RU2277158C2 - Flooring strips and method of flooring strip production and mounting - Google PatentsFlooring strips and method of flooring strip production and mounting Download PDF
- Publication number
- RU2277158C2 RU2277158C2 RU2003124758/03A RU2003124758A RU2277158C2 RU 2277158 C2 RU2277158 C2 RU 2277158C2 RU 2003124758/03 A RU2003124758/03 A RU 2003124758/03A RU 2003124758 A RU2003124758 A RU 2003124758A RU 2277158 C2 RU2277158 C2 RU 2277158C2
- Prior art keywords
- Prior art date
- 238000009408 flooring Methods 0 abstract title 16
- 238000005365 production Methods 0 title 1
- 238000005520 cutting process Methods 0 abstract 2
- 230000000694 effects Effects 0 abstract 1
- 238000003780 insertion Methods 0 abstract 1
- 238000009434 installation Methods 0 abstract 1
- 230000002829 reduced Effects 0 abstract 1
- 239000000126 substances Substances 0 abstract 1
- E—FIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
- E04F—FINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
- E04F15/02—Flooring or floor layers composed of a number of similar elements
- E—FIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
- E04F—FINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
- E04F15/02—Flooring or floor layers composed of a number of similar elements
- E04F15/04—Flooring or floor layers composed of a number of similar elements only of wood or with a top layer of wood, e.g. with wooden or metal connecting members
- E—FIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
- E04F—FINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
- E04F2201/00—Joining sheets or plates or panels
- E04F2201/01—Joining sheets, plates or panels with edges in abutting relationship
- E04F2201/0107—Joining sheets, plates or panels with edges in abutting relationship by moving the sheets, plates or panels substantially in their own plane, perpendicular to the abutting edges
- E04F2201/0115—Joining sheets, plates or panels with edges in abutting relationship by moving the sheets, plates or panels substantially in their own plane, perpendicular to the abutting edges with snap action of the edge connectors
- E—FIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
- E04F—FINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
- E04F2201/00—Joining sheets or plates or panels
- E04F2201/01—Joining sheets, plates or panels with edges in abutting relationship
- E04F2201/0153—Joining sheets, plates or panels with edges in abutting relationship by rotating the sheets, plates or panels around an axis which is parallel to the abutting edges, possibly combined with a sliding movement
- E—FIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
- E04F—FINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
- E04F2201/00—Joining sheets or plates or panels
- E04F2201/02—Non-undercut connections, e.g. tongue and groove connections
- E04F2201/023—Non-undercut connections, e.g. tongue and groove connections with a continuous tongue or groove
- E—FIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
- E04F—FINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
- E04F2201/00—Joining sheets or plates or panels
- E04F2201/02—Non-undercut connections, e.g. tongue and groove connections
- E04F2201/025—Non-undercut connections, e.g. tongue and groove connections with tongue and grooves alternating transversally in the direction of the thickness of the panel, e.g. multiple tongue and grooves oriented parallel to each other
- E—FIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
- E04F—FINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
- E04F2201/00—Joining sheets or plates or panels
- E04F2201/04—Other details of tongues or grooves
- E04F2201/041—Tongues or grooves with slits or cuts for expansion or flexibility
- E—FIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
- E04F—FINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
- E04F2201/00—Joining sheets or plates or panels
- E04F2201/04—Other details of tongues or grooves
- E04F2201/042—Other details of tongues or grooves with grooves positioned on the rear-side of the panel
- E—FIXED CONSTRUCTIONS
- E04F—FINISHING WORK ON BUILDINGS, e.g. STAIRS, FLOORS
- E04F2201/00—Joining sheets or plates or panels
- E04F2201/05—Separate connectors or inserts, e.g. pegs, pins, keys or strips
- E04F2201/0517—U- or C-shaped brackets and clamps
The present invention relates to a fixing system for mechanically joining floorboards and to floorboards provided with such a fixing system, a method for installing these floorboards, a method for manufacturing them, a tool, and the use of such a tool for installing floorboards.
The invention is particularly suitable for floorboards made on the basis of wood material and usually having a core of wood, which are subject to mechanical connection. Thus, the following description of the prior art, as well as the objects and features of the invention, is devoted to this field of application and, mainly, to rectangular parquet floorboards joined along the long side and the short side. The invention is particularly suitable for floating floors, i.e. floors that can move relative to the base. However, it should be noted that the invention is applicable to all types of existing rigid floorboards, for example homogeneous wooden floorboards, wooden floorboards with a laminated core or plywood core, floorboards with veneer and wood fiber core, thin laminate floorboards, plastic core floorboards etc. The invention, of course, can be used for other types of floorboards that can be machined with cutting tools, such as floorboards for the subfloor made of plywood or chipboard. Even if this is not preferable, the floorboards can be attached to the base after installation.
Mechanical joints have conquered the market in a short time, mainly because of their high laying characteristics, bond strength and bond quality. Despite the fact that the floor according to WO 9426999, described in more detail below, and the floor sold under the trademark Alloc © have great advantages over traditional glued floors, further improvements are required.
Mechanical joining systems are very convenient for joining not only laminate flooring, but also wood flooring and composite floorboards. Such floorboards can contain a large number of different materials on the surface, in the core and on the back. According to the following description, these materials can also be used in various parts of the connecting system, for example, a rail, a fixing element and a dowel. A solution involving the use of a rail made integrally with the floorboard, disclosed, for example, in WO 9426999 or WO 9747834, which provides for horizontal connection and also provides a tongue for vertical connection, leads, however, to the cost of waste material in connection with the formation of mechanical joining by machining the floorboard material.
For optimal functioning, for example, a parquet floorboard with a thickness of 15 mm, the rail should have a width approximately equal to the thickness of the floorboard, i.e. about 15 mm. With a sheet pile width of about 3 mm, the waste size will be 18 mm. The normal width of the floorboard is about 200 mm. Therefore, the amount of waste material will be about 9%. In general, the cost of material waste will be high if the floorboards are made up of expensive materials, if they are thick or if their format is small, which is why the number of running meters of compound per square meter of floor is large.
Of course, the amount of waste material can be reduced if you use a rail in the form of a separately manufactured aluminum rail, pre-attached to the floorboard in the factory. In addition, an aluminum rail in a number of applications can provide a better as well as cheaper joint system than a rail machined and formed from a core. However, the drawback of using aluminum rails is that investment costs can be significant, and costly reconstruction of factory equipment may be required to rebuild the existing traditional production line to produce such a mechanical interconnection system. However, the advantage of the aluminum battens, corresponding to the prior art, is that it is not necessary to change the initial format of the floorboards.
In the case of using a rail made by machining the material of the floorboard, everything happens the other way around. At the same time, the format of the floorboards must be adjusted so as to provide enough material for the formation of the rail and tongue. For laminate floors, it is often necessary to also change the width of the finishing paper used. All of these adjustments and changes also require costly modifications of production equipment and large product adaptations.
In addition to the above-mentioned problems associated with undesirable material consumption and the cost of adapting production and products, the drawback of the rail is that it is susceptible to damage during transportation and installation.
Thus, it is required to provide a mechanical connection at low production costs and at the same time maintain modern high performance related to installation, dismantling, quality and strength of the connection. The solutions provided by the prior art do not allow to achieve low costs without sacrificing strength standards and / or laying functions. So, the objective of the invention is to indicate a solution that allows to reduce costs and at the same time maintain strength and function.
The invention proceeds from known floorboards having a core, a front side, a back side and opposite edge sections of the joint, one of which is formed in the form of a groove for the tongue, bounded by the upper and lower lips and having a rear end, and the other is formed in the form of a tongue with an upwardly directed portion on its free outer peak. The tongue groove has the shape of an undercut groove with a hole, an inner portion and an inner fixation surface. At least parts of the lower lip are formed integrally with the core of the floorboard, and the tongue has a fixation surface designed to contact the inner fixation surface of the groove under the tongue of the joining floorboard when two such floorboards are mechanically joined when their faces are in the same plane (GP ) surfaces and are joined in the plane (VP) of the joint, oriented perpendicular to it. This technique is disclosed, inter alia, in DE-A-3041781, which will be discussed in more detail below.
However, first, general approaches related to floorboards and fixing systems for mechanically bonding floorboards will be considered as prerequisites of the present invention.
To facilitate understanding and description of the present invention, as well as to understand the problems underlying the invention, the following describes the basic structure and function of floorboards according to WO 9426999 and WO 9966151, with reference to figures 1-17 of the accompanying drawings. In applicable parts, the following description of the prior art is also used in the embodiments of the present invention described below.
Figures 3a and 3b show a floorboard 1 according to WO 9426999, above and below, respectively. Rectangular board 1 has an upper side 2, a lower side 3, two opposing long sides with edge joint portions 4a and 4b, and two opposite short sides with joint edge portions 5a and 5b.
The edge sections 4a and 4b of the connection of the long sides, as well as the edge sections 5a and 5b of the connection of the short sides, can be connected mechanically without glue in the direction H2 shown in FIG. so that in the laid state their upper sides are located in the general plane of the GP (indicated in FIG. 2c).
In the shown embodiment, which is an example of floorboards according to WO 9426999 (FIGS. 1-3 of the accompanying drawings), the floorboard 1 is provided with a factory installed flat rail 6 extending along the entire long side 4a and made of a flexible, elastic aluminum sheet. The rail 6 extends beyond the plane of the VP connection at the edge section 4A of the connection. The rail 6 can be attached mechanically according to the shown embodiment, or, alternatively, with glue or in any other way. According to the aforementioned documents, other materials, for example, a sheet of some other metal, aluminum or plastic sections, can be used as the material for the rail, which is attached to the floorboard in the factory. Also, according to what is indicated in WO 9426999 and described and shown in WO 9966151, the rail 6 can alternatively be formed integrally with the floorboard 1, for example, by machining the core of the floorboard 1 accordingly.
The present invention is applicable to floorboards, where the rail or at least part of it is formed as a unit with the core, and the invention solves the special problems associated with such floorboards and their installation. The core of the floorboard is not necessarily, but preferably, made of a homogeneous material. However, rail 6 is always connected to floorboard 1, i.e. must be formed on the floorboard or attached in the factory.
In known embodiments according to the aforementioned WO 9426999 and WO 996151, the width of the rail 6 can be about 30 mm and its thickness is about 0.5 mm.
A similar but shorter rail 6 ′ is placed along the shorter side 5a of the floorboard 1. On the part of the rail 6 that extends beyond the plane of the joint VP, a locking element 8 is formed that extends along the entire rail 6. At the bottom of the locking element 8 there is a working surface for fixing 10 facing the plane of the VP connection and having a height of, for example, 0.5 mm When laying, this fixation surface 10 interacts with the fixation groove 14 made on the lower side 3 of the edge portion 4b of the joint of the opposite long side of the adjacent floorboard 1 ′. The rail 6 ′ along the short side is provided with a corresponding locking element 8 ′, and the edge portion 5b of the connection of the opposite short side has a corresponding locking groove 14 ′. The edge of the locking groove 14, 14 ′, facing away from the plane of the joint VP, forms a locking working surface 10 ′ for interacting with the fixing working surface 10 of the locking element.
For the mechanical connection of the long sides, as well as the short sides, also in the vertical direction (direction H1, indicated in FIG. 5a of the joint), a transversally open recess or tongue groove 16 is formed. On top, it is bounded by the upper lip at the edge portion 4a, 5a of the joint, and on the bottom, by the corresponding rails 6, 6 ′. On opposite edge portions 4b, 5b there is an upper recess defining a fixing tongue 20 that interacts with the recess or groove 16 for the tongue (see FIG. 2a).
Figures 1a-1c show how two long sides 4a, 4b of two such floorboards 1, 1 ′ can be connected to each other on the base O by tilting down around the center C near the intersection of the plane of the GP surface with the plane of the VP joint, holding the floorboards in fact contact with each other.
Figures 2a-2c show how the short sides 5a, 5b of floorboards 1, 1 ′ can be joined together by snap-fit. The long sides 4a, 4b can be joined by both methods, while the connection of the short sides 5a, 5b - after laying the first row of floorboards - is usually done only by snapping after connecting the long sides 4a, 4b.
When it is necessary to connect the new floorboard 1 ′ and the previously laid floorboard 1 along their edge sections 4a, 4b of the long sides according to FIGS. 1a-1c, the edge section 4b of the long side of the new floorboard 1 ′ is pressed against the edge section 4a of the long side of the previously laid floorboard 1 according to FIG. .1a, so that the locking tongue 20 enters the recess or groove 16 for the tongue. Then the floorboard 1 ′ is tilted down to the black floor O according to fig.1b. The locking tongue 20 enters the groove or groove 16 for the tongue, and at the same time, the locking element 8 of the rail 6 snaps into the locking groove 14. With this tilt down, the upper part 9 of the locking element 8 can act as a guide to move the new floorboard 1 ′ to the previously laid floorboard 1.
In the joint position according to FIG. 1c, the floorboards 1,1 ′ are definitely fixed in the H1 direction, as well as in the H2 direction along their long side edge portions 4a, 4b, but the floorboards 1, 1 ′ can be displaced with respect to each other in the longitudinal direction of the joint along the long sides (i.e., in the direction of H3).
Figures 2a-2c show how it is possible to mechanically connect the edge sections 5a, 5b of the short side of the floorboards 1, 1 ′ in the directions H1 and H2, displacing the new floorboard 1 ′ almost horizontally towards the previously laid floorboard 1. This can, in particular , to be carried out after attaching the long side of the new floorboard 1 ′ by tilting inwards according to figa-c to the previously laid floorboard 1 in the row of adjacent floorboards. In the first step shown in FIG. 2a, the beveled surfaces of the recess 16 and the retaining tongue 20 interact so that the rail 6 ′ is folded down due to the closure of the edge portions 5a, 5b of the short side. Upon final closure, the rail 6 ′ snaps into place when the locking element 8 ′ enters the locking groove 14 ′, as a result of which the locking working surfaces 10, 10 ′ on the locking element 8 ′ and the locking groove 14 ′ come into contact with each other.
By repeating the operations shown in FIGS. 1a-c and 2a-c, the entire floor can be laid without glue and along all edges of the joint. Thus, the floorboards of the aforementioned type can be joined mechanically, first, as a rule, tilting downward relative to the long side and, when the long side is attached, snapping the short sides to each other by horizontal displacement of the new floorboard 1 ′ along the long side of the previously laid floorboard 1 (in the direction H3). Floorboards 1, 1 ′ can be removed without damaging the joint in the reverse order and then re-laid. These laying principles are also partially applicable in connection with the present invention.
To ensure optimal functioning and ease of installation and dismantling, the floorboards according to the prior art should, after joining along their long sides, be able to occupy a position where there is the possibility of a small free play between the working surface 10 of fixing the locking element and the working surface 10 ′ of fixing the groove 14 of the fixing. However, in the actual butt joint between the floorboards in the plane of the VP joint near the upper side of the boards (i.e. in the plane of the GP surface), no free play is required. To get the floorboards in this position, you may need to press one floorboard against another. A more detailed description of this free play is given in WO 9426999. Such a free play can be of the order of 0.01-0.05 mm between the locking working surfaces 10, 10 ′ when the long sides of the connecting boards are pressed against each other. This free play facilitates the entry of the locking element 8 into the locking groove 14, 14 ′ and its exit from there. However, as mentioned, in the joint between the floorboards, where the surface plane of the GP intersects the joint plane of the joint on the upper side of the floorboards, no free play is required.
The joint system allows displacement along the joint edge in the locked position after the optional side is attached. Therefore, laying can be done in different ways, which are all variants of three main methods:
Long side tilt and short side snap.
Snap on the long side and snap on the short side.
The tilt on the short side, the tilt up of the two floorboards, the offset of the new floorboard along the edge of the short side of the previous floorboard, and finally the tilt down of the two floorboards.
The most common and safest way is to first tilt the floorboard relative to the long side and attach it to the other floorboard. Then it is displaced in the locked position towards the short side of the third floorboard. Laying can also be done by snapping one side, the long side or the short side, with the other floorboard. Then, an offset is made in the locked position until the other side clicks into place with the third floorboard. These two methods require snapping at least one side. However, laying can also be done without snapping. According to a third alternative, first, the short side of the first floorboard is tilted inward to the short side of the second floorboard, which is already connected by its long side to the third floorboard. After this connection, the first and second floorboards are slightly tilted up. The first floorboard is displaced in an upwardly inclined position along its short side until the upper edges of the joints of the first and third floorboards come into contact with each other, after which both floorboards are tilted down in the connected state.
The above-described floorboard and its fixing system have been widely recognized in the market for laminate floorboards with a thickness of about 7 mm, equipped with an aluminum rail 6 with a thickness of about 0.6 mm. Commercial variations of floorboards according to WO 9966151 shown in FIGS. 4a and 4b have also been recognized. However, it turned out that this approach is, in particular, unsuitable for floorboards made of wood fiber material, in particular solid wood material or glued laminated wood material, for forming parquet floors. One reason why this known approach is not suitable for this type of product is the large amount of material waste due to the machining of the edge sections to form a groove for the tongue and groove of the required depth.
To partially solve this problem, you can use the approach shown in figa and 5b of the accompanying drawings, described and shown in DE-A-3343601, i.e. it is possible to form edge portions of the joint from individual elements attached to the edges of long sides. In addition, this approach leads to the high cost of aluminum sections and the need for significant machining. In addition, it is difficult to attach the sectional elements along the edges in an economical manner. However, the geometry shown does not allow mounting and dismounting without significant free play by tilting down and up, respectively, since the components do not pass at a distance from each other during these movements if they are made with a tight fit (see fig.5b).
Another known construction of floorboards with a mechanical locking system is shown in FIGS. 6a-d of the accompanying drawings and is described in CA-A-0991373. When using this mechanical locking system, all forces striving to separate the long sides of the floorboards are applied to the locking element at the outer end of the rail (see Fig. 6a). When laying and dismantling the floor, the material must be flexible so that the tongue can be released by simultaneously turning about two centers. A tight fit between all surfaces does not allow rational manufacture and displacement in the fixation position. The short side 6c does not have horizontal fixation. However, this type of mechanical fixation causes a large amount of material waste due to the construction of large locking elements.
Another known construction of mechanical systems for fixing floorboards is shown in GB-A-1430423 and FIGS. 7a-7b of the accompanying drawings. This system is based on a tongue-and-groove connection, in which an additional retaining hook is provided on the protruding lip from the groove side of the tongue and a corresponding retaining protrusion formed on the upper side of the tongue. The system requires significant lip elasticity, equipped with a hook, and does not provide for dismantling, which does not destroy the connecting edges of the boards. A tight fit requires manufacturing complexity, and the geometry of the connection causes a large amount of material waste.
Another known design of mechanical systems for fixing floorboards is disclosed in DE-A-4242530. Such a locking system is also shown in FIGS. 8a-b of the accompanying drawings. This known system suffers from several drawbacks. Besides the fact that it causes large waste of material during manufacture, it is difficult to produce it in an efficient way if high-quality joints in a high-quality floor are required. An undercut groove forming a tongue groove can only be made using an end mill moving along the connecting edge. Thus, it is not possible to use large disc cutting tools for machining a board from a side edge.
There are many options for the mechanical connection of various types of boards, in particular floorboards, providing a small amount of waste material and the possibility of efficient production also using wood fiber and wood flooring materials. Thus, in WO 9627721 (FIGS. 9a-b of the accompanying drawings) and JP 3169967 (FIGS. 10a-b of the accompanying drawings), two types of latch-type connections are disclosed which involve a small amount of waste, but their disadvantage is that they do not allow you to dismantle the floorboards tilted up. In addition, these systems do not allow the use of large locking angles to reduce the risk of separation. Obviously, these joint systems can be manufactured efficiently using large disk cutting tools, but their serious disadvantage is that dismantling by tilting up leads to severe damage to the locking system, as a result of which the floorboards cannot be laid again by mechanical locking.
Another known system is disclosed in DE-A-1212275 and is shown in FIGS. 11a-b of the accompanying drawings. This known system is suitable for mounting sports floors from plastic material and cannot be manufactured using large disc cutting tools to form a sharply undercut groove. In addition, this known system cannot be dismantled in the absence of a material having such high elasticity that the upper and lower lips surrounding the undercut groove can be severely deformed upon separation. Therefore, this type of joint is unsuitable for wood fiber floorboards if high quality joints are required.
Sheet pile joints having an inclined groove and tongue have also been proposed according to US-A-1,124,228. The type of connection shown in FIGS. 12c-d of the accompanying drawings makes it possible to mount a new floorboard, pushing it downward over the tongue of the previously laid floorboard, which is oriented upwardly inclined. To attach a newly laid floorboard, nails are used, hammering them downward at an angle through the floorboard above the tongue oriented upwardly. According to the embodiment shown in figa-b, this approach is not applicable in the case of the use of the dovetail connection. This approach of course provides for a small amount of waste material, but it is completely unsuitable if you need to provide a floating floor in which individual floorboards need to be mounted and dismantled without damage in a simple way, and containing high-quality compounds.
DE-A-3041781 discloses and shows a fixing system for joining floorboards, in particular for the manufacture of ring tracks for roller skating and bowling tracks made of plastic material. Such a connecting system is also shown in FIGS. 13a-d of the accompanying drawings. This system comprises a longitudinal undercut groove along one edge of the floorboard and a curved tongue protruding upward along the opposite edge of the floorboard. In cross section, the undercut groove has a first portion that is bounded by portions of parallel surfaces and parallel to the main plane of the floorboard, and a second inner portion of a trapezoidal or quasi-trapezoidal shape (Figs 13a-b and Figs 13c-d, respectively, of the attached drawings). In the cross section, the tongue has two plane-parallel sections, located at an angle to each other, where the section closest to the center of the floorboard is parallel to the main plane of the floorboard and where the outer free section is inclined upward in accordance with the corresponding surface section in the trapezoidal part of the undercut groove.
The design of the tongue and groove, as well as the edge sections of the floorboard, is such that when mechanically joining two such floorboards, contact occurs between, on the one hand, the surface sections of the tongue and the corresponding surface sections of the undercut groove along the entire upper side and the outer end of the tongue, also along the lower side of the inner plane-parallel section of the tongue and, on the other hand, between the edge surfaces of the connected floorboards above and below the tongue and groove, respectively. When it is necessary to connect a new floorboard to a previously laid floorboard, the new floorboard is tilted upward at the desired angle to enter the inclined outer portion of the tongue into the outer plane parallel portion of the groove of the previously laid floorboard. Then the tongue is inserted into the groove, while tilting the new floorboard down. Due to the inclined shape of the tongue in the first part of the groove, a significant amount of free play is required so that this entry and the inclination inward can be made. Alternatively, a significant degree of resilience of the floor material is required, which according to the document should consist of plastic. In the position of the laying joint, there is contact between most of the tongue and groove surfaces, with the exception of the lower part of the outer tongue of the tongue upwardly inclined.
A serious drawback of the mechanical locking system according to DE-A-3041781 is the difficulty of manufacturing. As a manufacturing method, it was proposed to use an end mill of the mushroom type, the outer section of which performs the trapezoidal cross section of the inner part of the tongue groove. Such a manufacturing method is not practical from a practical point of view and, in addition, causes big tolerance problems if the manufacturing method needs to be used for the production of floorboards or other boards from wood material to form wall panels, or parquet boards having high quality joints.
According to the above, the disadvantage of this mechanical locking system according to the prior art is that the insertion of an inclined tongue into the groove requires a significant amount of free play between the tongue and groove (see FIG. 5 in DE-A-3041781 and FIG. 13b of the accompanying drawings), so that you can tilt down if the floorboard material does not have a significant degree of elasticity. In addition, such a downward inclination cannot be made when the new floorboard and the previously laid floorboard are installed relative to each other so that they touch each other near the upper edge of the floorboards above the tongue and groove, respectively, so that the center of rotation when the downward movement is located at this point .
Another drawback of this mechanical locking system according to the prior art according to DE-A-3041781, in connection with particularly thick wood floorboards, is that the displacement of a new floorboard along a previously laid floorboard in a laid or partially raised position is very difficult from - due to contact of floorboards with each other along large sections of the surface. Even if the machining of wooden or wood fiber based floorboards is very precise, these surface areas, for natural reasons, will not be completely smooth, but will have protruding fibers that significantly increase friction. When laying parquet floors, etc. long boards are used (often 2-2.4 m in length and 0.2-0.4 m in width) and mostly natural materials. Long boards of this type warp and therefore deviate from a completely flat shape (they have the shape of a banana). In these cases, it is even more difficult to move the newly laid floorboard along the previously laid floorboard if mutual mechanical fixing of the floorboards is also required on the short sides.
An additional disadvantage of the mechanical fixing system according to DE-A-3041781 is that it is not very suitable for high-quality floors made of wood or wood-based materials, which requires a tight fit in the vertical direction between the tongue and groove groove to prevent cracking.
WO 9747834 discloses floorboards with different types of mechanical locking systems. Fixation systems designed for mutual fixation of the long sides of the floorboards (Figs. 2-4, 11 and 22-25 in the document) are designed so that the floorboards can be mounted and dismantled with a connecting and swiveling movement, while most of those that provide for the mutual fixation of short sides of the floorboards (FIGS. 5-10), are designed so that they are connected to each other by translational approaching movement for connection by a snap fastener, but these locking systems on the short sides of the floorboards cannot be dismantled It is, without destroying or, anyway, without damaging them.
Some of the floorboards disclosed in WO 9747834 and designed for connection and dismantling by pivoting movement (FIGS. 2-4 in WO 9747834 and FIG. 14a-c of the accompanying drawings) have a groove and a rail protruding beneath the groove and exiting at one edge thereof beyond the junction plane, where the upper sides of the two connected boards are joined. The rail is designed to interact with an almost correspondingly formed area on the opposite edge of the floorboard, which allows you to connect two similar floorboards. A common feature of these floorboards is that the upper side of the tongue of the floorboards and the corresponding upper surface of the grooves are flat and parallel to the upper side or surface of the floorboards. The joint of the floorboards, preventing their divergence in the transverse direction from the joint plane, is provided exclusively by the fixation surfaces, on the one hand, on the lower side of the tongue and, on the other hand, on the upper side of the lower lip or rail under the groove. These fixation systems also suffer from the disadvantage that they require a portion of the rail extending beyond the junction plane, which also causes waste material at the edge junction region where the groove is formed.
WO 9747834 also discloses mechanical joint systems comprising a tongue in the form of a circular arc and a correspondingly formed groove on the edge of the opposite side of the floorboard (see Figs. 14d-14e of the accompanying drawings). When connecting such locking systems, the end of the tongue enters the opening of the arc groove, after which the downward inclination begins. With this downward slope there is a large surface contact between all the arc surfaces of the tongue and groove. If this type of joint system is used for long boards of wood or wood-based material, it will be very difficult to achieve a smooth and easy alignment. In addition, the friction between the arc surfaces and between the end of the tongue and the bottom of the groove will require considerable effort to move one board relative to another in a connected state. This prior art approach is undoubtedly better than that disclosed in the aforementioned DE-A-3041781, but suffers from many disadvantages.
US-A-2740167 (see also FIG. 15a-b of the accompanying drawings) discloses parquet boards or squares made of wood, at the opposite edges of which are formed edge portions that come into contact with each other when stacking several parquet squares in a row . One edge portion has a hook facing down, and the opposite edge portion has a hook facing up. So that you can insert a new parquet board under the previously laid parquet board, the lower side of the hook facing up is beveled. Parquet boards connected in the vertical plane of the joint are fastened only in the horizontal direction across the plane of the joint. To fasten the boards also perpendicular to the upper side of the parquet boards, use a layer of glue, which is previously applied to the base on which the parquet floor is installed. Thus, a previously laid parquet board can be raised again only before the glue sets. Therefore, in practice, this parquet floor is permanently attached to the base after installation.
CA-A-22552791 shows and describes floorboards provided with a groove of a special design along one long side and a correspondingly formed tongue along the other long side. From the patent application, as well as from Fig.16a-b of the accompanying drawings, it is clear that the tongue and groove are rounded and tilted upward, ensuring the connection of one floorboard to another when placing a new floorboard close to the one laid, followed by their simultaneous lifting and tilting, after which the groove is pressed over oriented upwardly dowel while aligning and tilting down. Since the tongue and groove have respective shapes, it is difficult to join the floorboards and, if necessary, to disconnect them again. Deviation from a flat shape, i.e. the presence of a “banana form” creates additional obstacles to the connection of two such floorboards. This causes the risk of damage to the tongue, in addition, the design causes large frictional forces between the surfaces of the tongue and groove.
US-A-5797237 discloses a snap-fit locking system for joining parquet boards. In the accompanying drawings, FIG. 17 is a sectional view of two connected floorboards, and FIG. 17b shows that such a known floorboard cannot be dismantled by tilting one floorboard upward relative to another lying floorboard. In contrast, in FIG. 4B, according to the patent specification, the floorboard that needs to be removed and the floorboard connected with it that needs to be left need to be raised to pull the tongue out of the groove. The system is very similar to that described in the aforementioned US-A-2740167 (FIGS. 15a-b of the accompanying drawings), but with the difference that a short lower lip is formed under the upper hook-shaped protrusion or upper lip. However, this short lower lip gives no connecting effect due to the presence of a gap between the lower side of the tongue and upper side of this short lip when the two floorboards are connected. In addition, this clearance is provided by the dismantling method shown in FIG. Of course, it is claimed that the joint system is a snap-on joint, but it is possible that the recumbent floorboard is slightly tilted upwards so that the tongue can go under the hook-shaped lip of this floorboard. This mechanical locking system can, as also shown in the description of the patent, be made using large circular cutting tools. This fixation system does not provide an undercut groove, the upper and lower lips of which are adjacent to the inserted tongue and fix it both vertically and horizontally. Thus, the groove has a larger vertical size than the corresponding parts of the tongue. Therefore, the laid floor can move in different directions relative to the base, which leads to cracking in the joints and unacceptable vertical displacements. Due to insufficient fixation, it is also impossible to achieve a high-quality connection.
FR-A-2675174 discloses a mechanical joint system for ceramic tiles having correspondingly formed opposite edge portions; in this case, separate spring clips are used, mounted at a distance from each other and designed to capture the edge on the edge section of the joining tile. The connecting system does not provide for dismantling by rotation, as is apparent from FIG. 18a and, in particular, FIG. 18b of the accompanying drawings.
On figa and 19b shows the floorboards formed according to JP 7180333 and made by extrusion of a metal material. After installation, it is practically impossible to dismantle such floorboards due to the geometry of the joint, as is apparent from Fig. 19b.
Finally, FIGS. 20a and 20b show yet another known joint system disclosed in GB-A-2117813 for large insulated wall panels. This system is very similar to the above system described in CA-A-2252791 and the system described in WO 9747834, which is shown in FIGS. 14d and 14e of the accompanying drawings. The system suffers from the same drawbacks as the two above-mentioned systems, and is unsuitable for the efficient production of floorboards based on wood material or wood-fiber material, especially when high-quality joints for a high-quality floor are required. The design according to this British publication provides for the use of metal sections as connecting elements and does not allow opening by tilting up.
Other systems according to the prior art are disclosed, for example, in DE 20001225U1, JP 2000179137A, DE 3041781, DE 19925248, DE 20001225, EP 0623724, EP 0976889, EP 1045083.
From the foregoing, it is clear that systems have both disadvantages and advantages. However, no fixation system is fully suitable for the rational manufacture of floorboards with a fixation system that is optimal with respect to the manufacturing method, material waste, laying and dismantling functions and which, moreover, can be used for floors that must have high quality, durability and function in stowed condition.
An object of the present invention is to satisfy this need and provide such an optimal fixation system for floorboards and such optimal floorboards. Another objective of the invention is to provide a rational method of manufacturing floorboards equipped with such a fixation system. Another objective of the invention is a new installation method, which provides easier and more efficient installation than the methods according to the prior art. Another objective of the invention is a tool that facilitates laying floorboards by tilting down and joining floorboards. Another objective of the invention is the use of such a tool for laying floorboards. Other objects of the invention will be apparent from the foregoing and also from the description below.
The floorboard and the detachable locking system comprise an undercut groove on one long side of the floorboard and a protruding tongue on the opposite long side of the floorboard. The undercut groove has a corresponding internal facing surface facing upward at a distance from its end. The tongue and groove are formed to align and separate by a pivoting movement, the center of which is near the intersection between the surface planes and the common plane of the connection of the two joined floorboards. Undercutting in the groove of such a fixing system can be performed using disk cutting tools, the rotating shafts of which are inclined relative to each other to form first the first inner part of the undercut portion of the groove, and then the fixing surface located closer to the hole of the groove. The method of laying the floor of such floorboards comprises the steps of laying a new floorboard next to the previously laid floorboard, moving the tongue of the new floorboard into the hole of the undercut groove of the previously laid floorboard, tilting the new floorboard up while inserting the tongue into the undercut groove and simultaneously tilting the new floorboard down end position.
Distinctive features of the fixing system, floorboards and the laying method according to the invention are reflected in the independent claims. The dependent claims reflect particularly preferred embodiments of the invention. Additional advantages and features of the invention are also apparent from the following description.
Before proceeding with the description of specific and preferred embodiments with reference to the accompanying drawings, the main idea of the invention and the requirements for strength and performance are set forth.
The invention is applicable to rectangular floorboards having a first pair of parallel sides and a second pair of parallel sides. In order to simplify the description, the first pair will hereinafter be called the long sides, and the second pair will be called the short sides. However, it should be pointed out that the invention also applies to square floorboards.
High quality joints mean a snug fit in the locking position between the floorboards both vertically and horizontally. It is necessary to be able to join floorboards without very large visible gaps or level differences between the edges of the joint, both in an unsettled and normally laid state. In a high-quality floor, joint gaps and level differences should not exceed 0.2 and 0.1 mm, respectively.
From the following description it is clear that it is necessary to be able to fix at least one side, preferably the long side, by tilting down. It is necessary to be able to tilt down with a rotation around a center close to the intersection between the planes of the surface of the floorboards and the plane of the joint, i.e. near the “upper edges of the joint” of the floorboards in contact with each other. Otherwise, it is impossible to make a connection that in the locked position has tightly joined edges.
It should be possible to complete the rotation in a horizontal position in which the floorboards are fixed vertically without any kind of free play, since free play can lead to undesirable level differences between the edges of the joint. Inward tilt should be done in such a way as to direct the floorboards towards each other, tightly connecting the edges and straightening any shape of the banana (i.e. deviation from the flat shape of the floorboard). The locking element and the locking groove should have guide means that interact with each other when tilted inward. Turning down must be carried out with great care so that the floorboards do not rest and do not pinch each other, in order to avoid damage to the locking system.
You must be able to rotate the floorboard upward relative to the long side to release the floorboard. Since the floorboards in the initial position are connected to the tight joint of the edges, this upward rotation should occur when the upper edges of the joint are in contact with each other, and with rotation relative to the joint edge. This ability to turn up is very important not only when changing floorboards or moving the floor. When installing, many floorboards are stacked for trial or are stacked incorrectly next to doors, in corners, etc. It would be a serious drawback if the floorboard could not be released without damaging the joint system. It does not always happen that a floorboard that can be tilted inward can also be tilted up again. In connection with the downward rotation, there is usually a slight downward bending of the rail, so that the locking element bends back and down and opens. If the joint system had not been formed with suitable angles and radii, then the floorboard would be fixed after installation in such a way that it could not be pulled out. The short side, after the joint on the long side is opened by turning up, is usually pulled along the edge of the joint, but it would be preferable if the short side could also be opened by turning up. This is particularly preferable in the case of long floorboards, for example, 2.4 m long, which makes it difficult to separate the short sides. Turn up must be carried out with great care so that the floorboards do not rest and do not pinch each other, in order to avoid damage to the locking system.
It is necessary to be able to fix the short sides of the floorboards by horizontal locking. This requires that parts of the joint system be flexible and flexible. Even if tilting inward the long sides is much simpler and faster than snapping in, it would be preferable if the long sides could also be snapped in, as certain laying operations, for example around doors, require the boards to be connected horizontally.
If the floorboard has dimensions of 1.2 × 0.2 m, then each square meter of the floor surface contains six times more joints on the long side than joints on the short side. Therefore, a large amount of waste material and expensive compound materials are not as important on the short side as on the long side.
To achieve high strength, the locking element should typically have a large angle of fixation so that the locking element does not snap off. The locking element must be so high and wide that it does not collapse under the influence of a high tensile load when the floorboard dries in the winter due to the low relative humidity at this time of the year. This also applies to materials near the fixation groove of the other floorboard. The joint on the short side should have higher strength than the joint on the long side, since the tensile load during drying in winter is distributed over the shorter length of the joint along the short side than along the long side.
You must be able to keep the floorboards flat in the presence of vertical loads. In addition, movement in the joint must be avoided, since surfaces subjected to pressure and moving relative to each other, such as the upper edges of the joint, can cause cracking.
In order to be able to fix all four sides, the newly laid floorboard must be able to move in the locked position relative to the previously laid floorboard. This should occur using a force of the proper size, for example, using a bar and a hammer, without damaging the edges of the joint and the need to form a joint system with visible gaps horizontally and vertically. The possibility of displacement is more important on the long side than on the short side, since the friction there is significantly greater due to the longer connection.
It is necessary to be able to rationally manufacture the joint system using large rotating cutting tools having extremely high accuracy and productivity.
To ensure the good functioning of manufacturing tolerances and quality, it is necessary to be able to continuously measure and verify the connection profile. Particularly important parts of a mechanical joint system must be designed in such a way as to facilitate production and measurement. It is necessary to be able to produce them with tolerances of several hundredths of a millimeter and therefore be able to measure them with high accuracy, for example, on the so-called profile projector. If the connecting system is made using a linear cutting machine, then the connecting system will, with the exception of certain manufacturing tolerances, have the same profile throughout the edge section. Therefore, the joint system can be measured with high accuracy, cutting off some samples by sawing off the floorboards and then measuring them on a profile projector or measuring microscope. However, rational production requires that the joint system can also be measured quickly and easily without the use of destructive methods, for example, using measuring instruments. This task is facilitated if the critical elements in the fixation system are as few as possible.
In order to optimally produce floorboards at minimal cost, the long and short sides must be optimized due to their different properties, as mentioned above. For example, the long side should be optimized with respect to tilt down, tilt up, positioning and displacement, while the short side should be optimized with respect to snap and high strength. The optimally designed floorboard has different joint systems on the long and short sides.
Wood-based floorboards and floorboards in general that contain wood fiber swell and dry out with changes in relative humidity. Swelling and drying usually begin from above, and therefore the surface layers can move more than the core, i.e. the part from which the connecting system is formed. To prevent the upper edges of the joint from rising or breaking in the event of a high degree of swelling, or the joint gaps appearing during drying, the joint system must be designed to allow movement that compensates for swelling and drying.
Figures 4a and 4b illustrate prior art systems such as Alloc® original and Alloc®Home with a protruding rail that can be tilted and latched.
The connecting systems according to the prior art shown in FIGS. 9-16 can provide mechanical connection with less waste than mechanical fixing systems having a protruding and machined rail. However, none of them satisfy the above requirements and does not solve the problems that are intended to solve the present invention.
The snap joints shown in FIGS. 7, 9, 10, 11, 12, 18, 19 cannot be fixed or opened by turning around the top of the joint edge, and the joints shown in FIGS. 8, 11, 19 cannot be made rationally by machining of floorboard materials with a rotating cutting tool, which has a large tool diameter.
The floorboards shown in FIGS. 12a-b cannot be tilted or latched, but must be inserted first, pushing parallel to the edge of the joint. The connection shown in figs-d, can not be snapped. It may be permissible to tilt it inward, but in this case it should be made with too much free play in the connecting system. Strength in the vertical direction is low because the upper and lower contact surfaces are parallel. The joint is also difficult to manufacture and displace in the locked position, since it does not contain any free surfaces. In addition, nailing is provided to the base with nails that hammer obliquely into the floorboard above the tongue oriented obliquely downward.
The joint systems shown in FIGS. 6c-d, 15a-b and 17a-b are examples of joints without vertical fixation, i.e. allow movement perpendicular to the upper side of the floorboards.
The inwardly inclined connection shown in Fig. 14d-e has several disadvantages due to the fact that it is manufactured and constructed in accordance with the principle that it must have a tight fit and that the upper and lower parts of the tongue and groove have the shape of circular arcs centered on the top edge of the joint, i.e. at the intersection of the connection planes and the surface. This connection does not have the necessary guiding parts, and the connection is difficult to bend, because it has the wrong design and too large contact surfaces. As a result, it sticks and suffers the so-called drawer effect when tilted inward. The strength in the horizontal direction is too low, due to the small angle of the upper fixation and too small a difference in angles between the upper and lower contact surfaces. In addition, the front and upper tongue-and-groove portion of the tongue groove is too small to create the forces necessary for a high-quality joint system. Too large contact surfaces between the tongue and groove, the absence of the necessary free surfaces without contact and the requirement for a tight fit in the entire joint greatly complicate the lateral displacement of the floorboard along the joint edge and also make rational manufacture with the possibility of achieving good tolerances. In addition, it does not allow horizontal snapping.
The joint system according to figa-b has a design that does not allow it to be tilted without a significant degree of deformation of the material, which is difficult to achieve in conventional board materials used for floors. In addition, in this case, all parts of the tongue and groove are in contact with each other. This makes it difficult or impossible for the transverse displacement of the floorboard in the locked position. In addition, rational machining is not possible due to the fact that all surfaces are in contact with each other. Latching also cannot be done.
The connecting system according to figa-b does not allow mutual inclination, since it is designed to move relative to two centers of rotation at the same time. It does not have horizontal locking in the tongue groove. All surfaces are in contact with each other with a tight fit. In practice, such a connecting system cannot be biased and rationally manufactured. It is intended for use with a locking system, which is shown in FIGS. 6c-d and is formed on an adjacent edge of the floorboard that is perpendicularly mounted, and which does not require lateral displacement in order to join.
The connecting system according to figa-b has a groove under the tongue, which cannot be made with rotating cutting tools having a large tool diameter. It cannot be latched and is designed to prevent lateral displacement by means of initial stress and a snug fit near the outer vertical part of the rail.
The connecting system according to figa-b contains two aluminum sections. The manufacture of rotating cutting tools with a large tool diameter groove under the tongue is difficult. The joint system is formed so that it is not possible to tilt the new floorboard inward, keeping the top edge of the joint in contact with the top edge of the joint of the previously laid floorboard, so that the inward inclination is relative to the center of rotation at the intersection of the joint plane and the surface plane. In order to be able to tilt down using this system according to the prior art, it is necessary to have a considerable free play that exceeds the permissible value for normal floorboards when high-quality, aesthetically attractive joints are required. The joint system according to figa-d is difficult to manufacture, since it requires contact over a large part of the surface of the outer part of the tongue and groove under the tongue. It also complicates lateral displacement in the locking position. The geometry of the joint does not allow an upward slope relative to the upper edge of the joint.
The first principle of the invention is that using suitable manufacturing methods, in particular machining and tools whose tool diameter is significantly greater than the thickness of the board, it is possible to rationally form improved forms with high precision from wood materials, wood-based boards and plastic materials, and this type of machining can be done in the tongue groove at a distance from the joint plane. Thus, the shape of the connecting system must be adapted to rational manufacture, which can be carried out with very small tolerances. However, such adaptation is unacceptable to the detriment of other important properties of the floorboard and the fixation system.
The second principle of the invention is that for optimal functioning of the mechanical connecting system must meet certain requirements. This understanding made it possible to satisfy these requirements in a previously unknown way, namely due to a combination of a) the design of the connecting system, providing, for example, specific angles, radii, free play, free surfaces and relations between different parts of the system, and b) optimal use of material properties cores or cores, for example, compression, elongation, bending, tensile strength and compressive strength.
The third principle of the invention is that it is possible to provide a connecting system with low production costs and at the same time to maintain or, in some cases, improve its functioning and strength due to a combination of manufacturing technology, connection design, choice of materials and optimization of long and short sides .
The fourth principle of the invention is that the connecting system, manufacturing technology and measurement technology should be designed and configured so that critical parts requiring small tolerances are as small as possible, and also that measurements and checks can be made without interrupting manufacture.
According to a first aspect of the invention, there is provided a fixing system and a floorboard provided with such a locking system for mechanically connecting all four sides of this floorboard in a first, vertical direction H1, a second, horizontal direction H2 and a third direction H3 perpendicular to the second, horizontal direction, with respective sides of the other floorboards equipped with the same locking systems.
The floorboards can have on both sides a detachable mechanical joint system of a known type that can be laterally displaced in the locked position and locked downward with respect to the edges of the joint or by horizontal snapping. The floorboards have a locking system according to the invention on the other two sides. The floorboards may also have a locking system according to the invention on all four sides.
Thus, at least two opposite sides of the floorboard have a joint system constructed according to the invention, which comprises a tongue and groove for the tongue defined by the upper and lower lips, the tongue in its outer and upper part having an upwardly oriented part and a groove for the tongue in its inner and upper part has an undercut. The tongue-up part oriented upwards and the groove under the tongue in the upper lip are oriented in the upper lip have fixing surfaces, the interaction of which prevents horizontal separation in the H2 direction across the connection plane. The tongue and groove for the tongue also have interacting supporting surfaces that prevent vertical separation in the H1 direction parallel to the joint plane. Such supporting surfaces should be present at least in the lower part of the tongue and on the lower lip of the groove under the tongue. In the upper part, the interacting fixing surfaces may serve as upper supporting surfaces, but the upper lip of the tongue and groove grooves may preferably also have separate upper supporting surfaces. The tongue, tongue groove, retainer and undercut have a design that allows them to be manufactured using tools that have a larger tool diameter than the thickness of the floorboard. The tongue can be inserted with its upward oriented section into the tongue groove and its undercut by moving inwardly with the center of rotation near the intersection of the joint plane and the surface plane, and the tongue can also be removed from the tongue groove if the floorboard is rotated or tilted, leaving it up the upper edge of the joint in contact with the upper edge of the joint of the adjoining floorboard. In order to facilitate the manufacture, measurement, downward tilt, upward tilt and lateral displacement in the longitudinal direction of the joint and to prevent cracking, and to reduce any problems associated with swelling / drying of the floor material, the joint system is provided with surfaces that do not contact each other when tilted down nor in the locked position.
According to a second aspect of the invention, the floorboard has two edge sections provided with a connecting system according to the invention, wherein the tongue with its upwardly oriented portion can enter the groove for the tongue and its undercut and can exit the groove for the tongue by tilting down and tilting up, respectively, while as the floorboards continue to contact each other with their upper joint edges near the intersection of the joint plane and the surface plane, so that the rotation occurs relative to the center of rotation that near this point. In addition, the locking system can be latched by horizontal displacement, while in fact the lower part of the tongue groove is bent, and the locking element of the tongue is latched into the locking groove. Alternatively or additionally, the tongue can be made flexible to facilitate such a snap on the short side after joining the long sides. Thus, the invention also relates to a snap-on joint, which can be released by tilting upwards, in which the upper edges of the joint are in contact with each other.
According to a third aspect of the invention, the floorboard has two edge portions provided with a joint system formed according to the invention, wherein the tongue, when the floorboard is held in the upward tilt position, can be snapped into the tongue groove and then tilted downward by a pivoting movement relative to the upper edge of the joint. In the upward tilt position, the tongue can partially enter the groove for the tongue, since the floorboard in this position translates towards the tongue groove until the upper edges of the joint come into contact with each other, after which the downward tilt for final connecting the tongue and groove under the tongue and to achieve mutual fixation. The lower lip may be shorter than the upper lip to provide a greater degree of freedom in the design of undercutting of the upper lip.
The combination of aspects of the invention is also applicable to known systems without these aspects in combination with the preferred fixation systems described herein.
The invention also describes the basic principles that a tongue-and-groove joint should satisfy, which involves tilting inward when the upper edges of the joint are in contact with each other, and snapping with minimal bending of the joint components. The invention also describes how to use the properties of the material in order to achieve high strength and low costs in combination with tilting and snapping-in, as well as laying methods.
Various aspects of the invention are described below in more detail with reference to the accompanying drawings, which show various embodiments of the invention. Details of the floorboards according to the invention, equivalent to the prior art and shown in FIGS. 1-2, have the same conventions in all the drawings.
Figa-c - three stages of the tilt down method for mechanically joining the long sides of the floorboards according to WO 9426999.
2a-c are three steps of a snap method for mechanically joining short sides of floorboards according to WO 9426999.
Figa-b is a top and bottom view, respectively, of floorboards according to WO 9426999.
4a-b are two different embodiments of floorboards according to WO 9966151.
Figa-b - floorboards according to DE-A-3343601.
Figa-d - mechanical locking system for the long side and short side, respectively, floorboards according to CA-A-0991373.
Figa-b - mechanical locking system according to GB-A-1430429.
Figa-b - boards according to DE-A-4242530.
Figa-b - snap connection according to WO 9627721.
Figa-b - snap connection according to JP 3169967.
11a-b are snap-fit connection according to DE-A-1212275.
12a-d are various embodiments of tongue-and-groove fixing systems according to US-A-1124228.
Figa-d is a mechanical joint system for sports floors according to DE-A-3041781.
Figa-e is one of the locking systems presented in WO 9747834.
Figa-b - parquet floor according to US-A-2740167.
Figa-b is a mechanical system for fixing floorboards according to CA-A-2252791.
Figa-b - locking system with a snap for parquet floors according to US-A-5797237.
Figa-b - connecting system for ceramic tiles according to FR-A-2675174.
Figa-b is a joint system for floorboards described in JP 7180333, made by extrusion of a metal material.
Figa-b - connecting system for large wall panels according to GB-A-2117813.
Figa-b is a diagram of two parallel edge sections of the connection of the first preferred embodiment of the floorboard according to the present invention.
FIG. 22 is a schematic representation of the basic principles of inward inclination with respect to the upper edges of a joint according to the present invention.
Figa-b is a diagram of the manufacture of the edges of the joints of the floorboard according to the invention.
Figa-b is a variant implementation focused on production.
25 is an embodiment of the invention, as well as snapping and tilting upward in combination with a curve of the lower lip.
26 is an embodiment of the invention with a short lip.
Figa-c - the method of tilting down and up.
Figa-a - an alternative way to tilt.
Figa-b is a snap method.
Fig. 30 is a diagram illustrating the connection of the long sides of two boards with the long side of the third board when the two boards are already connected to each other by short sides.
Figa-b - two connected floorboards provided with a combined connection according to the invention.
Figa-d - tilt inward for a combined connection.
Fig. 33 is an example of forming a long side in a parquet board.
Fig. 34 is an example of forming a short side in a parquet board.
Fig. 35 is a detailed example of the formation of a long-side joint system in a parquet board.
Fig. 36 is an example of a floorboard according to the invention in which the construction of the joint system is inclined using bending and compression in the joint material.
Figa-c - floorboard according to the invention.
Figa-d is a four-stage manufacturing method in which the method according to the invention is used.
Fig. 39 is a connection system suitable for compensating for swelling and drying of the surface layer of a floorboard.
40 is an embodiment of the invention with a rigid tongue.
Fig. 41 is an embodiment of the invention in which fixation surfaces form upper contact surfaces.
Figa-b is an embodiment of the invention with a long tongue, as well as with a tilt and pull.
Figa-c - the design of the connecting system that facilitates snapping.
Fig.44 - snapping in the inclined position.
Figa-b - connecting system according to the invention with a flexible tongue.
Figa-b - connecting system according to the invention with a bifurcated and flexible tongue.
Figa-b - a connecting system according to the invention with a lower lip, consisting partly of a material other than the core.
Figa-b - a joint system that can be used as a snap-in connection in a floorboard, fixed on all four sides.
Fig. 49 is a connection system that can be used, for example, on the short side of a floorboard.
Fig. 50 is another example of a joint system that can be used, for example, on the short side of a floorboard.
Figa-f - shows the laying method.
Figa-b - method of laying with a tool of a special design.
Fig - connection of the short sides.
Figa-b - snapping short side.
55 is an embodiment of the invention with a flexible tongue that facilitates snapping on the short side.
Figa-e - snapping the outer corner portion of the short side.
Figa-e - snapping the inner corner portion of the short side.
A first preferred embodiment of a floorboard 1, 1 ′ provided with a mechanical locking system according to the invention is described below with reference to FIGS. 21a and 21b. To facilitate understanding, the connecting system is shown schematically. It should be noted that other preferred embodiments described below allow for better results.
On figa, 21b schematically shows a sectional view of the connection between the edge section 4A of the long side of the floorboard 1 and the edge section 4b of the opposite long side of the other floorboard 1 ′.
The upper sides of the floorboards are essentially located in the general plane of the GP surface, and the upper parts of the joint edge sections 4a, 4b are in contact with each other in the vertical plane of the joint VP. The mechanical locking system ensures that the floorboards are fixed relative to each other both in the vertical direction H1 and in the horizontal direction H2. When laying the floor in the form of adjoining rows of floorboards, one floorboard (1 ′) can still be displaced along the other floorboard (1) in the direction H3 (see Fig. 3a) along the plane of the joint VP. Such an offset can be used, for example, to ensure mutual fixation of floorboards in the same row.
To ensure the connection of two edge sections of the connection, perpendicular to the vertical VP plane and parallel to the horizontal GP plane, the edges of the floorboard are provided in a known manner, groove 36 for the tongue in one edge section 4a of the floorboard within the plane of the VP joint and tongue 38 formed on the other edge section 4b and protruding beyond the plane of the VP connection.
In such an embodiment, the floorboard 1 has a wood core or core 30 that supports the wood surface layer 32 on its front side and the alignment layer 34 on its rear side. The board 1 has a rectangular shape and is equipped with a second mechanical locking system on two parallel short sides. In some embodiments, this second fixation system may have the same structure as the long-sided fixation system, but the short-side fixation system may also have a different construction according to the invention, or be a previously known mechanical fixation system.
As an illustrative, non-restrictive example, the floorboard can be of a parquet type with a thickness of 15 mm, a length of 2.4 m and a width of 0.2 m. However, the invention can also be used for parquet squares or boards of other sizes.
The core 30 may be a plate type and consist of narrow wooden blocks from an inexpensive variety of wood. The surface layer 32 may have a thickness of 3-4 mm and consist of hardwood of decorative type and may be varnished. The leveling layer 34 on the back side may consist of a 2 mm thick veneer layer. In some cases, it is preferable to use different types of wood materials in different parts of the floorboard to optimize properties in individual parts of the floorboard.
According to the foregoing, the mechanical locking system according to the invention comprises a tongue groove 36 at one edge of the floorboard joint portion 4a and a tongue 38 at the opposite edge of the floorboard joint portion 4b.
The tongue groove 36 is bounded by the upper and lower lips 39, 40 and has the shape of an undercut groove with an opening between the lips 39, 40.
The different parts of the tongue groove 36 are shown in FIG. 21b. The tongue groove is formed in the core or core 30 and extends from the edge of the floorboard. Above the tongue groove is an upper edge portion or a connecting edge surface 41, which extends upward to the plane of the GP surface. Inside the groove hole for the tongue, there is an upper contact or supporting surface 43, which in this case is parallel to the plane of the GP surface. This contact or abutment surface transforms into an inclined fixation surface 45, which has a fixation angle Y with respect to the horizontal horizontal plane. Inside the fixation surface, there is a surface portion 46 that forms the upper boundary surface of the undercut tongue groove portion 35. The tongue groove also has a rear end 48, which extends down to the lower lip 40. On the upper side of this lip there is a contact or abutment surface 50. The outer end of the lower lip has a connecting edge surface 52 and, in this case, slightly extends beyond the plane of the VP joint.
The tongue shape also appears from Fig. 21b. The tongue is made of core material or core 30 and extends beyond the joint plane VP when this joint edge portion 4b is mechanically connected to the edge portion 4a of the adjoining floorboard. The connection edge portion 4b also has an upper edge portion or an upper connecting edge surface 61 that extends along the joint plane VP down to the tongue 38 base. The upper side of the tongue base has an upper contact or abutment surface 64, which in this case extends to an inclined surface the fixing surface 65 of the upwardly oriented portion 8 near the top of the tongue. The fixing surface 65 passes into the guide surface portion 66, which ends on the upper surface 67 of the upwardly grooved portion 8. After surface 67 there follows a chamfer, which can serve as a guiding surface 68. It reaches the top of the tongue 69. At the lower end of the apex 69 there is another guide surface 70 extending obliquely down to the lower edge of the tongue and the contact or abutment surface 71. The abutment surface 71 is designed to interact with the abutment surface 50 of the lower lip when two such floorboards are mechanically joined when their upper sides are located in the same plane of the GP surface and are joined in the plane of the VP joint, oriented perpendicular to it, as a result of which the upper connecting edge surfaces 41, 61 of the floorboards are in contact yut with each other. The tongue has a lower connecting edge surface 72, which extends to the lower side.
In this embodiment of the invention, separate contact or abutment surfaces 43, 64 are provided in the groove for the tongue and groove, respectively, which in the locked state are in contact with each other and interact with the lower abutment surfaces 50, 71 on the lower lip and the tongue, respectively, to ensure fixation in direction H1, perpendicular to the plane of the GP surface. In other embodiments, which will be described later, the fixation surfaces 45, 65 are used both as fixation surfaces for mutual fixation in the H2 direction parallel to the plane of the GP surface and as supporting surfaces for counteracting movements in the H1 direction perpendicular to the surface plane. According to the embodiment of FIGS. 21a, 21b, the locking surfaces 45, 65 and the contact surface 43, 64 interact as upper supporting surfaces in the system.
It is apparent from the drawing that the tongue 38 extends beyond the plane of the joint VP and has an upwardly oriented portion 8 at its free outer end or apex 69. The tongue also has a fixation surface 65 formed to interact with the inner fixation surface 45 in the groove 36 of the adjacent floorboard when two such floorboards are mechanically connected, as a result of which their front sides are located in the same plane of the GP surface and are joined in the plane of the VP joint, perpendicular to it.
21b, the tongue 38 has a surface portion 64 between the fixation surface 65 and the joint plane VP. When the two floorboards are connected, the surface portion 64 comes into contact with the surface portion 43 of the upper lip 39. To facilitate the tongue to enter the undercut groove by tilting down or snapping, the tongue may, as shown in FIGS. 21a, 21b, have a chamfer 66 between the fixing surface 65 and plot 67 of the surface. In addition, a chamfer 68 may be located between the surface portion 67 and the tongue apex 69. The chamfer 66 can serve as a guide part due to the fact that it has a smaller angle of inclination to the surface plane than the angle of inclination of the fixation surfaces 45, 65.
The tongue bearing surface 71 in this embodiment is substantially parallel to the plane of the GP surface. The tongue has a chamfer 70 between its abutment surface and the tongue apex 69.
According to the invention, the lower lip 40 has a supporting surface 50 for engaging with a corresponding supporting surface 71 on the tongue 38 at a distance from the rear end 48 of the undercut groove. When two floorboards are connected to each other, there is contact between the abutment surfaces 50, 71 and between the contact or abutment surface 43 of the upper lip 39 and the corresponding contact or abutment surface 64 of the tongue. Thus, fixation of the floorboards in the direction H1, perpendicular to the plane of the GP surface is achieved.
According to the invention, at least a large part of the back end 48 of the undercut groove, when viewed parallel to the plane of the GP surface, is located farther from the plane of the joint VP than the outer end or the top 69 of the tongue 38. Thanks to this design, manufacturing and the displacement of one floorboards are relatively different along the joint plane.
Another important feature of the mechanical fixation system according to the invention is that all parts of the sections of the lower lip 40 associated with the core 30, when viewed from the point C, where the plane of the GP surface intersect and the plane of the VP connection, are located beyond the PF2 plane. This plane is farther from the mentioned point C than the fixation plane PF1, which is parallel to the PF2 plane and is tangent to the interacting fixation surfaces 45, 65 of the undercut groove 36 and the tongue 38, and these fixation surfaces are most inclined relative to the plane of the GP surface. Thanks to this design, the undercut groove can, as described in more detail below, be performed using large disk rotary cutting tools for machining the edge sections of the floorboards.
Another important feature of the fixation system according to the invention is that the construction of the upper and lower lips 39, 40 and the tongue 38 of the joint edge sections 4a, 4b allows two mechanically connected floorboards to be disconnected when one floorboard is rotated upward relative to the other around the center of rotation near the intersection point C the plane of the GP surface and the plane of the VP joint, in which the tongue of this floorboard is inverted from the undercut groove of the other floorboard.
According to the embodiment shown in FIGS. 21a, 21b, such separation is possible due to a slight downward curvature of the lower lip 40. However, in another more preferred embodiment, no downward curvature of the lower lip is required for joining and disconnecting the floorboards.
According to the embodiment shown in figa, 21b, the connection of two floorboards according to the invention can be made in three different ways.
One method involves placing the floorboard 1 ′ on the base and moving towards the previously laid floorboard 1 ′ until the narrow top 69 of the tongue 38 fits into the opening of the undercut groove 36. Then, the floorboard 1 ′ is tilted upward so that the upper parts 41, 61 floorboards on either side of the plane of the VP joint are in contact with each other. Maintaining this contact, the floorboard is tilted down, turning relative to the center of rotation C. The insert is chamfered 66 by a tongue sliding along the fixation surface 45 of the upper lip 39, and at the same time, the chamfer 70 of the tongue 38 slides along the outer edge of the upper side of the lower lip 40. Then, the fixation system can be opened by tilting the floorboard 1 ′ upward, turning it relatively to the turning center C near the intersection of the plane of the GP surface and the plane of the VP connection.
The second method of mutual fixation involves moving the new floorboard with its edge joint section 4a, which is provided with a tongue groove, towards the joint edge portion 4b provided with the tongue of the previously laid floorboard. Then, the new floorboard is turned up until the upper parts 41, 61 of the floorboards are brought into contact near the intersection of the surface plane and the joint plane, after which the floorboard is turned down to align the tongue and groove for the tongue, until the final fixation position is reached. According to the following description, the floorboards can also be joined by moving one floorboard in a tilted position upward towards the other.
A third method for connecting the floorboards in this embodiment of the floorboards according to the invention provides that the new floorboard 1 ′ is displaced horizontally towards the previously laid floorboard 1, so that the tongue 38 provided with a locking element or upwardly oriented portion 8 enters the groove 36 for the tongue, flexible the lower lip 40 is slightly bent downward so that the locking element 8 snaps into the undercut portion 35 of the tongue groove. In this case, the separation is also carried out by tilting up, as described above.
Due to the snapping, the upper lip 39 may also bend slightly upward, and there may also be slight compression of all parts of the groove 36 and the tongue 38 that come into contact with each other during the snapping process. This facilitates snapping-in and can be used to form an optimal joint system.
To facilitate fabrication, tilt down, tilt up, snap and shift in the locked position, and to minimize the risk of cracking, all surfaces that are not involved in forming a tight joint of the upper edges of the joint and in the formation of vertical and horizontal joints should be formed so that they do not contacted each other in the fixation position, and also preferably during fixation and release of fixation. This provides a manufacturing that does not require large tolerances on these connecting sections, and reduces friction during lateral displacement along a long edge. Examples of surfaces or parts of the connecting system that should not be in contact with each other in the locked position are 46-67, 48-69, 50-70 and 52-72.
The connection system according to a preferred embodiment of the invention may consist of several combinations of materials. The upper lip 39 may be made of a hard and hard upper surface layer 32 and a softer lower part that is part of the core 30. The lower lip 40 may consist of the same softer upper part 30 and also the lower soft part 34, which may be different grade of wood. The directions of the fibers in the three types of wood can vary. This can be used to provide a joint system in which these material properties are applied. Thus, the locking element according to the invention is located near the upper hard and rigid part, which, therefore, is flexible and compressible only to a limited limit, while the snap function is carried out in a softer lower and flexible part. It should be noted that the joint system can also be made in a uniform floorboard.
On Fig schematically shows the basic principles of tilt down relative to point C (upper edges of the connection) according to the present invention. On Fig schematically shows the design of the locking system, providing a tilt inward relative to the upper edges of the connection. With this tilt inward, the details of the connecting system are described according to the prior art arcs of circles centered at point C near the intersection of the plane of the GP surface and the plane of the VP connection. If a large free play is allowed between all the parts of the connecting system, or if significant deformation is possible when tilted inward, then the tongue and groove can be formed in many different ways. If the connecting system must have contact surfaces that prevent vertical and horizontal separation without any free play between the contact or supporting surfaces, and if material deformation is not possible, then the connecting system should be designed according to the following principles.
The upper part of the connecting system is formed as follows. C1B is an arc of a circle centered on top of the upper edges 41, 61 of the joint, which in this preferred embodiment passes through the point of contact between the upper lip 39 and the upper part of the tongue 38 at point P2. All other points of contact between P2, P3, P4 and P5 between the upper lip 39 and the upper part 8 of the tongue 38 and between this point of intersection of P2 and the vertical plane of the VP are located on the arc of the circle C1B or inside it, while all other points of contact from P2 to P1 between the upper lip 39 and the upper part of the tongue 38 and between this point of intersection P2 and the outer part of the tongue 38 are located on or outside of this circular arc C1B. These conditions must be met for all contact points. As for the point of contact P5 with the arc of a circle C1A, all other points of contact between P1 and P5 are located outside the arc of the circle C1A, and as for the point of contact P1, all other points of contact between P1 and P5 are located inside the arc of the circle C1C.
The lower part of the connecting system is formed according to the relevant principles. C2B is a circular arc having a common center with a circular arc C1A, and which, in this preferred embodiment, passes through the point of contact between the lower lip 40 and the lower part of the tongue 38 at point P7. All other contact points between P7, P8 and P9 between the lower lip 40 and the lower part of the tongue 38 and between this intersection point P7 and the vertical plane are located on the arc of the circle C2B or outside it, and all other contact points between P6, P7 and between the lower lip 40 and the lower part of the tongue 38 and between this intersection point P7 and the outer part of the tongue 38 are located on this arc of the circle C2B or inside it. The same is true for the point of contact P6 with the arc of a circle C2A.
A connection system constructed in accordance with this preferred embodiment of the invention may have good inward tilt characteristics. It can easily be combined with the upper contact or abutment surfaces 43, 64, which can be parallel to the horizontal GP plane and which can thus provide good vertical fixation.
On figa, 23b shows how you can make the connecting system shown in figa, 2b. Typically, the floorboard 1 according to the prior art is placed face down on a chain of ball bearings of a milling machine, which transfers the floorboard with extreme precision past the milling cutters, which, for example, have a tool diameter of 80-300 mm, and which can be installed at an optimal angle to the horizontal plane of the floorboard. However, to facilitate understanding and comparison with other figures of the drawings, the floorboard is shown with the plane of the GP surface facing up. On figa shows how the first tool with a tool position IP1 makes a traditional groove under the tongue. The tool acts in this case under the instrumental angle ИУ1 equal to 0 °, i.e. parallel to the horizontal plane. The axis of rotation OB1 is perpendicular to the GP. The undercutting is performed using the second tool, and the position of IP2 and the design of the tool make it possible to form the undercut 35 so that the tool does not affect the shape of the lower lip 40. In this case, the tool has an angle II equal to the angle of the fixing surface 45 into the undercut 35. This machining method This is possible due to the fact that the fixation plane PF1 is located at such a distance from the connection plane that the tool can be inserted into the groove under the tongue. Therefore, the thickness of the tool cannot exceed the distance between two parallel planes PF1 and PF2, which was discussed in connection with figa, 21b. This manufacturing method corresponds to the prior art and does not form part of the manufacturing method according to the invention, which will be described below.
On figa, 24b shows another variant of the invention. This embodiment is characterized in that the joint system is formed completely in accordance with the basic principles of tilting inward with respect to the upper edges of the joint as described above. The fixing surfaces 45, 65 and the lower supporting surfaces 50, 71 according to this embodiment are flat but have different shapes. C1 and C2 are two arcs of a circle centered at C at the upper end of the abutting edges 41, 61 of the joint. The small arc of the circle C1 touches the lower contact point closest to the vertical plane between the fixation surfaces 45, 65 at point P4, which has a tangent KL1 corresponding to the fixation plane PF1. Fixation surfaces 45, 65 have the same inclination as this tangent. The large arc of the circle C2 touches the upper contact point between the lower supporting surfaces 50, 71 near the inner part 48 of the tongue groove at point P7, which has a tangent KL2. The supporting surfaces 50, 71 have the same inclination as this tangent.
All contact points between the tongue 38 and the upper lip 39, located between point P4 and the vertical plane of the VP, satisfy the condition that they are inside the arc of a circle C1 or on it, while all contact points located between P4 and the inner part 48 of the groove under the tongue — contact surfaces 45, 65 only in this embodiment — satisfy the condition that they are on or outside C1. Appropriate conditions are met for the contact surfaces between the lower lip 40 and the tongue 38. All contact points between the tongue 38 and the lower lip 40 located between the point P7 and the vertical plane of the VP — supporting surfaces 50, 71 only in this embodiment — are located on the arc of a circle C2 or outside it, whereas all contact points located between point P7 and the inner part 48 of the tongue groove are on the arc of a circle C2 or inside it. In this embodiment, there are no contact points between P7 and the inner part 48 of the tongue groove.
This embodiment is distinguished, in particular, in that all contact surfaces between the contact point P4 and the joint plane VP, in this case point P5, and the tongue groove inside 48 are respectively inside and outside, respectively, of the arc of circle C1 and thus not on the arc of circle C1. The same is true for the contact point P7, and all contact points between P7 and the vertical plane of the VP, in this case the point P8, and the inner part 48 of the tongue groove, respectively, are outside and inside, respectively, of the arc of a circle C2 and, therefore, not on the arc circle C2. As can be seen from the part indicated by the dashed lines in Fig. 24a, the connection system can, when this condition is fulfilled, be such that the inclination inward can occur with a gap during a practically pivoting movement, which can stop when the floorboards are fixed with a tight fit or press fit occupying the final horizontal position. Thus, the invention allows a combination of tilt inward and tilt up without resistance and fixation with high quality connections. If the lower supporting surfaces 71, 50 are made with any smaller angle, then it is possible to provide a connecting system where only the two above-mentioned points P4 on the upper lip and P7 in the lower part of the tongue are the contact points between the tongue groove 36 and the tongue 38 throughout tilt inward until the final fixation occurs, and throughout the tilt up until the floorboards are free from each other. Fixing with a gap or only with a linear contact has a great advantage, since the friction is small and the floorboards can be easily tilted inward and tilted up without mutual emphasis and jamming of system parts with the risk of damage to the system. Press fit, especially in the vertical direction, is very important for strength. If there is a gap between the contact or abutment surfaces, the floorboards will, in the presence of a tensile load, slide along the fixation surfaces until the lower contact or abutment surfaces come to a press fit position. Thus, free play will result in both a clearance in the joint and differences in level between the upper edges of the joint. For example, it can be noted that with a tight fit or a press fit, high strength can be achieved if the fixing surfaces have an angle of about 40 ° to the plane of the GP surface, and if the contact or supporting surfaces have an angle of about 15 ° to the plane of the GP surface.
The fixation plane PF1 has, according to FIG. 24a, the angle of fixation Y to the horizontal GP plane of about 39 °, while the plane KL2 of the support along the supporting surfaces 50, 71 has an angle of UVF of the support of about 14 °. The difference in angles between PF1 and the plane KL2 of the support is 25 °. It is necessary to achieve a large angle of fixation and a large difference in angles between the angle of fixation and the angle of support, since this leads to a large force of horizontal fixation. Fixation surfaces and abutment surfaces may be arched, stepped, with several angles, etc., but this creates difficulties for production. As noted above, the fixing surfaces may also constitute upper supporting surfaces or be complements for separating the upper supporting surfaces.
Even if the fixing and supporting surfaces have contact points that are somewhat inconsistent with these basic principles, then these surfaces can be tilted inward at their upper edges of the joint, if the joint system is adapted so that its points or contact surfaces are small relative to the floor thickness, and the properties of the board material in relation to compression, elongation and bending are used to the maximum in combination with very small gaps between the contact surfaces. This can be used to increase the angle of fixation and the difference between the angle of fixation and the angle of support.
So, the basic principles of tilting inward show that the critical elements are the fixing surfaces 45, 65 and the lower supporting surfaces 50, 71. This also shows that the degree of freedom is great with respect to the supporting surfaces 43, 64, the guide groove 44 of the fixation guide 66 and the upper surface 67 of the locking element 8, the inner parts 48, 49 of the groove 36 for the tongue and lower lip 40, the guide and the upper part 51 of the lower lip, as well as the outer / lower parts 69, 70, 72 of the tongue. It is preferable that their shape is different from the two arcs of a circle C1 and C2, and that there can be free space between all the parts, with the exception of the upper supporting surfaces 43, 64, which would allow these parts to be in a locked position and also not to tilt inwards to contact with each other. This greatly facilitates the manufacture, since these parts can be formed without large tolerance requirements, and contributes to a safe tilt inward and tilt up, as well as to reduce friction due to lateral displacement of the joined floorboards along the plane of the VP joint (in the H3 direction). The presence of free space indicates that there are parts of the connection that do not have any functional value to prevent vertical and horizontal displacement along the edge of the connection in the locked position. Thus, residual wood fibers and small deformable contact points should be considered as equivalent to free surfaces.
The inclination relative to the upper edge of the joint can be facilitated, as noted above, by designing the joint system so that there can be a slight free movement between the mainly mentioned fixing surfaces 45, 65 if the edges of the joint of the floorboards are pressed against each other. The free play of the structure also facilitates lateral displacement in the fixation position, reduces the risk of cracking and provides greater degrees of freedom in manufacturing, allows inclination inward in the presence of fixation surfaces that have a greater inclination than tangent PF1, and helps to compensate for the swelling of the upper edges of the joint. Freewheel can significantly reduce joint clearances on the upper side of floorboards and provides significantly less vertical displacements than freewheel between contact or abutment surfaces, mainly due to the smallness of this freewheel, and also due to the fact that the slip is in the tensile load position occurs at an angle of inclination of the lower supporting surface, i.e. at an angle substantially less than the angle of fixation. This minimum free play, if one exists, between the fixing surfaces can be very small, for example only 0.01 mm. In the normal position, the freewheel connection may not be, i.e. it can be equal to 0, the joint system can be designed so that the free play appears only when the edges of the joint of the floorboards are pressed together to the maximum. It was found that even greater free play, about 0.05 mm, will provide a very high quality connection, since the gap in the connection, which can be detected in the plane of the GP surface and which can occur in the position of the tensile load, is barely noticeable.
It should also be noted that the joint system can be designed without any free play between the locking surfaces.
The free movement and compression of the material between the fixation surfaces and the bending of the connection details on the fixation surfaces can be easily measured indirectly by subjecting the joint system to tensile loading and measuring the joint clearance at the upper edges 41, 61 of the joint at a given load, which is less than the tensile strength of the joint system. Tensile strength means that the joint system does not break or crack. A suitable tensile load is about 50% of the tensile strength. As a non-limiting standard value, it can be noted that the long side usually has a strength of over 300 kg per linear meter of connection. Joints of short sides should have even greater strength. A parquet floor with an appropriate joint system according to the invention can withstand a tensile load of 1000 kg per linear meter of joint. A high-quality joint system should have a joint gap at the upper edges 41, 61 of the joint of about 0.1-0.2 mm under a tensile load equal to about half the tensile strength. The joint clearance should decrease when the load is removed. By varying the tensile load, it is possible to determine the relationship between the free running of the structure and the deformation of the material. In the case of a low tensile load, the joint clearance is essentially a measure of the free play of the structure. In case of high load, the joint gap increases due to deformation of the material. The joint system can also be constructed by creating an initial stress in it and providing a press fit between the locking surfaces and the supporting surfaces so that the aforementioned joint gap is not visible in the case of the aforementioned load.
The geometry of the joint system, the free play between the fixing surfaces in combination with the compression of the material around the upper edges 41, 61 of the joint can also be measured by sawing the joint across the joint edge. Since the joint system is made by linear machining, it will have the same profile along the entire edge of the joint. The only exceptions are manufacturing tolerances, namely insufficient parallelism due to the fact that the board can rotate or shift vertically or horizontally when passing through various milling cutters of the machine. However, usually two samples of each edge of the joint give a very true picture of what the joint system looks like. After grinding the samples and cleaning them of residual fibers so that a clear profile of the connection is visible, they can be analyzed with respect to the geometry of the connection, compression of the material, bending, etc. The two parts of the connection can, for example, be compressed with such a force so as not to cause damage to the connecting system, especially the upper edges 41, 61 of the connection. Then you can measure the free play between the fixing surfaces and the geometry of the connection using a measuring microscope with an accuracy of 0.01 mm or less, depending on the equipment. If reliable and modern machines are used in production, then, as a rule, it is enough to measure the profile of two small sections of the floorboard to determine the average free play, the geometry of the joint, etc.
All measurements should take place when the floorboards are in normal relative humidity of about 45%.
Also in this case, the fixing element or the upwardly grooved section 8 has a guide portion 66. The guide part of the fixing element contains parts having an inclination that is less than the inclination of the fixing surface and in this case also the inclination of the tangent KL1. A suitable degree of tilt of the tool, which provides the locking surface 45, is designated as YIU2, which in this embodiment is equal to the angle of inclination KL1.
In addition, the tongue fixing surface 45 of the tongue groove has a guide portion 44 that interacts with the tongue guide part 66 during tilting inward. Also, this guide portion 44 includes parts having a lower inclination than the fixing surface.
In front of the lower lip 40 there is a rounded guide portion 51, which interacts with the radius in the lower part of the tongue in connection with the lower contact surface 71 at point P7 and which facilitates an inward inclination.
The lower lip 40 may be resilient. Due to the inward inclination, a small degree of compression may occur at the contact points between the lower parts of the tongue 38 and the lower lip 40. As a rule, this compression is much less than it can be in the case of fixing surfaces, since the lower lip 40 can have significantly higher elastic properties than the upper lip 39 and the tongue 38, respectively. Due to the inclination inward and the inclination upward, the lip can thus bend downward. A bending capacity of only one tenth of a millimeter or several more gives, together with the compression of the material and small contact surfaces, good opportunities for forming, for example, lower supporting surfaces 50, 71 having a slope less than that of the tangent KL2, and at the same time makes it easy to produce tilt inward. A flexible lip can be combined with a relatively large angle of fixation. With a small angle of fixation, a large proportion of the tensile load will press down on the lip, which leads to undesirable gaps in the joint and level differences between the edges of the joint.
The tongue groove 36 and the tongue 38 have guide parts 42, 51 and 68, 70 that guide the tongue into the groove and facilitate latching and tilting inward.
On Fig shows embodiments of the invention in which the lower lip 40 is shorter than the upper lip 39 and, thus, is located at a distance from the vertical plane of the VP. The advantage is that this provides a greater degree of freedom in the design of the locking groove 45 with a large tool angle of the DUT and allows the use of relatively large tools. To facilitate snapping in with a downward curvature of the lower lip 40, the tongue groove 36 is made deeper than is required to accommodate the tongue apex 38. The joint edge portion 4b, indicated by the dash-dot line, shows how the parts of the system relate to each other due to the tongue snapping into the groove. under the tongue by displacing the joint edge portion 4b directly towards the joint edge portion 4a.
On Fig shows another variant of the above basic principles. In this case, the connecting system is formed with fixation surfaces inclined 90 ° to the plane of the surface of the surface and inclined much more strongly than the tangent KL1. However, such a preferred locking system opens upwardly, with the locking surfaces being extremely small and the connection being fixed exclusively through linear contact. If the core is rigid, such a fixation system can provide high strength. The design of the locking element and the fixing surfaces allows only a small degree of bending down the lower lip, which is indicated by dashed lines.
On figa-c shows the laying method by tilting inward. To simplify the description, we will call one board a groove board, and another - a groove board. In reality, the boards are identical. A possible installation method provides that the tongue-and-groove board lies horizontally on the black floor either separately or in connection with other boards on one, two or three sides, depending on where it is located in the stacking sequence / row. The groove board is placed with its upper lip 39 partially on top of the outer part of the tongue 38, so that the upper edges of the joint are in contact with each other. Then, the groove board is turned down towards the subfloor, pressing it against the edge of the tongue and groove joint until the final fixation shown in Fig. 27c occurs.
The sides of the floorboards sometimes have some degree of bending. Then, the groove board is compressed and rotated downward until the portions of the upper lip 39 come into contact with the portions of the upwardly directed portion of the tongue fixing member 8 and the portions of the lower lip 40 come into contact with portions of the lower tongue. Thus, any bend of the sides can be straightened, and then the boards can be tilted to their final position and fixed.
Figures 27a-c show how a downward inclination can occur with a gap or, alternatively, only with contact between the upper part of the tongue and groove groove, or with a linear contact between the upper and lower parts of the tongue and groove groove. According to this embodiment, a linear contact occurs at points P4 and P7. Tilting down can easily be done without significant resistance and can end with a very tight fit that locks the floorboards in the final position with high quality joints both vertically and horizontally.
Thus, the downward inclination can be carried out in practice as follows. The groove board is moved at an angle towards the tongue and groove board, while the groove for the tongue passes over part of the tongue. The groove board is pressed against the tongue board and gradually tilted down using, for example, compression in the center of the board, and then at both edges. When the upper edges of the joint across the board are close to each other or in contact with each other, and the board is set at a certain angle to the subfloor, a final downward tilt can be made.
When the boards are connected, they can be displaced in the locked position in the connection direction, i.e. parallel to the edge of the joint.
On figa-c shows how you can make the appropriate installation by tilting the tongue and groove board to the groove board.
On figa-b shows the snap connection. When the boards move horizontally towards each other, the tongue is guided into the groove. With continued compression, the lower lip 40 bends, and the locking element 8 snaps into the locking groove 35 or undercut. It should be noted that the preferred joint system demonstrates the basic principles of snapping in with a flexible lower lip. The connecting system should, of course, be adjusted according to the bending ability of the material and the depth of the groove 36 for the tongue, the height of the locking element 8 and the thickness of the lower lip 40 and should be dimensioned to facilitate snap-in. The basic principles of the connecting system according to the invention, in which it is more convenient to use materials with a low degree of flexibility and bendability, are apparent from the following description and Fig. 34.
The laying methods described can be used on all four sides and can be combined with each other. After laying on one side, lateral displacement in the fixation position usually occurs.
In some cases, for example, due to the tilt inward of the short side, two floorboards usually tilt up as the first operation. 30 shows a first floorboard 1 and a second floorboard 2a tilted upward, and a new, third floorboard 2b tilted upward, the short side of which is already connected to the second floorboard 2b. After the new floorboard 2b has been shifted laterally along the short side of the second board 2a with the tilt up and in the locked position on the short side, the two floorboards 2a and 2b can be tilted down together and fixed on the long side relative to the first floorboard 1. So that this method works , it is necessary that the new floorboard 2b can be inserted with a tongue into the groove for the tongue when the floorboard moves parallel to the second floorboard 2a and when part of the tongue of the second floorboard 2a is partially inserted into the tongue groove if there is contact the bottom edge of the joint with the top edge of the joint of the first floorboard 1. FIG. 30 shows that the joint system can be made with such a tongue groove, tongue and groove design that allows this.
All laying methods require displacement in the locked position. One exception regarding lateral displacement in the locked position is the case when several floorboards are joined by their short sides, after which the entire row is laid simultaneously. However, this styling method is irrational.
On figa, 31b shows a fragment of a floorboard with a combined connection. The tongue groove 36 and the tongue 38 can be formed according to one of the above embodiments. The groove board has on its bottom side a known rail 6 with a locking element 8b and a fixing surface 10. The tongue side has a locking groove 35 according to a known embodiment. In this embodiment, the locking element 8b with its relatively long guide piece 9 will act as an additional guide in the first step of tilting inward when positioning takes place and any form of “banana” is straightened. The locking element 8b provides automatic positioning and compression of the floorboards until the tongue guide part comes into contact with the locking groove 35 and the final fixing takes place. The interaction of the two locking systems greatly facilitates the installation and provides a very strong connection. This connection is very convenient for connecting large floor surfaces, especially in public places. In the example shown, rail 6 is attached to the groove side, but it can also be attached to the tongue and groove side. Thus, the placement of the rail 6 is determined arbitrarily. In addition, the connection can be latched, as well as tilted up and sideways in the locked position.
Of course, this connection can be used, if desired, in various versions on both the long and short sides, and if desired, it can be combined with all the connection options described here and other known systems.
A convenient combination is the snap-on system on the short side without aluminum rail. This may in some cases facilitate the manufacture. The rail, which is attached after manufacture, also has the advantage that it can also form part or even the entire lower lip 40. This gives a greater degree of freedom for forming with cutting tools, for example, upper lip 39 and forming fixation surfaces with large angles fixation. The fixation system corresponding to this embodiment can, of course, be latched, and can also be manufactured with a rail 6 that does not protrude from the outside of the upper lip 39, as in the case of the embodiment of FIG. 50. The rail does not have to go continuously along the entire length of the connection, but can consist of several small sections that are reinforced at some intervals both on the long side and on the short side.
The locking element 8b and its locking groove 35 can be formed with different angles, heights and radii, which can be selected as desired so that they prevent separation and / or facilitate tilting inward or snapping.
On figa-d shows how to tilt inward in four stages. The wide rail 6 makes it easy to lay the tongue 38 on the rail at the beginning of the tilt inward. Then, the tongue in connection with the downward inclination can, almost automatically, slide into the groove 36 under the tongue. Appropriate installation can be done by inserting rail 6 under the tongue and groove board. All the laying functions described above can also be used on floorboards with this preferred combination system.
Figs. 33 and 34 show a production oriented and optimized joint system, especially for a floorboard with a wood core. 33 shows how a long side can be formed. In this case, the connection system is optimized primarily with regard to tilt inward, tilt up and a small amount of waste material. Fig. 34 shows how a short side can be formed. In this case, the connection system is optimized for snapping-in and high strength. The following differences exist between them. The tongue 38 and the fixing element of the short side 5a are longer when measured in the horizontal plane. This provides a higher shear strength in the locking element 8. The tongue groove 36 is deeper on the shorter side 5b, which allows the lower lip to bend to a greater extent. The locking element 8 on the short side 5a is lower in the vertical direction, which reduces the requirement for bending down the lower lip due to snapping. The fixing surfaces 45, 65 have a larger fixing angle, and the lower contact surfaces have a smaller angle. The guiding parts of the long side 4a, 4b in the locking element and the locking groove are increased for optimal guiding action, while the contact surface between the locking surfaces is reduced because the strength requirements are lower than on the short side. The connecting systems on the long and short sides may consist of different materials, or the properties of the materials in the upper lip, lower lip and tongue can be selected so that they help optimize the various properties that are desirable for the long side and short side, respectively, in terms of function and strength.
Fig. 35 shows in detail how to form a joint system of a floorboard on a long side. The principles described here can, of course, be used both on the long side and on the short side. The following is a detailed description of only those parts that have not been described previously.
The fixation surfaces 45, 65 have a PFM angle greater than that of the tangent KL1. This provides increased horizontal locking force. This excessive bending should be adjusted to the core wood material and optimized in terms of compression and bending stiffness so that it can still be tilted inward and tilted up. The contact surfaces of the fixation surfaces should be minimized and adjusted to the properties of the core.
When the floorboards are connected, a small portion is preferably less than half the length of the locking element in the vertical direction, which forms the contact surfaces of the locking element 8 and the locking groove 14. The main part consists of rounded, inclined or curved guide parts, which in the joint position and during tilt inward and tilt up do not contact each other.
It was found that the contact surfaces between the fixing surfaces 45, 65, which are very small with respect to the floor thickness T, for example, a few tenths of a millimeter, can provide a very large fixing force, and that this fixing force can exceed the tensile strength when the locking element is shifted horizontally planes (i.e., planes of a GP surface). This can be used to provide fixation surfaces with an angle greater than that of KL1.
In this case, the fixing surfaces 45, 65 are flat and parallel. This is an advantage, especially with respect to the fixation surface 55 of the fixation groove. If the tool is shifted parallel to the fixing surface 45, then this does not affect the vertical distance to the plane of the VP connection, and it is easier to ensure a high quality connection. Of course, small deviations from a flat shape can give equivalent results.
Accordingly, the lower supporting surfaces 50, 71 were made essentially flat and with an angle of UVF2, which in this case is larger than the tangent line KL2 passing through the point P7 located on the supporting surface 71 near the bottom of the tongue groove. This provides a tilt inward with a gap during almost the entire pivotal movement. In addition, the abutment surfaces 50, 71 are small with respect to the thickness of the floor T. The flat abutment surfaces facilitate the manufacture according to the principles described above.
The supporting surfaces 50, 71 can also be made with angles that are less than the angle of inclination of the tangent KL2. In this case, the inclination can occur with some degree of compression of the material and bending downward of the lower lip 40. If the lower supporting surfaces 50, 71 are small relative to the floor thickness T, then the possibility of forming surfaces with angles greater or less, respectively, than the tangents KL1 and KL2, respectively are increasing.
Fig. 36 shows an upward inclination of the floorboard, the geometry of which is shown in Fig. 35 and the fixing surfaces of which thus have a greater inclination than the tangent KL1, and the supporting surfaces of which have a smaller inclination than the tangent KL2, despite the fact that these surfaces are relatively small . Then the overlap at points P4 and P7 in connection with the tilt inward and tilt up will be extremely small. The inclination at point P4 may depend on the combination of material compressible at the upper edges of the joint K1, K2 and at point P4, K3, K4, while the upper lip 39 and tongue 38 may bend in the direction I1 and I2 from the contact point P4. The lower lip may bend downward from the point of contact P7 in the direction of I3.
The upper abutment surfaces 43, 64 are preferably perpendicular to the plane of the VP joint. Fabrication is greatly facilitated if the upper and lower abutment surfaces are plane parallel and preferably horizontal.
Turning again to FIG. 35. The arc of a circle C1 shows, for example, that the upper supporting surfaces can be formed in many different ways inside this arc of a circle C1, and this will not affect the possibility of tilting and snapping. In the same way, the circular arc C2 shows that the inner parts of the tongue groove and the outer parts of the tongue according to previously preferred principles can be formed in many different ways, and this will not affect the possibilities of tilting and snapping.
The upper lip 39 is in its entirety thicker than the lower lip 40. This gives an advantage in terms of strength. In addition, this is an advantage in connection with parquet floors, which as a result can be formed with a thickened surface layer of hardwood.
P1-P5 indicate areas where the connecting surfaces on both sides should not be in contact with each other, at least in the joint position, but preferably also during inward tilt. The contact between the tongue and groove under the tongue in these areas P1-P5 only to a small extent contributes to the improvement of fixation in the direction of H1 and, in general, hardly in the direction of H2. However, contact prevents inward inclination and lateral displacement, causes undesirable tolerance problems in connection with manufacture, and increases the risk of cracking and undesirable effects when the boards swell.
The tool angle of the DUT, designated as DI4 in FIG. 38d, forms an undercut 35 fixation surface 44 and acts at the same angle as the fixation surface angle, and a part of this tool that is placed within a vertical plane towards the tongue groove has the width perpendicular to the tool corner of the DUT, which is indicated by IT. The angle of the DUT and the width of the IT partially determine the possibility of forming the outer parts 52 of the lower lip 40.
The combination of relationships and angles is important for the optimal manufacturing method, operation, cost and strength.
The extent of contact surfaces should be minimized. This reduces friction and facilitates displacement in the locked position, tilts inward and latches, simplifies fabrication and reduces the risk of problems with swelling and cracking. In a preferred example, less than 30% of the surface parts of the tongue 38 form contact surfaces with the tongue groove 36. The contact surfaces of the fixing surfaces 65, 45 according to this embodiment are only 2% of the floor thickness T, and the lower supporting surfaces have a contact surface of only 10% of the floor thickness T. As noted above, the fixation system in this embodiment has a plurality of parts P1-P5 that form free surfaces that are not in contact with each other. The space between these free surfaces and the rest of the connecting system, within the scope of the invention, can be filled with glue, sealant, various kinds of impregnation, grease, etc. Free surfaces in this case mean the shape of the surface in the joint system, which is obtained by machining with appropriate cutting tools.
If the connection has a tight fit, then the fixing surfaces 65, 45 can prevent horizontal separation, even if their angle of UVF to the horizontal plane is greater than zero. However, the tensile strength of the joint system increases significantly when this angle of fixation becomes larger, and in the presence of a difference in angles between the angle of fixation of the PFM of the fixation surfaces 45, 65 and the contact angle of UVF2 of the lower supporting surfaces 50, 71, provided that this angle is smaller. If high strength is not required, then the fixing surface can be formed with small angles and small differences of angles to the lower contact surfaces.
For good joint quality in floating floors, the angle of UHF fixation and the difference in angles of UGF-UVF2 with the lower supporting surfaces should, as a rule, be about 20 °. An even greater strength is obtained if the angle of UVF fixation and the difference in angles of UVF-UVF2 is, for example, 30 °. In the preferred example of FIG. 35, the angle of fixation is 50 ° and the angle of the supporting surfaces is 20 °. As shown in previous embodiments, the joint system according to the invention can be formed with even larger fixing angles and angle differences.
A large number of tests were carried out with different fixation angles and contact angles. These tests prove the possibility of forming a high-quality connecting system with fixing angles between 40 ° and 55 ° and with angles of the supporting surface between 0 ° and 25 °. It should be noted that other ratios can ensure satisfactory functioning.
The horizontal extent of the shunt RA should exceed 1/3 of the thickness T of the floorboard and should preferably be about 0.5 · T. As a rule, it is necessary to form a strong fixing element 8 with a guide part and that there is enough material in the upper lip 39 between the fixation surface 65 and the vertical VP plane.
The horizontal length PA of the tongue 38 should be divided into two almost equal parts PA1 and PA2, with PA1 being the fixing element, and the main part of PA2 should be the supporting surface 64. The horizontal length PA1 of the fixing element should not be less than 0.2 of the floor thickness. The upper supporting surface 64 should not be too large, especially on the long side of the floorboard. Otherwise, the friction due to lateral displacement may be too great. To ensure rational manufacture, the depth G of the groove under the tongue should be 2% deeper than the departure of the tongue RA from the plane of the VP joint. The smallest distance from the upper lip to the floor surface adjacent to the fixation groove 36 must exceed the minimum distance of the lower lip between the lower abutment surface 71 and the back of the floorboard. The width of the IT tool must exceed 0.1 of the thickness T of the floor.
On figa-c shows the floorboard according to the invention. This embodiment shows, in particular, that the short-side joint system may consist of different materials and combinations of materials 30b and 30c, and that they may also differ from the long-side joint material 30. For example, a section of a groove 36 for a tongue-and-groove of short sides can consist of a harder and more flexible wood material than, for example, a section of a groove 38, which can be hard and stiff and have other properties than the core of the long side. On the short side with a groove 36 for the tongue, it is possible to select, for example, a variety of wood 30b that is more flexible than a variety of wood 30c on the other short side where the tongue is formed. This is especially convenient in parquet floors with a layered core, where the upper and lower sides are made of different types of wood, and the core consists of blocks glued together. This design provides great opportunities for changing the composition of materials to optimize performance, strength and production costs.
You can also vary the material along the length of one side. So, for example, blocks located between two short sides can consist of different types of wood or materials, so that some of them can be selected in terms of their value for suitable properties that improve laying, strength, etc. You can also get different properties due to the different orientation of the fibers on the long and short side, and you can also use plastic materials on the short sides and, for example, on different parts of the long side. If the floorboard or parts of its core consist, for example, of plywood in several layers, then these layers can be selected so that the upper lip, tongue and lower lip both on the long side and on the short side can all have parts with different composition of materials orientation of the fibers, etc., which can provide different properties with respect to strength, flexibility, machinability, etc.
On figa-d shows a manufacturing method according to the present invention. In the embodiment shown, the manufacture of the joint edge and tongue groove takes place in four steps. Tools with a tool diameter exceeding the thickness of the floor are used. Tools are used to form an undercut groove with a large angle of fixation in the groove under the tongue with the lower lip protruding beyond the cutting groove.
To simplify understanding and comparison with the previously described systems, the edges of the floorboards are shown for the case when the floor surface is facing up. However, usually during the machining of boards, their surface is facing down.
The first IP1 tool is a rounded cutter that works at an angle of IU1 to the horizontal plane. The second tool IP2 can work horizontally and forms the upper and lower supporting surfaces. The third IP3 tool can work vertically, but also at an angle, and forms the upper edge of the joint.
A particularly important tool is the IP4 tool, which forms the outside of the fixation groove and its fixation surface. IU4 corresponds to the IU in Fig. 35. As can be seen from fig.38d, this tool removes only a minimal amount of material and forms, essentially, a fixation surface with a large angle. To prevent the tool from breaking, it must be formed with a wide part extending beyond the vertical plane. In addition, the amount of material to be removed should be as small as possible to reduce tool wear and deformation. This is achieved due to a suitable angle and design of the rounded cutter IP1.
Thus, this manufacturing method differs essentially in that it requires at least two cutting tools working at different angles to form an undercut fixing groove 35 in the upper part of the tongue groove 36. The tongue groove can be done with more tools, using them in a different order.
We proceed to a detailed description of the method of forming the tongue groove 36 in the floorboard, the upper side 2 of which is in the plane of the GP surface, and the joint edge portion 4a has a joint plane VP oriented perpendicular to the upper side. The tongue groove extends from the joint plane 4a and is bounded by two lips 39, 40, each of which has a free outer end. In the at least one lip, the tongue groove has an undercut 35, which comprises a locking surface 45 and is located farther from the joint plane VP than the free outer end 52 of the other lip. According to the method, machining is performed using a combination of rotating cutting tools, the diameter of which exceeds the thickness T of the floorboard. According to the method, the cutting tools and the floorboard move relative to each other and parallel to the edge of the joint of the floorboard. The method is characterized in that 1) the undercut is formed using at least two such cutting tools, the rotating shafts of which are inclined at different angles to the upper side 2 of the floorboard; 2) the first of these tools is actuated to form undercut portions farther from the plane of the joint VP than the fixation surface of the formed undercut 45; and 3) the second of these tools is actuated to form an undercut fixing surface 45. The first of these tools is driven by setting its rotating shaft at an angle to the upper side 2 of the floorboard, larger than the second of these tools. The lower lip 40 can be formed so that it passes beyond the plane of the VP connection. The lower lip 40 can also be formed so that it extends to the plane of the VP connection. Alternatively, the lower lip 40 can be formed so that it ends at a distance from the plane of the VP connection.
The first of the tools, according to an embodiment of the invention, can be powered by setting its rotating shaft at an angle of not more than 85 ° to the plane of the surface surface. The second of the tools can, according to an embodiment, be activated by setting its rotating shaft at an angle of not more than 60 ° to the plane of the surface surface. In addition, the tools can be brought into contact with the floorboard in an order depending on the angle of its rotating shaft to the surface plane of the surface so that tools with a large angle of the rotating shaft process the floorboard before the tools with a smaller angle of the rotating shaft.
In addition, the third of the tools can be actuated to form the lower parts of the tongue groove 36. This third tool can be brought into contact with the floorboard between the first and second tools. The third tool can be powered by setting its rotating shaft at an angle of about 90 ° to the plane of the GP surface.
In addition, the first tool can be powered to process a wider surface area of the board of the edge portion 4a of the joining of the floorboard than the second of the tools. The second tool can be formed so that its surface facing the plane of the GP surface is profiled to reduce the thickness of the tool, when viewed parallel to the rotating shaft, in the radially external sections of the tool. In addition, at least three of the tools can be powered by setting their rotary shaft differently to form undercut grooves. Tools can be used to machine wood or wood fiber material.
On Fig shows how you can form a connecting system to provide compensation for swelling. Since the relative humidity increases when cold weather changes to warm, the surface layer 32 swells and floorboards 4a and 4b are wrung out. If the connection is not flexible, then the edges 41 and 61 of the connection may break, or the locking element 8 may break. This problem can be solved by constructing a connecting system so as to obtain the following properties, each of which individually and collectively contribute to reducing the severity of the problem.
The joint system can be formed so that the floorboards have a small free play when the edges of the joint are pressed against each other horizontally, for example, in connection with the manufacture and at normal relative humidity, a free play of several hundredths of a millimeter helps to reduce the severity of the problem. Negative free play, i.e. initial stress, may have the opposite effect.
If the contact surface between the fixing surfaces 45, 65 is small, then the joint system can be formed so that the fixing surfaces are more easily compressed than the upper edges 41, 61 of the joint. The locking element 8 can be formed with a groove 64a between the fixing surface and the upper horizontal supporting surface 64. With a suitable tongue 38 and the locking element 8, the outer tongue tip 69 can be folded to the inner part of the tongue groove 48 and act as an elastic element due to swelling and drying of the surface layers.
In this embodiment, the lower abutment surfaces of the joint system are formed parallel to the horizontal plane for maximum vertical fixation. It is also possible to achieve expandability by applying compressible material between, for example, two fixing surfaces 45, 65, or by choosing compressible materials as materials for a tongue or groove for a tongue.
On Fig shows the connecting system according to the invention, which has been optimized for high rigidity of the tongue 38. In this case, the outer part of the tongue is in contact with the inner part of the groove for the tongue. If this contact surface is small, and if contact occurs without very much compression, the joint system may be biased in the locked position.
Fig. 41 shows a connection system where the lower abutment surfaces 50, 71 have two angles. Parts of the bearing surfaces outside the joint plane are parallel to the horizontal plane. Within the joint plane near the inner part of the tongue groove, they have an angle corresponding to a tangent to the arc of a circle C2, which touches the innermost edge of the parts of the supporting surface in contact with each other. Fixation surfaces have a relatively large angle of fixation. The strength can still be sufficient since the lower lip 40 can be made hard and stiff and since the angle difference is large with respect to the parallel portion of the lower supporting surfaces 50, 71. In this embodiment, the fixing surfaces 45, 65 also act as upper supporting surfaces. The joint system does not have upper bearing surfaces in addition to the locking surfaces, which also prevent vertical separation.
On figa and 42b shows a joint system that is convenient for fixing the short side and which can have high tensile strength also with softer materials, since the locking element 8 has a large horizontal shear-absorbing surface. The tongue 38 has a lower part located outside the arc of a circle C2 and not following the basic principle of tilting inward described above. As can be seen from Fig. 42b, the joint system can still be released by tilting upward relative to the upper edges of the joint, since the locking element 8 of the tongue 38 after the tilting operation was first performed can exit the tongue groove by pulling in the horizontal direction. The previously described principles of tilting inward and tilting upward relative to the upper edges of the joint must be satisfied in order to provide a tilting upward until the joint system is released in some other way, for example by pulling or in combination with snapping when bending the lower lip 40.
On figa-c shows the basic principle of constructing the lower part of the tongue with respect to the lower lip 40 to facilitate horizontal snapping in accordance with the invention in the connecting system with undercut or locking groove 35 in the rigid upper lip 39 and with a flexible lower lip 40. In this In an embodiment, the upper lip 39 is significantly stiffer, inter alia, because it may be thicker, or because it may consist of harder or harder materials. The lower lip 40 may be thinner and softer, and therefore, when snapped, the lower lip 40 will experience significant bending. The snapping can be greatly facilitated, inter alia, by limiting the maximum bend of the lower lip 40 as much as possible. Fig. 43a shows that the bending of the lower lip 40 will increase to the maximum level of bending I1, which is determined by the fact that the tongue 38 enters the groove 36 under the tongue until the rounded guide pieces come into contact with each other. When the tongue 38 enters even more, the lower lip 49 bends back until the latching is completed and the locking element 8 is fully inserted into its final position in the locking groove 35. The lower front portion 49 of the tongue 38 should be designed so as not to bend the lower lip 40 downward, which, on the contrary, should press the lower abutment surface 50 downward. This tongue portion 49 should have a shape that either touches or does not reach the lower lip 40 having a maximum level of bending when this lower lip 40 is bent along the outside of the lower contact surface 50 of the tongue 38. If the tongue 38 has a shape that in this position overlaps the lower lip 40 indicated by the dashed line 49b, then the bend I2 shown in FIG. 43b may be significantly larger. This can cause a lot of friction when snapping in and create a risk of damage to the joint. On figs shows that the maximum bend can be limited by making a groove 36 for the tongue and groove 38 so that between the lower and outer part 49 of the tongue and lower lip 40 there is a gap P4.
Horizontal snapping is typically used in connection with snapping the short side after fixing the long side. When snapping in the long side, it is also possible to snap the joint system according to the invention by slightly tilting up one floorboard. This upward tilt position is shown in FIG. In order for the guide portion 66 of the locking element to come into contact with the guide portion 44 of the fixation groove, only a slight bend I3 of the lower lip 40 is required, which allows the fixation element to be inserted inclined downward into the fixation groove 35.
On Fig-50 shows various variants of the invention that can be used on the long or short side and which can be manufactured using large rotating cutting tools. With modern production technology, perfect forms can be formed according to the invention by machining board materials at low cost. It should be noted that most of the geometries shown in these and the previously mentioned figures can, of course, be formed by extrusion, but this method is usually substantially more expensive than machining and inconvenient for the formation of most board materials that are commonly used in floorboards.
On figa and 45b shows the fixing system according to the invention, and the outer part of the tongue 38 is formed flexible. This bending is achieved due to the forked tongue of the tongue. During snapping, the lower lip 40 bends downward and the outer lower part of the tongue 38 bends upward.
On figa and 46b shows the fixing system according to the invention with a forked tongue. During snapping, the two parts of the tongue bend to each other, while the two lips bend from each other.
These two connecting systems allow tilting in and out, respectively, for fixing and dismounting.
On figa and 47b shows a combined connection, where a separate part 40b is an elongated part of the lower lip and where this part can be elastic. The connection system is inclined. The lower lip, which forms part of the core, is formed so that the abutment surface allows snapping-in without the need to bend this lip. Only an elongated separate part that can be made of an aluminum sheet is elastic. The connective system can also be formed so that both parts of the lip are resilient.
Figures 48a and 48b show the snapping-in of a combination joint, the lower lip of which consists of two parts, where only a single lip forms a supporting surface. This connection system can be used, for example, on the short side in conjunction with any other connection system according to the invention. An advantage of this connecting system is that, for example, the locking groove 35 can be rationally formed with large degrees of freedom and using large cutting tools. After machining, an outer lip 40b is attached, the shape of which does not affect the machining capabilities. The outer lip 40b is resilient and in this embodiment does not have a locking element. Another advantage is that the connection system allows the connection of exceptionally thin core materials, since the lower lip can be made very thin. The core material may be, for example, a thin compact laminate, and the upper and lower layers may be relatively thick layers, for example, cork or soft plastic material, which can provide a soft and sound-absorbing floor. Using this technology, it is possible to combine core materials having a thickness of about 2 mm compared to conventional core materials, which typically have a thickness of at least 7 mm. This allows for savings in thickness, which can be used to increase the thickness of other layers. Obviously, this compound can also be used in thicker materials.
On Fig and 50 shows two options for combined compounds that can be used, for example, in the short side in combination with other preferred systems. The combination connection shown in FIG. 49 can be made according to an embodiment in which the rail forms a protruding elastic part of the tongue, which allows the system to function similarly to that shown in FIG. On Fig shows that this combined system can be formed with a locking element 8b in the outer lower lip 40b located within the plane of the connection.
On figa-f shows the laying method according to the invention and which can be used to connect the floorboards by combining horizontal alignment, tilt up, snap in the tilt up and tilt down. This laying method can be applied to floorboards according to the invention, but it can also be used with other mechanical joining systems in floors whose properties allow this laying method. To simplify the description, a stacking method is shown for one board called a groove board that connects to another board called a tongue and groove board. In fact, the boards are the same. Obviously, the entire stacking sequence can be performed in the same manner by connecting the tongue and groove side.
The tongue board 4a with the tongue 38 and the groove board 4b with the groove 36 for the tongue in the initial position lie horizontally on the black floor according to figa. The tongue 38 and the groove 36 for the tongue have locking means that prevent vertical and horizontal separation. Then, the groove board 4b is displaced horizontally in the F1 direction toward the tongue board 4a until the tongue 38 comes into contact with the tongue groove 36 and until the upper and lower tongue parts partially go into the groove of the tongue according to FIG. 51b. As a result of this first operation, the edge sections of the joining of the floorboards occupy the same vertical position along the entire floorboard, and thus any differences in the arched shape are aligned.
If the groove board is moved towards the tongue and groove board, then the edge portion of the joint of the groove board will be slightly raised in this position. Then, the groove board 4b is tilted upward by the pivoting movement P1, while at the same time holding it in contact with the tongue board or, alternatively, pressing it in the direction F1 to the tongue board 4a, as shown in FIG. 51c. When the groove board 4b reaches the ultrasound angle corresponding to the latching position with the tilt upward as described above and in FIG. 44, the groove board 4b can be moved towards the tongue board 4a so that the upper edges 41, 61 of the joint come into contact with each other, and so that the tongue fixation means partially go into the tongue and groove fixation means by means of a snap function.
This snap-in function in the upward tilt position is characterized in that the outer parts of the tongue groove are apart and spring-loaded. The extension is significantly less than necessary due to the snap in the horizontal position. The snapping angle of the ultrasound depends on the force with which the floorboards are pressed against each other due to the upward inclination of the groove board 4b. If the pressure force in the F1 direction is large, then the floorboards will snap into place at a smaller angle of ultrasound snapping-in than in the case of a small pressure force. The snap position also differs in that the guide parts of the locking means are in contact with each other so that they can carry out their snap function. If the floorboards are in the form of a "banana", then when they snap, they straighten and fix. Thereafter, the groove board 4b can be tilted P2 in combination with a clamp to the edge of the joint to tilt down according to FIG. 51e and fixed relative to the tongue and groove board in its final position. This is illustrated in FIG. 51f.
Depending on the design of the connection, it is possible to determine with great accuracy the angle of snap of the ultrasound, which ensures the best functioning with respect to the requirement that the snap should be made with a reasonable amount of force, and that the guide parts of the fixing means should be in such contact that together they can hold any form a "banana" so that the final fixation can be made without fear of damaging the connective system.
According to a preferred method of laying, floorboards can be installed without special auxiliary tools. In some cases, the installation can be facilitated if it is carried out using suitable auxiliary tools according to figa and 52b. According to the present invention, the auxiliary tool is an impact or pressure bar 80, made so that its front lower part 81 tilts the groove board upward when it is inserted under the edge portion of the floorboard. It has an upper abutment edge 82, which in the upward inclined position contacts the edge portion of the groove board. When the impact bar 80 is inserted under the groove board so that the abutment edge 82 contacts the floorboard, the groove board has a certain snap angle. The groove for the tongue of the groove plate 4a can now be snapped into the groove of the tongue board by pressing down the bar or striking the impact bar. Of course, the impact bar can be moved to different parts of the floorboard. Obviously, this can occur in combination with other pressure on other parts of the board, using a combination of impact bars and using other types of auxiliary tools, which give a similar result, where, for example, one auxiliary tool tilts the floorboard up by the snap angle and the other used for clamping. The same method can be used if instead it is desirable to tilt up the groove side of the new floorboard and connect it to the sheet pile side of the previously laid floorboard.
The following description focuses on various aspects of a flooring tool. Such a tool for laying floorboards by creating a tongue-and-groove connection between them may have the structure of a bar 80 with a contact surface 82 for gripping the edge 4a, 4b of the joint of the edge portion of the joint of the floorboard. The tool may be in the form of a wedge, allowing it to be inserted under the floorboard, and have a contact surface 82 located near the thick end of the wedge. The contact surface 82 of the tool can be concave to at least partially cover the edges 4A, 4b of the joining of the floorboard. In addition, the wedge angle P1 of the wedge and the position of the contact surface 82 in the thick portion of the wedge can be adjusted to obtain a predetermined angle of elevation of the floorboard when it is lifted using the wedge 80, and the edge of the joint of the floorboard is in contact with the contact surface 82. The thrust surface 82 of the wedge 80 can be formed for abutment of the joint edge portion 4b, which has a tongue 38 oriented obliquely upward, for connecting the undercut tongue groove 36 made on the opposite edge joint portion 4a of the floorboard, with sheet pile 38 of previously laid floorboards. Alternatively, the abutment surface 82 of the wedge may be formed to abut the joint edge portion 4a, which has an undercut groove 36, for joining the tongue 38 oriented obliquely upward and formed on the opposite edge joint portion 4b of the floorboard.
The tool described above can be used to mechanically connect the floorboards by lifting one floorboard relative to another and connecting and fixing the mechanical fixing systems of the floorboards. The tool can also be used to mechanically connect such a floorboard to another such floorboard by interlocking the mechanical locking systems of the floorboards when the floorboard is in a raised state. In addition, the tool can be used so that the contact surface 82 of the wedge abuts against the edge portion 4b of the joint, which has a tongue 38 oriented obliquely upward, to connect the undercut groove 36 formed on the opposite edge portion 4a of the joint of the floorboard with the tongue 38 of the previously laid floorboard . Alternatively, the tool can be used so that the contact surface 82 of the wedge abuts against the edge portion 4a of the joint that has an undercut groove 36 to connect the tongue 38, which is oriented obliquely upward and formed on the opposite edge portion 4b of the floorboard, with the undercut groove 38 of the previously laid floorboard.
On Fig shows that the floorboards 2A and 2b after connecting with adjacent floorboards along the edge of the long side can be displaced in the locked position in the direction F2 so that the connection of the other two sides can be done by horizontally snapping them.
Latching up can occur on both long sides and short sides. If the short side of the floorboard was first attached, then its long side can also be snapped in the tilt position upwards by tilting this floorboard with the short side up at an angle of snap. Then there is a snap in the tilt position inward, and at the same time there is an offset along the short side in the locking position. After snapping in, the floorboard is tilted down and fixed on the long side and on the short side.
In addition, FIGS. 53 and 54 present a problem that may occur due to snapping in of two short sides of two floorboards 2a and 2b, which are already connected by long sides to another, first floorboard 1. When the floorboard 2a needs to be snapped into the floorboard 2b, the inner corner sections 91 and 92 closest to the long side of the first board 1 are located in the same plane. This is because the two floorboards 2a and 2b are connected by their long sides to the same floorboard 1. According to Fig. 54b, where section C3-C4 is shown, the tongue 38 cannot be inserted into the tongue groove 36 to begin to bend down the lower lip. 40. In the outer corner portions 93, 94 on the other long side, in section C1-C2 shown in Fig. 54a, the tongue 38 can be inserted into the groove 36 to begin to bend down the lower lip 40, while the floorboard 2b automatically tilts up to in accordance with the height of the locking element 8.
Thus, it has been found that problems can occur due to snapping-in of the inner corner portions with lateral displacement in the same plane, and that these problems can lead to greater snapping resistance and risk of cracking in the joint system. The problem can be solved by a suitable joint design and selection of materials that allow deformation of the material and bending in the aggregate of the joint sections.
When clicking on such a specially designed connecting system, the following occurs. With lateral displacement, the outer guide parts 42, 68 of the tongue and upper lip interact and force the locking element 8 of the tongue to go under the outer part of the upper lip 39. The tongue bends down and the upper lip bends up. This is indicated by the arrows in FIG. 54b. The corner portion 92 in FIG. 53 is pushed upward with the lower lip 40 on the long side of the floorboard 2b that is bending, and the corner portion 91 is pushed downward with the upper lip on the long side of the floorboard 2a that is bending upward. The joint system must be so designed that the sum of these four deformations is so large that the locking element can slide along the upper lip and snap into the locking groove. It is known that the tongue groove 36 should be able to expand due to snapping. However, it is not known that an advantage can be achieved if the tongue, which usually needs to be rigid, is also designed to be able to bend due to snapping. Such an embodiment is shown in FIG. In the upper inner part of the tongue within the vertical VP plane, a groove 63 or the like can be made. The total length of the tongue-and-groove PP from its inner part to its outer part can be increased, and it can be made, for example, greater than half the thickness T of the floor.
Figures 56 and 57 show how the details of the connecting system bend due to snapping-in on the inner corner section 91, 92 (Fig. 57) and the outer corner section 93, 94 (Fig. 56) of two floorboards 2a and 2b. To simplify manufacturing, only a thin lip and tongue are bent. In reality, of course, all parts that are subjected to pressure will compress and bend to varying degrees depending on thickness, bending, composition of materials, etc.
Figures 56a and 57a show the position where the edges of the floorboards come into contact with each other. The connecting system is designed so that even in this position the outer extremity of the tongue 38 is located inside the outer part of the lower lip 40. As the floorboards come closer together, the tongue 38 will push the floorboard 2b upward in the inner corner 91, 92 according to FIGS. 56b, 57b. The tongue will bend downward and the floorboard 2b in the outer corner portion 93, 94 will tilt upward. On figs shows that the tongue 38 in the inner corner 91, 92 will bend down. In the outer corner 93, 94 of FIG. 56c, the tongue 38 bends upward and the lower lip 40 bends downward. Referring to Fig. 56d, 57d, this bending continues while the floorboards continue to come together, and besides, the lower lip 40 bends in the inner corner 91, 92 according to Fig. 57d. Figures 56e, 23e show the snap position. Thus, the snapping is much easier if the tongue 38 is also flexible, and if the outer part of the tongue 38 is located inside the outer part of the lower lip 40, when the tongue and groove come into contact with each other, when the floorboards are in the same plane due to the snap, which occurs after fixing the floorboard along its other two sides.
The scope of the invention covers several options. A large number of options were made and evaluated, in which different elements of the connecting system were made with different values of width, length, thickness, angles and radii, from several different board materials and from homogeneous plastic and wooden panels. All connecting systems were tested in the position of tilting the upper side downward and with snapping and tilting of the boards with tongue-and-groove connection to each other and with different combinations of these systems, which were described here, as well as systems according to the prior art, on the long side and short side. Fixation systems were made where the tongue and groove had a combination of fixing elements and fixation grooves, and where also the lower lip and lower part of the tongue were formed with horizontal fixation means in the form of a fixing element and fixation groove.
Priority Applications (4)
|Application Number||Priority Date||Filing Date||Title|
|SE0100101A SE519768C2 (en)||2001-01-12||2001-01-12||Locking system for mechanical joining of floorboards has a uppercut groove and a projecting tongue which snap together|
|SE0100100A SE523823C2 (en)||2001-01-12||2001-01-12||Locking system for mechanical joining of floorboards has a uppercut groove and a projecting tongue which snap together|
|Publication Number||Publication Date|
|RU2003124758A RU2003124758A (en)||2005-01-27|
|RU2277158C2 true RU2277158C2 (en)||2006-05-27|
Family Applications (2)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|RU2003124759/03A RU2277159C2 (en)||2001-01-12||2002-01-14||Flooring strip and fixation system thereof|
|RU2003124758/03A RU2277158C2 (en)||2001-01-12||2002-01-14||Flooring strips and method of flooring strip production and mounting|
Family Applications Before (1)
|Application Number||Title||Priority Date||Filing Date|
|RU2003124759/03A RU2277159C2 (en)||2001-01-12||2002-01-14||Flooring strip and fixation system thereof|
Country Status (23)
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|JP (2)||JP4092202B2 (en)|
|KR (3)||KR20090028647A (en)|
|CN (2)||CN1233914C (en)|
|AT (2)||AT370293T (en)|
|AU (2)||AU2002217740C1 (en)|
|BR (2)||BR0206563B1 (en)|
|CA (2)||CA2433487C (en)|
|CY (1)||CY1108037T1 (en)|
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|DE (2)||DE60221788T2 (en)|
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|PT (2)||PT1349995E (en)|
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|SI (2)||SI1349994T1 (en)|
|SK (2)||SK287961B6 (en)|
|WO (2)||WO2002055810A1 (en)|
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- 2002-01-14 KR KR1020097002496A patent/KR20090028647A/en not_active Application Discontinuation
- 2002-01-14 AU AU2002217740A patent/AU2002217740C1/en not_active Ceased
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- 2007-11-14 CY CY20071101472T patent/CY1108037T1/en unknown
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|PD4A||Correction of name of patent owner|
|QB4A||Licence on use of patent||
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