ES2396985T3 - Floor covering system comprising floor boards that can be mechanically joined - Google Patents

Floor covering system comprising floor boards that can be mechanically joined Download PDF

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Publication number
ES2396985T3
ES2396985T3 ES07150247T ES07150247T ES2396985T3 ES 2396985 T3 ES2396985 T3 ES 2396985T3 ES 07150247 T ES07150247 T ES 07150247T ES 07150247 T ES07150247 T ES 07150247T ES 2396985 T3 ES2396985 T3 ES 2396985T3
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Prior art keywords
tongue
floor
surface
plane
fixing
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ES07150247T
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Spanish (es)
Inventor
Darko Pervan
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Valinge Innovation AB
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Valinge Innovation AB
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Priority to SE0100100 priority Critical
Priority to SE0100101 priority
Priority to SE0100100A priority patent/SE523823C2/en
Priority to SE0100101A priority patent/SE519768C2/en
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Publication of ES2396985T3 publication Critical patent/ES2396985T3/en
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Classifications

    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F15/00Flooring
    • E04F15/02Flooring or floor layers composed of a number of similar elements
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F15/00Flooring
    • E04F15/02Flooring or floor layers composed of a number of similar elements
    • E04F15/04Flooring or floor layers composed of a number of similar elements only of wood or with a top layer of wood, e.g. with wooden or metal connecting members
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F2201/00Joining sheets or plates or panels
    • E04F2201/01Joining sheets, plates or panels with edges in abutting relationship
    • E04F2201/0107Joining sheets, plates or panels with edges in abutting relationship by moving the sheets, plates or panels substantially in their own plane, perpendicular to the abutting edges
    • E04F2201/0115Joining sheets, plates or panels with edges in abutting relationship by moving the sheets, plates or panels substantially in their own plane, perpendicular to the abutting edges with snap action of the edge connectors
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F2201/00Joining sheets or plates or panels
    • E04F2201/01Joining sheets, plates or panels with edges in abutting relationship
    • E04F2201/0153Joining sheets, plates or panels with edges in abutting relationship by rotating the sheets, plates or panels around an axis which is parallel to the abutting edges, possibly combined with a sliding movement
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F2201/00Joining sheets or plates or panels
    • E04F2201/02Non-undercut connections, e.g. tongue and groove connections
    • E04F2201/023Non-undercut connections, e.g. tongue and groove connections with a continuous tongue or groove
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F2201/00Joining sheets or plates or panels
    • E04F2201/02Non-undercut connections, e.g. tongue and groove connections
    • E04F2201/025Non-undercut connections, e.g. tongue and groove connections with tongue and grooves alternating transversally in the direction of the thickness of the panel, e.g. multiple tongue and grooves oriented parallel to each other
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F2201/00Joining sheets or plates or panels
    • E04F2201/04Other details of tongues or grooves
    • E04F2201/041Tongues or grooves with slits or cuts for expansion or flexibility
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F2201/00Joining sheets or plates or panels
    • E04F2201/04Other details of tongues or grooves
    • E04F2201/042Other details of tongues or grooves with grooves positioned on the rear-side of the panel
    • EFIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
    • E04BUILDING
    • E04FFINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
    • E04F2201/00Joining sheets or plates or panels
    • E04F2201/05Separate connectors or inserts, e.g. pegs, pins, keys or strips
    • E04F2201/0517U- or C-shaped brackets and clamps

Abstract

A floor covering system comprising a plurality of floor boards (1, 1 '), which can be mechanically joined in a joint plane (VP), each of said floor boards (1, 1') having a core (30), a ladofrontal (2, 32), a rear side (34) and opposite joint edge portions (4a, 4b), of which one (4a) is formed as a tongue and groove (36) that is defined by flanges upper and lower (39, 40) and has a low end (48), and the other (4b) is formed as a tongue (38) with an upwardly directed portion (8) at its free outer end, having the tongue and groove (36) ), seen from the joint plane (VP), the shape of a guide groove (36) with an opening, an internal portion (35) and an internal fixing surface (45), and at least parts of the lower flange ( 40) formed integrally with the core (30) of the floor board, and extending the bottom flange (40) to the joint plane (VP), having the tongue to (38) a fixing surface (65) that is formed to co-act with the flashlight fixing surface (45) in the tongue and groove (36) of an adjacent floor board, when two such floor boards (1,1 ' ) are mechanically attached, so that their front sides (4a, 4b) are located in the same surface plane (HP) and are located in the joint plane (VP) directed perpendicular to it, the internal fixing surface (45 ) of the tongue and groove (36) is formed in the upper flange (39) inside the guide portion (35) of the tongue and groove to co-act with the corresponding fixing surface (65) of the tongue (38), fixing surface that is formed in the upwardly directed portion (8) of the tongue (38) to counteract the separation of two mechanically joined boards in a direction (D2) perpendicular to the joint plane (VP), the bottom flange (40) has a support surface (50) ) to coerce with a surface ie corresponding support (71) on the tongue (38) at a distance from the low end (48) of the guide groove, and the upper flange (39) has a support surface (43) to co-act with a corresponding support surface (64) on the tongue (38), said support surfaces are intended to co-act to counteract a relative displacement of two mechanically bonded boards in a direction (D1) perpendicular to the surface plane (HP), each of the opposite joint edge portions (4a, 4b) has an upper joint edge portion (41, 61) for coercing together at least a portion of the joint plane (VP), all parts of the portions of the lower flange (40) that they are connected to the core, seen from the point (C) where the surface plane (HP) and the joint plane (VP) intersect, are located outside a plane (LP2) that is located farther from that point than a fixing plane (LP1) that is parallel or to the same and that it is tangent to the fixing surfaces that co-act (45, 65) of the tongue and groove (36) and the tongue (38) where said defixing surfaces are more inclined in relation to the surface plane (HP), and the flanges upper (39) and lower (40) and the tongue (38) of the joining edge portions (4a, 4b) are designed to allow the disconnection of two floor boards mechanically joined by the upward rotation of a floorboard with respect to to the other around a center of rotation (C) near a point of intersection between the surface plane (HP) and the joint plane (VP) for disconnecting the tongue (38) from a floor board (1 ') and the tongue and groove (36) of the other floor board (1), and characterized in that the tongue and groove (36) and the tongue (38) are configured to obtain a space in the groove (36) beyond and along the entire extension of the outer end (69) of the tongue (38), and because, when two Adjacent floor boards are mechanically joined, they only engage the following surfaces: the fixing surface (65) of the tongue (38) meshes on the internal fixing surface (45) in the tongue and groove (36), the supporting surfaces (64 , 71) of the tongue (38) meshes on the support surfaces (43, 50) of the lower and upper flanges (39, 40), and the upper joining edge surfaces (41, 61) mesh with each other.

Description

Floor covering system comprising floor boards that can be mechanically joined

The present invention relates to a floor covering system.

Technical field

The invention is particularly suitable for floor boards that are based on wood material and in normal cases have a wood core and are intended to be mechanically joined. The following description of the prior art and the objects and features of the invention will therefore be directed to this field of application and, above all, to rectangular parquet floors that are joined by the long sides as well as by the short sides. The invention is particularly suitable for floating floors, that is, floors that can be moved relative to the base. However, it should be noted that the invention can be used in all types of existing hard floors, such as homogeneous wooden floors, wooden floors with a laminar core

or plywood core, floors with a wood veneer surface and a wood fiber core, thin plank floors, floors with a plastic core and the like. The invention, of course, can also be used in other types of floor boards that can be worked with cutting tools, such as plywood subfloors or particle board. Although not preferred, floor boards can be fixed to the base after installation.

Technical background of the invention

The mechanical unions have achieved in a short space of time large market shares due

25 mainly to its superior placement properties, strength of joints and quality of joints. Although the soil according to WO 9426999 as described in more detail below and the soil sold under the Alloc © brand have great advantages compared to traditional glued soils, it is desired however that there are other improvements.

Mechanical joining systems are very convenient for joining not only plank floors, but also wooden floors and composite floors. Such floor boards can consist of a large number of different materials on the surface, the core and the back side. As will be described below, these materials can also be included in the different parts of the joining system, such as table, fixing element and tongue. A solution involving an integrated table that is formed according to, for example, WO 9426999 or WO

9747834 and which provides the horizontal joint and also which implies a tongue that provides the vertical joint, however, results in costs in the form of loss of material in connection with the formation of the mechanical joint when working the board material.

For optimal operation, for example a 15 mm thick parquet floor should have a board with a width that is approximately equal to the thickness of the floor, that is, around 15 mm. With a tongue of approximately 3 mm, the amount of loss will be 18 mm. The floor board has a normal width of approximately 200 mm. Therefore, the amount of material loss will be approximately 9%. In general, the cost of material loss will be considerable if the floorboards are made up of expensive materials, if they are thick or if their format is reduced, so that the number of meters followed by joining by

45 square meter of soil will be large.

Certainly, the amount of material loss can be reduced if a table in the form of a separately manufactured aluminum board that is already fixed to the floor board in the factory is used. In addition, the aluminum board can, in a number of applications, result in a better and also cheaper joining system than a worked and formed board from the core. However, the aluminum table is disadvantageous since the investment cost can be considerable and extensive factory reconstruction may be necessary to convert an existing traditional production line, so that the floor boards can be produced with such a system. of mechanical union. An advantage of the prior art aluminum board is, however, that the initial format of the floorboards does not need to be modified.

55 When a table produced by the work of the floor board material is involved, the opposite is the case. Therefore, the format of the floor boards can be adjusted so that there is sufficient material to form the board and the tongue. For plank floors, it is often necessary to also change the width of the decorative paper used. All these adjustments and changes also require costly modifications of the production equipment and great adaptations of the product.

In addition to the preceding problems related to the undesirable loss of materials and costs of production and adaptation of the product, the table has disadvantages in that it is very sensitive to damage during transport and installation.

65 In summary, there is a great need to provide a mechanical joint at a lower production cost while, at the same time, the objective is to maintain the present excellent properties in terms of placement, tension, quality and strength of the joint . With the prior art solutions, it is not possible to obtain a low cost without also having to reduce the standards of resistance and / or placement function. An object of the invention, therefore, is to indicate solutions to reduce the cost while retaining at the same time the

5 resistance and functionality.

The invention starts from known floor boards having a core, a front side, a back side and opposite joint edge portions, of which one is formed as a tongue and groove defined by upper and lower flanges and with a low end and the another is formed as a tongue with an upwardly directed portion at its free outer end. The tongue and groove is in the form of a guide groove with an opening, an internal portion and an internal fixing surface. At least parts of the bottom flange are formed integrally with the core of the floor board and the tongue has a fixing surface face that is designed to co-act with the internal fixing surface in the tongue and groove of an adjacent floor board, when two boards Soils of this type are mechanically joined, so that their front sides are

15 located in the same surface plane (HP) and are in a joint plane (VP) directed perpendicular to it. This technique is disclosed in, among others, document DE-A-3041781, which will be discussed in more detail below.

Before that, however, the general technique relating to floorboards and fixing systems for the mechanical fixing of floorboards will be described as an antecedent of the present invention.

Description of the prior art

To facilitate the understanding and description of the present invention as well as the knowledge of the problems

25 which presents the invention, a description of the basic construction and operation of the floorboards according to WO 9426999 and WO 9966151, with reference to Figures 1 to 17 in the accompanying drawings. In applicable parts, the following description of the prior art also applies to the embodiments of the present invention as described below.

Figures 3a and 3b show a floor board 1 according to WO 9426999 from above and below, respectively. The board 1 is rectangular with an upper side 2, a lower side 3, two opposite long sides with joining edge portions 4a and 4b, and two opposite short sides with joining edge portions 5a and 5b.

The joining edge portions 4a and 4b of the long sides as well as the joining edge portions 5a, 5b of the

35 short sides can be mechanically joined without glue in a direction D2 in Figure 1c, so that they are in a VP joint plane (marked in Figure 2c) and so that they are, in their placement state, their upper sides in a common surface plane HP (marked in Figure 2c).

In the embodiment shown, which is an example of floor boards according to WO 9426999 (Figures 1 to 3 in the accompanying drawings), the board 1 has a factory-mounted flat board 6 that extends throughout the long side 4a and which is made of a flexible and elastic aluminum foil. Table 6 extends outwardly beyond the joint plane VP in the joint edge portion 4a. Table 6 can be mechanically joined according to the embodiment shown or also with glue or in any other way. As specified in these documents, it is possible to use as a material for a table attached to the board

In the factory there are also other table materials, such as a sheet of any other metal, aluminum or plastic sections. Also as specified in WO 9426999 and as described and shown in WO 9966151, table 6 may, instead of the above, be formed entirely with board 1, for example by proper working of the board core one.

The present invention can be used for floor boards in which the board or at least part of it is formed entirely with the core, and the invention solves special problems that arise in such floor boards and the production thereof. The floor board core does not need, but is preferable, to be made of a uniform material. Table 6, however, is always integrated with board 1, that is, it should be formed on the board or factory assembled.

In known embodiments according to the aforementioned documents WO 9426999 and WO 9966151, the width of table 6 may be approximately 30 mm and the thickness approximately 0.5 mm.

A similar but shorter table 6 'is arranged along a short side 5a of the board 1. The part of the table 6 that projects beyond the joint plane VP is formed of a fixing element 8 which extends to along the entire table 6. The fixing element 8 has in its lower part an operative fixing surface 10 in front of the joint plane VP and with a height of, for example, 0.5 mm. When extended, this fixing surface 10 co-acts with a fixing groove 14 which is made on the lower side 3 of the joining edge portion 4b of the opposite long side of an adjacent board 1 ’. Table 6 ’along the short side is provided with a corresponding fixing element 8’ and the joining edge portion 5b of the opposite short side has a corresponding fixing slot 14 ’. The edge of the fixing grooves 14, 14 ’, facing the joint plane VP forms a surface of

operative fixing 10 ’to co-operate with the operative fixing surface 10 of the fixing element.

To mechanically join the long sides and the short sides also in the vertical direction (direction D1 in Figure 1c), the board 1 is also along its only long side (joining edge portion 4a) and its only side

5 short (joining edge portion 5a) formed of a laterally open or tongue and groove hollow 16. This is defined upwardly by an upper flange in the joining edge portion 4a, 5a and downwards by the respective tables 6, 6 ' . In the opposite edge portions 4b, 5b, there is an upper recess 18 defining a fixing tab 20 that co-acts with the recess or tongue and groove 16 (see Figure 2a).

Figures 1a to 1c show how two long sides 4a, 4b of two boards of this type 1, 1 'on a base U can be joined together by a downward angulation rotating around a center C near the intersection between the plane of surface HP and the plane of union VP, while the boards are held essentially in contact with each other.

15 Figures 2a to 2c show how the short sides 5a, 5b of the boards 1, 1 ′ can be joined together by pressure action. The long sides 4a, 4b can be joined by means of both procedures, while the joining of the short sides 5a, 5b (after extending the first row of floor boards) is normally carried out simply by pressing action after having first joined the long sides 4a, 4b.

When a new board 1 'and a previously placed board 1 must be joined along its long side edge portions 4a, 4b according to Figures 1a-1c, the long side edge portion 4b of the new board 1' is pressed against the long side edge portion 4a of the board previously placed 1 according to figure 1a, so that the fixing tab 20 is inserted into the recess or tongue and groove 16. The board 1 'is then angled towards the subsoil U according to the figure 1b. The fixing tab 20 is completely inserted into the recess or

25 tongue and groove 16 while, at the same time, the fixing element 8 of the table 6 fits into the fixing groove 14. During this downward angulation, the upper part 9 of the fixing element 8 can be operative and orientate the new board 1 'towards the board previously placed 1.

In their joined position according to Figure 1c, the boards 1, 1 'are certainly fixed in the direction D1 as well as in the direction D2 along their long side edge portions 4a, 4b, but the boards 1, 1' they can be displaced from each other in the longitudinal direction of the joint along the long sides (ie, direction D3).

Figures 2a-2c show how the edge portions of the short side 5a and 5b of the boards 1, 1 ’can be mechanically joined in the direction D1 as well as in the direction D2 when the new board 1’ is essentially displaced

35 horizontally towards the board previously placed 1. This can be done in particular after the long side of the new board 1 'has been joined, angled inwards according to figures 1a-c, with a board previously placed 1 in a row adjacent. In the first stage of Figure 2a, beveled surfaces of the recess 16 and the fixing tab 20 cooperate so that the table 6 ′ is forced downwards as a direct consequence of the approach of the short-sided edge portions 5a, 5b. During the final approach, the table 6 'fits when the fixing element 8' is inserted into the fixing slot 14 'so that the operative fixing surfaces 10, 10' in the fixing element 8 'and in the groove fixing 14 'mesh with each other.

By repeating the operations shown in Figures 1a-c and 2a-c, the entire floor can be laid without glue and along all joining edges. Therefore, prior art floor boards of the prior type can

45 mechanically joining first, as a general rule, angled down on the long side and on the short sides, when the long side has been fixed, being pressed by the horizontal displacement of the new board 1 'along the long side of the board previously placed 1 (address D3). The 1, 1 ’boards can, without damaging the joint, be removed again in the reverse order of placement and placed once more. Parts of these placement principles are also applicable in connection with the present invention.

To function optimally and allow for easy placement and removal again, the prior art boards should, after being joined, along their long sides be able to take a position where there is a possibility of a minor clearance between the surface of operative fixing 10 of the fixing element and the operating fixing surface 10 'of the fixing groove 14. However, it is not necessary that there is a gap in the butt joint

55 between the boards in the VP joint plane near the top side of the boards (that is, in the HP surface plane). To take that position, it may be necessary to press one board against the other. A more detailed description of this strike can be found in WO 9426999. Such a strike may be in the order of 0.01-0.05 mm between the operative fixing surfaces 10, 10 ’, when the long sides of adjacent boards are pressed together. This strike facilitates the introduction of the fixing element 8 into the fixing slot 14, 14 ’and its exit therefrom. However, as mentioned, no gap is required in the joint between the boards, where the HP surface plane and the VP joint plane intersect on the upper side of the floor boards.

The joining system allows the movement along the joining edge in the fixed position after joining

65 on one side optional. Therefore, placement can occur in many different ways that are all variants of the three basic procedures:

-
 Angulation of long side and embedded of the short side.

- Fitting the long side - fitting the short side. 5

-
 Short side angulation, upward angulation of two boards, displacement of the new board along the short side edge of the previous board and, finally, downward angulation of two boards.

The most common and safest placement procedure is that the long side is first angled down and fixed against another floor board. Subsequently, a shift in the position fixed to the short side of a third floor board takes place, so that the engagement of the short side can take place. The placement can also be done on one side, the long side or the short side, being pressed together with another board. Then, a shift to the fixed position takes place until the other side fits together with a third board. These two procedures require pressure from at least one side. However, the placement may also have

15 place without pressure action. The third alternative is that the short side of a first board is angled in first toward the short side of a second board, which is already attached on its long side with a third board. After this union, the first and second boards are slightly angled upwards. The first board is shifted upwardly angled along its short side until the upper joining edges of the first and third boards are in contact with each other, after which the two boards are angled down together.

The floor board described above and its fixing system have been very satisfactory in the market in connection with plank floors having a thickness of approximately 7 mm and an aluminum board 6 with a thickness of approximately 0.6 mm. Similarly, commercial variants of floorboards according to the

WO 9966151 shown in Figures 4a and 4b have been successful. However, it has been found that this technique is not particularly suitable for floor boards that are made of wood fiber based material, especially massive wood material or glued laminated wood material, to form parquet floors. One reason why this known technique is not suitable for this type of products is the large amount of material loss that originates due to the working of the edge portions to form a tongue and groove with the necessary depth.

To partially solve this problem, it would be possible to use the technique shown in Figures 5a and 5b in the accompanying drawings and described and shown in DE-A-3343601, that is, it would be possible to form both edge portions of union of separate elements that are attached to the edges of long sides.

35 This technique also results in high costs for the aluminum sections and the considerable work required. In addition, it is difficult to join the sectional elements along the edges in a cost effective manner. However, the geometry shown does not allow assembly and disassembly without considerable clearance by angulation down and up, respectively, since the components do not move away from each other during these movements if they are manufactured with a forced adjustment (see figure 5b).

Another known design of floor boards with a mechanical fastening system is shown in Figures 6a-d in the accompanying drawings and described and shown in document CA-A-0991373. When this mechanical fastening system is used, all forces struggling to move the long sides of the boards away are neutralized by the fastener at the outer end of the board (see Figure 6a). When the soil is extended and removed, the material

45 must be flexible to allow the tongue to be released by rotation around two centers at the same time. A tight fit between all surfaces makes rational fabrication and displacement in the fixed position impossible. The short side 6c has no horizontal fixation. This type of mechanical fixing, however, causes a large amount of material loss due to the design of the large fixing elements.

A better known design of mechanical fastening systems for boards is shown in GB-A-1430429 and figures 7a-7b in the accompanying drawings. This system is basically a tongue and groove joint that is provided with an extra clamp hook on a flange placed on one side of the tongue groove and that has a corresponding clamp protrusion formed on the upper side of the tongue. The system requires considerable elasticity of the flange provided with the hook, and disassembly cannot take place without destroying the

55 joining edges of the boards. A tight fit makes manufacturing difficult and the geometry of the joint causes a lot of material loss.

Another known design of mechanical fastening systems for floorboards is described in DE-A4242530. A fixing system of this type is also shown in Figures 8a-b in the accompanying drawings. This known fixing system has several drawbacks. Not only does it cause a large amount of material loss in its manufacture, but it is also difficult to produce effectively if you want to obtain high quality joints in a high quality floor. The guide groove that forms the tongue and groove can only be made using a front mill that moves along the joining edge. Therefore, it is not possible to use large disc-shaped cutting tools to work the board from the side edge.

65 For the mechanical bonding of different types of boards, in particular floorboards, there are many suggestions, in which the amount of material loss is reduced and in which production can take place efficiently also when using building materials wood fiber boards and wood base. Thus, WO 9627721 (Figures 9a-9b in the accompanying drawings) and JP3169967 (Figures 10a-10b in the accompanying drawings) describe two types of pressure joints that produce a small amount of loss but

5 that have the disadvantage that they do not allow the floor boards to be disassembled by upward angulation. It is true that these joining systems can be carried out efficiently using large disc-shaped cutting tools, but they have the serious drawback that dismounting by upward angulation would cause such severe damage to the fixing system that the boards could not be repositioned by mechanical fixation.

Another known system is described in DE-A-1212275 and is shown in Figures 11a-b in the accompanying drawings. This known system is suitable for sports floors of plastic material and cannot be manufactured by means of large disc-shaped cutting tools to form the deep guide groove. Also, this known system cannot be removed by upward angulation if the material does not have as much

15 elasticity so that the upper and lower flanges around the guide groove are not very deformed while they are separated. This type of joint is therefore not suitable for floor boards that are based on wood fiber based material, if high quality joints are desired.

The tongue and groove joints having a groove and inclined tongue have also been suggested according to US-A-1124228. The type of joint shown in Figures 12c-d in the accompanying drawings makes it possible to mount a new board by lowering it on the tongue directed upwards obliquely on the board previously placed. To secure the newly placed board, nails are used that are obliquely inserted through the board above the tongue directed upwardly obliquely. In the embodiment according to Figures 12a-b, this technique cannot be used since a glue-shaped joint is used.

25 kite This technique certainly causes a small amount of material loss but it is not at all adequate if a floating floor must be provided, with individual floor boards that, without being damaged, must be assembled and disassembled in an easy way and obtaining high quality joints .

Document DE-A-3041781 describes and shows a fixing system for joining boards, especially for making skating rinks and bowling lanes of plastic material. A connection system of this type is also shown in Figures 13a-d in the accompanying drawings. This system comprises a longitudinal guide groove along one edge of the board and a tongue bent upwardly projected along the opposite edge of the board. In cross section, the guide groove has a first portion that is defined by parallel surface portions and is parallel to the main plane of the board, and a second inner portion that is trapezoidal or semi-trazozoidal (figures

35 13a-b and figures 13c-d, respectively, in the accompanying drawings). In cross section, the tongue has two parallel plane portions angled to each other, where the portion closest to the center of the board is parallel to the main plane of the board and where the outermost free portion is angled in the upward direction in correspondence with the corresponding surface portion within the trapezoidal part of the guide groove.

The design of the tongue and groove as well as the edge portions of the board is such that, when two boards of this type are mechanically joined, the engagement is obtained between, on the one hand, the surface portions of the tongue and the portions of corresponding surface of the guide groove along the entire upper side and the outer end of the tongue as well as along the lower side of the parallel flat internal portion of the tongue and, on the other hand, between the surfaces of edge of the boards joined above and below the

45 tab and slot, respectively. When a new board must be joined with a previously placed board, the new board is angled upward at an angle suitable for insertion of the angled outer portion of the tongue into the parallel plane outer portion of the groove in the previously placed board. Subsequently, the tongue is inserted into the groove while the new board is being angled down. Due to the angular shape of the tongue, a considerable amount of strike is necessary in the first part of the groove to allow this insertion and angulation inwards. Alternatively, a considerable degree of elasticity of the soil material is necessary which, according to the document, should consist of plastic material. In the extended joined position, there is a gear between the main part of the tongue surfaces and the guide groove except below the external portion angled upwards of the tongue.

55 A serious drawback of the mechanical fastening system according to DE-A-3041781 is that it is difficult to produce. As a production procedure, it is suggested to use a conical type end mill with an external portion that generates the transverse trapezoidal internal part of the tongue and groove. Such a production process is not particularly rational and, in addition, causes great tolerance problems if the production process must be used to produce floor boards or other boards of wood material to form wall panels or parquet floor boards with joints of great quality.

As mentioned above, a drawback of this prior art mechanical fastening system is that the insertion of the angled tongue into the groove requires a considerable amount of clearance between tongue and groove (see Figure 5 in DE document -A-3041781 and figure 13b in the accompanying drawings) so that downward angulation occurs, if there is not a considerable degree of elasticity in the board material. In addition, such downward angulation cannot be carried out while the new board and the board located

They are previously joined in such a way that they touch each other near the upper edge of the boards above the tongue and groove, respectively, so that the center of rotation of the downward angulation movement is placed at this point.

5 Another drawback of this prior art fixing system according to DE-A-3041781 in connection with rather thick boards of wood material is that a displacement of the new board along the board previously placed in the extended position or partially raised is very difficult because of the boards that must be meshed together along large portions of the surface. Although the work of wooden boards or boards based on wood fiber is done very accurately, these surface portions are not, for natural reasons, very soft but have protruding fibers, which significantly increases friction. When parquet floors or the like are extended, long boards (often boards 2-2.4 m long and 0.2-0.4 m wide) and essentially natural materials are used. This type of long boards is twisted and, therefore, will often deviate from a completely curved shape (they are shaped like a “banana”). In those cases, it will be even more difficult to move a recently placed board to

15 along a previously placed board, if it is desired to obtain a mechanical fixation of the boards also on the short sides.

An additional drawback of the mechanical fastening system according to DE-A-3041781 is that it is not very suitable in connection with high quality floors that are made of wood materials or wood fiber based materials and that therefore require a tight adjustment in the vertical direction between tongue and groove in order to avoid cracking.

WO 9747834 describes floor boards with different types of mechanical fastening systems. The fixing systems that are intended to fix the long sides of the boards (figures 2-4, 11 and 22-25 in the

25 document) is designed to be mounted and disassembled by a connection and angulation movement, while most of which are intended to fix the short sides of the boards (figures 5-10) are designed to be connected towards each other to the to be pushed translationally to each other for connection by means of a snap fastener, but these fastening systems on the short sides of the boards cannot be disassembled without being destroyed or, in some cases, damaged.

Some of the boards described in WO 9747834 and which have been designed for connection and disassembly by angular movement (Figures 2-4 in WO 9747834 and Figures 14a-c of the attached drawings), have in their single edge a groove and a table that project below the groove and extend beyond a joint plane where the upper sides of two joined boards meet. The board

35 is designed to co-act with a portion formed essentially complementary to the opposite edge of the board, so that two similar boards can be attached. A common feature of these floorboards is that the upper side of the tongue of the boards and the corresponding upper boundary surface of the groove are flat and parallel with the side or upper surface of the floorboards. The connection of the boards to prevent them from separating transversely from the joint plane is obtained exclusively by means of fixing surfaces on one side on the lower side of the tongue and, on the other, on the upper side of the lower flange or board by under the groove. These fastening systems also have the disadvantage that they require a board portion that extends beyond the joint plane, which causes loss of material also within the joint edge portion where the groove is formed.

45 WO 9747834 also describes mechanical joining systems comprising a circular arc-shaped tongue and a correspondingly formed groove on the opposite side edge of the floor board (see Figures 14d-14e in the accompanying drawings). When connecting said fixing systems, the tip of the tongue is placed towards the opening of the arcuate groove, after which the downward angulation begins. In this downward angulation, there is great surface contact between all arcuate tongue and groove surfaces. If this type of joint system is to be used for long wooden boards or wood-based material, it would be very difficult to obtain a smooth connection. In addition, friction between the arcuate surfaces and between the tip of the tongue and the lower part of the groove would require considerable forces for the movement of a board along another board in its joined state. This prior art is certainly better than that described in DE-A-3041781 mentioned above, but it has many drawbacks of that technique.

55 US-A-2740167 (see also figures 15a-b in the accompanying drawings) describes parquet boards

or squares that are made of wood and that, at their opposite edges, are formed of edge portions that are hooked together by extending various parquet squares in a row. An edge portion has a hook directed downwards, and the opposite edge portion has a hook directed upwards. To allow the insertion of a new parquet board under a previously placed parquet board, the bottom side of the hook directed upwards is beveled. Parquet boards that are joined in a vertical joint plane are simply secured in the horizontal direction transversely of the joint plane. To secure the boards also perpendicular to the upper side of the parquet boards, a layer of glue is used that has been smeared in advance on the base on which the parquet floor should be laid. A parquet board

65 placed above can, therefore, be lifted again simply before the glue layer has been bonded. In practice, this parquet floor is therefore permanently secured to the base after

of having been placed.

Document CA-A-2252791 shows and describes floor boards that are formed with a specially designed groove along one long side and a tongue formed in a complementary manner along the other long side. As shown in the patent specification and also in Figures 16a-b in the accompanying drawings, the tongue and groove are rounded and angled obliquely upwards to allow the union of one board with another by placing the new board close to the position and then to lift and angle them simultaneously, after which the groove is lowered over the tongue up obliquely during simultaneous approach and angulation down. As the tongue and groove are formed of

In a complementary manner, it is difficult to connect and, optionally, once again separate adjacent floorboards. A deviation from the plane form, that is, the existence of a "banana" form, results in another obstacle for the connection of two boards of this type. The risk of damage to the tongue is therefore considerable and the design also causes great frictional forces between the surfaces of the tongue and the groove.

15 US-A-5797237 describes a pressure fixing system for joining parquet boards. In the accompanying drawings, Figure 17a is a section through two joined boards, while Figure 17b shows that such a known floor board cannot be disassembled by angling the board upward with respect to the remaining floor board that extends. Instead, as shown in Figure 4B in the patent specification, both the board that must be removed and the board to which it is connected and that must remain, must

20 be raised to separate the tongue from the groove. The system is very similar to that described in document US-A-2740167 mentioned above (figures 15a-b of the attached drawings), but with the difference that a short bottom flange is formed below the projection or flange with upper hook shape. This short bottom flange, however, has no bonding effect since there is a gap between the lower side of the tongue and the upper side of this short flange when two boards are joined. In addition, this strike is necessary

25 for the disassembly procedure as shown in Figure 17c. Certainly, it is established that the joint system is a pressure joint, but probably the board placed is angled slightly upwards to allow the tongue to enter under the hook-shaped flange of this board. This mechanical fastening system can, as also shown in the patent specification, be manufactured with the help of large disc-shaped cutting tools. There is no guide groove, whose upper and lower flanges run into

30 against the inserted tab and fix this both vertically and horizontally, in this fixing system. Therefore, the groove has a vertical extension greater than the corresponding parts of the tongue. The placed soil, therefore, may move to and away from the base, which will cause cracks in the joints and unacceptable vertical displacements. Due to insufficient fixation, a high quality joint cannot be obtained.

35 FR-A-2675174 describes a mechanical bonding system for ceramic tiles that have opposite edge portions formed in a complementary manner, in which case separate spring closures that are mounted at a distance from each other and that are formed are used. to grip a reinforced edge in the edge portion of an adjacent tile. The joining system is not designed to be disassembled by rotation, which is obvious in Figure 18a and, in particular, in Figure 18b in the accompanying drawings.

40 Figures 19a and 19b show floor boards that are formed according to JP7180333 and are made by extrusion of metallic material. After assembly, it is practically impossible to disassemble such floor boards due to the geometry of the joint, which is evident in Figure 19b. Finally, Figures 20a and 20b show another known joint system that is described in GB-A-2117813 and which is

45 intended for large insulated wall panels. This system closely resembles the aforementioned system according to document CA-A-2252791 and the system of WO 9747834 as shown in Figures 14d and 14e in the accompanying drawings. The system has the same disadvantages as these two systems just mentioned and is not suitable for the efficient production of floor boards based on wood material or wood fiber material, especially if you want to obtain high quality joints in a

50 high quality soil. The construction according to this GB publication uses metal sections as connection elements and cannot be opened by upward angulation.

Other prior art systems are described in, for example, documents DE 20013380U1, JP2000179137A, DE3041781, DE19925248, DE20001225, EP0623724, EP0976889, EP1045083.

55 WO 0201018, which is prior art according to Article 54 (3) CPE, describes other fixing systems, and is not relevant to the issue of inventive activity.

GB 1,027,709, which represents the closest prior art, discloses a willingness to join

60 panels, floor covering boards, etc. wherein a tongue provided on the edge of a board meshes with a groove provided on the edge of the adjacent board. The groove is slightly deeper than the width of the tongue. However, it has been found that this type of joint is not strong enough, and may result in an unwanted disconnection of the floorboards. More specifically, the joint described in this document can be easily slipped and disengaged. A technical problem that the present invention

65 intended to resolve is to provide a union that prevents extraction.

Document DE 4130115 discloses a sheet metal plaster member. The metal plaster member is formed by a profile that bends to form, on one edge of the member, a projection and, on the other edge of the member, a gap that meshes with the projection when two members fit together. A porous insulating material is disposed in a space between the edges of the member.

5 As is evident from the above, the prior art systems have both advantages and disadvantages. However, no fixing system is adequate enough for the rational production of floorboards with a fixing system that is optimal in terms of production technique, material loss, placement and removal functionality and can also be used for floors that must have high quality, strength and functionality in their placement.

An object of the present invention is to satisfy this need and to provide an optimal fixing system for optimum floor boards and floorboards of this type. Another object of the invention is to provide a rational method for producing floorboards with such a fixing system. Additional objects of the invention

15 are evident from the foregoing and also from the following description.

Summary of the invention

A floor board and a fixing system that can be opened therewith comprise a guide groove on a long side of the floor board and an protruding tongue on the opposite long side of the floor board. The guide groove has an internal fixing surface directed upwards corresponding to a distance from its tip. The tongue and the guide groove are formed to be joined together and separated by a turning movement, which has its center near the intersection between the surface planes and the common joint plane of two adjacent floor boards. The hole in the groove of such a fixing system is made by means of cutting tools

25 in the form of a disk, whose rotating shafts are inclined relative to each other to first form an internal part of the guide portion of the groove and then a fixing surface placed closer to the groove opening. A method of laying for a floor of such boards comprises the steps of extending a new board adjacent to a previously placed board, moving the tongue of the new board into the opening of the guide slot of the previously placed board, angular the new board towards up during simultaneous insertion of the tongue into the guide groove and simultaneously angling down the new board to the final position.

What characterizes the floor covering system according to the invention is, however, set forth in the independent claim. The dependent claims define embodiments particularly

Preferred according to the invention. Other advantages and features of the invention are also apparent from the following description.

Before describing specific and preferred embodiments of the invention with reference to the accompanying drawings, the basic concept of the invention and the requirements for strength and functionality will be described.

The invention is applicable to rectangular floor boards with a first pair of parallel sides and a second pair of parallel sides. With a view to simplifying the description, the first pair is referred to below as long sides and the second pair is referred to as short sides. However, it should be noted that the invention is also applicable to boards that can be square.

45 Great quality of joints

High quality of joints means a tight fit in the position fixed between the floorboards both vertically and horizontally. It should be possible to join the floorboards without very large visible spaces or differences in level between the joining edges in the unloaded state and in the normally loaded state. In a high quality floor, the junction spaces and the level differences should not be greater than 0.2 and 0.1 mm, respectively.

Down angulation with joint edge and orientation rotation

55 As will be evident in the following description, it should be possible to fix at least one side, preferably the long side, by downward angulation. The downward angulation would read to be able to take place with a rotation around a center near the intersection between the surface planes of the floorboards and the joint plane that must be made, that is, close to the “junction edges upper ”of the boards when in contact. Otherwise, it is not possible to make a joint that in the fixed position has tight joint edges.

It should be possible to finish the rotation in a horizontal position, in which the floorboards are fixed vertically without any strike, since a strike can cause undesirable differences in level between the joining edges. Inward angulation should also take place in a way that simultaneously guides the

65 floor boards towards each other with tight joining edges and straighten any banana shape (i.e., the deviation of a flat straight shape from the floor board). The fixing element and the fixing groove should have guiding means that co-act with each other during inward angulation. Inward angulation should take place with great safety without the boards jamming or obstructing each other to cause a risk of damage to the fixing system.

5 Angulation upwards around the joint edge

It should be possible to angle the long side up so that the floorboards can be released. Since the boards in the initial position are joined with tight joining edges, this upward angulation must therefore be able to be made with the upper joining edges in contact with each other and with rotation at the joining edge. This possibility of upward angulation is very important not only when changing floorboards or moving a floor. Many floorboards are tested or placed incorrectly adjacent to doors, corners, etc. during the installation. It is a serious inconvenience if the floor board cannot be easily released without damaging the joint system. Nor is it always the case that a board that can be angled inwards can also be angled up again. In connection with the angulation down, a slight bending down of the table normally takes place so that the fixing element is folded back and down and opens. If the joint system is not formed with sufficient angles and radii, the board can be fixed after being placed so that removal is not possible. The short side can, after the union of the long side has been opened by upward angulation, normally be separated along the joint edge, but it is advantageous if the short side can also be opened by upward angulation.

20 This is particularly advantageous when the boards are long, for example, 2.4 m, which makes it difficult to separate the short sides. The upward angulation should take place with great safety without the boards jamming and obstructing each other in a way that causes a risk of damage to the fixing system.

Fit

25 It should be possible to fix the short sides by horizontal fitting. This requires that parts of the joint system be flexible and can be bent. Even if the angulation into the long sides is easier and faster than the embedded one, it is an advantage if the long side can also be fitted, since certain placement operations, for example, round doors, require joining the boards horizontally.

30 Material cost on the short side and the long side

If the floor board is, for example, 1.2 * 0.2m, each square meter of floor surface will have approximately six times more long side joints than short side joints. Therefore, a great loss of

Material and expensive joint materials are less important on the short side than on the long side.

Horizontal resistance

To achieve high strength, the fixing element must, as a rule, have a high fixing angle, of

40 so that the fixing element does not come loose. The fixing element must be high and wide so that it does not break when subjected to a large stress load when the ground shrinks in the winter due to the low relative humidity at this time of the year. This also applies to the material closest to the fixing groove on the other board. The short side joint should have a greater resistance than the long side joint, since the tension load during the winter shrinkage is distributed over a shorter joint length along the

45 short side that along the long side.

Vertical resistance

It should be possible to keep the boards flat when subjected to vertical loads. In addition, the movement

50 of the joint should be avoided since surfaces that are under pressure and move between them, for example, the upper joint edges, can crack.

Displacement capacity

55 For the four-sided fixation to be possible, it must be possible to move a newly placed board in the fixed position along a previously placed board. This should take place using a reasonable amount of force, for example, by joining both elements using a block and a hammer, without damaging the edges of joints and without the joint system having to be formed with a horizontally and vertically visible strike. The displacement capacity is more important on the long side than on the short side since friction is

60 essentially larger due to a longer union.

Production

It should be possible to produce the joining system rationally using large rotating cutting tools 65 with extremely good accuracy and capacity.

Measurement

Good functionality, production tolerance and quality require that the joint profile can be measured continuously and can be checked. The critical parts of a mechanical joint system should be designed in

5 such that production and measurement are facilitated. It should be possible to produce them with tolerances of a few hundred millimeters and, therefore, it should be possible to measure them with great accuracy, for example in a so-called profile projector. If the joint system is produced with linear cutting work, the joint system, except for certain production tolerances, will have the same profile throughout the entire edge portion. Therefore, the joining system can be measured with great accuracy by cutting some samples by cutting them from the floorboards and measuring them in the profile projector or in a measuring microscope. Rational production, however, requires that the bonding system can also be measured quickly and easily without destructive procedures, for example using calibrators. This is facilitated if the critical parts in the fixing system have a small number.

15 Optimization of the long side and the short side

For a floor board that must be optimally manufactured at a minimal cost, the long and short sides should be optimized in view of their different properties as set forth above. For example, the long side should be optimized for downward angulation, upward angulation, placement and displacement capacity, while the short side should be optimized for fit and high strength. An optimally designed floor board should therefore have different joining systems on the long and short sides.

Possibility to move the joint edge transversely

25 Wood-based floorboards and floorboards that generally contain wood fiber swell and shrink as relative humidity changes. Swelling and shrinkage usually start from above, and the surface layers can, therefore, move to a greater extent than the core, that is, the part of which the bonding system is formed. To prevent the upper joining edges from rising or crushing in the event of a large degree of swelling, or that joint spaces arise upon drying, the bonding system should be constructed to allow a movement that compensates for swelling and shrinking.

Disadvantages of prior art systems

35 Figures 4a and 4b show prior art systems of the original Alloc® and Alloc® Home type with an outstanding table that can be angled and pressed.

The prior art joining systems according to Figs. 9-16 can produce a mechanical joint with less loss than mechanical fixing systems with an outstanding and worked table. However, none of them satisfies the aforementioned requirements or solve the problems that the present invention tries to solve.

The pressure joints according to figures 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 18, 19 cannot be fixed or opened by a turning movement around the top of the joint edge, and the joints according to figures 8, 11 , 19 cannot be

45 produced rationally by working with board materials with a rotating cutting tool that has a large tool diameter.

The floor boards according to figures 12a-b cannot be angled or pressed but must first be inserted by pushing them in parallel with the joining edge. The joint according to figures 12c-d cannot be pressed. It may be angled inwards but, in that case, it must be produced with too much strike in the joint system. The resistance in the vertical direction is low since the upper and lower gear surfaces are parallel. The joint is also difficult to produce and move to the fixed position since it does not contain any free surface. In addition, it is suggested to nail it to the base using nails that are obliquely directed to the floor board above the tongue directed obliquely upwards.

The joining systems according to figures 6c-d, 15a-b and 17a-b are examples of joints that do not have vertical fixation, that is, they allow perpendicular movements to the upper side of the boards.

The angulation inward connection according to figures 14d-e has a series of drawbacks because it is manufactured and constructed according to the principle that it should have a tight fit and that the upper and lower parts of the tongue and groove follow circular arcs with their center at the edge of superior union, that is, at the intersection between the planes of union and surface. This joint does not have the necessary orientation parts, and the joint is difficult to angular since it has an incorrect design and gear surfaces that are too large. As a result, the so-called "drawer" effect is contracted and presented during inward angulation. The resistance in the horizontal direction 65 is too low, which depends on a low upper fixing angle and an angular difference too small between the upper and lower gear surfaces. In addition, the angled part up

The front and top of the tongue and groove is too small to handle the resistance required for a high quality joint system. The contact surfaces that are too large between the tongue and groove, the absence of the necessary free surfaces without contact and the requirement of a tight fit throughout the joint makes the lateral movement of the floor board along the joint edge considerably more difficult and also

5 hinders rational production with the possibility of obtaining good tolerances. Nor can joints be pressed horizontally.

The joining system according to figures 16a-b has a design that does not allow it to be angled without a considerable degree of material deformation, which is difficult to achieve in normal board materials that are suitable for floors. Also in this case, all parts of the tongue and groove are in contact with each other. This makes the lateral movement of a board to the fixed position difficult or impossible. Rational work is also not possible due to the fact that all surfaces are in contact with each other. Nor can the pressure be performed.

The joining system according to figures 6a-b cannot be angled since it is constructed to move around

15 two centers of rotation simultaneously. It has no horizontal fixation in the tongue and groove. All surfaces are in contact with each other with a tight fit. In practice, the joining system cannot be displaced or manufactured rationally. It is intended for use with a fixing system shown in Figures 6c-d and is formed at the edge perpendicularly arranged adjacent the board and that does not require lateral displacement for connection purposes.

The joining system according to figures 8a-b has a tongue and groove that cannot be manufactured with rotating cutting tools with a large tool diameter. It cannot press and is constructed to avoid, due to initial tension and a tight adjustment adjacent to the outer vertical part of the table, the lateral displacement.

The connection system according to figures 5a-b comprises two aluminum sections. Production with rotating cutting tools with a large tool diameter to form the tongue and groove is not feasible. The joining system is formed in such a way that it is impossible to angle a new board inwards with its upper joining edge held in contact with the upper joining edge of the board previously placed, so that the inward angulation takes place around a center of rotation at the intersection between the joint plane and the surface plane. To allow inward angulation when using this prior art system, it is necessary to have a considerable clearance that is overcome when it is acceptable on normal floorboards when high quality joints and good aesthetic properties are required. The joining system according to figures 13a-d is difficult to manufacture since it requires contact by a large part of the surface of the external part of the tongue and tongue and groove. This also hinders lateral displacement to the fixation position. The union geometry makes it impossible to

35 upward angulation around the upper joint edge.

The invention

The invention is based on a first understanding according to which, using suitable production processes, essentially working and using tools whose tool diameter significantly exceeds the thickness of the board, it is possible to form advanced shapes rationally with great accuracy of wood materials, based boards in wood and plastic materials, and that this type of work can be done in a tongue and groove at a distance from the joint plane. Therefore, the shape of the joining system should be adapted to the rational production that should be able to be carried out with very narrow tolerances. Such adaptation,

45 however, it cannot take place at the expense of other important properties of the floor board and the fixing system.

The invention is also based on a second principle, which is based on the knowledge of the requirements that a mechanical joint system must meet for optimal operation. This principle has made it possible to meet these requirements in a way that has not been known before, that is, by a combination of a) the design of the joint system with, for example, specific angles, radii, clearance, free surfaces and proportions between the different parts of the system, and b) optimal use of the material properties of the core

or core, such as compression, elongation, bending, tensile strength and compressive strength.

The invention is also based on a third principle according to which it is possible to provide a bonding system at a lower production cost while at the same time the same time and resistance functionality can be retained or even, in some cases, be enhanced by a combination of manufacturing techniques, joint design, choice of materials and optimization of long and short sides.

The invention is based on a fourth principle according to which the joint system, the manufacturing technique and the measurement technique must be developed and adjusted so that the critical parts that require close tolerances should, to the greatest extent possible, be as small as possible and also be designed to allow measurement and testing in continuous production.

According to a first aspect of the invention, there is therefore provided a floor covering system for the mechanical connection of the four sides of this floor board in a first vertical direction D1, a second horizontal direction D2 and a third direction D3 perpendicular to the second horizontal direction, with corresponding sides of other floor boards with identical fixing systems.

The floor boards can on two sides have a disconnectable mechanical joint system, which is of a type

5 known and which can be moved laterally to the fixed position, and fixed by angulation inwardly around the upper joining edges or by horizontal pressure. The floor boards have, on the other two sides, a fixing system according to the invention. The floor boards can also have a fixing system according to the invention on all four sides.

Therefore, at least two opposite sides of the floor board have a joining system that is designed according to the invention and comprising a tongue and tongue groove defined by upper and lower flanges, where the tongue on its outer and upper part has a part directed upwards and where the tongue and groove in its inner and upper part has a guide. The upwardly directed part of the tongue and the tongue and groove guide on the upper flange have fixing surfaces that counteract and prevent horizontal separation in a direction 15 D2 transversely of the joint plane. The tongue and tongue and groove also have supporting surfaces that coerce and prevent vertical separation in a direction D1 parallel to the joint plane. These support surfaces are at least in the lower part of the tongue and in the lower flange of the tongue and groove. At the top, the coercing fixing surfaces can serve as upper support surfaces, but the upper tongue and groove flange and can advantageously also have separate upper support surfaces. The tongue, tongue and groove, the fixing element and the guide are designed so that they can be manufactured by working using tools that have a tool diameter greater than the thickness of the floor board. The tongue can, with this portion directed upwards, be inserted into the tongue and groove and its guide by an inward angulation movement with its center of rotation near the intersection between the joint plane and the surface plane, and the tongue also can leave the tongue and groove if

25 the floor board is turned or angled upwards with its upper joint edge in contact with the upper joint edge of an adjacent floor board. In order to facilitate the production, measurement, inward angulation, upward angulation and lateral displacement in the longitudinal direction of the joint and counteract the crunches and reduce any problems due to swelling / shrinking of the floor material, the joint system is formed of surfaces that are not in contact with each other during angulation inwards and in the fixed position.

According to a second aspect of the invention, the floor board has two edge portions with a joining system according to the invention, in which the tongue with its upwardly directed portion can be inserted both in the tongue and groove and in its recess, and you can leave the tongue and groove by angled down and

35 angled upwards respectively, the boards being kept in contact with each other with their upper joint edges near the intersection between the joint plane and the surface plane, so that the pivoting takes place around a pivot center near this point. In addition, the fixing system can be pressed against each other by a horizontal displacement, essentially bending the lower part of the tongue and groove and pressing the fixing element of the tongue into the fixing groove. Alternatively or in addition, the tongue can be made flexible to facilitate such pressure on the short side after the long sides of the floorboards have joined. Thus, the invention also relates to a pressure joint that can be released by an angled upwardly with upper joint edges in contact with each other.

According to a third aspect of the invention, the floor board has two edge portions with a joining system

45 which is formed according to the invention, in which the tongue, while the board is held in an upwardly angled position, can be pressed into the tongue and groove then downwardly by means of a pivoting movement around the upper joining edge. In the angled up position, the tongue can be partially inserted into the tongue and groove by moving the board in this position with a translational movement towards the tongue and groove until the upper joining edges have come into contact with each other, after which it takes place An angled down for a final joint of the tongue and tongue and groove and to obtain a fixation with each other. The lower flange may be shorter than the upper flange to allow greater degrees of freedom when the upper flange gap is designed.

A plurality of aspects of the invention is also applicable to known systems without combining these aspects with the preferred fixing systems described herein.

The invention also describes the basic principles that should be fulfilled for a tongue and groove joint that must be angled inwards with the upper joint edges in contact with each other and that must be fitted with a minimum bending of the joint components. The invention also describes how the properties of the material can be used to achieve greater strength and low cost in combination with angulation and pressure as well as placement procedures.

Different aspects of the invention will be described in more detail below with reference to the accompanying drawings showing different embodiments of the invention. The parts of the inventive board that are

65 equivalent to those of the prior art board in Figures 1-2 have received the same reference numbers.

Brief description of the drawings

Figures 1a-c show in three stages a downward angulation procedure for the mechanical attachment of the

5 long sides of floorboards according to WO 9426999; Figures 2a-c show in three stages a fitting procedure for the mechanical connection of the short sides of floorboards according to WO 9426999;

Figures 3a-b show a floor board according to WO 9426999 viewed from above and from below, respectively; Figures 4a-b show two different embodiments of floor boards according to WO 9966151;

Figures 5a-b show floor boards according to DE-A-3343601; Figures 6a-d show mechanical fastening systems for the long side and the short side respectively of floor boards according to document CA-A-0991373;

Figures 7a-b show a mechanical fastening system according to GB-A-1430429; Figures 8a-b show boards according to DE-A-4242530; Figures 9a-b show a pressure joint according to WO -9627721;

Figures 10a-b show a pressure joint according to JP-3169967;

Figures 11a-b show a pressure joint according to DE-A-1212275; Figures 12a-d show different embodiments of fastening systems based on tongue and groove according to the US-A-1124228;

Figures 13a-d show a mechanical joint system for sports floors according to DE-A-3041781;

Figures 14a-e show one of the fixing systems as shown in WO 9747834; Figures 15a-b show a parquet floor according to US-A-2740167; Figures 16a-b show a mechanical fastening system for floor boards according to document CA-A-2252791; Figures 17a-b show a pressure closure system for parquet floors according to US-A-5797237; Figures 18a-b show a joining system for ceramic tiles according to FR-A-2675174;

Figures 19a-b show a joining system for floor boards that are described in JP-7180333 and are made by extrusion of metallic material;

Figures 20a-b show a joining system for large wall panels according to GB-A-2117813; Figures 21a-b schematically show portions of parallel joining edges of a first preferred embodiment of a floor board according to the present invention;

Figure 22 schematically shows the basic principles of inward angulation around the upper joint edges when using the present invention;

Figures 23a-b schematically show the production of a joining edge of a floor board according to the invention;

Figures 24a-b show a specific production variant of the invention;

Figure 25 shows a variant of an embodiment that is not part of the present invention as well as the fitted and angulation up in combination with the bending of the lower flange; Figure 26 shows a variant that is not part of the present invention with a short flange;

65 Figures 27a-c show a downward and upward angulation procedure; Figures 28a-c show an alternative angulation procedure;

Figures 29a-b show a fitting procedure;

5 Figure 30 shows how the long sides of two boards are attached to the long side of a third board when the two boards are already joined together on the short sides;

Figures 31a-b show two joined floor boards provided with a combined joint that are not part of the present invention;

Figures 32a-d show the angulation into the combined joint according to an embodiment that is not part of the present invention;

15 Figure 33 shows an example of how a long side can be formed on a parquet floor.

Figure 34 shows an example, which is not part of the present invention, of how a short side can be formed on a parquet floor.

Figure 35 shows a detailed example, which is not part of the present invention, of how the long side joining system can be formed on a parquet floor;

Figure 36 shows an example of a floor board according to the invention where the joint system is designed so that it can be angled using bending and compression in the joint material; Figure 37 shows a floor board according to the invention;

Figures 38a-b show a four-stage manufacturing process using a manufacturing process that is not part of the present invention;

Figure 39 shows a joining system that is suitable to compensate for swelling and shrinkage of the surface layer of the floor board;

Figure 40 shows a variant that is not part of the invention with a rigid tongue;

Figure 41 shows a variant of the invention where the fixing surfaces constitute upper contact surfaces;

Figures 42a-b show a variant of the invention with a long tongue as well as angulation and extraction;

Figures 43a-c show how the joining system that is not part of the present invention should be designed to facilitate the engagement;

Figure 44 shows the engagement in the angled position according to an embodiment that is not part of the present invention;

Figures 45a-b show a joint system according to an embodiment that is not part of the present invention with a flexible tongue;

Figures 46a-b show a joint system according to an embodiment that is not part of the present invention with a split and flexible tongue;

Figures 47a-b show a joining system that is not part of the present invention with a bottom flange that partially consists of material other than the core;

Figures 48a-b show a joint system that is not part of the present invention that can be used as a pressure joint on a floor board that is fixed on all four sides;

Figure 49 shows a joining system that is not part of the present invention that can be used, for example, on the short side of a floor board;

Figure 50 shows another example of joining system that can be used, for example, on the short side of a floor board;

65 Figures 51a-f show a placement procedure; Figures 52a-b show the placement by means of a specially designed tool;

Figure 53 shows the junction of the short sides;

5 Figures 54a-b show the engagement of the short side according to an embodiment that is not part of the present invention;

Figure 55 shows a variant that is not part of the present invention with a flexible tongue that facilitates the engagement on the short side;

Figures 56a-e show the engagement of the outer corner portion of the short side according to an embodiment that is not part of the present invention;

Figures 57a-e show the engagement of the inner corner portion of the short side according to an embodiment 15 that is not part of the present invention.

Detailed description of the preferred embodiments

Next, a first preferred embodiment of a floor board 1, 1 'will be described, which is provided with a mechanical fastening system according to the invention, referring to Figures 21a and 21b. To facilitate its understanding, the union system is shown schematically. It should be noted that better performance can be achieved with other preferred embodiments that will be described below.

Figures 21a, 21b schematically show a section through a joint between a long side edge portion 4a of a board 1 and an opposite long side edge portion 4b of another board 1 '.

The upper sides of the boards are essentially placed in a common surface plane HP and the upper parts of the joint edge portions 4a, 4b engage each other in a vertical joint plane VP. The mechanical fixing system results in the fixing of the boards to each other both in the vertical direction D1 and in the horizontal direction D2 that extends perpendicular to the joint plane VP. During the placement of a floor with juxtaposed rows of boards, a board (1 '), however, can be moved along the other board (1) in a direction D3 (see Figure 3a) along the plane of VP union. This offset can be used, for example, to provide for fixing floor boards that are placed in the same row.

35 To provide the joining of the two joining edge portions perpendicular to the vertical plane VP and parallel to the horizontal plane HP, the edges of the floor board have, in a known manner, a tongue and groove 36 in an edge portion 4a of the floor board within the joint plane VP, and a tongue 38 formed in the other joint edge portion 4b and protruding beyond the joint plane VP.

In this embodiment, the board 1 has a wooden core or core 30 that supports a wooden surface layer 32 on its front side and a compensation layer 34 on its rear side. The board 1 is rectangular and has a second mechanical fixing system also on the two parallel short sides. In some embodiments, this second fixing system may have the same design as the long side fixing system, but the short side fixing system may also have a different design according to the invention or be a fixing system

45 mechanics known above.

As an illustrative and non-limiting example, the floor board can be of parquet type with a thickness of 15mm, a length of 2.4m and a width of 0.2m. The invention, however, can also be used for squares or parquet boards of a different size.

The core 30 may be of the sheet type and consists of narrow blocks of wood of an economic type of wood. The surface layer 32 may have a thickness of 3-4mm and consists of a decorative type of hardwood and be varnished. The compensation layer 34 on the rear side may consist of a 2mm veneer layer. In some cases, it may be advantageous to use different types of wood materials in different parts of the floor board to

55 the optimal properties of the individual parts of the floor board.

As mentioned above, the mechanical fastening system according to the invention comprises a tongue and groove 36 in a connecting edge portion 4a of the floor board, and a tongue 38 in the opposite joining edge portion 4b of the floor board .

The tongue and groove 36 is defined by upper and lower flanges 39, 40 and is in the form of a guide groove with an opening between the two flanges 39, 40.

The different parts of the tongue and groove 36 are best seen in Figure 21b. The tongue and groove is formed in the nucleus

65 or core 30 and extends from the edge of the floor board. Above the tongue and groove, there is an upper edge portion or joint edge surface 41 extending upwardly to the surface plane HP. Within the tongue and groove opening, there is a gear surface or upper support 43, which in this case is parallel to the surface plane HP. This engagement or support surface passes to an inclined fixing surface 43 that has a fixing angle A to the horizontal plane HP. Within the fixing surface, there is a surface portion 46 that forms the upper boundary surface of the guide portion 35 of the tongue and groove. The tongue and groove also has an end

5 lower 48 extending down to the lower flange 40. On the upper side of this flange there is a engagement surface or support 50. The outer end of the lower flange has a joint edge surface 52 and extends in this case slightly beyond the plane of union VP.

The shape of the tongue is also best seen in Figure 21b. The tongue is made of the core or core material 30 and extends beyond the joint plane VP when this joint edge portion 4b mechanically joins with the joint edge portion 4a of an adjacent floor board. The joint edge portion 4b also has an upper edge portion or upper joint edge surface 61 that extends along the joint plane VP down to the root of the tongue 38. The upper side of the root of the tongue has an upper engagement surface or support 64 which, in this case, extends to an inclined fixing surface 65 of a portion directed towards

15 up 8 near the tip of the tongue. The fixing surface 65 passes to an orientation surface portion 66 that ends at an upper surface 67 of the upwardly directed portion 8 of the tongue. Then, the surface 67 follows a bevel that can serve as guide surface 68. This extends to the tip 69 of the tongue. At the lower end of the tip 69 there is another orientation surface 70 that extends obliquely downwards to the lower edge of the tongue and a engagement or support surface 71. The support surface 71 is intended to co-act with the support surface 50 of the bottom flange when two floor boards are joined mechanically, so that their upper sides are placed in the same HP surface plane and are in a VP joint plane directed perpendicular thereto, so that the joint edge surface upper 41, 61 of the boards mesh with each other. The tongue has a lower joint edge surface 72 that extends to the lower side.

25 In this embodiment, there are separate engagement or support surfaces 43, 64 on the tongue and groove, respectively, which in the fixed state engage with each other and co-act with the lower support surfaces 50, 71 on the bottom flange and on the tongue, respectively, to provide fixation in the direction D1 perpendicular to the surface plane HP. In other embodiments, which will be described below, the fixing surfaces 45, 65 are used both as fixing surfaces to fix in the direction D2 parallel to the surface plane HP and as supporting surfaces to counteract movements in the direction D2 perpendicular to the surface plane. In the embodiment according to Figures 21a, 2b, the fixing surfaces 45, 65 and the engagement surfaces 43, 64 co-act as upper support surfaces in the system.

As is apparent from the drawing, the tongue 38 extends beyond the joint plane VP and has a portion

35 directed upwards 8 at its free outer end or tip 69. The tongue also has a fixing surface 65 that is formed to co-act with the internal fixing surface 45 in the tongue and groove 36 of an adjacent floor board when two mechanically joined floor boards of this type, so that their front sides are placed in the same HP surface plane and are in a VP joint plane directed perpendicular to it.

As is evident from Figure 21b, the tongue 38 has a surface portion 52 between the fixing surface 51 and the joint plane VP. When two floor boards are joined, the surface portion 52 engages the surface portion 45 of the upper flange 8. To facilitate insertion of the tongue into the guide groove by angled inward or engaged, the tongue can, as shown in Figs. 21a, 21b, having a bevel 66 between the fixing surface 65 and the surface portion 57. In addition, a bevel 68 can be placed between the surface portion 57 and the

45 tip 69 of the tongue. The bevel 66 can serve as an orientation part by having an inclination angle less than the surface plane than the inclination angle A of the fixing surfaces 43, 51.

The support surface 71 of the tongue is in this embodiment essentially parallel to the surface plane HP. The tongue has a bevel 70 between this support surface and the tip 69 of the tongue.

According to the invention, the lower flange 40 has a support surface 50 for coercing with the corresponding support surface 71 on the tongue 36 at a distance from the low end 48 of the guide groove. When two floor boards are joined together, there is a gear between the support surfaces 50, 71 and between the gear surface or support 43 of the upper flange 39 and the corresponding gear surface or support 64 of the tongue. From

In this way, the fixing of the boards in the direction D1 perpendicular to the surface plane HP is achieved.

According to the invention, at least the main part of the lower end 48 of the guide groove, seen parallel to the surface plane HP, is placed farther from the joint plane VP than is the outer end or tip 69 of the tongue 36. Through this design, manufacturing is simplified to a considerable extent and the movement of one floor board with respect to another along the joint plane is facilitated.

Another important feature of a mechanical floor covering system according to the invention is that all parts of the portions of the lower flange 40 that are connected to the core 30, seen from point C, where the surface plane HP and the plane of VP junction intersect, are placed outside an LP2 plane. This plane is placed 65 farther from said point C than an LP1 fixing plane that is parallel to the LP2 plane and is tangent to the co-fixing fixing surfaces 45, 65 of the guide groove 36 and the tongue 38, where these fixing surfaces

they are more inclined in relation to the HP surface plane. Due to this design, the guide groove can, as will be described later in greater detail, be made using large rotary disc-shaped cutting tools to work the edge portions of the floorboards.

5 Another important feature of a floor covering system according to the present invention is that the upper and lower flanges 39, 40 and the tongue 38 of the joining edge portions 4a, 4b are designed to allow the disconnection of two floor boards mechanically joined by the upward rotation of a floor board with respect to the other around a center of rotation near the point of intersection C between the surface plane HP and the joint plane VP, such that the tongue of this board of floor rotates to exit the guide groove of the other floor board.

In the embodiment according to Figures 21a, 21b, this disconnection is made possible by a slight downward bending of the lower flange 40. In another more preferred embodiment of the invention, however, downward bending of the bottom flange in conjunction with the connection and disconnection of the floor boards.

In the embodiment according to figures 21a, 21b, the joining of two floor boards according to the invention can be carried out in three different ways.

One way implies that the board 1 'is placed in the base and moved towards the board previously placed 1' until the narrow tip 69 of the tongue 38 has been inserted into the opening of the guide groove 36. Then, the board of floor 1 'is angled upwards so that the upper parts 41, 61 of the boards on both sides of the joint plane VP come into contact with each other. While this contact is maintained, the board is angled downwardly rotating around the center of rotation C. The insertion takes place by sliding the bevel 66 of the tongue along the fixing surface 45 of the upper flange 39 while at the same time, the bevel 70 of the tongue 38 slides against the outer edge of the upper side of the lower flange 40. The fixing system can then be opened

25 by the angulation of the floor board 1 ’upwards turning around the center of rotation C near the intersection between the surface plane HP and the joint plane VP.

The second way of fixing is provided by moving the new board with its joining edge portion 4a formed with a tongue and groove towards the joining edge portion 4b, provided with a tongue, of the previously placed board. Then, the new board rotates upwards until the upper parts 41, 61 of the boards come into contact near the intersection between the surface plane and the joint plane, after which the board rotates downwards to join the tongue and groove until the final fixed position is achieved. According to the following description, the floor boards can also be joined by a board that moves in an angled position upwards towards the other.

A third way of providing the joint of the floorboards in this embodiment of floorboards according to the invention implies that the new board 1 'is horizontally moved towards the board previously placed 1, so that the tongue 38 with its fixing element or upwardly directed portion 8 is inserted into the tongue and groove 36, the lower flexible flange 40 bending slightly downward so that the fixing element 8 presses into the guide portion 35 of the tongue and groove. Also in this case, the disconnection takes place by upward angulation as described above.

In connection with the engagement, a small degree of bending upwards of the upper flange 39 can also occur as well as a certain degree of compression of all the parts of the groove 36 and the tongue 38 which are in contact with each other during engagement. This facilitates fitting and can be used to form an optimal bonding system.

45 To facilitate manufacturing, inward angulation, upward angulation, engagement and the ability to move to the fixed position and to minimize the risk of cracking, all surfaces that are not operative to form a joint with joint edges upper tightened and to form the vertical and horizontal joint so that they are not in contact with each other in the fixed position and preferably also during fixing and defixing. This allows manufacturing without requiring high tolerances in these joint portions and reduces friction in lateral displacement along the joint edge. Examples of surfaces or parts of the joining system that should not be in contact with each other in the fixed position are 46-67, 48-69, 50-70 and 52-72.

The joining system according to the preferred embodiment may consist of various combinations of materials. He

55 upper flange 39 may be made of a rigid and hard top surface layer 32 and a softer lower part that is part of the core 30. The lower flange 40 may consist of the same softer upper part 30 and also a soft part bottom 34 which can be another type of wood. The directions of the fibers in the three types of wood may vary. This can be used to provide a bonding system that uses these material properties. The fixing element is therefore according to the invention located closer to the hard and rigid upper part, which is therefore flexible and compressible only up to a certain point, while the pressure function is formed in the lower flexible part and more soft It should be noted that the joint system can also be made on a homogeneous floor board.

Figure 22 schematically shows the basic principles of inward angulation around a point C (edges

Upper binding 65) when the present invention is used. Figure 22 schematically shows how a fixing system should be designed to allow inward angulation around the upper joint edges. In this inward angulation, the parts of the joint system follow a circular arc with the center C near the intersection between the surface plane HP and the joint plane VP in the manner of the prior art. If a large strike is allowed between all parts of the joint system, or if essential deformation is possible during angulation inwards, the tongue and groove can be formed in many different ways. If, on the other hand, the union system must have

5 contact surfaces that prevent vertical and horizontal separation without any gap between the gear and support surfaces and if deformation of the material is not possible, the joint system should be constructed according to the following principles.

The upper part of the joint system is formed as follows. C1B is a circular arc having its center C in the upper part at the upper joining edges 41, 61 and which in this preferred embodiment crosses a contact point between the upper flange 39 and the upper part of the tongue 38 in the point P2. All other contact points between P2, P3, P4 and P5 between the upper flange 39 and the upper part 8 of the tongue 38 and between this intersection point P2 and the vertical plane VP are located at or within this circular arc C1B , while all other contact points from P2 to P1 between the upper flange 39 and the upper part of the tongue 38 and between this point of

15 intersection P2 and the outer part of the tongue 38 are located in or out of this circular arc C1B. These conditions should be met for all contact points. As for the contact point P5 with the circular arc C1A, the case is that all other contact points between P1 and P5 are located outside the circular arc C1A and, as for the contact point P1, all other contact points between P1 and P5 they are located inside the circular arc C1C.

The lower part of the joining system is formed according to the corresponding principles. C2B is a circular arc that is concentric with the circular arc C1A and in this preferred embodiment crosses a point of contact between the bottom flange 40 and the bottom of the tongue 38 at point P7. All other points of contact between P7, P8 and P9 between the bottom flange 40 and the bottom of the tongue 38 and between this point of intersection P7 and the vertical plane

25 are placed in or out of the circular arc C2B, and all other points of contact between P6, P7 and between the bottom flange 40 and the bottom of the tongue 38 and between this point of intersection P7 and the outside of the tongue 38 are placed in or inside this circular arc C2B. The same applies to the contact point P6 with the circular arc C2A.

A joint system constructed according to this preferred embodiment may have good inward angulation properties. This can easily be combined with upper engagement or support surfaces 43, 64 that can be parallel to the horizontal plane HP and which can therefore provide excellent vertical fixation.

Figures 23a, 23b show how a joint system according to Figures 21a, 2b can be produced. Normally the

35 floor board 1 according to the prior art is located with its surface 2 facing down on a ball bearing chain in a milling machine that moves the board with great precision by a series of strawberry cutters that, for example, have a tool diameter of 80-300 mm and which can be arranged at an optional angle to the horizontal plane of the board. To facilitate understanding and comparison with the other drawing figures, the floor board, however, is shown with its HP surface plane facing up. Figure 23a shows how the first tool with the tool position TP1 makes a traditional tongue and groove. The tool operates in this case at a tool angle TA1 that is 0 °, that is, parallel with the horizontal plane. The axis of rotation RA1 is perpendicular to HP. The hole is made by means of a second tool, where the position TP2 and the design of the tool are such that the hole 35 can be formed without the tool affecting the shape of the bottom flange 40. In this case, the tool has an angle TA2 that is equal to the angle of the fixing surface 45 in the groove of

45 guide 35. This manufacturing process is possible if the fixing plane LP1 is located at such a distance from the joint plane that the tool can be inserted into the tongue and groove formed previously. The thickness of the tool, therefore, cannot exceed the distance between the two planes LP1 and LP2, as discussed in connection with Figures 21a and 21b. This manufacturing process is the prior art and does not constitute part of the manufacturing process according to the present invention as will be described below.

Figures 24a, 24b show another variant of the invention. This embodiment is characterized in that the joint system is completely formed according to the basic principle of inward angulation on the upper joint edges as described above. The fixing surfaces 45, 65 and the lower support surfaces 50, 71 are in this embodiment plane but may have a different shape. C1 and C2 are two

55 circular arcs with their center C at the upper end of adjacent joining edges 41, 61. The smaller circular arc C1 is tangent to the lower contact point closest to the vertical plane between the fixing surfaces 45, 65 at point P4 which has the tangent TL1 corresponding to the fixing plane LP1. The fixing surfaces 45, 65 have the same inclination as this tangent. The largest circular arc 62 is tangent to the upper contact point between the lower support surfaces 50, 71 closest to the inner part 48 of the tongue and groove at point P7, which has the tangent TL2. The support surfaces 50, 71 have the same inclination as this tangent.

All the contact points between the tongue 38 and the upper flange 39 that are located between the point P4 and the vertical plane VP fulfill the condition that they are located inside or on the circular arc C1, while all the contact points that are placed between P4 and the internal part 48 of the tongue and groove (in this embodiment, 65 only the fixing surfaces 45, 65) fulfill the condition that they are placed in or out of C1. The corresponding conditions are met for the contact surfaces between the lower flange 40 and the tongue 38. All

contact points between the tongue 38 and the lower flange 40 which are located between the point P7 and the vertical plane VP (in this case, only the lower support surfaces 50, 71) are placed in or out of the circular arc C2, while that all the contact points that are located between the point P7 and the internal part 48 of the tongue and groove, are placed in or inside the circular arc C2. In this embodiment there are no contact points between P7 and the part

5 internal 48 of the tongue and groove.

This embodiment is characterized in particular because all the contact surfaces between the contact point P4 and the joint plane VP, in this case the point P5, and the internal part 48 of the tongue and groove, respectively, are located inside and outside, respectively, of the circular arc C1 and, therefore, not in the circular arc C1. The same applies to the contact point P7 where all the contact points between P7 and the vertical plane VP, in this case the point P8, and the internal part 48 of the tongue and groove, respectively, are located outside and inside, respectively, of the arc circular C2 and therefore not in the circular arc C2. As is evident from the part indicated by dashed lines in figures 24a, the joint system can, if this condition is met, be designed so that the angulation inwards can take place with space during essentially all the angular movement that can end with the boards being fixed with a tight fit or a pressure fit when they have taken their final horizontal position. Therefore, the invention allows a combination of an inward angulation and an upward angulation without resistance and a fixation with a high bonding quality. If the lower support surfaces 71, 50 are made at a somewhat lower angle, a joining system can be provided in which only the two aforementioned points P4 on the upper flange and P7 on the lower part of the tongue are points of contact between tongue and groove 36 and tongue 38 during all angulation inwards until final fixation takes place, and during all angulation upwards until the boards can be released from each other. Fixing with space or with only contact of lines is a great advantage since the friction will be low and the boards can be easily angled inwards and angled upwards without parts of the system getting stuck and hindering each other with a risk of damage to the system. A pressure adjustment especially in the vertical direction is very important for the resistance. If there is a strike between the surfaces

When engaging or engaging, the boards, when subjected to a tensile load, will slide along the fixing surfaces until the lower engagement or support surfaces have taken a position with a pressure adjustment. Therefore, a strike will result in a space of unions and differences in level between upper joining edges. As an example it can be mentioned that with a tight adjustment or pressure adjustment, a great resistance can be achieved if the fixing surfaces have an angle of approximately 40 ° to the HP surface plane and if the engagement or support surfaces have an angle of approximately 15 ° to the HP surface plane.

The fixing plane LP1 has in figure 24a a fixing angle A to the horizontal plane HP of about 39 °, while the support plane TL2 along the support surfaces 50, 71 has a support angle VLA of about 14 ° . The difference in angle between LP1 and the support plane TL2 is 25º. A high fixing angle and a large difference of

The angle between the fixing angle and the support angle should be enhanced because it results in high horizontal fixing resistance. The fixing surfaces and the support surfaces can be made arched, staggered, with various angles, etc., but this hinders their manufacture. As mentioned above, the fixing surfaces may also constitute upper support surfaces or be complements to separate upper support surfaces.

Even if the fixing surfaces and the support surfaces have contact points that deviate somewhat from these basic principles, they can be angled inwards at their upper joint edges if the joint system is adjusted so that its contact points or surfaces are small in relation to the thickness of the floor and so that the properties of the board material in the form of compression, elongation and bending are used to the maximum in

45 combination with very small gaps between the contact surfaces. This can be used to increase the fixing angle and the difference in angle between the fixing angle and the support angle.

The basic principle of inward angulation therefore shows that the critical parts are the fixing surfaces 45, 65 and the lower support surfaces 50, 71. It also shows that the degree of freedom is considerable in terms of the design of the other parts, for example the upper support surfaces 43, 64, the orientation 44 of the fixing groove, the orientation 66 and the upper surface 67 of the fixing element 8, the internal parts 48, 49 of the tongue and groove 36 and the lower flange 40, the orientation and the outer part 51 of the lower flange as well as the outer / lower portions 69, 70, 72 of the tongue. These should preferably deviate from the shape of the two circular arcs C1 and C2, and there may be spaces between all the parts except the upper support surfaces 43, 64

55 free, so that these parts in the fixed position as well as during inward angulation and upward angulation are not in contact with each other. This facilitates manufacturing significantly since these parts can be formed without large tolerance requirements and contributes to safely perform inward angulation and upward angulation and also less friction in connection with the lateral displacement of the joined boards along the VP junction plane (address D3). Free spaces are understood as joining parts that have no functional significance to avoid vertical or horizontal displacement along the joint edge in the fixed position. Therefore, loose wood fibers and small deformable contact points should be considered equivalent to free surfaces.

Angulation around the upper joint edge can, as mentioned above, be facilitated if the

The joining system is constructed in such a way that there is a reduced gap between, above all, said fixing surfaces 45, 65 if the joining edges of the boards are pressed together. The construction strike also facilitates the

lateral displacement in the fixed position, reduces the risk of cracking and gives greater degrees of freedom in manufacturing, allows angulation inward with fixing surfaces that have a greater inclination than the LP1 tangent and contribute to compensating the swelling of the edges of superior union. The strike gives considerably smaller junction spaces on the upper side of the boards and vertical displacements considerably 5 smaller than what a strike would do between the gear or support surfaces, especially since this strike is reduced and also due to to the fact that a sliding in the tensile load position will follow the angle of the lower support surface, that is, an angle that is essentially smaller than the fixing angle. This minimum gap, if any, between the fixing surfaces can be very small, for example of only 0.01mm. In the normal united position, the strike can be non-existent, that is, 0, the union system can be built

10 so that a strike appears only at maximum pressure along with the joining edges of the boards. It has been discovered that a large strike of about 0.05 mm will result in a high quality of joints, since the space between joints that must be in the HP surface plane and that may arise in the tensile load position is barely visible.

15 It should be noted that the joint system can be constructed if there is no gap between the fixing surfaces.

The gap and compression of the material between the fixing surfaces and the bending of the joint parts on the fixing surfaces can be easily measured indirectly by subjecting the joint system to a tensile load and measuring the joint space in the joints. upper joining edges 41, 61 at a predetermined load that 20 is less than the strength of the joining system. By resistance it is understood that the joint system does not break or does not break out. A suitable tensile load is approximately 50% of the resistance. As a non-limiting standard value, it can be mentioned that a long side joint should normally have a strength greater than 300kg per meter followed by joint. The joints of the short sides should have an even greater resistance. A parquet floor with a suitable joining system according to the invention can withstand a tensile load of 1000 kg per 25 meter followed by joining. A high quality joint system should have a joint space at the upper joint edges 41, 61 of approximately 0.1-0.2 mm when subjected to a tensile load with approximately half of the maximum strength. The joint space should decrease when the load ceases. By varying the tensile load, the relationship between construction strike and material deformation can be determined. In the case of a lower tensile load, the joint space is essentially a measure of the strike of

30 construction. In case of a larger load, the joint space decreases due to the deformation of material. The joint system can also be constructed with a tension and an integrated pressure adjustment between the fixing surfaces and the support surfaces, so that the aforementioned joint space is not visible in the case of the aforementioned load.

35 The geometry of the joint system, the gap between the fixing surfaces in combination with the compression of the material around the upper joint edges 41, 61 can also be measured by sawing the joint transversely of the joint edge. As the joint system is manufactured with linear work, it will have the same profile along its entire joint edge. The only exception is manufacturing tolerances in the form of lack of parallelism due to the fact that the board can be optionally rotated or moved vertically or horizontally as it passes

40 for different milling tools in the machine. Seen perpendicularly, the two samples of each joint edge, however, give a very reliable picture of the appearance of the joint system. After grinding the samples and cleaning them of loose fibers so that a sharp joint profile is visible, they can be analyzed with regard to joint geometry, material compression, bending, etc. The two parts of joints can, for example, be compressed by means of a resistance such that it does not damage the joint system, especially the joint edges.

45 superior 41, 61. The gap between the fixing surfaces and the joint geometry can then be measured in a measuring microscope with an accuracy of 0.01 mm or less depending on the equipment. If stable and modern machines are used in their manufacture, it is a sufficient norm to measure the profile in two smaller areas of a floor board to determine the average clearance, the geometry of joints, etc.

50 All measurements can take place when the floorboards are conditioned to a normal relative humidity of approximately 45%.

Also in this case, the fixing element or the upwardly directed portion 8 of the tongue has an orientation part 66. The orientation part of the fixing element comprises parts with an inclination lower than the

55 inclination of the fixing surface and, in this case, also the inclination of the tangent TL1. A suitable degree of inclination of the tool that produces the fixing surface 45 is indicated with Ta2 which in this embodiment is equal to the tangent TL1.

Also, the fixing surface 45 of the tongue and groove has an orientation part 44 that co-acts with the part of

60 orientation 66 of the tongue during angulation inwards. Also, this orientation part 44 comprises parts that have a lower inclination than the fixing surface.

On the front of the lower flange 40, there is a rounded orientation part 51, which co-acts with the radius at the bottom of the tongue in connection with the lower engagement surface 71 at point P7 and which facilitates the

65 angulation inwards.

The bottom flange 40 may be elastic. In connection with angulation inwards, a small degree of compression of the contact points between the lower parts of the tongue 38 and the lower flange can also occur

40. As a rule, this compression is significantly smaller than may be the case for fixing surfaces since the lower flange 40 may have considerably better resilience properties than the flange

Top 5 39 and tongue 38, respectively. In connection with angulation inwards and angulation upwards, the flange can therefore be folded down. A bending capacity of simply one tenth of a millimeter or more gives, together with the compression material and the reduced contact surfaces, good opportunities to form, for example, the lower support surfaces 50, 71, so that they can have an inclination that is smaller than the tangent TL2 while, at the same time, an inward angulation can easily be performed. A flexible flange should be combined with a relatively high fixing angle. If the fixing angle is low, a large amount of the tensile strength will press the flange down, which will result in spaces of undesirable joints and differences in level between the joint edges.

Both the tongue and groove 36 and the tongue 38 have orientation parts 42, 51 and 68, 70 that orient the tongue 15 to the groove and facilitate the engagement and angulation inwards.

Figure 25 illustrates variants that are not part of the invention but useful for understanding the invention, where the lower flange 40 is shorter than the upper flange 39 and is therefore positioned at a distance from the vertical plane VP. The advantage is that there will be greater degrees of freedom when designing the fixing groove 45 with a high tool angle TA while, at the same time, relatively large tools can be used. To facilitate the engagement by bending down the lower flange 40, the tongue and groove 36 has been made deeper than necessary for the space of the tip of the tongue 38. The binding edge portion 4b indicated in bold shows how the parts of the system they are related to each other in connection with the inward angulation around the edge of the upper joint, while the discontinuous joint edge portion 4b shows how the parts of the system are related to each other in

25 connection with the tongue engagement in the tongue and groove by the movement of the joining edge portion 4b towards the joining edge portion 4a.

Figure 26 shows another variant of the basic principles mentioned above, which is not part of the present invention but which is useful for understanding the invention. The joining system is here formed by fixing surfaces that are angled at 90 ° to the HP surface plane and that are considerably more angled than the tangent TL1. However, this fixing system can be opened by upward angulation if the fixing surfaces are extremely small and by the attachment of joints essentially only by line contact. If the core is hard, such a fixing system can give great resistance. The design of the fixing element and the fixing surfaces allows the engagement with only a small degree of bending down the bottom flange, as indicated by

35 dashed lines.

Figures 27a-c show a procedure for inward angulation placement. For ease of description, one board is called a slot board and the other is a tongue board. In practice, the boards are identical. A possible placement procedure implies that the tongue board remains flat on the ground either as a loose board or joined with other boards on one, two or three sides, depending on where it is located in the sequence / row of placement. The groove board is located with its upper flange 39 partly over the outer part of the tongue 38, so that the upper joining edges are in contact with each other. Next, the groove board is turned downwards towards the subfloor while being pressed against the connecting edge of the tongue board until the final fixation takes place, according to figure 27c.

45 The sides of the floorboards sometimes have a certain degree of bending. The groove board is then pressed and turned down until parts of the upper flange 39 are in contact with parts of the upwardly directed portion or the fixing element 8 of the tongue and parts of the lower flange 40 are in contact with parts from the bottom of the tongue. In this way, any bending of the sides can be made straight, and then the boards can be angled to their final position and fixed.

Figures 27a-c show that inward angulation can take place with free space or alternatively only in contact between the upper part of the tongue and groove or with line contact between the upper and lower parts of the tongue and the tongue and groove. The line contact may in this embodiment arise at the points

55 P4 and P7. Inward angulation can easily take place without considerable resistance and can end with a very strong fit that fixes the floorboards in the final position with high quality of joints vertically and horizontally.

In short, down angulation can, in practice, be carried out as follows. The groove board moves at an angle to the tongue board, passing the tongue and groove over part of the tongue. The groove board is pressed towards the tongue board and gradually angled down using, for example, compression in the center of the board and, after that, on both edges. When the upper joining edges throughout the board are close to each other or in contact with each other, and the board has taken a certain angle to the subfloor, the final downward angulation can be performed.

65 When the boards have been joined, they can be moved to the position fixed in the joint direction, that is, parallel to the joint edge.

Figures 28a-c show how a tongue corresponding to the tongue board can be carried out in the groove board.

5 Figures 29a-b show the joint fitting. When the boards move towards each other horizontally, the tongue is oriented to the groove. During continuous compression, the lower flange 40 bends and the fixing element 8 presses in the fixing groove or the guide 35. It should be noted that the preferred joining system shows the basic principles of the engagement, where the lower flange is flexible. The joining system must, of course, be adjusted to the material bending capacity and the depth of the tongue and groove 36, the height of the fixing element 8 and the thickness of the lower flange 40 and should be sized to make the fitting feasible. The basic principles of a joint system according to the invention that is more convenient for use with materials with a lower degree of flexibility and bending capacity will be apparent from the following description and Figure 34.

The described placement procedures can optionally be used on all four sides and combined with each other. 15 After placing one side, lateral displacement usually takes place in the fixed position.

In some cases, for example in connection with the angulation into the short side as the first operation, an upward angulation of two boards usually takes place. Figure 30 shows a first board 1 and a second board angled upwards 2a and a new third board angled upwards 2b which on its short side is already joined with the second board 2b. After the new board 2b has been displaced laterally along the short side of the second board 2a in the angled up position and fixed on the short side, the two boards 2a and 2b can be angled down together and fixed in the long side to the first board 1. For this procedure to work, it is necessary that the new board 2b can be inserted with its tongue into the tongue and groove when the board is moved parallel to the second board 2a and when the second board 2a has a part of its

25 tongue partially inserted in the tongue and groove and when its upper joint edge is in contact with the upper joint edge of the first board 1. Figure 30 shows that the joint system can be made with such a design of the tongue and groove, tongue and tongue element. Fixing that this is possible.

All placement procedures require movement to the fixed position. An exception to lateral displacement in the fixed position is the case where several boards are joined on their short sides, after which a whole row is placed simultaneously. This is not, however, a rational placement procedure.

Figures 31a, 31b show part of a floor board with a combination joint that is not part of the present invention but useful for the understanding of the invention. The tongue and groove 36 and the tongue 38 can be formed according to one of the preceding embodiments. The groove board has on its lower side a known table 6 with a fixing element 8b and a fixing surface 10. The tongue side has a fixing groove 35 according to a known embodiment. In this embodiment which is not part of the invention, the fixing element 8b with its relatively large orientation part 9 will function as an extra orientation during the first part of the angulation inwards and significantly facilitates the first part of the angulation towards inside when the location takes place and any form of "banana" is straightened. The fixing element 8b causes the automatic placement and compression of the floor boards until the orientation part of the tongue is engaged with the fixing groove 35 and final fixing can take place. The placement is greatly facilitated, and the joint will be very strong by coercion of the two fixing systems. This union is very convenient for joining large floor areas, particularly in public rooms. In the example shown, table 6 has been attached to the groove side,

45 but can also be attached to the tongue side. The location of table 6 is optional, therefore. In addition, the joint can be fitted and angled upwards and moved laterally to the fixed position.

Of course, this joint can optionally be used in different variants on both the long and short sides, and can optionally be combined with all the joint variants described herein and with other known systems.

A convenient combination that is not part of the invention is a short side pressure system without an aluminum board. This may, in some cases, facilitate manufacturing. A table joined after manufacturing also has the advantage that it can also be part of or even the entire lower flange 40. This gives great degrees of freedom to form, with cutting tools, for example the upper flange 39 and form fixing surfaces. with

55 high fixing angles. The fixing system according to this embodiment that is not part of the invention can, of course, be pressable, and can also be manufactured with an optional width of the table, for example with a table 6 that does not protrude outside the part external of the upper flange 39, as is the case in the embodiment according to figure 50. The table does not need to be continuous over the entire length of the joint, but must consist of several small portions that are joined with space between them in the Long side and on the short side.

The fixing element 8b and its fixing groove 35 can be formed with different angles, heights and radii that can be optionally selected, so as to prevent separation and / or facilitate angulation inwards or embedded.

Figures 32a-d illustrate in four stages how inward angulation can be performed according to an embodiment that is not part of the invention. The wide board 6 allows the tongue 38 to be easily placed on the board at the beginning of the inward angulation. Then, the tongue can, in connection with the angulation downwards, slide essentially automatically in the tongue and groove 36. The corresponding placement can be done by inserting the table 6 under the tongue board. All placement functions that have been described above can also be used on floorboards with this combination system

5 preferred.

Figures 33 and 34 show a specific binding system for production and optimization that is not part of the present invention but useful for understanding the invention for especially a floor board with a wooden core. Figure 33 shows how the long side can be formed. In this case, the joint system is optimized with respect to, above all, inward angulation, upward angulation and a small amount of material loss. Figure 34 shows how the short side can be formed. In this case, the joining system that is not part of the invention is optimized with respect to fit and high strength. The differences are as follows. The tongue 38 and the fixing element of the short side 5a are longer, measured in the horizontal plane. This gives a greater shear strength in the fixing element 8. The tongue and groove 36 is deeper in the short side 5b, which

15 which contributes to the lower flange bending down greatly. The fixing element 8 is on the lower short side 5a in the vertical direction, which reduces the requirement of bending down the lower flange in connection with the pressure. The fixing surfaces 45, 65 have a greater fixing angle and the lower engagement surfaces have a lower angle. The orientation portions of the long side 4a, 4b of the fixing element and the fixing groove are larger for optimum orientation, while, at the same time, the contact surface between the fixing surfaces is smaller since the requirements of Resistance are less than for the short side. The joining systems on the long and short side can consist of different materials or material properties on the upper flange, lower flange and tongue and these properties can be adjusted to help optimize the different properties that are desired for the long side and the short side, respectively, in terms of performance and resistance.

Figure 35 shows in detail how the floor board joint system can be formed on the long side, whose system is not part of the invention. The principles described herein can, of course, be used both on the long side and on the short side. Only the parts that have not been discussed in detail above will be described essentially below.

The fixing surfaces 45, 65 have an HLA angle that is greater than the tangent TL1. This gives a greater horizontal fixing resistance. This overflexion should be adjusted to the core wood material and optimized with respect to compression and flexural stiffness so that angulation inward and angulation outward can still occur. The contact surfaces of the fixing surfaces should be minimized and adjusted to the properties

35 of the core.

When the boards are joined, a small part, preferably less than half of the extension of the fixing element in the vertical direction, constitutes the contact surfaces of the fixing element 8 and the fixing slot 14. The main part constitutes rounded parts , inclined or bent for orientation which, in the joined position and during angulation inwards and angulation upwards, are not in contact with each other.

The inventor has discovered that very small contact surfaces in relation to the thickness of the floor T between the fixing surfaces 45, 65 of, for example, a few tenths of a millimeter can result in a very high fixing resistance and that this fixing resistance can overcome the shear resistance of the

45 fixing element in the horizontal plane (ie the HP surface plane). This can be used to provide fixing surfaces with an angle that exceeds the tangent TL1.

In this case, the fixing surfaces 45, 65 are flat and parallel. This is advantageous especially as regards the fixing surface 55 of the fixing groove. If the tool is displaced in parallel with the fixing surface 45, this will not affect the vertical distance to the joint plane VP and it is easier to provide a high quality of joint. Of course, small deviations from the shape of the plane can give equivalent results.

Correspondingly, the lower support surfaces 50, 71 have been made essentially flat and with an angle VLA2 which in this case is larger than the tangent line TL2 to the point P7 which is located on the surface of

55 support 71 closest to the lower part of the tongue and groove. This causes an inward angulation with free space during essentially all angular movement. Also, the support surfaces 50, 71 are relatively small in relation to the thickness of the floor T. These support surfaces facilitate manufacturing according to the principles described above.

The support surfaces 50, 71 can also be made at angles smaller than the angle of inclination of the tangent TL2. In this case, the angulation can take place in part by means of a certain degree of compression of material and bending into the lower flange 40. If the lower support surfaces 50, 71 are small in relation to the thickness of the floor T, the possibilities of forming the surfaces with angles that are greater and smaller, respectively, than the tangent TL1 and TL2, respectively, increase.

65 Figure 36 shows the upward angulation of a board having a geometry according to Figure 35 and whose fixing surfaces have a greater inclination than the tangent TL1 and whose support surfaces have a lower inclination than the tangent TL2 while, at At the same time, these surfaces are relatively small. The overlap at points P4 and P7 in connection with the angulation inwards and the angulation upwards will then be extremely small. The point P4 can be angled depending on a combination of the material that

5 is being compressed at the upper joining edges K1, K2 and at the point P4, K3, K4 while, at the same time, the upper flange 39 and the tongue 38 can bend in the direction B1 and B2 from the contact point P4 The bottom flange can bend down away from the contact point P7 in the direction B3.

The upper support surfaces 43, 64 are preferably perpendicular to the joint plane VP. The making

10 is significantly facilitated if the upper and lower support surfaces are parallel to the plane and preferably horizontal.

Reference is made once again to Figure 35, which is not part of the invention. Circular arc C1 shows, for example, that the upper support surfaces can be formed in many different ways within this arc.

15 circulate C1 without this interfering with the possibilities of angulation and pressure. In the same way, the circular arc C2 shows that the internal parts of the tongue and groove and the external parts of the tongue according to the previously preferred principles can be formed in many different ways without this interfering with the possibilities of angulation and pressure.

20 The upper flange 39 is, by its entire length, thicker than the lower flange 40. This is advantageous from the standpoint of resistance. In addition, this is advantageous in connection with parquet floors, which as a result may be formed with a thicker surface layer of a hard type of wood.

S1-S5 indicate areas where joint surfaces on both sides should not be in contact with each other at least

25 in the joined position, but preferably also during inward angulation. A contact between the tongue and the tongue and groove in these areas S1-S5 contributes only marginally to improve the fixation in the D1 direction and hardly to improve the fixation in the D2 direction at all. However, a contact prevents inward angulation and lateral displacement, causes unnecessary tolerance problems in connection with manufacturing and increases the risk of cracking and unwanted effects when the boards swell.

30 The tool angle TA, which is indicated in TA4 in figure 38d, forms the fixing surface 44 of the guide 35 and operates at the same angle as the angle of the fixing surface, and the part of this tool that is placed inside the vertical plane towards the tongue and groove, it has a width perpendicular to the tool angle TA which is indicated by TT. The angle TA and the width TT partially determine the possibilities of forming the external parts

35 52 of the bottom flange 40.

A plurality of proportions and angles are important for an optimum manufacturing process, function, cost and strength.

40 The extension of contact surfaces should be minimized. This reduces friction and facilitates movement to the fixed position, angulation inward and embedded, simplifies manufacturing and reduces the risk of swelling and cracking problems. In the preferred example, less than 30% of the surface portions of the tongue 38 constitute contact surfaces with the tongue and groove 36. The contact surfaces of the fixing surfaces 65, 45 are in this embodiment only 2% of the soil thickness T, and the lower support surfaces have an area of

Contact which is only 10% of the floor thickness T. As mentioned above, the fixing system has in this embodiment a plurality of parts S1-S5 that constitute free surfaces without contact with each other. The space between these free surfaces and the rest of the joining system may, within the scope of the invention, be filled with glue, sealing agent, impregnation of different types, lubricant and the like. Free surfaces are understood herein as the shape of the surfaces in the joint system obtained in connection with the

50 worked through the respective cutting tools.

If the joint has a tight fit, the fixing surfaces 65, 45 can prevent horizontal separation even when they have an HLA angle to the horizontal plane HP that is greater than zero. The tensile strength of the joint system, however, increases significantly when this fixing angle increases in size and when there is a

55 difference in angle between the fixing angle HLA of the fixing surfaces 45, 65 and the engagement angle VLA2 of the lower support surfaces 50, 71, provided that this angle is smaller. If high strength is not required, the fixing surfaces may be formed by low angles and small differences in angle to the lower engagement surfaces.

60 In order to obtain a good quality of joints in floating floors, the HLA fixing angle and the angle difference to the lower support surfaces HLA-VLA2 must as a rule be about 20º. An even better resistance is obtained if the HLA fixing angle and the HLA-VLA2 angle difference is, for example, 30 °. In the preferred example according to Figure 35, the fixing angle is 50 ° and the angle of the support surfaces is 20 °. As shown in previous embodiments, the joining systems according to the invention can be formed with fixing angles and

65 differences in even greater angles.

A large number of tests with different fixing angles and gear angles have been performed. These tests demonstrate that it is possible to form a high quality joint system with fixing angles between 40º and 55º and with support surface angles between 0º and 25º. It should be noted that other relationships may result in satisfactory operation.

5 The horizontal extension PA of the tongue should exceed 1/3 of the thickness T of the floor board, and should preferably be approximately 0.5 * T. As a general rule, this is necessary for a strong fixing element 8 with an orientation part that must be formed and for sufficient material to be available on the upper flange 39 between the fixing surface 65 and the vertical plane VP.

The horizontal extension PA of the tongue 38 should be divided into two essentially equal parts PA1 and PA2, where PA1 should constitute the fixing element and the main part of PA2 should constitute the support surface

64. The horizontal extension PA1 of the fixing element should not be less than 0.2 times the thickness of the floor. The upper support surface 64 should not be too large, especially on the long side of the floor board. From

Otherwise, the friction in connection with the lateral displacement may be too high. To allow rational manufacturing, the depth G of the tongue and groove should be 2% deeper than the projection of the tongue PA from the joint plane VP. The smaller distance of the upper flange to the floor surface adjacent to the fixing groove 35 should be greater than the smaller distance of the lower flange between the lower support surface 71 and the rear side of the floor board. The width of the TT tool should exceed 0.1 times the thickness of the floor T.

Figures 37a-c illustrate a floor board according to the invention. This embodiment specifically shows that the short side joint system may consist of different materials and combinations of materials 30b and 30c and that these may also differ from the long side joint material 30. For example, the tongue and groove part 36 of the short sides may consist of a harder and more flexible wood material than, for example, the tongue part

25 38, which can be hard and rigid and have other properties than the long side core. On the short side, with the tongue and groove 36, it is possible to select, for example, a type of wood 30b that is more flexible than the type of wood 30c on the other short side where the tongue is formed. This is particularly convenient in parquet floors with a laminar core where the upper and lower sides consist of different types of wood and the core consists of blocks that have been glued together. This construction gives greater possibilities to vary the composition of materials in order to optimize performance, resistance and production costs.

It is also possible to vary the material along the entire length of one side. Therefore, for example the blocks that are located between the two short sides can be of different types of wood or materials, so that some of them can be selected with respect to their contribution to the appropriate properties that improve the placement, the

35 resistance, etc. Different properties with different fiber orientation on the short and long sides can also be obtained, and plastic materials can also be used on the short sides and, for example, on different parts of the long side. If the floor board or parts of its core consist of, for example, plywood with several layers, these layers can be selected so that the upper flange, the tongue and the lower flange on the long side and the short side can have all parts with a different composition of materials, fiber orientation, etc. They can give different properties in terms of resistance, flexibility, working capacity, etc.

Figures 38a-d show a manufacturing process that is not part of the present invention. In the embodiment shown, the manufacturing of the connecting edge and the tongue and groove takes place in four stages. The tools used have a tool diameter that exceeds the thickness of the soil. The tools are used to

45 form a guide groove with a high fixing angle in a tongue and groove with a bottom flange, which extends beyond the guide groove.

In order to simplify the understanding and comparison with the joining systems described above, the edges of the boards are illustrated with the board surface facing up. Normally, the boards are, however, placed with their surface directed downwards during the work.

The first tool TP1 is a rough cutter that operates at an angle TA1 to the horizontal plane. The second tool TP2 can operate horizontally and forms the upper and lower support surfaces. The third tool TA3 can operate essentially vertically, but also at an angle and forms the upper joint edge.

55 The most important tool is the TP4 tool, which forms the outer part of the fixing groove and its fixing surface. TA4 corresponds to TA in Figure 35. As is evident from Figure 38d, this tool removes only a minimal amount of material and essentially forms the fixing surface at a high angle. So that the tool does not break, it should be formed with a wide part that extends outward from the vertical plane. In addition, the amount of material that must be removed should be as small as possible to reduce wear and tension in the tool. This is achieved with an appropriate angle and design of the TP1 rough cutter.

Therefore, this manufacturing process is especially characterized in that it requires at least two cutting tools operating at two different angles to form a guide fixing groove 35 at the top of the

65 tongue and groove 36. The tongue and groove can be done using even more tools, using the tools in a different order.

Next, the description is intended in detail to the process for forming a tongue and groove 36 on a floor board, which has an upper side 2 in an HP surface plane and a joining edge portion 4a with a perpendicularly directed VP joint plane to the upper side. The tongue and groove extends from the joint plane 4a and 5 is defined by two flanges 39, 40 each having a free outer end. In at least one flange, the tongue and groove has a recess 35 comprising a fixing surface 45 and is located farther from the joint plane VP than the free outer end 52 of the other flange. According to the procedure, the work is carried out by means of a plurality of rotating cutting tools having a diameter greater than the thickness T of the floor board. In the procedure, the cutting tools and the floor board are made to perform a relative movement 10 with each other and parallel to the joining edge of the floor board. What characterizes the procedure is 1) that the guide is formed by means of at least two such cutting tools, which have a rotating axis inclined at different angles to the upper side 2 of the floor board; 2) that a first of these tools is driven to form portions of the groove away from the joint plane VP than the fixing surface 45 of the target groove; and 3) that a second of these tools is actuated to form the fixing surface 45 of the guide groove. The first of these tools

15 is actuated with its rotating axis established at an angle greater than the upper side 2 of the floor board of what is said second of these tools. The lower flange 40 can be formed so that it extends beyond the joint plane VP. The lower flange 40 may also be formed so that it extends to the joint plane VP.

The first of the tools can, according to one embodiment, be operated with its rotating axis set to

20 an angle of at least 85 ° of the HP surface plane. The second of the tools can, according to one embodiment, be driven with its rotating axis set at an angle of at most 60 ° to the HP surface plane. In addition, the tools can be made to engage the floor board in order depending on the angle of its rotating axis to the HP surface plane, so that tools with a greater angle of the rotating axis are made to machine the floor board before tools with a smaller angle of the rotating shaft.

In addition, a third of the tools can be operated to form the lower parts of the tongue and groove 36. This third tool can be brought into contact with the floor board between said first and said second of the tools. The third tool can also be operated with its rotating axis set at an angle of approximately 90 ° to the HP surface plane.

In addition, the first of the tools can be operated to work a wider surface portion of the joining edge portion 4a of the floor board than said second of the tools. The second of the tools can be formed such that its surface that faces the surface plane HP is profiled for the reduction of the thickness of the tool, seen in parallel with the rotating axis, within the portions radially

35 external tool. In addition, at least three of the tools can be operated with different rotational axis predetermines to form the tongue and groove guide parts. The tools can be used to work a wooden floor board or wood fiber based material.

Figure 39 shows how a joint system can be formed to allow compensation for swelling. Dice

40 that the relative humidity increases with the change between cold and warm weather, the surface layer 32 swells and the floor boards 4a and 4b separate. If the joint has no flexibility, the joint edges 41 and 61 can be crushed

or the fixing element 8 can break. This problem can be solved if the joint system is constructed to obtain the following properties that, separately and in combination, contribute to a reduction of the problem.

The joining system can be formed so that the floorboards have a small gap when the joining edges are pressed together horizontally, for example, in connection with the production and at a normal relative humidity. A strike of a few hundred millimeters contributes to a reduction of the problem. A negative strike, that is, initial tension, can give the opposite effect.

50 If the contact surface between the fixing surfaces 45, 65 is small, the joining system can be formed such that the fixing surfaces are compressed more easily than the upper joining edges 41, 61. The fixing element 8 it can be formed with a groove 64a between the fixing surface and the upper horizontal support surface 64. With a suitable design of the tongue 38 and the fixing element 8, the outer part 69 of the tongue can be folded out towards the part internal 48 of the tongue and groove and operates as an elastic element in

55 connection with swelling and shrinkage of surface layers.

In this embodiment, the lower fixing surfaces of the joint system are formed in parallel with the horizontal plane for maximum fixing verticality. It is also possible to obtain expandability by applying a compressible material between, for example, the two fixing surfaces 45, 65 or by selecting compressible materials

60 as materials for the tongue or groove part.

Figure 40 shows a joining system that is not part of the invention that has been optimized for great rigidity in the tongue 38. In this case, the outer part of the tongue is in contact with the inner part of the tongue and groove. If this contact surface is small and if the contact occurs without great compression, the

65 joint system can be movable to the fixed position.

Figure 41 shows a joint system where the lower support surfaces 50, 71 have two angles. The portions of the support surfaces outside the joint plane are parallel with the horizontal plane. Within the joint plane near the internal part of the tongue and groove, they have an angle corresponding to the tangent to the circular arc 32 which is tangent to the innermost edge of the support surface parts engaging each other. The surfaces of

5 fixing have a relatively low fixing angle. The strength may still be sufficient since the lower flange 40 can be made hard and rigid and since the difference in angle is large in the parallel part of the lower support surfaces 50, 71. In this embodiment, the surfaces of support 45, 65 also serve as upper support surfaces. The joining system does not have superior support surfaces in addition to the fixing surfaces which, therefore, also prevent vertical separation.

10 Figures 42a and 42b show a joint system that is convenient for fixing the short side and which can have a great tensile strength also in softer materials since the fixing element 8 has a large horizontal surface that dampens the shear . The tongue 38 has a lower part that is located outside the circular arc C2 and, therefore, does not follow the basic principle described above of the inward angulation. Such

15 as is evident in Figure 42b, the joint system can still be released by angulation upwards around the upper joint edges since the fixing element 8 of the tongue 38, after carrying out the first operation of upward angulation, you can exit the tongue and groove being horizontally pulled. The principles described above for inward angulation and upward angulation around the upper joint edges should therefore be adhered to allow upward angulation until the joint system can be

20 released in some other way, for example, being pulled or in combination with extraction when the bottom flange 40 is being folded.

Figures 43a-c show the basic principle of how the lower part of the tongue should be formed in relation to the lower flange 40 to facilitate horizontal engagement according to an embodiment that is not part of the invention in a joint system with grooves of fixation on a rigid upper flange 39 and with a flexible lower flange 40. In this embodiment, the upper flange 39 is significantly stiffer, among others due to the fact that it may be thicker or may consist of harder materials and more rigid The lower flange 40 may be thinner and softer and, in connection with the engagement, the essential bending will therefore take place in the lower flange 40. The engagement may be significantly facilitated, among other things, because the maximum bending of the lower flange 40 It is limited as much as possible. Figure 43a shows that the bending of the lower flange 40 will increase to a maximum bending level B1 which is characterized in that the tongue 38 is so inserted in the tongue and groove 36 that the rounded orientation portions will come into contact with each other. When the tongue 38 is further inserted, the lower flange 49 will bend backwards until the engagement is completed and the fixing element 8 is completely inserted in its final position in the fixing slot 35. The lower and front part 49 of the tongue 38 should be designed so that it does not bend down the lower flange 40 which, instead, should be forced down by the lower support surface 50. This part 49 of the tongue should have a shape that touches or it moves away from the maximum bending level of the lower flange 40 when this lower flange 40 bends around the outer part of the lower engagement surface 50 of the tongue 38. If the tongue 38 has a shape that in this position overlaps the lower flange 40, indicated with the dashed line 49b, the bending B2 according to figure 43b may be significantly larger. This can

40 cause great friction in connection with the engagement and a risk of damage to the joint. Figure 43c shows that the maximum bending may be limited by the tongue groove 36 and the tongue 38 being designed such that there is a space S4 between the lower and outer part 49 of the tongue and the lower flange 40.

Horizontal fitting is, as a general rule, used in connection with the short side fitting after fixing the

45 long side. When the long side is fitted, it is also possible to press the joint system according to the invention with a board in an angled position slightly upwards. This upward angled pressure position is shown in Figure 44. Only a small bend B3 of the lower flange 40 is necessary for the orientation part 66 of the fixing element to come into contact with the orientation part 44 of the fixing slot. , so that the fixing element can then be inserted into the fixing groove 35 by downward angulation.

50 Figures 45-50 show different variants that can be used on the long or short side and that can be manufactured using large rotating cutting tools. With modern manufacturing technology, it is possible to form complicated shapes according to the invention by working board materials at low cost. It should be noted that most of the geometries shown in these and the preferred figures above can, of course, be formed for example by

Extrusion, but this procedure is usually considerably more expensive than the one worked and it is not convenient to form most of the board materials normally used in the floors.

Figures 45a and 45b show a fastening system that is not part of the invention where the outer part of the tongue 38 has been formed to be able to bend. This folding capacity has been obtained by splitting the tip of the

60 tongue During engagement, the bottom flange 40 bends down and the outer bottom of the tongue 38 bends up.

Figures 46a and 46b show a fixing system that is not part of the invention with a split tongue. During engagement, the two parts of the tongue are bent towards each other while, at the same time, the two

65 flanges bend away from each other.

These two joining systems that are not part of the invention are such that they allow angulation in and out, respectively, for fixation and disassembly.

Figures 47a and 47b show a combination joint that is not part of the invention where a separate part

5 40b constitutes an extended part of the lower flange and where this part can be elastic. The joint system can be angled. The lower flange, which constitutes part of the core, is formed with its support surface so that the engagement can take place without the need to bend this flange. Simply, the extended separate part, which can be made of aluminum foil, is elastic. The joining system can also be formed so that both sides of the flange are elastic.

Figures 48a and 48b show the engagement of a combination joint that is not part of the invention with a bottom flange consisting of two parts, where simply the separate flange constitutes the support surface. This connection system can be used, for example, on the short side together with some other connection systems according to the invention. The advantage of this joining system is that, for example, the fixing groove 35 can be formed with high

15 degrees of freedom rationally and using great cutting tools. After the work, the outer flange 40b is joined, and its shape does not affect the possibilities of working. The external flange 40b is elastic and has no fixing element in its embodiment. Another advantage is that the joining system allows the joining of extremely fine core materials since the bottom flange can be made very thin. The core material can be, for example, a thin compact laminate and the upper and lower layer can be relatively thick layers of, for example, cork or soft plastic material, which can give a soft and soundproof floor. Using this technology, it is possible to join core materials with a thickness of approximately 2 mm compared to normal core materials which, as a general rule, are not thicker than 7 mm. The thickness savings that can be achieved can be used to increase the thickness of the other layers. It is obvious that this joint can also be used with thicker materials.

Figures 49, showing an embodiment that is not part of the invention, and 50 show two variants of combination joints that can be used, for example, on the short side in combination with other preferred systems. The combination joint according to figure 49, which is not part of the invention, can be made in an embodiment where the table constitutes an extended elastic part of the tongue, and the system will then have a function similar to that of figure 45 Figure 50 shows that this combination joint can be formed with a fastener 8b on the outer bottom flange 40b which is located within the joint plane.

Figures 51a-f show a placement procedure that is not part of the present invention and that may

35 used to join floorboards by a combination of horizontal approach, upward angulation, fitted in the angled up position and downward angulation. This placement procedure can be used for floor boards according to the invention, but it can also be used in optional mechanical bonding systems on floors with such properties so that the placement procedure can be applied. To simplify the description, the placement procedure is shown by a board, called a slot board, that joins with the other board, called a tongue board. The boards are in practice identical. It is obvious that the entire positioning sequence can also be performed by joining the tongue side with the groove side in the same way.

A tongue board 4a with a tongue 38 and a groove board 4b with a tongue and groove 36 are in the

45 starting position placed flat on a subfloor according to figure 51a. The tongue 38 and the tongue and groove 36 have fixing means with vertical and horizontal separation present. Subsequently, the groove board 4b is moved horizontally in the direction F1 towards the tongue board 4a until the tongue 38 is in contact with the tongue and groove 36 and until the upper and lower parts of the tongue are partially inserted in the tongue and groove according to Figure 51b This first operation forces the joining edge portions of the boards to take the same relative vertical position for the entire longitudinal extension of the board and, therefore, any difference in the arched shape will be resolved.

If the groove board moves toward the tongue board, the joining edge portion of the groove board will be slightly raised in this position. The slot board 4b is then angled upwards with a

Angular movement S1 while, at the same time, it is held in contact with the tongue board or alternatively is pressed in the direction F1 towards the tongue board 4a according to Figure 51c. When the groove board 4b reaches an angle SA to the subsoil corresponding to an upwardly angled pressure position, according to the above description and as shown in Figure 44, the groove board 4b can move towards the tongue board 4a so that the upper joining edges 41, 61 come into contact with each other and so that the tongue fixing means are partially inserted in the tongue and groove fixing means by means of a pressure function.

This pressure function in the angled up position is characterized in that the external parts of the tongue and groove widen and go backwards. The widening is essentially smaller than what is required in connection with the embedded in the horizontal position. The angle of pressure SA depends on the force with which the boards are brought together in connection with the upward angulation of the groove board 4b. Yes resistance

Pressure in the F1 direction is high, the boards will fit with a smaller angle SA than if the force is low. The engagement position is also characterized in that the orientation portions of the fixing means are in contact with each other so that they can carry out their engagement function. If the boards are shaped like a banana, they will be straightened and fixed in connection with the fitting. Slot board 4b can now, with a movement

5 angular S2 combined with pressure towards the joining edge, be angled downwards according to figure 51e and fixed against the tongue board in its final position. This is illustrated in Figure 51f.

Depending on the construction of the joint, it is possible to determine with great accuracy the pressure angle SA that provides the best function with regard to the requirement that the engagement should take place with a reasonable amount of force and that the orientation parts of The block means should be in such gear that they can have any form of banana, so that a final fixation can occur without risk of damage to the system.

The floor boards can, according to the preferred placement procedure, be installed without any help.

In some cases, the installation can be facilitated if it is carried out with the appropriate support means according to figures 52a and 52b. A preferred aid means according to an aspect that is not part of the present invention may be a bump or pressure block 80 that is designed to have a front and bottom portion 81 that angles the groove board up when inserted under the portion of edge of the floor board. It has an upper stop edge 82 which, in the angled up position, is in contact with the edge portion of the groove board. When the hit block 80 has been inserted under the groove board so that the abutment edge 82 is in contact with the floor board, the groove board will have the predetermined pressure angle. The tongue and groove of the groove board 4a can now be pressed with the tongue of the tongue board by pressing or knocking against the hitting fastener. Of course, the hitting fixation can move to different parts of the board. It is obvious that this can take place in combination with another pressure against the other parts of the

25 board, using a plurality of hit blocks and using different types of support means that can give a similar result where, for example, one help means angles the board up towards the angle of engagement and another is used to press it. The same procedure can be used if, instead, it is desired to angle up the groove side of the new board and join it with the tongue side of the board previously placed.

Next, the description will be directed to different aspects of a tool for laying floorboards. A tool for placing floor boards interconnecting a tongue and groove joint thereof can be designated as a block 80 with a engagement surface 82 to engage a joint edge 4a, 4b of the joint edge portion of the floor board. The tool can be formed as a wedge for insertion 35 under the floor board and have its engagement surface 82 arranged near the thick end of the wedge. The gear surface 82 of the tool may be concavely curved for at least partial inclusion of the joining edge 4a, 4b of the floor board. In addition, the wedge angle S1 of the wedge and the position of the engagement surface 82 in the thick portion of the wedge can be adjusted to obtain a predetermined elevation angle of a floor board when it is being raised with the wedge 80 and the joining edge of the floor board comes into contact with the engagement surface 82. The stop surface 82 of the wedge 80 may be formed to abut against a joint edge portion 4b having a tongue 38 directed obliquely upward to join a tongue and groove guide 36 formed in the opposite joint edge portion 4a of the floor board with the tongue 38 of a floor board placed previously. Alternatively, the abutment surface 82 of the wedge may be formed to abut against a joint edge portion 4a, which has a guide groove 36,

45 to join a tongue 38 directed obliquely upwardly and formed in the opposite joint edge portion 4b of the floor board.

The tool described above can be used for the mechanical bonding of floorboards by raising one floorboard with respect to another and joining and fixing the mechanical fastening systems of the floorboards. The tool can also be used to mechanically join such a floor board with another floor board of this type by pressing the mechanical fixing systems of the floor boards while the floor board is in its raised state. In addition, the tool can be used such that the engagement surface 82 of the wedge abuts against a joint edge portion 4b having a tongue 38 directed obliquely upwardly to join a guide groove 36 formed in the edge portion opposite junction 4a of the floor board with the

55 tab 38 of a previously placed floor board. Alternatively, the tool can be used such that the engagement surface 82 of the wedge abuts a connecting edge portion 4a having a guide groove 36, to be attached to a tongue 38 that is obliquely directed upwards and formed in the opposite joint edge portion 4b of the floor board with the guide groove 38 of a floor board placed previously.

Figure 53 shows that the boards 2a and 2b, after being joined with adjacent boards along the edge of the long side, can be moved to the position fixed in the direction F2 so that the union of the other two sides can be produced by a horizontal pressure

Embedding in the angled up position can take place on the long sides as well as on the short sides.

65 If the short side of a board has been joined first, its long side can also be fitted in the upward angled position by this board with its short side fixed at an angle so that it takes its pressure angle. Subsequently, the engagement takes place in the angled up position while, at the same time, the displacement to the fixed position along the short side takes place. After fitting the board is angled down and is fixed on its long side as well as on its short side.

In addition, Figures 53 and 54, of which Figure 54 is not part of the invention, describe a problem that may arise in connection with the engagement of two short sides of two boards 2a and 2b that have already been joined in their long sides with another first board 1. When the floor board 2a has to fit into the floor board 2b, the inner corner portions 91, 92, closer to the long side of the first board 1, are located in the same plane. This is due to the fact that the two boards 2a and 2b on their respective long sides are attached to the same floor board 1. According to Figure 54b, which shows section C3-C4, the tongue 38 cannot be inserted into the tongue and groove 36 to begin bending down the lower flange 40. In the outer corner portions 93, 94 on the other long side, in section C1-C2 shown in Figure 54a, the tongue 38 may be inserted into the groove 36 for Begin bending into the lower flange 40 as the board 2b is automatically angled upwards in correspondence with the height of the fixing element 8.

15 Therefore, the inventor has discovered that there may be problems in connection with the engagement of the inner corner portions in the lateral displacement in the same plane and that these problems can cause high resistance to the engagement and a risk of cracking in the system of Union. The problem can be solved by a suitable joint design and the choice of materials that allows the bending of deformation of materials in a plurality of portions of joints.

When fitting a specially designed connection system of this type, the following occurs. In lateral displacement, the outer orientation portions 42, 68 of the tongue and the upper flange coerce and force the fastener 8 of the tongue under the outer part of the upper flange 39. The tongue bends down and the flange 25 upper bends up. This is indicated by the arrows in Figure 54b. The corner portion 92 in Figure 53 is pressed up by bending the lower flange 40 on the long side of the board 2b and the corner portion 91 being pressed down, the upper flange being folded on the long side of the board 2a upwards. . The joint system should be constructed so that the sum of these four deformations is so large that the fixing element can slide along the upper flange and fit into the fixing groove. It is known that it should be possible for the tongue and groove 36 to widen in connection with the engagement. However, it is not known that it can be an advantage if the tongue that should normally be rigid should also be designed to be folded in connection with the engagement. Such an embodiment is shown in Figure 55. A groove or the like 63 can be made in the upper and lower part of the tongue within the vertical plane VP. The entire extension PB of the tongue from its internal part to its external part can be extended and can, by

For example, be more than half the thickness T of the soil.

Figures 56 and 57, which show embodiments that are not part of the invention, show how the parts of the joining system are folded in connection with the embedded in the inner corner portion 91, 92 (Figure 57) and the portion external corner 93, 94 (figure 56) of two floor boards 2a and 2b. To simplify manufacturing, only the thin flange and the tongue are bent. In practice, of course all the parts that are subjected to pressure will be compressed and folded to a varying degree depending on the thickness, the bending capacity, the composition of the materials, etc.

Figures 56a and 57a, which are not part of the invention, show the position when the edges of the boards

45 come into mutual contact. The joining system is constructed in such a way that even in this position, the outermost tip of the tongue 38 will be located inside the outer part of the lower flange 40. When the boards move more towards each other, the tongue 38 in the inner corner 91, 92 will press the board 2b upwards according to figures 56b, 57b. The tongue will be bent down and the board 2b in the outer corner 93, 94 will be angled upwards. Figure 57c shows that the tongue 38 in the inner corner 91, 92 will bend down. In the outer corner 93, 94 according to Fig. 56c, the tongue 38 is bent upwards and the bottom flange 40 is bent downwards. According to figures 56d, 57d, this bending continues when the boards move more towards each other, and now also the bottom flange 40 is folded in the inner corner 91, 92 according to figure 57d. Figures 56e, 57e show the embedded position. The fitting can therefore be significantly facilitated if the tongue 38 can be folded and if the outer part of the tongue is located inside the outer part of the flange

55 bottom 40 when the tongue and groove come into mutual contact when the boards are located in the same plane in connection with the engagement that takes place after the floor board has already been fixed along its other two sides.

Various variants may exist within the scope of the invention. The inventor has manufactured and evaluated a large number of variants in which the different parts of the joining system have been manufactured with different widths, lengths, thicknesses, angles and radii of a series of different materials of boards and panels of plastic and wood panels homogeneous. All joining systems have been tested in an upside down position and with pressure and angulation of tongue and groove boards with respect to each other and with different combinations of the systems described herein and also prior art systems on the long side and the short side . The fixing systems have been manufactured where the fixing surfaces are also upper gear surfaces, where the tongue and groove have had a plurality of fixing elements and fixing grooves, and where also the

Lower flange and the lower part of the tongue have been formed with horizontal fixing means in the form of fixing element and fixing groove.

Claims (50)

  1.  CLAIMS
    1. A floor covering system comprising a plurality of floor boards (1, 1 '), which can be mechanically joined in a joint plane (VP), each of said floor boards (1, 1' ) one core (30), one side
    5 front (2, 32), a rear side (34) and opposite joint edge portions (4a, 4b), of which one (4a) is formed as a tongue and groove (36) that is defined by upper and lower flanges (39, 40) and has a low end (48), and the other (4b) is formed as a tongue (38) with an upwardly directed portion (8) at its free outer end,
    having the tongue and groove (36), seen from the joint plane (VP), the shape of a guide groove (36) with an opening, an internal portion (35) and an internal fixing surface (45), and
    at least parts of the bottom flange (40) formed integrally with the core (30) of the floor board, and
    extending the bottom flange (40) to the joint plane (VP),
    15 the tongue (38) having a fixing surface (65) that is formed to co-act with the internal fixing surface (45) in the tongue and groove (36) of an adjacent floor board, when two such floor boards ( 1, 1 ') are mechanically connected, so that their front sides (4a, 4b) are located in the same surface plane (HP) and are in the joint plane (VP) directed perpendicular to it,
    The internal fixing surface (45) of the tongue and groove (36) is formed in the upper flange (39) within the guide portion (35) of the tongue and groove to co-act with the corresponding fixing surface (65) of the tongue (38) , fixing surface that is formed in the upwardly directed portion (8) of the tongue (38) to counteract the separation of two mechanically joined boards in a direction (D2) perpendicular to the joint plane (VP),
    25 the bottom flange (40) has a support surface (50) for coercing with a corresponding support surface
    (71) on the tongue (38) at a distance from the low end (48) of the guide groove, and the upper flange (39) has a support surface (43) to co-act with a corresponding support surface (64) on the tongue (38), said support surfaces being designed to coerce to counteract a relative displacement of two mechanically joined boards in a direction (D1) perpendicular to the surface plane (HP), each of the opposite joint edge portions (4a, 4b) has an upper joint edge portion (41, 61) to coerce each other along at least a portion of the joint plane (VP),
    all parts of the portions of the lower flange (40) that are connected to the core, viewed from point (C)
    35 where the surface plane (HP) and the joint plane (VP) intersect, are located outside a plane (LP2) that is located farther from said point than a fixing plane (LP1) that is parallel to it and that it is tangent to the fixing surfaces that co-act (45, 65) of the tongue and groove (36) and the tongue (38) where said fixing surfaces are more inclined relative to the surface plane (HP), and
    the upper (39) and lower flanges (40) and the tongue (38) of the joining edge portions (4a, 4b) are designed to allow the disconnection of two floor boards mechanically joined by the upward rotation of a board of ground relative to the other around a center of rotation (C) near a point of intersection between the surface plane (HP) and the joint plane (VP) for disconnecting the tongue (38) from a board of soil (1 ') and the tongue and groove
    (36) of the other floor board (1), and
    45 characterized in that the tongue and groove (36) and the tongue (38) are configured to obtain a space in the tongue and groove (36) beyond and along the entire extension of the outer end (69) of the tongue (38), and
    because, when two adjacent floor boards are mechanically joined, they only engage the following surfaces:
    the fixing surface (65) of the tongue (38) meshes on the internal fixing surface (45) in the tongue and groove (36), the support surfaces (64, 71) of the tongue (38) engage in the surfaces of support (43, 50) of the lower and upper flanges (39, 40), and the upper joining edge surfaces (41, 61) engage each other.
    A floor covering system as claimed in claim 1, characterized in that the upper (39) and lower (40) flanges and the tongue (38) of the joining edge portions (4a, 4b) they are designed to allow the joining of said two floor boards (1, 1 ') by one of said floor boards while the two floor boards are essentially in contact with each other, being turned down relative to each other around a center of rotation (C) near a point of intersection between the surface plane (HP) and the joint plane (VP) to join the tongue of a floor board with the tongue and groove of the other floor board.
  2. 3. A floor covering system as claimed in claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the guide groove (36) and the tongue (38) have a design such that one of said floor boards (1 ', 1) that is mechanically connected with a similar board is movable in one direction (D3) along the joint plane (VP).
  3. 4. A floor covering system as claimed in claim 1, 2 or 3, characterized in that the tongue (38) and the guide groove (36) are designed to allow connection and disconnection of one of said floor boards with and from another one of said floor boards rotating a floor board relative to each other while maintaining contact between the floor boards at a point (C) in the joint edge portions of the floor boards near to the intersection between the surface plane (HP) and the joint plane (VP).
  4. 5.
    A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the tongue (38) and the guide groove (36) are designed to allow the connection and disconnection of floor boards by rotating one of said floor boards relative to each other while maintaining contact between the boards at a point at the joint edge portions of the floor boards near the intersection between the surface plane (HP) and the joint plane (VP) without an essential contact between the side of the tongue (38) that is facing away from the surface plane (HP) and the bottom flange.
  5. 6.
    A floor covering system as claimed in any one of claims 1 to 4, characterized in that the tongue (38) and the guide groove (36) are designed to allow connection and disconnection
    15 of said floor boards (1, 1 ') by rotating one of said floor boards relative to the other while maintaining contact between the floor boards at a point in the joining edge portions of the floor boards near the floor intersection between the surface plane (HP) and the joint plane (VP) and essentially in line contact between the sides of the tongue (38) that are facing the surface plane (HP) and with their backs to the surface plane ( HP) and the upper (39) and lower (40) flange, respectively.
  6. 7. A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the distance between the fixing plane (LP2) and the plane (LP1) parallel thereto, outside of which all parts of The portions of the lower flange (40) that are connected to the core (30) are located, is at least 10% of the thickness (T) of the floor board.
  7. 8.
    A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the fixing surfaces (45, 65) of the upper flange (39) and the tongue (38) form an angle to the surface plane ( HP) below 90 º but at least 20 º.
  8. 9.
    A floor covering system as claimed in claim 8, characterized in that the fixing surfaces (45, 65) of the upper flange (39) and the tongue (38) form an angle to the surface plane (HP) of at least 30th.
  9. 10.
    A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the claims
    35, characterized in that the guide groove (36) and the tongue (38) are designed such that the outer end (69) of the tongue (38) is located at a distance from the guide groove (36) at along essentially the entire distance from the fixing surfaces (45, 65), engaging each other, from the upper flange (39) and the tongue (38) to the co-supporting support surfaces (50, 71) of the lower flange (40 ) and the tongue (38).
  10. A floor covering system as claimed in claim 10, characterized in that any of the surface portions with contact between the outer end (69) of the tongue (38) and the guide groove (36) have an extension smaller in the vertical plane than the fixing surfaces (45, 65) when two of said floor boards (1, 1 ') are mechanically joined.
    A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the edge portions (4a, 4b) with their tongue (38) and tongue and groove (36) are designed so that when two of said floor boards are joined there is surface contact between the edge portions (4a, 4b) along a maximum of 30% of the edge surface of the edge portion (4b) that supports the tongue, measured from the upper side of the respective floor board to its lower side.
  11. 13. A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the co-supporting support surfaces (50, 71) of the tongue (38) and the bottom flange (40) are parallel with the surface plane (HP) or are directed at an angle to it that is equal to or less than a tangent to a circular arc that is tangent to the support surfaces that engage each other at one more point
    55 near the lower part (48) of the guide groove and having its center at a point (C) where the surface plane (HP) and the joint plane (VP) intersect, seen in cross section Through the floor board.
  12. 14.
    A floor covering system as claimed in claim 13, characterized in that the co-supporting support surface (50, 71) of the tongue (38) and the bottom flange (40) are set at an angle of 0 to 30 º to the surface plane (HP).
  13. fifteen.
    A floor covering system as claimed in claim 14, characterized in that the co-supporting support surfaces (50, 71) of the tongue (38) and the bottom flange (40) are set at an angle of at least 10 ° to the surface plane (HP).
  14. 16.
     A floor covering system as claimed in claim 14 or 15, characterized in that the
    Supporting surfaces that co-act (50, 71) of the tongue (38) and the lower flange (40) are set at an angle of at most 20 ° to the surface plane (HP).
  15. 17.
    A floor covering system as claimed in claim 13, characterized in that the
    5 supporting surfaces (50, 71) of the tongue (38) and the lower flange (40) are set at essentially the same angle to the surface plane (HP) as a tangent to a circular arc that is tangent to the support surfaces (50, 71) and have their center at the point where the surface plane (HP) and the joint plane (VP) intersect, seen in cross section through the respective floor board.
    A floor covering system as claimed in claim 13, characterized in that the co-supporting support surfaces (50, 71) of the tongue (38) and the lower flange (40) are set at an angle greater than surface plane (HP) than a tangent to a circular arc that is tangent to the support surfaces that engage each other at a point closer to the bottom of the guide groove and that has its center at a point where the plane of surface (HP) and the plane of union (VP) intersect.
  16. 19. A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the support surfaces (50, 71) of the tongue (38) and the bottom flange (40), which are designed to co-act, The fixing surfaces that coerce the upper flange (39) and the tongue (38) are established at an angle smaller than the surface plane (HP).
  17. 20. A floor covering system as claimed in claim 19, characterized in that the support surfaces of the tongue (38) and the lower flange (40), which are designed to co-act, are inclined in the same direction but in a smaller angle to the surface plane (HP) than the fixing surfaces (50, 71) that co-act on the upper flange (39) and the tongue (38).
  18. 21. A floor covering system as claimed in any one of claims 13 to 20, characterized in that the support surfaces (50, 71) form an angle at least 20 ° greater than the surface plane (HP) than the surfaces fixing (45, 65).
    22. A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that part of the fixing surface (45) of the upper flange (39) is located closer to the lower part (48) of the tongue and groove which is part of the support surfaces (50, 71).
  19. 23. A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims,
    35 characterized in that the fixing surfaces (45, 65) of the upper flange (39) and the tongue (38) are essentially flat within at least the surface portions that are intended to co-act with each other when two such boards are joined ground.
  20. 24. A floor covering system as claimed in claim 23, characterized in that the tongue
    40 (38) has an orientation surface that is located outside the tongue fixing surface (38), seen from the joint plane (VP), and which has a smaller angle to the surface plane of what this has fixing surface
  21. 25. A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the upper flange (39) has an orientation surface (42) that is located closer to the
    45 tongue and groove opening (36) which is the fixing surface (45) of the upper flange and having a smaller angle to the surface plane (HP) than the fixing surface (45) of the upper flange.
  22. 26. A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that the lower flange (40) ends at a distance beyond the joint plane (VP). fifty
  23. 27. A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the fixing surface (65) of the tongue (38) is arranged at a distance of at least 0.1 times the thickness (T ) of the respective floor board (1, 1 ') from the tip (69) of the tongue (38).
    A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the vertical extension of the co-fixing fixing surfaces (45, 65) is less than half of the vertical extension of the guide ( 35) view from the joint plane (VP) and parallel to the surface plane (HP).
  24. 29. A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims,
    60 characterized in that the fixing surfaces (45, 65), seen in vertical section through the respective floor board, have an extension that is at most 10% of the thickness (T) of the respective floor board.
  25. 30. A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that the length of the tongue (38), seen perpendicularly away from the joint plane (VP) is at least 0.3 65 times the thickness (T) of the respective floor board.
  26. A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the joint edge portion (4b) that supports the tongue and / or the joint edge portion (4a) that supports the tongue and groove has / have a cavity (63) that is located above the tongue and ends at a distance from the surface plane (HP).
  27. 32
    A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the upper flange (39) and the tongue (38) have contact surfaces (43, 64) that in their fixed state co-act with each other and that they are located within an area between the joint plane (VP) and the fixing surfaces (45, 65) of the tongue (38) and the upper flange (39), which in their fixed state co-act with each other.
  28. 33.
    A floor covering system as claimed in claim 32, characterized in that the contact surfaces (43, 64) are essentially flat.
  29. 3. 4.
     A floor covering system as claimed in claim 32 or 33, characterized in that the
    15 contact surfaces (43, 64) are inclined upwards to the surface plane (HP) in the direction towards the joint plane (VP).
  30. 35
     A floor covering system as claimed in claim 32 or 33, characterized in that the contact surfaces (43, 64) are essentially parallel with the surface plane (HP).
  31. 36.
    A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the lower flange (40) of the tongue and groove (36) is flexible.
  32. 37.
    A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims,
    25 characterized in that it is formed as a pressure fixation that can be opened by upward angulation of one board (1 ’) with respect to the other (1).
  33. 38.
    A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that it is formed to join one of said floor boards previously placed with a new one of said floor boards by means of an essentially parallel thrust movement with the plane of surface (HP) of the floor board placed previously to press the parts of the fixing system.
  34. 39.
    A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that the guide groove (36), seen in cross section, has an external opening portion that narrows inwardly in the form of a funnel.
  35. 40
    A floor covering system as claimed in claim 39, characterized in that the upper flange (39) has a bevel (42) at its outer edge beyond the surface plane (HP).
  36. 41.
    A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the tongue, seen in cross section, has a point (69) that narrows.
  37. 42
    A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that the tongue (38), seen in cross section, has a split tip with an upper tongue portion (38a) and lower (38b).
  38. 43
    A floor covering system as claimed in claim 42, characterized in that the upper (38a) and lower (38b) tongue portions of the tongue (38) are made of different materials with different material properties.
  39. 44.
    A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the tongue and groove (38) are integrally formed with the respective floor board (1, 1 ’).
    A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the fixing surfaces (45, 65) are established at an angle greater than the surface plane (HP) than a tangent to an arc circular which is tangent to the fixing surfaces (45, 65) that engage each other at a point closer to the lower part (48) of the guide groove, and which has its center at the point where the surface plane ( HP) and the joint plane (VP) intersect.
  40. 46.
    A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the upper flange (39) is thicker than the lower flange (40).
  41. 47
    A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims,
    65 characterized in that the minimum thickness of the upper flange (39) adjacent to the guide (35) is greater than the maximum thickness of the lower flange (40) adjacent to the support surface (50).
  42. 48. A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the extension of the support surfaces (50, 71) is at most 15% of the thickness (T) of the respective floor board.
  43. 49. A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the vertical extension of the tongue and groove (36) between the upper (39) and lower flange (40), measured parallel to the joint plane (VP) ) and at the outer end of the support surface (43) is at least 30% of the thickness
    (T) of the respective floor board. 10
  44. 50. A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the depth of the tongue and groove (36), measured from the joint plane (VP) is at least 2% greater than the corresponding extent of the tongue (38).
    51. A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the tongue (38) has other material properties than the upper (39) or lower (40) flange.
  45. 52. A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that the upper flange (39) is more rigid than the lower flange (40). twenty
  46. 53. A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the upper (39) and lower (40) flanges are made of materials with different properties.
  47. 54. A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims, characterized in that the fixing system also comprises a second mechanical fixing which is formed by
    a fixing groove (14) that is formed in the lower part of the connecting edge portion (4b) that supports the tongue (38) and extends parallel to the joint plane (VP), and
    30 a fixing table that is integrally attached to the joint edge portion (4a) of the respective floor board under the tongue and groove (36) and extends along essentially the entire length of the joint edge portion and has a fixing component (6) protruding from the table and which, when two such floorboards are mechanically joined, is received in the fixing slot (14) of the adjacent floor board (1 ').
    A floor covering system as claimed in claim 54, characterized in that the fixing table (6) protrudes beyond the joint plane.
  48. 56. A floor covering system as claimed in any one of the preceding claims,
    characterized in that it is formed on a floor board that has a core of wood fiber based material. 40
  49. 57.
    A floor covering system as claimed in claim 51, characterized in that it is formed on a floor board having a wooden core.
  50. 58.
     A floor covering system as claimed in claim 1, wherein, when two boards of
    Adjacent floors are mechanically joined, the engagement between the support surface (50) of the lower flange (40) and the support surface (71) of the tongue (38) extends to the joint plane (VP).
     E2 2T3923982 T
ES07150247T 2001-01-12 2002-01-14 Floor covering system comprising floor boards that can be mechanically joined Active ES2396985T3 (en)

Priority Applications (4)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
SE0100100 2001-01-12
SE0100101 2001-01-12
SE0100100A SE523823C2 (en) 2001-01-12 2001-01-12 Locking system for mechanical joining of floorboards has a uppercut groove and a projecting tongue which snap together
SE0100101A SE519768C2 (en) 2001-01-12 2001-01-12 Locking system for mechanical joining of floorboards has a uppercut groove and a projecting tongue which snap together

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
ES2396985T3 true ES2396985T3 (en) 2013-03-01

Family

ID=26655372

Family Applications (3)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
ES02729615T Active ES2291467T3 (en) 2001-01-12 2002-01-14 Floor system comprising a plurality of floorboards which are joined mechanically.
ES02729616T Active ES2299570T5 (en) 2001-01-12 2002-01-14 Floor covering system comprising a plurality of mechanically bondable floor boards
ES07150247T Active ES2396985T3 (en) 2001-01-12 2002-01-14 Floor covering system comprising floor boards that can be mechanically joined

Family Applications Before (2)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
ES02729615T Active ES2291467T3 (en) 2001-01-12 2002-01-14 Floor system comprising a plurality of floorboards which are joined mechanically.
ES02729616T Active ES2299570T5 (en) 2001-01-12 2002-01-14 Floor covering system comprising a plurality of mechanically bondable floor boards

Country Status (23)

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EP (6) EP1349994B1 (en)
JP (2) JP4405149B2 (en)
KR (3) KR100842477B1 (en)
CN (2) CN1233914C (en)
AT (2) AT370293T (en)
AU (2) AU2002217740C1 (en)
BR (2) BR0206563B1 (en)
CA (2) CA2434168C (en)
CY (1) CY1108037T1 (en)
CZ (2) CZ304981B6 (en)
DE (2) DE60221788T2 (en)
DK (2) DK1349994T3 (en)
ES (3) ES2291467T3 (en)
HU (2) HU0400740A2 (en)
IL (4) IL156530D0 (en)
NO (2) NO327720B1 (en)
NZ (2) NZ527354A (en)
PL (2) PL201620B1 (en)
PT (2) PT1349994E (en)
RU (2) RU2277159C2 (en)
SI (2) SI1349994T1 (en)
SK (2) SK287962B6 (en)
WO (2) WO2002055810A1 (en)

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WO2002055809A1 (en) 2002-07-18
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DE60224499D1 (en) 2008-02-21
DK1349995T4 (en) 2013-11-25
EP1349995B2 (en) 2013-08-21
EP1852563B1 (en) 2013-07-31
DE60221788D1 (en) 2007-09-27
KR100842477B1 (en) 2008-07-01
IL156530D0 (en) 2004-01-04
NO20032688D0 (en) 2003-06-13
DE60221788T2 (en) 2008-06-05
CN1484727A (en) 2004-03-24
EP1903158B1 (en) 2012-10-03
PL201620B1 (en) 2009-04-30
AU2002219750B2 (en) 2005-08-25
IL156530A (en) 2009-09-01
JP4092202B2 (en) 2008-05-28
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RU2277159C2 (en) 2006-05-27
BR0206564A (en) 2004-02-25
CA2434168C (en) 2009-10-27
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AU2002217740C1 (en) 2006-02-16
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