CN102177827A - Stereoscopic compound cultivation method for rice field - Google Patents

Stereoscopic compound cultivation method for rice field Download PDF

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CN102177827A
CN102177827A CN2011100950833A CN201110095083A CN102177827A CN 102177827 A CN102177827 A CN 102177827A CN 2011100950833 A CN2011100950833 A CN 2011100950833A CN 201110095083 A CN201110095083 A CN 201110095083A CN 102177827 A CN102177827 A CN 102177827A
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rice
duck
ridge
breed
water
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陈灿
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陈灿
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Abstract

The invention discloses a stereoscopic compound cultivation method for a rice field in order to solve problems of weaker ecological adaptability, single product structure and lower economic efficiency of the traditional planting mode. The stereoscopic compound cultivation method comprises the steps of: firstly, consolidating and ruralizing land, and digging a reservoir type fishpond in the center of the field; and secondly, ridging the fully fertilized field, planting seedlings on the side surface of a ridge, culturing fishes in the reservoir type fishpond, culturing ducks in the ridge of the rice field, and culturing chickens on the ridge of the rice field, and carrying out field management until properly harvesting. According to the invention, the comprehensive production capability of the rice field is efficiently enhanced, the adjustment of the agricultural production structure is promoted, both production and income are increased, the comprehensive operation is developed and the yield of the unit area is efficiently enhanced.

Description

The three-dimensional aggregate species breeding method in a kind of rice field
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of paddy field cultivation field, the three-dimensional aggregate species breeding method in especially a kind of rice field.
Background technology
Current, paddy field cultivation adopts single agricultural planting technique mostly, be early rice and late rice crop rotation, semilate rice and rape crop rotation isotype, the essential characteristic of above-mentioned pattern shows as that annidation is weak, product structure is single, economic benefit is lower, cause the due to illness insect pest and the weather reason crop yield underproduction serious, can not effectively improve the integrated production capacity in rice field, serious blow peasant's enthusiasm of producing, both threaten the grain security of country, also do not met the requirement that country builds a well-off society in an all-round way simultaneously.
Summary of the invention
For overcome the prior art annidation a little less than, product structure is single, the deficiency that economic benefit is lower, the present invention has aimed to provide the three-dimensional aggregate species breeding method in a kind of rice field, carry out the policy of soil rectification and garden farming by current country, change the flat do cultivation of paddy rice tradition into paddy ladder type cultivation, breed fish in the reserve-water-raise-fish pond of rice field central authorities, the rice field furrow is supported duck, raise chickens on the ridge in the rice field, realize the complex ecological breeding of rice-duck-chicken-fish, thereby effectively improve the integrated production capacity in rice field, effectively promote the adjustment of the structure of agricultural production, realize increasing both production and income, drive comprehensive management, effectively increase the yield per unit area.
For achieving the above object, the technological means that the invention process adopted is: the three-dimensional aggregate species breeding method in described rice field, be characterized in, and may further comprise the steps:
1) soil rectification and garden farming; Carry out smooth and squareization to the field piece, and excavate the reserve-water-raise-fish pond in field piece central authorities;
2) in the two sides that use sufficient ridging, ridge on the field piece of base manure (C, D) relatively horizontal plane is the inclined-plane, the angle (β of described inclined-plane and horizontal plane, θ) be 30 °~60 °, (direction of row is consistent with the bearing of trend e on described ridge for C, D) plantation 2~4 row rice seedlings in each side on ridge;
3) in described reserve-water-raise-fish pond, breed fish;
4) in the furrow of rice field, support duck;
5) on the ridge, rice field, raise chickens;
6) carry out field management;
7) growth period duration of rice, grew to the pustulation period, gathers in the crops chicken and duck in good time; Gather in the crops when paddy is ripe in good time.
Further, the technical scheme of described soil rectification and garden farming employing is: carry out smooth and squareization to the field piece, generally with every 667m 2About be advisable, and excavate the reserve-water-raise-fish pond that accounts for field piece area 5%-15% in field piece central authorities, the specification in rice field central authorities reserve-water-raise-fish pond is: be advisable with square, rectangle also can.The degree of depth is 1.0-1.5m.Improve the irrigation canals and ditches facility simultaneously, the ridge sclerosis makes things convenient for irrigation and drainage.
Further, the technical scheme of paddy ladder type cultivation employing recited above is:
(1) uses sufficient base manure before the ridging of rice field, every mu of organic fertilizer 15.0-22.5t/hm 2, add a small amount of urea, carbon ammonium, potash fertilizer; Or application of organic fertilizers not, then with urea 289.8-434.5kg/hm 2, potassium chloride 190.0-285.0kg/hm 2, whole superphosphate 164.0-245.8kg/hm 2, siliceous fertilizer 450kg/hm 2, zinc sulphate 75kg/hm 2Sandwich in the ridge;
(2) adopt the ridger ridging, to be that the ridge is high be 30-50cm to the ridging specification, is preferably 40cm, adjacent two ridges be 50--80cm apart from a, be preferably 65cm;
(3) the paddy rice high density is transplanted, and the spacing in the rows R that transplants during transplanting to the ridge is 17.8-21.8cm, is preferably 19.8cm, and line-spacing L is 13-17cm, is preferably 15cm, every cave 2-3 seedling.
Described spacing in the rows R is promptly in the lin-type rice of ridge upslope, with the distance between the adjacent two strain paddy rice of delegation.Described line-spacing L, promptly in the one-tenth row paddy rice of ridge upslope, between the same row two adjacent two strain paddy rice along the distance on slope.
Further, the reserve-water-raise-fish pond of the rice field recited above central authorities technical scheme that adopts of breeding fish is:
(1) fry is selected: selection vitality is strong, the carp kind of wide adaptability;
(2) carry out disinfection before putting in a suitable place to breed, disinfectant method commonly used has: 1% salt adds the 1% sodium bicarbonate aqueous solution or 3% common salt aqueous solution, dipping bath 5min~8min; Povidone iodine 20mg/L~the 30mg/L that contains available iodine 1%, dipping bath 10min~20min; 5mg/L~10mg/L potassium permanganate, dipping bath 5min~10min.
(3) put in a suitable place to breed quantity and time: throwing in specification is the carp seedling of 50-100g, the time of putting in a suitable place to breed is for after transplanting 7 days, water temperature was put the 800-1000 tail in a suitable place to breed for general every mu at 8 ℃-10 ℃, fine one day, and was 1 in flower silver carp and carp quantity: 3-1: 5 ratio is joined more than flower silver carp 150 tails.
(4) science is raised: based on predation, the artifical compound feed of throwing something and feeding naturally is auxilliary, and feeding volume is decided on water quality and weather, water temperature, generally feeding volume percentage of liveweight 2-5%.The do not throw something and feed feed of moldy metamorphism.The number of times of throwing something and feeding weekly is 3-5 time.
(5) prevention of damage by disease: the principle of adhering to putting prevention first, preventing and treating combination.General measure is: operation is careful, avoids the fish body injured as far as possible; Carry out disinfection before the tool of production uses or after using or be exposed to the sun.The medicine that is used to sterilize has: potassium permanganate 100mg/L, embathe 30min; Salt 5% embathes 30min; Bleaching powder 5% embathes 20min.Be used alternatingly at interval chlorine-containing agent or the quicklime breeding water body of splashing in 10~15 days, consumption press the regulation execution of NY5071; Or adopting food platform medicine to hang bag, the dosage of hanging bag is 20%~30% of a full pool spilling head amount; At interval added ferrous sulfate 0.2mg/L full pool spilling head with copper sulphate 0.5mg/L in 10~15 days.On the food platform, realize medicine extension bag, on the one hand, be convenient to concentrate feeding, on the other hand, be convenient to when feeding, fish be carried out disinfection.
Further, the technical scheme of duck-raising enclosed paddy fields employing recited above is:
(1) duckling is selected: select vitality, adaptive faculty, middle-size and small-size good duck varieties that resistance is all stronger, to adapt to the rice cropping characteristics of " alveole dense planting ", duck can freely be walked in the rice field look for food;
(2) infrastructure: acquire duck shed in the field piece any a jiao, by the orientation construction of sitting in the north facing the south, the duck shed size is by 10 plumage duck/m 2Calculate; Suit measures to local conditions simultaneously, the piece periphery is provided with fence in the field, and fence density can not be by being advisable with the duckling of just having put in a suitable place to breed, and the fence height is that 35-45cm is advisable;
(3) put in a suitable place to breed quantity and time: throw in 12~15 ages in days, preferred 15 ages in days, the duckling of individual weight 150-250 gram is preferably 200 grams; The time of putting in a suitable place to breed only puts 15-20 for general every mu for transplanting the back 3-7 days;
(4) science is raised: by the principle of " early feed and feed foot half-full evening " give duckling early, each feed supplement in evening 1 time, during duck individual weight 600~800 grams, when being preferably 750 grams, only throw that the small amount of supplemental material is short fattens in every morning;
(5) disease prevention and cure: regular or irregular duck shed, utensil are carried out cleaning and disinfection, 2% quicklime breast sterilization fence; To the duck of 18~22 ages in days drink water immunity or injecting immune vaccine inoculation, with inoculation about 20 ages in days better,, carrying out emergent the preparation as unusual circumstance.
Further, the technical scheme of raising chicken in paddy field employing recited above is:
(1) chick is selected: select vitality, adaptive faculty, middle-size and small-size good chicken breed that resistance is all stronger, to adapt to the rice cropping characteristics of " alveole dense planting ", chicken can freely be walked in the rice field look for food;
(2) infrastructure: acquiring hen house can be with duck shed, and chicken and duck closes in same shed, is convenient to management, and fence then need not repeat to be provided with;
(3) put in a suitable place to breed quantity and time: throw in 35~45 ages in days, be preferably 40 ages in days, the chick of individual weight 450~550 grams is preferably 500 grams; Release time the best when the time of putting in a suitable place to breed is 25-30 ten thousand fringes/mu for the land for growing field crops spike number, this stage is rice tillering middle and later periods or phase ear differentiation beginning, only throws in 10-15 for every mu;
(4) science is raised: by the principle of " early feed and feed foot half-full evening " give chick early, each feed supplement in evening 1 time, when chicken individuals weighs 600~800 grams, when being preferably 750 grams, only throw that the small amount of supplemental material is short fattens in every morning;
(5) disease prevention and cure: regular or irregular hen house, utensil, drinking water are carried out cleaning and disinfection, quicklime breast sterilization fence with 2%; To the chicken of 12~18 ages in days drink water immunity or injecting immune vaccine inoculation, with inoculation about 15 ages in days better,, carrying out emergent the preparation as unusual circumstance.
Further, the technical scheme of field management employing recited above is:
(1) water management: can accumulate precipitation in furrow by natural precipitation, keep the above water layer of the long-term 5cm of furrow;
(2) pest and disease monitoring: the damage by disease and insect that examines the field changes, and concentrates burst at damage by disease and insect, takes the control that combines of the prey ability of physical method and chicken and duck, but stops to use pesticide control;
(3) checking of field facility: make regular check on the damaged situation of field fence, booth,, in time repair, prevent that animals such as yellow weasel, mouse from eating chicken and duck steathily if any breakage.
Gather in the crops when results were golden yellow for 97% grain in the paddy rice spike of rice in good time when further, described paddy was ripe.
The theory of institute of the present invention foundation: on same field, crop, agricultural animal and fish layering utilize different space plantations and the structure of culturing (1); (2) utilize environmental resource light mutually between two or more crop in the colony fully, heat, water, support, ecological factor such as gas; (3) complexity of increase agricultural system strengthens its annidation to environment and external change.
The present invention earlier carries out soil rectification and garden farming to the rice field, with the paddy rice tradition flatly do that breed fish in the reserve-water-raise-fish pond that cultivation changes paddy ladder type cultivation, rice field central authorities into, the rice field furrow is supported duck, raise chickens on the ridge in the rice field, field management, results in good time.
Compared with prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects as follows: 1) realized the complex ecological breeding of rice-duck-chicken-fish, effectively improved the integrated production capacity in rice field; 2) the three-dimensional compound breeding in rice field has promoted the adjustment of the structure of agricultural production effectively, has realized increasing both production and income; 3) the three-dimensional compound breeding in rice field has driven comprehensive management, has improved yield per unit area effectively.
Description of drawings
The present invention is further elaborated below in conjunction with embodiment, do not show full content of the present invention.
Fig. 1 is the outline drawing of an embodiment of the present invention;
Fig. 2 is described A-A schematic cross-section perpendicular to ridge 1 bearing of trend e;
Fig. 3 is the side schematic view of Fig. 2.
In the drawings
The 1-ridge; 2-reserve-water-raise-fish pond;
Distance between adjacent two ridges of a-; H-ridge height;
Rice shoot spacing in the rows on the R-ridge; Rice shoot line-spacing on the L-ridge;
The bearing of trend on e-ridge; C, the side in the two sides on D-ridge;
Angle between β-C side, ridge and horizontal plane; Angle between θ-D side, ridge and horizontal plane.
Embodiment
2010, carried out the test 1.0km of late rice (No. 17, Hunan Xian in evening) ladder type cultivation in the Bei Sheng of Liuyang City town oolong community 2, produce the time in late rice season, promptly in early July, 2010 is with urea 289.8kg/hm 2, potassium chloride 190.0kg/hm 2, superphosphate 164.0kg/hm 2, siliceous fertilizer 400kg/hm 2, zinc sulphate 75kg/hm 2Sandwich in the ridge; Utilize the ridger ridging, specification is 65cm for distance between the ridges a, and the high h in ridge is 40cm, also base manure is concentrated and deep placement in this process, irritates deep water maceration earth, is 19.8cm by spacing in the rows R, and line-spacing L is the 15.0cm transplanting, every cave 2-3 seedling.Look the paddy growth situation, behind rice transplanting 3-7 days, throw in about 15 ages in days, about 250 grams of individual weight, kind are 15/mu of " No. one, the south of the River " ducklings; Behind rice transplanting 7 days, select the fine dusk, throwing in specification is the carp seedling of 50-100g, puts 800 tails in a suitable place to breed for every mu, and is that 1: 5 standard is joined flower silver carp 160 tails by flower silver carp and carp quantity ratio.Add the 1% sodium bicarbonate aqueous solution with 1% salt before putting in a suitable place to breed and carry out disinfection dipping bath 5min~8min; To tillering the middle and later periods, Gao Miao reaches 25-30 ten thousand fringe/mus at paddy growth, throws in about 40 ages in days, about 500 grams of individual weight, kind are 10/mu of " Land of Peach Blossoms chicken " chick.It is that master, the artifical compound feed of throwing something and feeding are auxilliary that chicken and duck adopts principle, the fish of " early feeding foot hello half-full evening " to adopt the nature predation, and science is raised, strict control.Adopt the drinking-water immunity to the chicken and duck vaccine inoculation, the lysol aqueous solution with 3%-5% carries out soaking disinfection to utensil, keep a close eye on the active situation of field chicken and duck, as find ill chicken and duck, to in time handle, avoid transmission, regularly adopt food platform medicine to be linked with the control of carrying out fish diseases the fishpond.Simultaneously, as rice pest outburst situation, the control that take appropriate measures is as adopting black light lamp, frequency ventilating type insecticidal lamp etc.When behind the neat fringe of paddy rice, beginning to be in the milk, chicken and duck is regained.
After the paddy rice maturation, grain header harvesting paddy rice.Carp and flower silver carp are waited for the right price in good time and are fished for sale, so that obtain greatest benefit.

Claims (8)

1. the three-dimensional aggregate species breeding method in rice field is characterized in that, may further comprise the steps:
1) soil rectification and garden farming; Carry out smooth and squareization to the field piece, and excavate reserve-water-raise-fish pond (2) in field piece central authorities;
2) at the two sides (C that uses sufficient ridging on the field piece of base manure, ridge (1), D) horizontal plane is the inclined-plane relatively, angle (the β of described inclined-plane and horizontal plane, θ) be 30 °~60 °, each side (C on ridge (1), D) plantation 2~4 row rice seedlings, the direction of row is consistent with the bearing of trend e on described ridge;
3) in described reserve-water-raise-fish pond (2), breed fish;
4) in the furrow of rice field, support duck;
5) on the ridge, rice field, raise chickens;
6) carry out field management;
7) growth period duration of rice, grew to the pustulation period, gathers in the crops chicken and duck in good time; Gather in the crops when paddy is ripe in good time.
2. the three-dimensional aggregate species breeding method in rice field according to claim 1 is characterized in that each field piece area of described field piece squareization is 667m 2About, and the reserve-water-raise-fish pond (2) of excavating in field piece central authorities accounts for field piece area 5%-15%, reserve-water-raise-fish pond (2) specification is: rectangle, the degree of depth are 1.0-1.5m, improve the irrigation canals and ditches facility simultaneously, the ridge sclerosis.
3. the three-dimensional aggregate species breeding method in rice field according to claim 1 is characterized in that the step of described ridging, paddy ladder type cultivation is:
(1) uses sufficient base manure before the ridging of rice field, by every mu of organic fertilizer 15.0-22.5t/hm 2, add the specification of a small amount of urea, carbon ammonium, potash fertilizer; Or press urea 289.8-434.5kg/hm 2, potassium chloride 190.0-285.0kg/hm 2, superphosphate 164.0-245.8kg/hm 2, siliceous fertilizer 450kg/hm 2, zinc sulphate 75kg/hm 2Specification sandwich in the ridge;
(2) adopt the ridger ridging, the ridging specification is that the high h in ridge is 30-50cm, adjacent two ridges be 50--80cm apart from a;
(3) the paddy rice high density is transplanted, and transplanting is 17.8-21.8cm to the spacing in the rows R on the ridge during transplanting, and line-spacing L is 13-17cm, every cave 2-3 seedling.
4. the three-dimensional aggregate species breeding method in rice field according to claim 1 is characterized in that the step of breeding fish in described reserve-water-raise-fish pond (2) is:
(1) fry is selected: selection vitality is strong, the carp and the flower silver carp of wide adaptability;
(2) reserve-water-raise-fish pond (2) are carried out disinfection before putting in a suitable place to breed, sterilization method is: 1% salt adds the 1% sodium bicarbonate aqueous solution or 3% common salt aqueous solution, dipping bath 5min~8min; Povidone iodine 20mg/L~the 30mg/L that contains available iodine 1%, dipping bath 10min~20min; 5mg/L~10mg/L potassium permanganate, dipping bath 5min~10min;
(3) put in a suitable place to breed quantity and time: throwing in specification is the carp seedling of 50-100g, the time of putting in a suitable place to breed is that shoot transplanting equipment is after 7 days, water temperature is put the 800-1000 tail in a suitable place to breed for every mu at 8 ℃-10 ℃, fine, and is 1 according to flower silver carp and carp quantity: 3-1: 5 ratio is thrown in flower silver carp;
(4) science is raised: based on predation, the artifical compound feed of throwing something and feeding naturally is auxilliary, and feeding volume accounts for fry body weight 2-5% at every turn, and the number of times of throwing something and feeding weekly is 3-5 time;
(5) prevention of damage by disease: carry out disinfection before the tool of production uses or after using or be exposed to the sun, and operation is careful, avoids the fish body injured; The medicine that the tool of production is carried out disinfection is: potassium permanganate 100mg/L, embathe 30min; Salt 5% embathes 30min; Bleaching powder 5% embathes 20min; At interval 10~15 days regulations by NY5071 are used alternatingly chlorine-containing agent or the quicklime breeding water body of splashing; Or adopting food platform medicine to hang bag, the dosage of hanging bag is 20%~30% of a full pool spilling head amount; At interval added ferrous sulfate 0.2mg/L full pool spilling head with copper sulphate 0.5mg/L in 10~15 days.
5. the three-dimensional aggregate species breeding method in rice field according to claim 1 is characterized in that the step of described duck-raising enclosed paddy fields is:
(1) duckling is selected: select vitality, adaptive faculty, middle-size and small-size good duck varieties that resistance is all stronger, be advisable so that duckling can freely walk to look for food in the rice field;
(2) infrastructure: acquire duck shed in the field piece any a jiao, the duck shed size is by 10 plumage duck/m 2Calculate; Suit measures to local conditions simultaneously, the piece periphery is provided with fence in the field, and fence density can not be by being advisable with the duckling of just having put in a suitable place to breed, and the fence height is 35-45cm;
(3) put in a suitable place to breed quantity and time: throw in the 12-15 age in days, the duckling of individual weight 150 grams~200 grams; The time of putting in a suitable place to breed puts about 15-20 for every mu for transplanting the back 3-7 days;
(4) science raising: give duckling morning, late each feed supplement 1 time by the principle of " feed sufficient morning in hello half-full evening ", during duck individual weight 600~800 grams, only throw the small amount of supplemental material and urge to fatten in every morning;
(5) disease prevention and cure: duck shed, utensil are carried out cleaning and disinfection, 2% quicklime breast sterilization fence; To the duck of 18~22 ages in days drink water immunity or injecting immune vaccine inoculation.
6. the three-dimensional aggregate species breeding method in rice field according to claim 1 is characterized in that the step of described raising chicken in paddy field is:
(1) chick is selected: select vitality, adaptive faculty, middle-size and small-size good chicken breed that resistance is all stronger, to adapt to the rice cropping characteristics of " alveole dense planting ", chicken can freely be walked in the rice field look for food;
(2) infrastructure: the hen house of acquiring can be with duck shed, and chicken and duck closes in same house;
(3) put in a suitable place to breed quantity and time: throw in 35~45 ages in days, the chick of individual weight 450~550 grams; The time of putting in a suitable place to breed is rice tillering mid-term, when this moment, the paddy rice spike number was 25-30 ten thousand fringes/mu, throws in 10-15 for every mu;
(4) science raising: give chick morning, late each feed supplement 1 time by the principle of " feed sufficient morning in hello half-full evening ", when chicken individuals weighs 600~800 grams, only throw the small amount of supplemental material and urge to fatten in every morning;
(5) disease prevention and cure: hen house, utensil, drinking water are carried out cleaning and disinfection, quicklime breast sterilization fence with 2%; To the chicken of 12~18 ages in days drink water immunity or injecting immune vaccine inoculation.
7. the three-dimensional aggregate species breeding method in rice field according to claim 1 is characterized in that the step of described field management is:
(1) water management: the medium-term and long-term above water layer of 5cm that keeps of furrow;
(2) pest and disease monitoring: the damage by disease and insect that examines the field changes, and concentrates burst at damage by disease and insect, takes the control that combines of the prey ability of physical method and chicken and duck;
(3) checking of field facility: make regular check on the damaged situation of field fence, booth, in time repair breakage, prevent that animals such as yellow weasel, mouse from eating chicken and duck steathily.
8. the three-dimensional aggregate species breeding method in rice field according to claim 1 is characterized in that, gathers in the crops when results were golden yellow for 97% grain in the paddy rice spike of rice in good time when described paddy was ripe.
CN2011100950833A 2011-04-15 2011-04-15 Stereoscopic compound cultivation method for rice field Pending CN102177827A (en)

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CN103355071A (en) * 2013-01-10 2013-10-23 姜堰市庆荣水稻种植专业合作社 Ecological fish farming method in rice field and ecological rice produced by rice plants
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CN105028077A (en) * 2015-08-29 2015-11-11 固镇县益民养殖专业合作社 Novel three-dimensional planting method adopted in rice field
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CN109122141A (en) * 2018-09-04 2019-01-04 湖南农业大学 A kind of rice makees method
CN110521608A (en) * 2019-07-16 2019-12-03 湖北文理学院 A kind of device of living in peace of suitable yellow weasel and bat in community in urban areas

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CN107047164A (en) * 2017-04-24 2017-08-18 湖南农业大学 A kind of many season rice-duck intergrowth cultural methods
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Application publication date: 20110914