place of taro placement and carry out vernalization, and when bud is emerged, can plant.
4. sowing: in sowing on April 12, line-spacing 100cm, spacing in the rows 35cm, every mu of plantation 1900 strains; Adopt that kind taro is tilting sows, cover a farmyard manure and a fine earth 15cm on kind of taro top.And on the face of soil railway carriage or compartment, in time covering the stalk of one deck crop, thickness is 5cm, is advisable to lose soil.
5. water management: konjaku is beneficial to the konjaku growth with 75% soil moisture content and bulb expands from the growth in seeding stage early stage and bulb expanding stage, if soil is wet excessively, air capacity of soils reduces, unfavorable root growth and bulb growth; In the growth later stage (the 9-10 month), soil moisture content about 60% helps the synthetic and accumulation of nutriment in the bulb.Excess moisture, the bulb skin crack causes soft rot to take place, and causes field or duration of storage to rot, and reduces yield and quality.Therefore, in water management, can irritate when accomplishing arid, can arrange during waterlogging.
6. weeding in good time: before not emerging, spray konjaku sowing band with " paraquat " weed killer herbicide (character is with the no track of gram).
7. impose seed manure: emerging when konjaku reaches 80%, and per hectare is executed urea 150kg, composite fertilizer 105kg, potassium sulphate 75kg, and to do ablactation fertile, and method is apart from the row replacement of ditching about seedling base portion 20cm, blinding immediately after executing.
8. the heavy dressing stem tuber expands fertilizer: stem tuber expands the stage just after the konjaku seedling leaf launches fully, and per hectare imposes with urea 150kg, potassium sulphate 105kg, composite fertilizer 124kg, and favourable stem tuber expands.
9. integrated pest prevention and control: black light lamp, sugar-vinegar liquid trapping adult (promptly use 2 parts of sugar, 1 part of wine, 2 parts in water, 2 parts of vinegar add a small amount of chlorophos and make after mixing well) are adopted in insect pest; With 800 times of liquid of 90% chlorophos, or 400 times of liquid sprayings of 25% sevin wetting powder, the poisoning adult; Egg production peak time manual removal ovum and larva.
The konjaku disease mainly to put prevention first, is converted water 30kg with the agricultural streptomycin of 1,000 ten thousand units and is sprayed plant after 70% konjaku is emerged.15-20 days, adopt 1500 times of liquid of methyl Tobe Feng of 1000 times of liquid cooperations 70% of agricultural streptomycin of 1,000 ten thousand units to spray for the second time, konjaku interior dispenser in vegetative period 5 times.If find the konjak soft rot diseased plant, be with soil to dig out plant immediately, to carry out buried or burn, and be sprinkling upon in the pool with quicklime, compacting prevents that germina infection from spreading.With 3000 times of liquid sprayings of 72% agricultural streptomycin plant leaf, plant base portion and surrounding soil, every spray in 7 days once, continuous 3 times.Southern blight is contained the phase of sending out in the 8-9 month, July 15, limes near konjaku and soil are shown to contact, and prevents that southern blight from taking place.Concrete grammar is that per hectare is executed 225kg, divides and has executed for three times, executes once every a week, notes not wanting excessive using at every turn, otherwise growth has certain inhibitory action to konjaku.Available 50% powder become rusty 500 times of 5000 times of liquid of clever agent, 600 times of liquid of carbendazim of 50% or 50% methyl Tobe Feng irritate root, the generation that can alleviate disease from the konjaku petiole base.
10. gather and plant taro storage: konjaku falls seedling after 10 days naturally, and the selection fine day digs taro.In unified results on December 2, survey and produce the konjaku of receiving after digging, can be used as the commodity taro more than the 500g and sell, the following stem tuber of 500g can be used as kind of taro and stores.Kind of taro storage practice is: drying place storage airing 3 days, make the stem tuber epidermis become brown earlier, water content reduces 15%-20%, uses 2: 1 ash and quicklime mixture seed dressing then, will plant the taro size fractionation after, again with doing husky layering storage.The eye that maybe will plant taro is downward, places on the built on stilts hedge or bamboo mat.
Unified to gather December 2 and survey to produce.Maximum single fruit weight 3.4kg, the highest per mu yield 971.25kg reclaims kind of a taro 28758kg, and the output value reaches 57516 yuan.With make rubber forest form ratio only, improve the rubber plantation land utilization rate and reach 50%, average every mu increases by 833 yuan of the output values.Wherein the fragrant forever plantation of Man Gangna village rock rubber interplanting in 3 years is 0.8 mu, results kind of taro 777kg, and 1554 yuan of the output values, every mu increases by 1942 yuan of the output values.Bamboo grows is compared with clean simultaneously, and the bamboo grows growing way is better after the interplanting konjaku, and average trunk increases thick 10%.By implementing to thank monarch's konjaku and the interplanting of children's rubber in age, not only effectively improved rubber forest land overall economic efficiency, push structure adjustment simultaneously, improve the gum growth, increase the forest land bio-diversity, have good ecological benefits, opened up new road for the rubber district taps new sources of economic growth, promotes the forest zone sustainable development.
Embodiment 2:
Thanked to the rubber woods interplanting in young age of monarch's konjaku and crown density 0.6 at state, Xishuangbanna Menghai County Da Luo town Man Bangcun in 2010,
5 mu of cultivated areas, plantation peasant household 5 families, the rubber age of tree of interplanting is 5 years.Soil is sandy loam.
1. wholely, soil disinfection: every mu of scattered lime 50kg carries out soil disinfection, ploughs deeply thin ploughing then, and the degree of depth of digging 25cm, soil are carefully flat.The ridging plantation, row spacing 70cm, the high 20cm in ridge, furrow width 30cm.
2. apply fertilizer to the subsoil: every mu of use fertilizer 1500kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, join composite fertilizer 10kg, normal superphosphate 25kg, potassium sulphate 20kg again and fully mix and mix the back thoroughly as base fertilizer.
3. seed selection, stripping and slicing, sterilization, vernalization: the bulb that kind taro selection bud nest is little, mouth is flat, terminal bud is sturdy, anosis, do not have wound, the smooth surface individuality is moderate is as kind of a taro.Plant the above stripping and slicing plantation of taro 200g, the stripping and slicing size with ash or cement plastering tangent plane, reduces courses of infection at 150g, takes out airing 1 day; Germination accelerating method: will plant the shady dark dry place of taro placement and carry out vernalization, and when bud is emerged, can plant.
4. sowing: in May 14 sowing, line-spacing 100cm, spacing in the rows 35cm plant that taro is tilting sows, and cover a farmyard manure and a fine earth 20cm on kind of taro top; And on the face of soil railway carriage or compartment, in time covering the stalk of one deck pine tag or crop, thickness is 3cm, is advisable to lose soil.
5. water management: konjaku is beneficial to the konjaku growth with 75% soil moisture content and bulb expands from the growth in seeding stage early stage and bulb expanding stage, if soil is wet excessively, air capacity of soils reduces, unfavorable root growth and bulb growth; In the growth later stage (the 9-10 month), soil moisture content about 60% helps the synthetic and accumulation of nutriment in the bulb.Excess moisture, the bulb skin crack causes soft rot to take place, and causes field or duration of storage to rot, and reduces yield and quality.Therefore, in water management, can irritate when accomplishing arid, can arrange during waterlogging.
6. weeding in good time: before not emerging, spray konjaku sowing band with " paraquat " weed killer herbicide (character is with the no track of gram).At konjaku plantation growing period, artificial weeding 3 times.
7. impose seed manure: emerging when konjaku reaches 80%, and per hectare is executed urea 150kg, composite fertilizer 105kg, potassium sulphate 75kg, and to do ablactation fertile, and method is apart from the row replacement of ditching about seedling base portion 20cm, blinding immediately after executing.
8. the heavy dressing stem tuber expands fertilizer: stem tuber expands the stage just after the konjaku seedling leaf is carried out fully, and per hectare imposes with urea 150kg, potassium sulphate 105kg, composite fertilizer 124kg, and favourable stem tuber expands.
9. integrated pest prevention and control: black light lamp, sugar-vinegar liquid trapping adult (promptly use 2 parts of sugar, 1 part of wine, 2 parts in water, 2 parts of vinegar add a small amount of chlorophos and make after mixing well) are adopted in insect pest; With 800 times of liquid of 90% chlorophos, or 400 times of liquid sprayings of 25% sevin wetting powder, the poisoning adult; Egg production peak time manual removal ovum and larva.
The konjaku disease mainly to put prevention first, is converted water 30kg with the agricultural streptomycin of 1,000 ten thousand units and is sprayed plant after 70% konjaku is emerged.After 15 days, adopt 1500 times of liquid of methyl Tobe Feng of 1000 times of liquid cooperations 70% of agricultural streptomycin of 1,000 ten thousand units to spray for the second time, konjaku interior dispenser in vegetative period 4 times.If find the konjak soft rot diseased plant, be with soil to dig out plant immediately, to carry out buried or burn, and be sprinkling upon in the pool with quicklime, compacting prevents that germina infection from spreading.With 3000 times of liquid sprayings of 72% agricultural streptomycin plant leaf, plant base portion and surrounding soil, every spray in 7 days once, continuous 2 times.Southern blight is contained the phase of sending out in the 8-9 month, July 22, limes near konjaku and soil are shown to contact, and prevents that southern blight from taking place.Concrete grammar is that per hectare is executed 225kg, divides and has executed for three times, executes once every a week, notes not wanting excessive using at every turn, otherwise growth has certain inhibitory action to konjaku.Available 50% powder become rusty 500 times of 5000 times of liquid of clever agent, 600 times of liquid of carbendazim of 50% or 50% methyl Tobe Feng irritate root, the generation that can alleviate disease from the konjaku petiole base.
10. gather and plant taro storage: konjaku falls seedling after 10 days naturally, and the selection fine day digs taro.In unified results on December 2, survey and produce the konjaku of receiving after digging, can be used as the commodity taro more than the 500g and sell, the following stem tuber of 500g can be used as kind of taro and stores.Kind of taro storage practice is: drying place storage airing 4 days, make the stem tuber epidermis become brown earlier, water content reduces 15%, uses 2: 1 ash and quicklime mixture seed dressing then, will plant the taro size fractionation after, again with doing husky layering storage.The eye that maybe will plant taro is downward, places on the built on stilts hedge or bamboo mat.
Unified to gather December 7 and survey to produce.Reclaim kind of a taro 1051kg, the output value reaches 2102 yuan.With make rubber forest form ratio only, improve the rubber plantation land utilization rate and reach 45%, 267 kilograms of average every mu of results konjakus, every mu increases by 534 yuan of the output values.
Embodiment 3:
Thanked to monarch's konjaku in Man Zhuan village, Mengla County, Jinghong City, state, Xishuangbanna in 2010 and interplant demonstration plant with children's rubber in age, 28 mu of cultivated areas, plantation peasant household 27 families, the rubber age of tree of interplanting is 4 years, and crown density are 0.5, and soil is sandy loam.
1. wholely, soil disinfection: every mu of scattered lime 50kg carries out soil disinfection, ploughs deeply thin ploughing then, and the degree of depth of digging 30cm, soil are carefully flat.The ridging plantation, row spacing 80cm, the high 25cm in ridge, furrow width 30cm.
2. apply fertilizer to the subsoil: every mu of use fertilizer 1000kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, join composite fertilizer 10kg, normal superphosphate 25kg, potassium sulphate fertilizer 20kg again and fully mix and mix the back thoroughly as base fertilizer.
3. seed selection, stripping and slicing, sterilization, vernalization: the bulb that kind taro selection bud nest is little, mouth is flat, terminal bud is sturdy, anosis, do not have wound, the smooth surface individuality is moderate is as kind of a taro.Plant the above stripping and slicing plantation of taro 200g, the stripping and slicing size with ash or cement plastering tangent plane, reduces courses of infection at 150g, takes out airing 1 day; Germination accelerating method: will plant the shady dark dry place of taro placement and carry out vernalization, and when bud is emerged, can plant.
4. sowing: in April 30 sowing, line-spacing 100cm, spacing in the rows 35cm plant that taro is tilting sows, and cover a farmyard manure and a fine earth 15cm on kind of taro top.
5. water management: konjaku is beneficial to the konjaku growth with 75% soil moisture content and bulb expands from the growth in seeding stage early stage and bulb expanding stage, if soil is wet excessively, air capacity of soils reduces, unfavorable root growth and bulb growth; In the growth later stage (the 9-10 month), soil moisture content about 60% helps the synthetic and accumulation of nutriment in the bulb.Excess moisture, the bulb skin crack causes soft rot to take place, and causes field or duration of storage to rot, and reduces yield and quality.Therefore, in water management, can irritate when accomplishing arid, can arrange during waterlogging.
6. weeding in good time: before not emerging, spray konjaku sowing band with " paraquat " weed killer herbicide (character is with the no track of gram).At konjaku plantation growing period, artificial weeding 2 times.
7. impose seed manure: emerging when konjaku reaches 80%, and per hectare is executed urea 150kg, composite fertilizer 105kg, potassium sulphate 75kg, and to do ablactation fertile, and method is apart from the row replacement of ditching about seedling base portion 20cm, blinding immediately after executing.
8. the heavy dressing stem tuber expands fertilizer: stem tuber expands the stage just after the konjaku seedling leaf is carried out fully, and per hectare imposes with urea 150kg, potassium sulphate 105kg, composite fertilizer 124kg, and favourable stem tuber expands.
9. integrated pest prevention and control: black light lamp, sugar-vinegar liquid trapping adult (promptly use 2 parts of sugar, 1 part of wine, 2 parts in water, 2 parts of vinegar add a small amount of chlorophos and make after mixing well) are adopted in insect pest; With 800 times of liquid of 90% chlorophos, or 400 times of liquid sprayings of 25% sevin wetting powder, the poisoning adult; Egg production peak time manual removal ovum and larva.
The konjaku disease mainly to put prevention first, is converted water 30kg with the agricultural streptomycin of 1,000 ten thousand units and is sprayed plant after 70% konjaku is emerged.After 15 days, adopt 1500 times of liquid of methyl Tobe Feng of 1000 times of liquid cooperations 70% of agricultural streptomycin of 1,000 ten thousand units to spray for the second time, konjaku interior dispenser in vegetative period 5 times.If find the konjak soft rot diseased plant, be with soil to dig out plant immediately, to carry out buried or burn, and be sprinkling upon in the pool with quicklime, compacting prevents that germina infection from spreading.With 3000 times of liquid sprayings of 72% agricultural streptomycin plant leaf, plant base portion and surrounding soil, every spray in 7 days once, continuous 3 times.Southern blight is contained the phase of sending out in the 8-9 month, July 20, limes near konjaku and soil are shown to contact, and prevents that southern blight from taking place.Concrete grammar is that per hectare is executed 225kg, divides and has executed for three times, executes once every a week, notes not wanting excessive using at every turn, otherwise growth has certain inhibitory action to konjaku.Available 50% powder become rusty 500 times of 5000 times of liquid of clever agent, 600 times of liquid of carbendazim of 50% or 50% methyl Tobe Feng irritate root, the generation that can alleviate disease from the konjaku petiole base.
10. gather and plant taro storage: konjaku falls seedling after 10 days naturally, and the selection fine day digs taro.In unified results on December 2, survey and produce the konjaku of receiving after digging, can be used as the commodity taro more than the 500g and sell, the following stem tuber of 500g can be used as kind of taro and stores.Kind of taro storage practice is: drying place storage airing 3 days, make the stem tuber epidermis become brown earlier, water content reduces 15%, uses 2: 1 ash and quicklime mixture seed dressing then, will plant the taro size fractionation after, again with doing husky layering storage.The eye that maybe will plant taro is downward, places on the built on stilts hedge or bamboo mat.
Unified to gather December 2 and survey to produce.Reclaim kind of a taro 6492kg, the output value reaches 12984 yuan.With make the rubber phase ratio only, increase land utilization rate 50%.Every mu of average 699 kilograms of konjaku of gathering in the crops, every mu increases the output value and reaches 1398 yuan.Simultaneously, bamboo grows is compared with clean, and the bamboo grows growing way is better after the interplanting konjaku, and average trunk increases thick 7%.

Claims (5)

1. thank monarch's konjaku and the young high-quality and efficient cultivation method that age, rubber was interplanted, the steps include:
(1), the forest land is selected: select soil layer deep, quality is loose, is rich in organic matter, and the loam of good air permeability and sandy loam, the 3-5 that has a good transport service rubber woods in young age are easily poured water in easily draining;
(2), whole ground, soil disinfection: every mu is spread quicklime 50kg and carries out soil disinfection, ploughs deeply thin ploughing then, and the degree of depth of digging 25~30cm, soil are carefully flat; The ridging plantation, row spacing 70-80cm, the high 20-25cm in ridge, furrow width 30cm;
(3), apply fertilizer to the subsoil: every mu of use fertilizer 1000-1500kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, join composite fertilizer 10kg, phosphate fertilizer 25kg, potash fertilizer 20kg again and fully mix and mix the back thoroughly as base fertilizer;
(4), seed selection, stripping and slicing, sterilization, vernalization: the bulb of plant that taro selects that the bud nest is little, mouthful flat, sturdy, anosis, the no wound of terminal bud, smooth surface, individuality are moderate is as kind of a taro; Plant the above stripping and slicing plantation of taro 200g, the stripping and slicing size with ash or cement plastering tangent plane, reduces courses of infection at 150g, takes out airing 1 day; Germination accelerating method: will plant the shady dark dry place of taro placement and carry out vernalization, and when bud is emerged, can plant;
(5) sowing: sow line-spacing 100cm, spacing in the rows 35cm, every mu of plantation 1900 strains in mid-April to mid-May; Can carry out to narrower tableland and steeper hillside fields that the pool is broadcast or drilling; After will planting taro and sowing, cover a farmyard manure and a fine earth 15-20cm on kind of taro top;
(6) water management: konjaku is beneficial to the konjaku growth with 75% soil moisture content and bulb expands from the growth in seeding stage early stage and bulb expanding stage, if soil is wet excessively, air capacity of soils reduces, unfavorable root growth and bulb growth; In the growth later stage (the 9-10 month), soil moisture content about 60% helps the synthetic and accumulation of nutriment in the bulb; Excess moisture, the bulb skin crack causes soft rot to take place, and causes field or duration of storage to rot, and reduces yield and quality; Therefore, in water management, can irritate in the time of should accomplishing arid, can arrange during waterlogging;
(7) weeding in good time: konjaku needs artificial weeding 2~3 times at the plantation growing period, but can want damaged blade, petiole and root with hoe or other weeding by machine, and is not susceptible easily after the damage; Can before not emerging, spray konjaku sowing band with " paraquat " weed killer herbicide (character is with the no track of gram);
(8) impose seed manure: emerging when konjaku reaches 80%, and per hectare is executed nitrogen 150kg, composite fertilizer 105kg, potassium 75kg, and to do ablactation fertile, and method is apart from the row replacement of ditching about seedling base portion 20cm, blinding immediately after executing;
(9) the heavy dressing stem tuber expands fertilizer: stem tuber expands the stage just after the konjaku seedling leaf is carried out fully, and per hectare imposes with nitrogen 150kg, potassium 105kg, composite fertilizer 124kg, and favourable stem tuber expands;
(10) integrated pest prevention and control:
Black light lamp, sugar-vinegar liquid trapping adult (promptly use 2 parts of sugar, 1 part of wine, 2 parts in water, 2 parts of vinegar add a small amount of chlorophos and make after mixing well) are adopted in insect pest; With 800 times of liquid of 90% chlorophos, or 400 times of liquid sprayings of 25% sevin wetting powder, the poisoning adult; Egg production peak time manual removal ovum and larva;
The konjaku disease mainly to put prevention first, is converted water 30kg with the agricultural streptomycin of 1,000 ten thousand units and is sprayed plant after 70% konjaku is emerged; 15-20 days, adopt 1500 times of liquid of methyl Tobe Feng of 1000 times of liquid cooperations 70% of agricultural streptomycin of 1,000 ten thousand units to spray for the second time, konjaku interior spraying times in vegetative period is no less than 4 times; If find the konjak soft rot diseased plant, be with soil to dig out plant immediately; Carry out buried or burn, and be sprinkling upon in the pool with quicklime, compacting prevents that germina infection from spreading; With 3000 times of liquid sprayings of 72% agricultural streptomycin plant leaf, plant base portion and surrounding soil, every spray in 7 days once, 2-3 time continuously; Southern blight is contained the phase of sending out in the 8-9 month, can lime near konjaku and soil are shown to contact in mid or late July, prevents that southern blight from taking place; Concrete grammar is that per hectare is executed 225kg, divides and has executed for three times, executes once every a week, notes not wanting excessive using at every turn, otherwise growth has certain inhibitory action to konjaku; Available 50% powder become rusty 500 times of 5000 times of liquid of clever agent, 600 times of liquid of carbendazim of 50% or 50% methyl Tobe Feng irritate root, the generation that can alleviate disease from the konjaku petiole base;
(11) gather in the crops: konjaku falls seedling after 10 days naturally, selects fine day to dig taro in good time; Konjaku after receipts are dug can be used as the commodity taro and sells more than the 500g, the following stem tuber of 500g can be used as kind of taro and stores;
(12) plant the taro storage: dry part storage kind of taro 3-4 days, make the stem tuber epidermis become brown earlier, water content reduces 15%-20%, uses 2: 1 ash and quicklime mixture seed dressing then, will plant the taro size fractionation after, again with doing husky layering storage; The eye that maybe will plant taro is downward, places on the built on stilts hedge or bamboo mat; For breeding field piece, can when March in next year, receive again and dig konjaku, to reduce the susceptible probability of kind of taro.
2. monarch's konjaku and the young high-quality and efficient cultivation method that age, rubber was interplanted of thanking according to claim 1, its feature comprises: described konjaku is planted in the rubber woods of crown density 0.4-0.6 and is advisable; Crown density can be assisted by shade net less than 0.4.
3. monarch's konjaku and the young high-quality and efficient cultivation method that age, rubber was interplanted of thanking according to claim 1, its feature comprises: institute's nitrogen fertilizer application is a urea, and phosphate fertilizer is normal superphosphate, and potash fertilizer is potassium sulphate.
4. high-quality and efficient cultivation method of thanking monarch's konjaku and children's rubber interplanting in age according to claim 1, its feature comprises: described sowing is for broadcasting on the konjaku pool or ditch sowing time, should sow kind of taro is tilting, plants taro top and covers farmyard manure and fine earth; And on the face of soil railway carriage or compartment, in time covering the stalk of one deck pine tag or crop, thickness is 3-5cm, is advisable to lose soil.
5. monarch's konjaku and the young high-quality and efficient cultivation method that age, rubber was interplanted of thanking according to claim 1, its feature comprises: insect pest is primarily aimed at Autographa spp, and disease is primarily aimed at konjak soft rot and konjaku southern blight.
CN 201110121145 2011-05-11 2011-05-11 High-quality efficient cultivation method for interplanting amorphopallus xiei H.Li and young-growing hevea brasiliensis Pending CN102257918A (en)

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CN102523876A (en) * 2012-01-13 2012-07-04 云南农业大学 Method for cloning amorphophalms konjac
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CN102934577A (en) * 2012-11-21 2013-02-20 昆明学院 Interplanting method for teak and konjak
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