CN102783433B - Method for breeding juvenile crabs in rice fields - Google Patents

Method for breeding juvenile crabs in rice fields Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102783433B
CN102783433B CN201110133256.6A CN201110133256A CN102783433B CN 102783433 B CN102783433 B CN 102783433B CN 201110133256 A CN201110133256 A CN 201110133256A CN 102783433 B CN102783433 B CN 102783433B
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crab
rice
button
paddy
ridge
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CN102783433A (en
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马旭洲
汪清
王武
王昂
于永清
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Shanghai Maritime University
Shanghai Ocean University
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Shanghai Maritime University
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention belongs to the field of ecological breeding of special aquatic products and relates to a method for breeding juvenile crabs in rice fields. A three-dimensional ecological planting and breeding mode of quaternity of rice, the juvenile crabs, soybean and elodea nuttallii is adopted for breeding the juvenile crabs in the rice fields. Annular crab ditches or crab ditches shaped like the Chinese ri are adopted around the rice fields, the elodea nuttallii is planted in the crab ditches, the soybean is planted on ridges, weeds, insects, underwater plankton and benthos in the rice fields are utilized to breed the juvenile crabs, growth of the juvenile crabs is guaranteed, and the good effects of weeding, deinsectization and field cleaning are achieved; meanwhile, excrement of the juvenile crabs further has the effects of returning to the fields through abdomens and continuously improving fertilizer efficiency, and movement of the juvenile crabs, such as food finding, promotes raw nutrient cycle of the soil. The mutual controlling and promoting effects of a biologic chain formed among living beings including the rice, injurious insects and river crabs are utilized, the rice and crab symbiosis ecological environment is improved according to the reproduction law of the rice and organic combination of the living beings, and pollution-free performance, nutrition and high yield of rice and crab products are achieved.

Description

A kind of method of paddy field aquaculture button crab
Technical field
The invention belongs to special aquatic products product ecologic breeding field, be specifically related to a kind of method of paddy field aquaculture button crab.
Background technology
Along with the deterioration of Rice Cropping environment, disease, insect pest, crop smothering are on the rise, and in traditional mode of production, chemical fertilizer, agricultural chemicals have become the Main Means that ensures rice yield.The environmental pollution causing, the output value is low, and synergy is slow.And the cultivating river crabs such as pond, lake have been buckled polluted water, destroy the cap of ecotope.The Rice Cropping of Development of Novel and culture of Chinese mitten crab technology are extremely urgent.
In recent years, the northern area of China starts to utilize the advantage of rice field local area ecological resource to carry out culture of Chinese mitten crab, developing ecology breeding technology, make every effort to achieve " water is dual-purpose, a ground is two receives ' volume increase, increase income industry.
On the one hand, breeding adult crabs in rice fields is prevented and treated increasing production and improying productivity of rice disease and pest crop smothering, cultivating river crab in rice field.On the other hand, natural river crab has abundant nutriment, has become one cuisines in people's food and drink, and along with environment change, natural river crab reduces increasingly, can not meet already people's needs.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to overcome defect of the prior art, a kind of method of paddy field aquaculture button crab is provided.The method of paddy field aquaculture button crab of the present invention, self-control, reconstruction, recovery that utilizes natural ecosystems etc. maintains the function of system stability and carries out paddy field aquaculture button crab, prevents paddy rice disease pest and weed simultaneously and plays not applying pesticides and chemical fertilizer and ensure the effect of crop normal growth.
The invention discloses a kind of raising crabs in paddy field technology, belong to rice field zoology breeding new technology.The weeds that utilize in rice field, insect, swimming and benthon cultivation button crab in water, not only ensure the growth of river crab, play weeding, deinsectization, the good result in clean field, the ight soil of river crab also had the also effect of field increase soil fertility of abdomen simultaneously, the ight soil that river crab produces contains a large amount of npk nutrients, organic matter and microorganism, for paddy rice provides uninterrupted fertilising, in addition, looking for food etc. of river crab is movable, increase paddyfield water dissolved oxygen, stir soil, reduce the bulk density of soil, increase soil water-stable aggregate quantity, improve the aeration status of soil, also promote the activity of microorganism, be conducive to Nutrient Cycling, promote the activation of the original nutrient of soil.Can promote paddy growth, can coordinate again to strive the contradiction that fertilizer wins honour between Rice Population and individuality, paddy rice and weeds, improve the ecotope of Rice Population, thereby improve the productivity effect in rice field.
In addition, natural ecosystems in rice field provide good space environment and water body resource for detaining crab, circular groove has ensured the suitable water temperature of the existence of river crab, rice plant has played the effect of shading, in addition, on paddy rice plant, in water body, there is a large amount of natural river crab bait in soil, add the pellet of manually throwing something and feeding, being equivalent to provides dual fail-safe for the growth of river crab.
Utilize the cross complaint short effect mutually of the biological chain forming between the biologies such as paddy rice, insect, river crab, and according to the each growth regularity of paddy rice and biological combination, improve rice crab symbiosis ecotope, realize a breeding new technology of rice crab product Harmless, nutrient laden.The present invention is the adjusting behavior of the natural imitation ecosystem in artificial ecological system, pass through raising crabs in paddy field, control the generation of Scale in Paddy Field Rice Diseases crop smothering, promote the ecological balance, control pesticide pollution, also can impel increasing production of rice, reduce agricultural cost, realize increasing peasant income, be the ecological agriculture of resource-conserving, environmentally friendly sustainable development.
The present invention adopts following technical scheme to solve above-mentioned technical problem:
The method of paddy field aquaculture button crab of the present invention, the stereo ecological breeding pattern of adopt paddy rice, detaining crab, soybean (Glycine max) and waterweed (Elodea nuttallii) quaternity, comprises the steps:
(1), select the rice field of cultivation button crab: the rice field of described cultivation button crab is selected near water source, water quality is good, pollution-free, irrigation and drainage convenient, water holding capacity and fertilizer conservation performance is strong, be not submerged flood season, larger low-lying, the shoal of area in flakes.
(2), select the button crab young and support temporarily: the described button crab young temporarily foster water salinity remains on 5-7, after foster at least 2 hours temporarily, reduces the salinity of water body, and the halogen worm of throwing something and feeding.
Button of the present invention crab be Eriocheir sinensia (Eriocheir sinensis) one age crab kind.
The megalops larva that the button crab young of the present invention is Eriocheir sinensia, the megalops larva of described Eriocheir sinensia is the young crab after the 5th shelling of Eriocheir sinensia.
Megalops larva of the present invention is from hatchery is shipped, and a side crab ditch or the storage pond, holding pond that can first be placed on temporarily foster field are supported temporarily.
Preferably, a described side crab ditch of supporting temporarily field or storage pond, holding pond are first leveled sterilization putting into before the large eye button crab young is supported temporarily.
Preferably, the salinity of described water body reduces to 1~2.Described salinity is the grams of the interior contained whole dissolved solids of water of every kilogram.
(3), Paddy fields: described rice field is the disposable base fertilizer that applies before raking the soil level, and described base fertilizer is biological bacteria fertilizer, and every mu is applied fertilizer 60~70 kilograms.
(4), in rice field, dig crab ditch and culvert system: before rice seedling is transplanted, in the surrounding in rice field and the ridge in rice field, dig out annular crab ditch or day font crab ditch of dark 40-60cm, wide 60-80cm; Described culvert system on the ridge in relative two jiaos of the Wa rice field, position of ridge water inlet and discharge outlet.
Preferably, the outer ring ditch of described annular crab ditch and day font crab ditch is all apart from ridge 40~60cm place.
The present invention supports on the ridge in relative two jiaos of Wa rice field, position of crab rice field drainage mouth, and drainage mouth is communicated with irrigation and drainage channels, circular groove, so that the current in whole rice field are unobstructed.
(5), plant paddy rice: the plantation pattern transplanting seedlings of planting employing large-ridge double-row of described paddy rice.
Preferably, the micro-ridge line-spacing of described large-ridge double-row is 20 ± 3cm, and large ridge line-spacing is 40 ± 3cm.
Preferably, the seed of described paddy rice is selected the kind of disease and insect resistance, resistant to lodging, Salt And Alkali Tolerance, resistance to fertility, good quality and high output.The kinds such as rich in Liaoxing No.1, salt 47, peaceful round-grained rice 43 and more light.
The present invention adopts " large-ridge double-row " (i.e. 6 cun of ridges and 12 cun of ridges, conventional rice transplanting mode is 9 cun of ridges) plantation pattern transplanting seedlings, is beneficial to rice shoot ventilation, printing opacity and river crab activity.
(6) plantation waterweed: after rice seedling is transplanted, described annular crab ditch or day font crab ditch plantation waterweed.
Preferably, described waterweed was planted in summer; Better, described waterweed was planted in the 5-7 month.
Preferably, the plant of described waterweed adopts the equidistant cropping pattern of row strain; Better, the equidistant 40 × 40cm that is of a size of of described row strain.
When waterweed of the present invention plantation, make full use of waterweed point evil, feature that regeneration capacity is strong, first the plant of waterweed is divided into the joint of 10cm left and right, directly insert in people's mud the equidistant 40 × 40cm of row strain while planting with hand.At northern area, the waterweed growth most productive period is the 5-7 month, plantation preferably; In order to improve the survival rate of waterweed, crab kind should first be supported in temporarily foster field or storage pond, holding pond temporarily, in the time that waterweed arrives the growth most productive period, again button crab is put to people.The present invention is planted in the waterweed in rice field, can not only increase paddyfield water dissolved oxygen, keep water body in crab ditch to stablize, and waterweed is still detained the agreeable to the taste bait of crab.
(7), support the sterilization of leveling of crab rice field and the button crab young: put in a suitable place to breed front respectively to supporting crab rice field and detaining the crab young and level sterilization.
Preferably, when the described button crab young is put in a suitable place to breed with 18~23g/m 3potassium permanganate dipping bath 5~10min, can disease preventing and treating.Put in a suitable place to breed and regularly spill quicklime to crab ditch afterwards, and the pharmaceutical chemistry of regularly throwing something and feeding, diseases prevention is in possible trouble.
(8), put in a suitable place to breed: the button crab young of leveling sterilization is put into the rice field of leveling after sterilization and cultivate in good time; Be preferably, the button crab young is put into the crab ditch in rice field.
The time of preferably, putting the button crab young in a suitable place to breed is at the beginning of annual 7 months.
Preferably, put in a suitable place to breed before the button crab young, first in rice field, put into Xin Shui, and then button crab is put in a suitable place to breed in rice field.
Preferably, put in a suitable place to breed and regularly spill quicklime to crab ditch afterwards, and the pharmaceutical chemistry of regularly throwing something and feeding, diseases prevention is in possible trouble.Further, the described quicklime that regularly spills, as two weeks to month spills once, described in spill quicklime amount be each every mu of 10-15 kilogram; The described pharmaceutical chemistry of regularly throwing something and feeding, as being mixed with pharmaceutical chemistry with sulphoamidine medicine and feed at the beginning of 7 months and at the beginning of 9 months, the dosage of the every 10kg button of first day crab is 1-1.2g, in second to the 6th day, the dosage of every day is the half of first day, within 6 days, is a course for the treatment of; Described dosage is calculated according to the weight of sulphoamidine.After spilling quicklime, water quality should meet GB-11607-89 standard, and pH value is between 7.0-9.9.
(9), throwing something and feeding of button crab: throw something and feed according to the growing state of button crab.
Preferably, the throwing something and feeding as every day fixed point, the timing bait of throwing something and feeding one time of described button crab, feeding volume is the 3%-5% of button crab TBW while putting in a suitable place to breed.
Preferably, the pellet of throwing something and feeding before mid-August to mid-September of throwing something and feeding of described button crab, the green fodder of throwing something and feeding after mid-August to mid-September, as green fodders such as pasture and water.
The management of throwing something and feeding of button crab of the present invention, feedstuff feeding will be conducive to ecotope harmonious in the living environment of river crab and paddy rice and rice field, every day fixed point, the timing bait of throwing something and feeding one time, feeding volume is the 3%-5% that puts river crab TBW in a suitable place to breed, the pellet of throwing something and feeding.To mid-September, should stop to feed pellet mid-August, changes green fodders such as throwing pasture and water, and the natural bait especially of the waterweed in circular groove, with this anti-clamping crab sex premature and control button crab sex premature ratio.
(10), the daily management of button crab: accomplish " two patrol ", " three is anti-", " four examine "." two patrol " is exactly morning, evening will patrol field." three is anti-" is exactly anti-harmful animal, bilge water resisting, anti-theft." four examine " is exactly to examine to prevent that escaping facility has or not breakage, pinpoints the problems and solves in time; Two examine and have or not residual bait, note observing river crab food situation, with the daily ration, feeding quantity of fixing time; Three examine variation of water, can flexible modulation change the water time according to variation of water, meanwhile, note listening to weather forecast; Four examine the growing way of river crab, have disease-freely, have or not harmful animal, clear up in time crab shell, dead crab, crab shell size is measured.
(11), catch button crab: at the beginning of the capture time of described button crab is preferably by the end of September to 10 month; Owing at the beginning of by the end of September to 10 month being button crab trapping period before paddy rice harvesting, can utilize row irrigation to hocket, form current, induction button crab enters Dai Bu district.
Preferably, the rice field of described cultivation button crab is also provided with the anti-facility of escaping, and the described anti-facility of escaping is the anti-wall of escaping of button crab that is located at rice field surrounding and adopts plastic film to be built into.
Preferably, the surrounding in the rice field of described cultivation button crab is also provided with the lamp that wipes out the flies and mosquitoes.Preferred, described in wipe out the flies and mosquitoes the every 3-5 mu of lamp rice field install one.The described lamp that wipes out the flies and mosquitoes comprises solar panel, the accumulator connecting successively through wire, the lamp that wipes out the flies and mosquitoes, described in the lamp that wipes out the flies and mosquitoes also comprise mosquitos and flies collecting box, and be positioned at the lamp below that wipes out the flies and mosquitoes; The described lamp that wipes out the flies and mosquitoes can also adopt the lamp device that wipes out the flies and mosquitoes of the prior art.
The present invention installs in rice field surrounding the lamp that wipes out the flies and mosquitoes, and can be used for trapping and killing rice pest, and the distribution of prediction insect.
The present invention has following beneficial effect:
(1) the present invention has adopted the Planting Patterns of large-ridge double-row, and compared with the Planting Patterns in conventional rice field, marginal effect embodies more obvious, has increased the ventilation and penetrating light of paddy rice, reduces the generation of disease; The activity space of river crab strengthens, and is conducive to river crab growth.
(2) adopt circular groove design in periphery, rice field, be convenient to the aquaculture management of river crab.
(3) raising crabs in paddy field can effectively be controlled the harm of rice field pest, and the rice grubs such as wriggler, rice-stem borer, rice fulgorid, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel are had to fabulous inhibitory action.
(4) the whole manure uses in rice field, refusal uses chemical fertilizer, has reduced the discharge of nitrogen phosphorus; Use biopesticide simultaneously, reduced residue of pesticide, reduce the pollution to water body, make the paddy rice producing become real green agricultural product, promote increasing production of rice, realize increasing peasant income.
(5) raising crabs in paddy field solves rice cultivation weeding problem.River crab is put into the weeds that constantly ingest behind rice field, eliminates weeds in field in the situation that not using weed killer herbicide, and the river crab soil that loosened in process of searching for food, keeps soil from packing together.By the long-term intertillage effect of river crab, increase soil aeration, improve soil environment, strengthen respiration, reduce the harm of noxious material, be beneficial to Root Growth of Rice, be beneficial to the absorption of root system to mineral matter, promote growing of root system.
(6) paddy rice obtains the organic manure of a large amount of effluent crabs excretion within vegetative period, and river crab in rice field taking aquatic animals and plants as bait, so greatly save throw something and feed cost and field management cost.
(7) the peripheral plantation soybean in rice field, has reasonably utilized space, land resources and water resource, has realized the solid in rice field and has produced;
(8) in circular groove, plant waterweed, make full use of the space environment in rice field, increase paddyfield water dissolved oxygen, more detain crab shade place and natural bait are provided.
Brief description of the drawings
Fig. 1: the schematic diagram of button crab is supported in rice field of the present invention
Fig. 2: the schematic diagram of fly-killing lamp
Embodiment
Further set forth the present invention below in conjunction with specific embodiment, should be understood that these embodiment are only not used in and limit the scope of the invention for the present invention is described.
Embodiment 1
The method of the paddy field aquaculture button crab of the present embodiment is that button crab schematic diagram is supported in rice field as shown in Figure 1:
(1), rice field selects: support crab rice field and should be selected near water source, water quality is good, pollution-free, irrigation and drainage convenient, water holding capacity and fertilizer conservation performance is strong, be not submerged flood season, larger low-lying, the shoal of area in flakes.
(2), the selection of rice paddy seed: rice paddy seed should be selected the kind of disease and insect resistance, resistant to lodging, Salt And Alkali Tolerance, resistance to fertility, good quality and high output, selects Liaoxing No.1 rice varieties.
(3), megalops larva is selected: ship the button crab young from hatchery, first be placed in a side crab ditch of supporting temporarily field, salt adding regulates crab ditch water salinity in advance, makes salinity remain on 5-7, it is 1-2 that megalops larva enters the salt reduction degree that starts to pour water after 2 hours after storage pond, holding pond, the halogen worm of throwing something and feeding.
(4), the Planting Patterns of paddy rice: before rice transplanting, the annular crab ditch that 50cm is dark, 80cm is wide is dug out in rice field, and annular crab ditch is apart from ridge 40cm, and then rice transplanting, adopt " large-ridge double-row, limit row are encrypted " Planting Patterns, be that micro-ridge is 20cm ridge, large ridge is 40cm ridge, is beneficial to rice shoot ventilation, printing opacity and the activity of button crab.It is less that Cultivation Techniques of Big Ridge Double Line can solve paddy rice seeding row spacing effectively, causes sealing ridge early, and later stage ventilation and penetrating light is bad, and bottom leaf is withered early causes the problems such as paddy rice early ageing, dry-matter accumulation are obstructed, thereby improves light energy of rice availability.
(5), the fertilization mode of paddy rice: before raking the soil level in rice field, the disposable biological bacteria fertilizer that applies is base fertilizer, 900 kilograms/hm of fertilising 2.
(6), culvert system: support on the ridge in relative two jiaos of Wa rice field, position of crab rice field drainage mouth, drainage mouth is communicated with irrigation and drainage channels, circular groove, can make like this current in whole rice field unobstructed.
(7), the anti-facility of escaping: construct the anti-wall of escaping of river crab at rice field surrounding plastic film, with the plastic film of 0.08-0.1mm as body of wall, be buried in the earth 10cm, make the anti-high 50-60cm of wall that escapes of acrial part, outside adds iron wire with bamboo bar and fixes, body of wall angle inwardly slightly tilt, four jiaos surround one circular-arc.
(9) waterweed: after rice transplanting, in circular groove, plant waterweed, while planting, make full use of waterweed point evil, feature that regeneration capacity is strong, first waterweed plant is divided into the joint of 10cm left and right, directly insert in people's mud one, the equidistant 40 × 40cm of row strain while planting with hand.The northern area waterweed growth most productive period is the 5-7 month, and in order to improve waterweed survival rate, crab kind should first be supported the time at storage pond, holding pond temporarily, and waterweed arrives the growth most productive period by the time, then puts people wherein.The existence of waterweed, can not only increase paddyfield water dissolved oxygen, keeps water body in circular groove to stablize, and still detains the agreeable to the taste bait of crab.
(9), lamp wipes out the flies and mosquitoes: in rice field surrounding, the lamp that wipes out the flies and mosquitoes is installed, every 3-5 mu is installed one, for trapping and killing the distribution of rice pest and prediction insect.
(10), put in a suitable place to breed: at the beginning of annual 7 months, button crab enters land for growing field crops in good time.Before putting in a suitable place to breed, first in large area rice field, put into Xin Shui, and then put button crab in a suitable place to breed large Tanaka.
(11) stereo ecological breeding: the stereo ecological breeding pattern of paddy rice, river crab, soybean and waterweed quaternity, as shown in Figure 1, wherein soybean is planted on the ridge of paddy rice.
(12), the button crab management of throwing something and feeding: feedstuff feeding will be conducive to harmonious ecotope in the living environment of river crab and paddy rice and rice field, fixes a point every day, the bait of regularly throwing something and feeding one time, and feeding volume is to put 3% of river crab TBW in a suitable place to breed, the pellet of throwing something and feeding.To mid-September, should stop to feed pellet mid-August, changes green fodders such as throwing pasture and water, and the natural bait especially of the waterweed in circular groove, with this anti-clamping crab sex premature and control button crab sex premature ratio.
(13), daily management: accomplish " two patrol ", " three is anti-", " four examine "." two patrol " morning, evening will patrol field: have every day special messenger to patrol field 2 times, especially, at bad weathers such as morning, evening, night and overcast and rainy strong wind, more will conscientiously carefully patrol field, observe change of water quality, river crab growth and the situation of ingesting, the solution in time of pinpointing the problems in time simultaneously." three is anti-" is anti-harmful animal, bilge water resisting, anti-theft.The invasion and attack of anti-harmful organisms: one prevents escaping crab; Two anti-water snakes, frog, toad; Three rat preservatives; Four will drive aquatic bird in time, think that detaining crab creates suitable growing environment.Bilge water resisting enters rice field and affects the growth of river crab, simultaneously will anti-clamping crab stolen." four examine " is to examine to prevent that escaping facility has or not breakage, and pinpoint the problems is to solve; Two examine and have or not residual bait, note observing river crab food situation, with the daily ration, feeding quantity of fixing time; Three examine change of water quality, change the water time, can flexible modulation, meanwhile, note listening to weather forecast; Four examine river crab growing way, have disease-freely, have or not harmful animal, clear up in time crab shell, dead crab, crab shell size is measured.Raising crabs in paddy field disease is relied mainly on prevention, control combination, the quicklime of splashing one time for general one month, 10 kilograms of each every mu of consumptions.
Water quality should meet GB-11607-89 standard, and pH value is controlled as between 7.0-8.0.
(14), disease prevention and cure: put in a suitable place to breed and frontly level sterilization to supporting crab rice field and storage pond, holding pond.20g/m when crab kind is put in a suitable place to breed 3potassium permanganate dipping bath 5~10min, put rear regularly (one month once) in a suitable place to breed and spill quicklime to crab ditch, the pharmaceutical chemistry of regularly throwing something and feeding is for being mixed with pharmaceutical chemistry with sulphoamidine and feed at the beginning of 7 months and at the beginning of 9 months, the every 10kg river crab of first day medication 1g, in second-six days, the dose of every day reduces by half, 6 days is a course for the treatment of, and diseases prevention is in possible trouble.
(15), catch button crab: at the beginning of by the end of September to 10 month, be the button crab trapping period before paddy rice harvesting, utilize row irrigation to hocket, form current, induction button crab enters Dai Bu district.After button crab catches, can gather in paddy rice.
The method of the paddy field aquaculture button crab of the present embodiment has advantages of following:
(1) the present invention has adopted the Planting Patterns of large-ridge double-row, and compared with the Planting Patterns in conventional rice field, marginal effect embodies more obvious, has increased the ventilation and penetrating light of paddy rice, reduces the generation of disease; The activity space of river crab strengthens, and is conducive to river crab growth.
(2) adopt circular groove design in periphery, rice field, be convenient to the aquaculture management of river crab.
(3) raising crabs in paddy field can effectively be controlled the harm of rice field pest, and the rice grubs such as wriggler, rice-stem borer, rice fulgorid, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel are had to fabulous inhibitory action.
(4) the whole manure uses in rice field, refusal uses chemical fertilizer, has reduced the discharge of nitrogen phosphorus; Use biopesticide simultaneously, reduced residue of pesticide, reduce the pollution to water body, make the paddy rice producing become real green agricultural product, promote increasing production of rice, realize increasing peasant income.
(5) raising crabs in paddy field solves rice cultivation weeding problem.River crab is put into the weeds that constantly ingest behind rice field, eliminates weeds in field in the situation that not using weed killer herbicide, and the river crab soil that loosened in process of searching for food, keeps soil from packing together.By the long-term intertillage effect of river crab, increase soil aeration, improve soil environment, strengthen respiration, reduce the harm of noxious material, be beneficial to Root Growth of Rice, be beneficial to the absorption of root system to mineral matter, promote growing of root system.
(6) paddy rice obtains the organic manure of a large amount of effluent crabs excretion within vegetative period, and river crab in rice field taking aquatic animals and plants as bait, so greatly save throw something and feed cost and field management cost.
(7) the peripheral plantation soybean in rice field, has reasonably utilized space, land resources and water resource, has realized the solid in rice field and has produced;
(8) in circular groove, plant waterweed, make full use of the space environment in rice field, increase paddyfield water dissolved oxygen, more detain crab shade place and natural bait are provided.
(9) input-output ratio that the input and output that the present embodiment is supported crab rice field compare conventional Rice field is high; Only catch the average 8.3g/ of button crab in time, average 60 kgs/acre, and the method for paddy field aquaculture button crab adopting due to the present embodiment, for the stereo ecological breeding pattern of paddy rice, button crab, soybean and waterweed quaternity, the crab obtaining is ecological crab, and soybean average yield per mu is 300 kgs/acre, and paddy rice average yield per mu is 705, therefore detain crab, soybean and paddy rice and have a good harvest more, comprehensive benefit is fine.
Embodiment 2
During 2006~2009 year 5~October, carried out raising crabs in paddy field demonstration area implements in bridge wall town, Panjin City Panshan County, Liaoning Province, adopt the method step of embodiment 1, carry out paddy field aquaculture button crab at raising crabs in paddy field Demonstration Base, rice paddy seed is light paddy rice more, and selects to start at the beginning of 6 months the neat button crab of stocking size, average 0.25g/ only, 1.2 ten thousand/mu, the average 8.3g/ of result initial acquisition in October button crab, average 60 kgs/acre; Rice yield is average 700-750 kg/acre, as shown in table 1.
Table 1
As can be known from Table 1: the input-output ratio of supporting crab rice field and conventional rice field is respectively: 1: 2.48 and 1: 1.91; The average 8.3g/ of button crab only, average 60 kgs/acre, and the method for paddy field aquaculture button crab adopting due to the present embodiment, for the stereo ecological breeding pattern of paddy rice, button crab, soybean and waterweed quaternity, the crab obtaining is ecological crab, and soybean average yield per mu is 300 kgs/acre, and paddy rice average yield per mu is 703 kgs/acre, therefore detain crab, soybean and paddy rice and have a good harvest more, comprehensive benefit is fine.
Embodiment 3
The method of the paddy field aquaculture button crab of the present embodiment is:
(1), rice field selects: support crab rice field and should be selected near water source, water quality is good, pollution-free, irrigation and drainage convenient, water holding capacity and fertilizer conservation performance is strong, be not submerged flood season, larger low-lying, the shoal of area in flakes.
(2), the selection of rice paddy seed: rice paddy seed should be selected the kind of disease and insect resistance, resistant to lodging, Salt And Alkali Tolerance, resistance to fertility, good quality and high output, selects rich No. 47 rice varieties of salt.
(3), megalops larva is selected: ship the button crab young from hatchery, first be placed in a side crab ditch of supporting temporarily field, salt adding regulates crab ditch water salinity in advance, makes salinity remain on 5-7, megalops larva enters the salt reduction degree to 1 that starts to pour water after 2 hours after storage pond, holding pond, the halogen worm of throwing something and feeding.
(4), the Planting Patterns of paddy rice: before rice transplanting, " day " font crab ditch that 40cm is dark, 60cm is wide is dug out in rice field, and the outer circular groove of day font crab ditch is apart from ridge 40cm, and then rice transplanting, adopt " large-ridge double-row, limit row are encrypted " Planting Patterns, be that the control of micro-ridge line-spacing is 20 ± 3cm, large ridge line-spacing control is 40 ± 3cm, is beneficial to rice shoot ventilation, printing opacity and the activity of button crab.It is less that Cultivation Techniques of Big Ridge Double Line can solve paddy rice seeding row spacing effectively, causes sealing ridge early, and later stage ventilation and penetrating light is bad, and bottom leaf is withered early causes the problems such as paddy rice early ageing, dry-matter accumulation are obstructed, thereby improves light energy of rice availability.
(5), the fertilization mode of paddy rice: before raking the soil level in rice field, the disposable biological bacteria fertilizer that applies is base fertilizer, 1050 kilograms/hm of fertilising 2.
(6), culvert system: support on the ridge in relative two jiaos of Wa rice field, position of crab rice field drainage mouth, drainage mouth is communicated with irrigation and drainage channels, circular groove, can make like this current in whole rice field unobstructed.
(7), the anti-facility of escaping: construct the anti-wall of escaping of river crab at rice field surrounding plastic film, with the plastic film of 0.1mm as body of wall, be buried in the earth 10cm, make the anti-high 60cm of wall that escapes of acrial part, outside adds iron wire with bamboo bar and fixes, body of wall angle inwardly slightly tilt, four jiaos surround one circular-arc.
(9) waterweed: after rice transplanting, in circular groove, plant waterweed, while planting, make full use of waterweed point evil, feature that regeneration capacity is strong, first waterweed plant is divided into the joint of 10cm left and right, directly insert in people's mud one, the equidistant 40 × 40cm of row strain while planting with hand.The northern area waterweed growth most productive period is the 5-7 month, and in order to improve waterweed survival rate, crab kind should first be supported the time at storage pond, holding pond temporarily, and waterweed arrives the growth most productive period by the time, then puts people wherein.The existence of waterweed, can not only increase paddyfield water dissolved oxygen, keeps water body in circular groove to stablize, and still detains the agreeable to the taste bait of crab.
(9), lamp wipes out the flies and mosquitoes: in rice field surrounding, the lamp that wipes out the flies and mosquitoes is installed, is installed one for every 5 mu, for trapping and killing the distribution of rice pest and prediction insect.
(10), put in a suitable place to breed: at the beginning of annual 7 months, button crab enters land for growing field crops in good time.Before putting in a suitable place to breed, first in large area rice field, put into Xin Shui, and then put button crab in a suitable place to breed large Tanaka.
(11) stereo ecological breeding: the stereo ecological breeding pattern of paddy rice, river crab, soybean and waterweed quaternity, wherein soybean is planted on the ridge of paddy rice.
(12), the button crab management of throwing something and feeding: feedstuff feeding will be conducive to harmonious ecotope in the living environment of river crab and paddy rice and rice field, fixes a point every day, the bait of regularly throwing something and feeding one time, and feeding volume is to put 5% of river crab TBW in a suitable place to breed, the pellet of throwing something and feeding.To mid-September, should stop to feed pellet mid-August, changes green fodders such as throwing pasture and water, and the natural bait especially of the waterweed in circular groove, with this anti-clamping crab sex premature and control button crab sex premature ratio.
(13), daily management: accomplish " two patrol ", " three is anti-", " four examine "." two patrol " morning, evening will patrol field: have every day special messenger to patrol field 2 times, especially, at bad weathers such as morning, evening, night and overcast and rainy strong wind, more will conscientiously carefully patrol field, observe change of water quality, river crab growth and the situation of ingesting, the solution in time of pinpointing the problems in time simultaneously." three is anti-" is anti-harmful animal, bilge water resisting, anti-theft.The invasion and attack of anti-harmful organisms: one prevents escaping crab; Two anti-water snakes, frog, toad; Three rat preservatives; Four will drive aquatic bird in time, think that detaining crab creates suitable growing environment.Bilge water resisting enters rice field and affects the growth of river crab, simultaneously will anti-clamping crab stolen." four examine " is to examine to prevent that escaping facility has or not breakage, and pinpoint the problems is to solve; Two examine and have or not residual bait, note observing river crab food situation, with the daily ration, feeding quantity of fixing time; Three examine change of water quality, change the water time, can flexible modulation, meanwhile, note listening to weather forecast; Four examine river crab growing way, have disease-freely, have or not harmful animal, clear up in time crab shell, dead crab, crab shell size is measured.Raising crabs in paddy field disease is relied mainly on prevention, control combination, the quicklime of splashing one time for general 20 days, 12 kilograms of each every mu of consumptions.
Water quality should meet GB-11607-89 standard, and pH value is controlled as between 8.0-9.0.
(14), disease prevention and cure: put in a suitable place to breed and frontly level sterilization to supporting crab rice field and storage pond, holding pond.18g/m when crab kind is put in a suitable place to breed 3potassium permanganate dipping bath 10min, put rear regularly (20 days once) in a suitable place to breed and spill quicklime to crab ditch, the pharmaceutical chemistry of regularly throwing something and feeding is for being mixed with pharmaceutical chemistry with sulphoamidine and feed at the beginning of 7 months and at the beginning of 9 months, the every 10kg river crab of first day medication 1.2g, in second-six days, the dose of every day reduces by half, 6 days is a course for the treatment of, and diseases prevention is in possible trouble.
(15), catch button crab: at the beginning of by the end of September to 10 month, be the button crab trapping period before paddy rice harvesting, utilize row irrigation to hocket, form current, induction button crab enters Dai Bu district.After button crab catches, can gather in paddy rice.
The method of the paddy field aquaculture button crab of the present embodiment has advantages of following:
(1) the present invention has adopted the Planting Patterns of large-ridge double-row, and compared with the Planting Patterns in conventional rice field, marginal effect embodies more obvious, has increased the ventilation and penetrating light of paddy rice, reduces the generation of disease; The activity space of river crab strengthens, and is conducive to river crab growth.
(2) adopt circular groove design in periphery, rice field, be convenient to the aquaculture management of river crab.
(3) raising crabs in paddy field can effectively be controlled the harm of rice field pest, and the rice grubs such as wriggler, rice-stem borer, rice fulgorid, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel are had to fabulous inhibitory action.
(4) the whole manure uses in rice field, refusal uses chemical fertilizer, has reduced the discharge of nitrogen phosphorus; Use biopesticide simultaneously, reduced residue of pesticide, reduce the pollution to water body, make the paddy rice producing become real green agricultural product, promote increasing production of rice, realize increasing peasant income.
(5) raising crabs in paddy field solves rice cultivation weeding problem.River crab is put into the weeds that constantly ingest behind rice field, eliminates weeds in field in the situation that not using weed killer herbicide, and the river crab soil that loosened in process of searching for food, keeps soil from packing together.By the long-term intertillage effect of river crab, increase soil aeration, improve soil environment, strengthen respiration, reduce the harm of noxious material, be beneficial to Root Growth of Rice, be beneficial to the absorption of root system to mineral matter, promote growing of root system.
(6) paddy rice obtains the organic manure of a large amount of effluent crabs excretion within vegetative period, and river crab in rice field taking aquatic animals and plants as bait, so greatly save throw something and feed cost and field management cost.
(7) the peripheral plantation soybean in rice field, has reasonably utilized space, land resources and water resource, has realized the solid in rice field and has produced;
(8) in circular groove, plant waterweed, make full use of the space environment in rice field, increase paddyfield water dissolved oxygen, more detain crab shade place and natural bait are provided.
(9) to compare the input-output ratio in conventional Rice field high in the input and output in the foster crab rice field of the present embodiment; The present embodiment is caught the average 8.5g/ of button crab of time, average 61 kgs/acre, and the method for paddy field aquaculture button crab adopting due to the present embodiment, for the stereo ecological breeding pattern of paddy rice, button crab, soybean and waterweed quaternity, the crab obtaining is ecological crab, and soybean average yield per mu is that 300 kgs/acre of paddy rice average yield per mus are 710 kgs/acre, therefore detains crab, soybean and paddy rice and has a good harvest more, and comprehensive benefit is fine.
Embodiment 4
The method of the paddy field aquaculture button crab of the present embodiment is:
(1), rice field selects: support crab rice field and should be selected near water source, water quality is good, pollution-free, irrigation and drainage convenient, water holding capacity and fertilizer conservation performance is strong, be not submerged flood season, larger low-lying, the shoal of area in flakes.
(2), the selection of rice paddy seed: rice paddy seed should be selected the kind of disease and insect resistance, resistant to lodging, Salt And Alkali Tolerance, resistance to fertility, good quality and high output, selects No. 43 rice varieties of peaceful round-grained rice.
(3), megalops larva is selected: ship the button crab young from hatchery, first be placed in a side crab ditch of supporting temporarily field, salt adding regulates crab ditch water salinity in advance, makes salinity remain on 6-7, megalops larva enters the salt reduction degree 2 that starts to pour water after 2.5 hours after storage pond, holding pond, the halogen worm of throwing something and feeding.
(4), the Planting Patterns of paddy rice: before rice transplanting, the annular crab ditch that 60cm is dark, 80cm is wide is dug out in rice field, and crab ditch is apart from ridge 60cm, and then rice transplanting, adopt " large-ridge double-row, limit row are encrypted " Planting Patterns, be that the control of micro-ridge line-spacing is 20 ± 3cm, large ridge line-spacing control is 40 ± 3cm, is beneficial to rice shoot ventilation, printing opacity and the activity of button crab.It is less that Cultivation Techniques of Big Ridge Double Line can solve paddy rice seeding row spacing effectively, causes sealing ridge early, and later stage ventilation and penetrating light is bad, and bottom leaf is withered early causes the problems such as paddy rice early ageing, dry-matter accumulation are obstructed, thereby improves light energy of rice availability.
(5), the fertilization mode of paddy rice: before raking the soil level in rice field, the disposable biological bacteria fertilizer that applies is base fertilizer, 975 kilograms/hm of fertilising 2.
(6), culvert system: support on the ridge in relative two jiaos of Wa rice field, position of crab rice field drainage mouth, drainage mouth is communicated with irrigation and drainage channels, circular groove, can make like this current in whole rice field unobstructed.
(7), the anti-facility of escaping: construct the anti-wall of escaping of river crab at rice field surrounding plastic film, with the plastic film of 0.08mm as body of wall, be buried in the earth 10cm, make the anti-high 50cm of wall that escapes of acrial part, outside adds iron wire with bamboo bar and fixes, body of wall angle inwardly slightly tilt, four jiaos surround one circular-arc.
(9) waterweed: after rice transplanting, in circular groove, plant waterweed, while planting, make full use of waterweed point evil, feature that regeneration capacity is strong, first waterweed plant is divided into the joint of 10cm left and right, directly insert in people's mud one, the equidistant 40 × 40cm of row strain while planting with hand.The northern area waterweed growth most productive period is the 5-7 month, and in order to improve waterweed survival rate, crab kind should first be supported the time at storage pond, holding pond temporarily, and waterweed arrives the growth most productive period by the time, then puts people wherein.The existence of waterweed, can not only increase paddyfield water dissolved oxygen, keeps water body in circular groove to stablize, and still detains the agreeable to the taste bait of crab.
(9), lamp wipes out the flies and mosquitoes: in rice field surrounding, the lamp that wipes out the flies and mosquitoes is installed, is installed one for every 3 mu, for trapping and killing the distribution of rice pest and prediction insect.
(10), put in a suitable place to breed: at the beginning of annual 7 months, button crab enters land for growing field crops in good time.Before putting in a suitable place to breed, first in large area rice field, put into Xin Shui, and then put button crab in a suitable place to breed large Tanaka.
(11) stereo ecological breeding: the stereo ecological breeding pattern of paddy rice, river crab, soybean and waterweed quaternity, wherein soybean is planted on the ridge of paddy rice.
(12), the button crab management of throwing something and feeding: feedstuff feeding will be conducive to harmonious ecotope in the living environment of river crab and paddy rice and rice field, fixes a point every day, the bait of regularly throwing something and feeding one time, and feeding volume is to put 4% of river crab TBW in a suitable place to breed, the pellet of throwing something and feeding.To mid-September, should stop to feed pellet mid-August, changes green fodders such as throwing pasture and water, and the natural bait especially of the waterweed in circular groove, with this anti-clamping crab sex premature and control button crab sex premature ratio.
(13), daily management: accomplish " two patrol ", " three is anti-", " four examine "." two patrol " morning, evening will patrol field: have every day special messenger to patrol field 2 times, especially, at bad weathers such as morning, evening, night and overcast and rainy strong wind, more will conscientiously carefully patrol field, observe change of water quality, river crab growth and the situation of ingesting, the solution in time of pinpointing the problems in time simultaneously." three is anti-" is anti-harmful animal, bilge water resisting, anti-theft.The invasion and attack of anti-harmful organisms: one prevents escaping crab; Two anti-water snakes, frog, toad; Three rat preservatives; Four will drive aquatic bird in time, think that detaining crab creates suitable growing environment.Bilge water resisting enters rice field and affects the growth of river crab, simultaneously will anti-clamping crab stolen." four examine " is to examine to prevent that escaping facility has or not breakage, and pinpoint the problems is to solve; Two examine and have or not residual bait, note observing river crab food situation, with the daily ration, feeding quantity of fixing time; Three examine change of water quality, change the water time, can flexible modulation, meanwhile, note listening to weather forecast; Four examine river crab growing way, have disease-freely, have or not harmful animal, clear up in time crab shell, dead crab, crab shell size is measured.Raising crabs in paddy field disease is relied mainly on prevention, control combination, the general two weeks quicklime of splashing one time, 15 kilograms of each every mu of consumptions.
Water quality should meet GB-11607-89 standard, and pH value is controlled as between 8.0-9.9.
(14), disease prevention and cure: put in a suitable place to breed and frontly level sterilization to supporting crab rice field and storage pond, holding pond.23g/m when crab kind is put in a suitable place to breed 3potassium permanganate dipping bath 5min, put rear regularly (two weeks once) in a suitable place to breed and spill quicklime to crab ditch, the pharmaceutical chemistry of regularly throwing something and feeding is for being mixed with pharmaceutical chemistry with sulphoamidine and feed at the beginning of 7 months and at the beginning of 9 months, the every 10kg river crab of first day medication 1g, in second-six days, the dose of every day reduces by half, 6 days is a course for the treatment of, and diseases prevention is in possible trouble.
(15), catch button crab: at the beginning of by the end of September to 10 month, be the button crab trapping period before paddy rice harvesting, utilize row irrigation to hocket, form current, induction button crab enters Dai Bu district.After button crab catches, can gather in paddy rice.
The method of the paddy field aquaculture button crab of the present embodiment has advantages of following:
(1) the present invention has adopted the Planting Patterns of large-ridge double-row, and compared with the Planting Patterns in conventional rice field, marginal effect embodies more obvious, has increased the ventilation and penetrating light of paddy rice, reduces the generation of disease; The activity space of river crab strengthens, and is conducive to river crab growth.
(2) adopt circular groove design in periphery, rice field, be convenient to the aquaculture management of river crab.
(3) raising crabs in paddy field can effectively be controlled the harm of rice field pest, and the rice grubs such as wriggler, rice-stem borer, rice fulgorid, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel are had to fabulous inhibitory action.
(4) the whole manure uses in rice field, refusal uses chemical fertilizer, has reduced the discharge of nitrogen phosphorus; Use biopesticide simultaneously, reduced residue of pesticide, reduce the pollution to water body, make the paddy rice producing become real green agricultural product, promote increasing production of rice, realize increasing peasant income.
(5) raising crabs in paddy field solves rice cultivation weeding problem.River crab is put into the weeds that constantly ingest behind rice field, eliminates weeds in field in the situation that not using weed killer herbicide, and the river crab soil that loosened in process of searching for food, keeps soil from packing together.By the long-term intertillage effect of river crab, increase soil aeration, improve soil environment, strengthen respiration, reduce the harm of noxious material, be beneficial to Root Growth of Rice, be beneficial to the absorption of root system to mineral matter, promote growing of root system.
(6) paddy rice obtains the organic manure of a large amount of effluent crabs excretion within vegetative period, and river crab in rice field taking aquatic animals and plants as bait, so greatly save throw something and feed cost and field management cost.
(7) the peripheral plantation soybean in rice field, has reasonably utilized space, land resources and water resource, has realized the solid in rice field and has produced;
(8) in circular groove, plant waterweed, make full use of the space environment in rice field, increase paddyfield water dissolved oxygen, more detain crab shade place and natural bait are provided.
(9) input-output ratio that the input and output that the present embodiment is supported crab rice field compare conventional Rice field is high; Only catch the average 9.0g/ of button crab in time, average 65 kgs/acre, and the method for paddy field aquaculture button crab adopting due to the present embodiment, for the stereo ecological breeding pattern of paddy rice, button crab, soybean and waterweed quaternity, the crab obtaining is ecological crab, and soybean average yield per mu is 300 kgs/acre, and paddy rice average yield per mu is 740 kgs/acre, therefore detain crab, soybean and paddy rice and have a good harvest more, comprehensive benefit is fine.

Claims (5)

1. a method for paddy field aquaculture button crab, the stereo ecological breeding pattern of adopt paddy rice, detaining crab, soybean and waterweed quaternity, comprises the steps:
(1), select the rice field of cultivation button crab;
(2), select the button crab young and support temporarily; The described button crab young temporarily foster water salinity remains on 5-7, supports temporarily and afterwards reduces water salinity to 1-2 at least 2 hours;
(3), Paddy fields: described rice field is the disposable base fertilizer that applies before raking the soil level; Described base fertilizer is biological bacteria fertilizer, and every mu is applied fertilizer 60~70 kilograms;
(4), in rice field, dig crab ditch and culvert system: before rice seedling is transplanted, dig out annular crab ditch or day font crab ditch of dark 40-60cm, wide 60-80cm in the surrounding in rice field and the ridge in rice field, described soybean planting is on the ridge in rice field;
(5), plant paddy rice: the plantation pattern transplanting seedlings of planting employing large-ridge double-row of described paddy rice;
(6), plantation waterweed: after rice seedling is transplanted, plant waterweed in described annular crab ditch or day font crab ditch, described waterweed is selected in plantation in summer, and the plant of described waterweed adopts the equidistant cropping pattern of row strain;
(7), support the sterilization of leveling of crab rice field and the button crab young: before putting the button crab young in a suitable place to breed, level sterilization to supporting crab rice field with the button crab young respectively;
(8), put in a suitable place to breed: the button crab young of leveling sterilization is put into the foster crab rice field of leveling after sterilization and cultivate in good time; The described button crab young is put rear quicklime the pharmaceutical chemistry of regularly throwing something and feeding of regularly spilling in a suitable place to breed; The described quicklime that regularly spills is that every two weeks to month spills quicklime one time to the crab ditch in rice field, described in spill quicklime amount be each every mu of 10-15 kilogram; The described pharmaceutical chemistry of regularly throwing something and feeding is at the beginning of 7 months and all throw in continuously 6 days pharmaceutical chemistry at the beginning of 9 months, and the dosage of the every 10kg button of first day crab is 1-1.2g, and in second to the 6th day, the dosage of every day is the half of first day;
(9), detain throwing something and feeding and gathering of crab: throw something and feed and gather according to the growing state of button crab; Throwing something and feeding as every day fixed point, the timing bait of throwing something and feeding one time of described button crab, feeding volume is the 3%-5% of button crab TBW while putting in a suitable place to breed, the pellet of throwing something and feeding, to mid-September, should stop to feed pellet mid-August, changes throwing green fodder.
2. the method for paddy field aquaculture button crab as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, in step (2), the field that the described button crab young is temporarily foster or storage pond, holding pond are first leveled sterilization putting into before the button crab young.
3. the method for paddy field aquaculture button crab as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, in step (4), the outer ring ditch of described annular crab ditch and day font crab ditch is all apart from ridge 40~60cm place; Described culvert system on the ridge in relative two jiaos of the Wa rice field, position of ridge water inlet and discharge outlet.
4. the method for paddy field aquaculture button crab as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, in step (5), the micro-ridge line-spacing control of described large-ridge double-row is 17-23cm, and large ridge line-spacing control is 37-43cm.
5. the method for paddy field aquaculture button crab as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, in step (7), the described button crab young is put front employing 18-23g/m in a suitable place to breed 3potassium permanganate dipping bath 5~10min.
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CN103719003B (en) * 2013-12-25 2016-03-23 靳职雄 The cultural method of a kind of river crab
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