CN109511498A - A kind of comprehensive breeding technical method of rice fishing - Google Patents

A kind of comprehensive breeding technical method of rice fishing Download PDF

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Publication number
CN109511498A
CN109511498A CN201811408266.4A CN201811408266A CN109511498A CN 109511498 A CN109511498 A CN 109511498A CN 201811408266 A CN201811408266 A CN 201811408266A CN 109511498 A CN109511498 A CN 109511498A
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China
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rice
fish
water
kilograms
pond
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Inventor
文衍红
林勇
黄杰
覃惠明
罗福广
罗通
司徒玲
刘霞
莫洁琳
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Liuzhou Fishery Technology Extension Station
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Liuzhou Fishery Technology Extension Station
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/20Cereals
    • A01G22/22Rice
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilizing, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/10Culture of aquatic animals of fish
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K10/00Animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K10/10Animal feeding-stuffs obtained by microbiological or biochemical processes
    • A23K10/12Animal feeding-stuffs obtained by microbiological or biochemical processes by fermentation of natural products, e.g. of vegetable material, animal waste material or biomass
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K10/00Animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K10/30Animal feeding-stuffs from material of plant origin, e.g. roots, seeds or hay; from material of fungal origin, e.g. mushrooms
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K10/00Animal feeding-stuffs
    • A23K10/30Animal feeding-stuffs from material of plant origin, e.g. roots, seeds or hay; from material of fungal origin, e.g. mushrooms
    • A23K10/37Animal feeding-stuffs from material of plant origin, e.g. roots, seeds or hay; from material of fungal origin, e.g. mushrooms from waste material
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A23FOODS OR FOODSTUFFS; TREATMENT THEREOF, NOT COVERED BY OTHER CLASSES
    • A23KFODDER
    • A23K50/00Feeding-stuffs specially adapted for particular animals
    • A23K50/80Feeding-stuffs specially adapted for particular animals for aquatic animals, e.g. fish, crustaceans or molluscs
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish
    • Y02A40/818Alternative feeds for fish, e.g. in aquacultures
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/80Food processing, e.g. use of renewable energies or variable speed drives in handling, conveying or stacking
    • Y02P60/87Re-use of by-products of food processing for fodder production

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of comprehensive breeding technical method of rice fishing, this method utilizes rice field ecology principle, cultivates ratooning rice after season rice harvest, continues a kind of production method for putting fish in a suitable place to breed in rice field.Ratooning rice be one season rice it is mature after, only about cut off upper 2/3 position of rice strain, collect spike of rice, leave following 1/3 plant and root system and allow it to grow second season rice again after fertilising and cultivation.Run through all processes in paddy field aquaculture fish, ridge interplants vegetable category, and the comprehensive plant breeding model of stereo circulating rice fishing of " season rice+ratooning rice+fish " is created in innovation, i.e. " season rice+ratooning rice+fish " mode.The technology of the present invention method can promote and apply in mountain area rice field, and three river rice field carps of cultivation are abundant containing selenium, very useful to human body, can obtain good economic benefit, social benefit and ecological benefits.

Description

A kind of comprehensive breeding technical method of rice fishing
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of comprehensive breeding technical methods of rice fishing.
Background technique
The zoology breeding system that rice field fish culture plant breeding model is a rice fish mutualism, interdepends, mutually promotes, fish are being Not only play the role of plough weeding, reduction pest and disease damage in system, but also can rationally utilize paddy field land resource, water surface resource, life Goods and materials source and non-living resources, develop rice field fish culture, prosper the agriculture with science and education to propulsion, develop an agriculture featuring high yields, fine quality and high efficiency have it is far-reaching Realistic meaning.
Rice field fish culture is the traditional rice field plant breeding model in China, obtains the comprehensive effect of breeding by paddy field intercropping aquatic products kind Benefit.Rice field fish culture has integrated ecosystem, a Tian Duoyong, a Tian Duoshou, does not influence original Rice Cropping and yield, increases peasant and receives Enter, thus has become the mode that country widelys popularize in recent years, and developed rice field on the basis of rice field fish culture and supported cray, rice The new models such as tortoise, paddy-field soft-shelled turtle culture, raising crabs in paddy field, the feeding spiral shell in rice field are supported in field, and some modes achieve apparent economic, society and ecology Benefit is more than 2,000,000 mu as Qianjiang City, Hubei Province develops rice field cray aquaculture industry, and the comprehensive output value of full industrial chain is more than 1000 Hundred million yuan, it is more than 1000 mu that Honghe Prefecture Hani Terrace, which develops rice field fish culture, increases the income of local farmers.Due to each ground vapour It waits and factors, benefit, the operability of these modes such as edaphic condition difference, cultural technique, market, processing exists in various regions Different degrees of limitation, such as the expansion of rice field cray are too fast, and Hubei, Jiangsu, An Wei, Jiangxi etc. save cultivating large area, make At some areas stockpiling of unsold product, meanwhile, the mountain areas rice field such as Guangxi, Yunnan especially terraced fields be not appropriate for and support shrimp also blindly with Into since the habit of digging a hole of cray causes terraced fields soil erosion, terraced fields, which support shrimp, loses more than gain.How according to the practical item in various regions Part, adaptation to local conditions invent the key point that mature synthesis breeding economic model is only social sustainable development.
Chinese invention patent application 2018102582876 discloses device and the side of a kind of ratooning rice and fish three dimensional-planting-breeding Method, but in the technical solution breeding device it is relatively complicated, at high cost, fixed to occupy rice field cultivated area, device is heavy, Disassembly is again inconvenient, and pole is unfavorable for promoting the use of in poor mountain area.In addition, ratooning rice head season is required to receive in the technical solution When cutting, rice stub height retains 35~45cm, is difficult to realize in practical planting process this requires rice stub is very high.
Summary of the invention
The technical problem to be solved by the present invention is providing a kind of comprehensive breeding technical method of rice fishing, which can It is promoted and applied in mountain area rice field, good economic benefit can be obtained.
The technical solution for solving above-mentioned technical problem is: a kind of comprehensive breeding technical method of rice fishing, comprising the following steps:
(1) rice field is built
(1) rice field selects: selection soil property is fertile, the strong rice field of moisture holding capacity;
(2) field base is transformed: building block hardening, hardening thickness are as follows: concrete upper thickness with 425# concrete on the inside of original Tian Ji 10 ㎝, 12 ㎝ of infrastructure thickness;Hardening height are as follows: using field base hardened bottom basis as starting point, until being higher by paddy field cultivation soil layer 40 ㎝ or more of surface;Base transformation in field is whole to be required: it is neat it is secured, non-leakage, can arrange and can fill;
(3) fish hole construction: when field area is greater than or equal to 0.3 mu, 15~20 ㎡ of area is excavated in every piece of field at water inlet Fish hole, fish pit area accounts for the 3%~5% of the rice field gross area, and fish cheats 0.5~1 meter of depth, do not plant rice in fish hole, fish cheat pit foundation with Tian Ji equally builds block hardening with concrete, and pit foundation is higher by 10~20 centimetres of paddy field cultivation layer soil surface, and Yu Keng communicates phase with Yu Gou It connects;When field area is less than 0.3 mu, the fish hole of 4.5~5.5 ㎡ of area is excavated, while with band one, leaf branch lid yin canopy, It inhabites, avoid heat for fish;
(4) fish ditch is built: after harrowing a field before rice transplanting, excavating sphere of movements for the elephants type or " ten " font or " mesh " font different shape in field Fish ditch, 30~50 centimetres of fish trench depth, width, 3~5%, the Yu Gou that fish ditch area accounts for the rice field gross area communicates with Yu Keng;
(5) barricade: barricade is set at the inlet and outlet in rice field, prevents from escaping fish;
(2) rice field disinfection and application base manure
(1) sterilize: rice field carries out rice field disinfection and kills to oppose with 60~80 kilograms of quick limes per acre in the first half of the month that breeds fish fry Evil 10~30 centimetres of priming petock, is gradually injected new water after 5~6 days quick lime alkalinity disappears again later;
(2) basal dressing: using sufficient base manure in 7 days after disinfection, 400~500 kilograms of field organic fertilizer per acre before cultivated land;
(3) rice is planted
I.e. perfusion shallow water starts rice transplanting after excavating fish ditch;The middle ten days and the last ten days in May completes Rice Cropping, the wild perfume excellent 3 of rice varieties selection Number, middle Zhejiang excellent No. 1 or super hybridization rice;Rice field imposes 15 kilograms of compound fertilizer per acre before rice transplanting and 10 kilograms of urea are made base manure;
(4) it applies fertilizer
7~10 days after rice transplanting, 7.5 kilograms of potassium chloride plus 5~10 kilograms of urea are imposed per acre;The Rice Heading stage sprays di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate Hydrogen potassium or Shi Baole foliar fertilizer;
(5) fry is put in a suitable place to breed
Rice transplanting started to put fingerling in a suitable place to breed after 15 days, put kind in a suitable place to breed based on three river rice field carps of two sideband of fish body Phnom Penh, collocation grass Fish, 1.5 cun or more three river rice field carp fingerlings, 300 tails, 3 cun or more 20 tails of Grass carp are launched in rice field per acre;
(6) feedstuff feeding
It feeds with biogas pulp water farmyard manure, stalk, rice straw powder, rice bran, corn flour and has through beneficial microbe fermentation material and cultivation Beneficial microorganism natural bait, at 9 points in the morning with feed feed at 5 points in afternoon, subject to feeding volume is eaten up in 2 hours;
(7) daily management
Summer kind rice will be according to the upgrowth situation of rice, in the case where not influencing rice tillering, and water in field is maintained at 10~30 lis Rice builds frame on fish hole and covers black-out cloth or plant melon and fruit on the periphery Yu Keng, and winter then according to the height of Tian Ji and supports Fish is overwintering to need to keep the maximum depth of water as far as possible;
(8) it harvests and fills the gaps with seedlings
It completes the harvesting of the first season rice mid-August, gathers in first 10 days, discharge 15 kilograms of compound fertilizer per acre, reduce water level before gathering in, By fish introduce fish hole, by " catch stay greatly it is small, catch mend greatly it is small " principle harvest adult fish and supplement fry, harvesting one season rice cut off rice strain Upper 2/3 position collect spike of rice, leave following 1/3 plant and root system, after fertilising and cultivation, its cultivation allowed to grow the again Two season rice, that is, ratooning rice, when mid or late October gathering in ratooning rice, by " catch stay greatly small " principle harvest adult fish, small fish is in Yu Keng In it is overwintering, straw is stacked in rice field, fish is put into rice field after next year completes Rice Cropping and supplements new fry to breeding density, Can harvest every year two season paddy and two batches fishery -ies product.
A further technical solution of the present invention is: further including having the comprehensive breeding tail water processing of step (9) rice fishing: according to rice 100 mu of rice fields in flakes are concentrated in the comprehensive breeding of fishing, design auxiliary construction tail water processing pond, and whole breeding tail water concentrations drain into tail water Processing pond handles 100 square metres of pool area, based on brick mix structure pond, cement pit, native pond, 1.0 meters of the depth of water, plants in pond Water plant, bottom of pond launch water purification benthic mollusc, periodically launch beneficial microbe, tail water purifies heel row up to standard through processing pond It puts.
Further technical solution of the invention is: the specific method of the cultivation and selection of the parent population of three river rice field carps Are as follows:
(1) it cleans up the pond disinfection: before parent population pond-inputting, being carried out disinfection with quick lime or tea seed cake to pond;
(2) cultivation of parent population
1. parent population selects: the selection age, the milter of 1.5 kilograms of weight or more of three river rice field carps was parent population 3 more than age;Choosing The age is selected 4 more than age, the raun of 2 kilograms of weight or more of three river rice field carps is parent population;It is required that physical strong grossness, specification Neatly, energy is strong, disease-free and injury-free;
2. female-male proportion: raun, milter ratio 1: 3;
(3) breeding density
Pond puts 100~150 kilograms in a suitable place to breed per acre, and antenatal raun, milter are separated;
(4) feeding management
1. feeding intake: feed has compound feed for carps, other concentrated feeds, and feeding volume is the 2%~4% of parent population weight;
2. fertilising: suitably launching fermented pig manure, cow dung and other farmyard manures;
3. filling new water: average per two weeks 1 time;Every 10 days antenatal 2 months plus water 1 time, each amount of water was no more than pond Central Plains There is the 1/3 of water;The just before giving birth previous moon will stop filling the water;
(5) spawning and hatching
1. fish nest: material fortune windmillpalm sheath-fibre, willow root, water plant, staple fibre is arranged;Every 2~3 beam of tail raun of quantity;Disinfection treatment Mode has salt water immersion, solarization, boiling;Set-up mode is that above-mentioned material is bundled into beam, is in a row hung in water;The setting time is wanted Accurate estimation egg-laying time, is launched in time;
2. pairing oviposition: annual spring can carry out breeding hatching when water temperature goes back up to 18 degree or more, before annual Clear and Bright Afterwards, early March or the middle ten days, female, male ratio usual 1: 2;
3. hatching naturally: the fish nest for producing full fish-egg being focused on progress collective's hatching in hatchery, fish-egg 25~35 can be put per acre 3% salt water sterilization of Wan Mei, fish nest and fish-egg, to prevent water mould;
4. management: carrying out and patrol the pool and water quality management and anti-escape, anti-drought-waterlogging, disease prevention.
Technical principle of the invention utilizes rice field ecology principle, cultivates ratooning rice after season rice harvest, continues in rice field Put a kind of production method of fish in a suitable place to breed.Ratooning rice be one season rice it is mature after, only about cut off upper 2/3 position of rice strain, Spike of rice is collected, following 1/3 plant and root system is left and allows it to grow second season rice again after fertilising and cultivation.It is supported in rice field Breeding fish runs through all processes, and ridge interplants vegetable category, and the stereo circulating rice fishing of " season rice+ratooning rice+fish " is created in innovation Comprehensive plant breeding model, i.e. " season rice+ratooning rice+fish " mode.
The features of the present invention: the fish of cultivation selects the rice of plantation based on three river rice field carps of two sideband of fish body Phnom Penh Wild fragrant excellent No. 3, middle Zhejiang excellent No. 1 or super rice varieties are chosen, the two forms the three-dimensional ecosystem, and three river rice field carp fleshes of fish Matter Se content is abundant, very useful to human body.The invention has the following advantages:
1, remarkable in economical benefits.
According to this technology method, comprehensive 200 mu of the breeding area of three river test in a county level point application implementation rice fishing " one season rice+regeneration Rice+fish " produces result according to the survey of demonstration pilot project and carries out analytical estimating the case where understanding peasant household scene, " one season rice+ratooning rice+ Fish " mode per mu yield value is up to 4806 yuan, wherein 1090 jin of average product of rice mu of a season, 1.4 yuan/jin of average price, the output value 1526 Member;600 jin of average product of ratooning rice mu, 1.8 yuan/jin of average price, 1080 yuan of the output value;110 jin of Fish Sampled from Paddy Field mu average product is put down 20 yuan/jin of equal price, 2200 yuan of the output value.445 yuan per acre of cost of deduction (wherein 45 yuan of seed rice, 130 yuan of fry, 60 yuan of pesticide, agriculture Family's fertilizer 110,100 yuan of fish meal), mu average net profit is up to 4361 yuan.Rice twice is planted in 1 year in same rice field, and field is removed per acre 1090 jin of rice paddy of one season of harvest is outer, has in addition increased income 600 jin of ratooning rice paddy, paddy field cultivation area increases one times, rice Paddy mu average product improves 35.5 %, and the mu average aggregate output value improves 41%, and mu average net profit improves 61.0%.
2, social benefit is significant.
First is that realizing the double increasings of grain fish, industry poverty alleviation." season rice+ratooning rice+fish " technology mode utilizes ratooning rice and fish Make altogether, does not reduce area, do not increase input, but realize the volume increase of rice, Fish Sampled from Paddy Field, increasing peasant income and industry poverty alleviation.Second is that Realize that agriculture trip combines, effectively promotion tourism.The Dong nationality, the county the San Jiang masses always like production food acids fish, smoked fish is done, fish is raw, With grab fish section, carbonado section traditional custom." season rice+ratooning rice+fish " technology mode improves rice aquatic products amount, can effectively push and work as Ground tour itineraries (tourist participate in catch fish, the forms such as carbonado) exploitation.The town the Ru Danzhou community Ban Jiang, village, thunder hole is using purple rice and commonly Rice mixed planting forms rice field and draws, and numerous nonlocal tourists has been attracted to come to go sightseeing, thus promotes Mountain Area Tourism development.
3, ecological benefits are significant.
One is the reduction of the use of pesticide.Fish Sampled from Paddy Field can prey on mosquitoes larva, snail and bottom dwell insect, can effectively control Rice field insect pest processed reduces Pesticide use amount, and paddy and fishery -ies product quality safety have also obtained more preferable guarantee.Two are the reduction of chemical fertilizer Use.The mode mainly uses farmyard manure, farmers''s feed, fermentative feedstuff of microbe, and is improved using rice straw returning to the field mode Rice field fertility reduces fertilizer application amount, effectively prevents soil hardening, can also make full use of agricultural and sideline product resource, promotes rice The benign cycle of fish system.Third is that promoting eco-environment amelioration, the ability of withstanding natural calamities is enhanced.The standardization in rice field Transformation and the construction of farm irrigation facility improve rice field water storage water holding capacity, provide more growing spaces for Fish Sampled from Paddy Field, The ability that flood drought is resisted in farmland is also improved simultaneously.Fourth is that improving the quality of grain fish." season rice+ratooning rice+fish " mould Formula extends the growth period of rice fish, the spike of rice that is generated due to ratooning rice, rice can as the feed of Fish Sampled from Paddy Field, the quality of fish with The increase in growth period and improve, January in 2017, three river rice field carps obtained national agricultural product geography symbol product;Peasant household is in water Also kind of the benefit of a rice harvesting twice can be enjoyed in rice production, really obtained the material benefit of ratooning rice plantation, produced " rice Excellent because of fish, fish is expensive because of rice " effect.
Make below with reference to a kind of technical characteristic of the comprehensive breeding technical method of rice fishing of the embodiment to the present invention further Explanation.
Specific embodiment
A kind of comprehensive breeding technical method of rice fishing, comprising the following steps:
(1) rice field is built
1, rice field primary condition.Fertile with soil property, moisture holding capacity is strong, and pH value is in neutrality to subalkaline loam, clay preferably, especially Highly to cure, high fertility can play slurry after pouring water, not hardened rice field after drying up.
2, field base is transformed.Block hardening, hardening thickness are built with 4253 concrete on the inside of original Tian Ji are as follows: concrete top is thick Spend 10 ㎝, 12 ㎝ of infrastructure thickness;Hardening height are as follows: using field base hardened bottom basis as starting point, until being higher by paddy field cultivation soil 40 ㎝ or more of layer surface.Base transformation in field is whole to be required: it is neat it is secured, non-leakage, can arrange and can fill.Wide 40 ㎝ or more of field primary surface, Convenient for the walking of people.
3, fish hole construction.Field area at 0.3 mu or more (being greater than or equal to 0.3 mu), open at water inlet by every piece of field Dig the fish hole (fish pit area account for the rice field gross area 3%~5%) of 15~20 ㎡ of area.Fish cheats 0.5~1 meter of depth.By fish Field soil in hole is removed, and stacks compacting on Tian Ji and pit foundation.Fish does not plant rice in hole.Fish hole pit foundation uses concrete as Tian Ji Build block hardening.Pit foundation is higher by 10~20 centimetres of paddy field cultivation soil layer surface.Fish hole water outlet is communicated with Yu Gou to connect.Field When area is less than 0.3 mu, the fish hole of 5 ㎡ of area or so is excavated, while with band one, leaf branch lid yin canopy, inhabited for fish, It avoids heat.
4, fish ditch is built.It is different according to field size, shape after harrowing a field before rice transplanting, field excavate sphere of movements for the elephants type or The fish ditch of different shapes such as " ten " font or " mesh " font, 30~50 centimetres of fish trench depth, width, fish ditch area account for the total face in rice field Long-pending 3~5%.Yu Gou is communicated with Yu Keng.The effect of fish ditch, first is that when summer high temperature, dry field, water is shallow, rice disease preventing application when, Hide dwelling place as fish;Second is that cheated from fish to crop field as fish look for food, movable channel.
5, barricade.Water injection mouth is arranged according to field situation.Water inlet is located at the eminence of field, and water outlet is located at most Lower.Entery and delivery port is preferably disposed in rice field with respect on the ridge of two corners, and water in field stream can be made uniformly to circulate, be conducive to field water The exchange of body.Barricade will be set in entery and delivery port, prevent from escaping fish.Barricade slightd with bamboo, iron sieve or nylon mesh sheet It is made.It is contemplated that " ∧ " or " ∩ " type that is designed to when placement, convex surface is to field, buried compacting.
(2) cultivation and selection of parent population
1, it cleans up the pond disinfection
Before parent population pond-inputting, carried out disinfection with quick lime or tea seed cake (tea seed cake) to pond.Detailed directions are: quick lime does pond disinfection Per acre with 60~80 kilograms, pond cleaning per acre (1 meter of the depth of water) with 125~150 kilograms, full pool spilling head after slurrying, under parent population It carries out within 7~10 days before the pool.Tea seed cake do pond disinfection per acre (15 centimetres of mean depth) with 10~12 kilograms;Pond cleaning (water per acre It is 1 meter deep) with 40~50 kilograms, first tea seed cake is smashed to pieces, is placed in basin cylinder and impregnates 1~2 day, even slag band water is uniformly splashed, in parent population It carries out within 7~8 days before pond-inputting.
2, the cultivation of parent population
(1) parent population selects.The milter age 3 more than age, 1.5 kilograms of weight or more;The raun age 4 more than age, 2 kilograms of weight More than.It is strong, disease-free and injury-free with golden-rimmed, physical strong grossness, neat specification, energy that male and female parent population is required to fish body both sides.
(2) female-male proportion and identification.Female, male ratio 1: 3.Non- breeding season female individuals are big, and abdomen is big and soft, cloacal aperture compared with It protrudes greatly.Male individual in same a collection of fish is significantly smaller, and abdomen is narrow and slightly hard, and cloacal aperture is smaller and slightly concaves;It is raw Grow season female individuals pectoral fin without or few star-pursuings, abdomen expand softness, cloacal aperture is ruddy and evagination.Male chest, There is star-pursuing on abdomeinal fin and the gill cover, abdomen is narrower, sperm outflow is gently pressed with when mature, cloacal aperture is not ruddy and slightly concaves.
(3) breeding density
Pond puts 100~150 kilograms in a suitable place to breed per acre.Antenatal raun, milter are separated.
(4) feeding management
1. feeding intake.Periodically, it pinpoints, quantitatively feed.Feed have compound feed for carps, other concentrated feeds (such as peanut press pulp, soyabean cake, Corn flour etc.).Feeding amount is ingested situation adjustment according to water temperature and parent population, and 16 DEG C of water temperature or more time feeding amounts are fish total weight 2%~4%;10~15 DEG C of time feeding amounts of water temperature are 1% or so of fish total weight.
2. applying fertilizer.Suitably launch the farmyard manures such as fermented pig manure, cow dung.
3. filling new water: average per two weeks 1 time.Every 10 days antenatal 2 months plus water 1 time.Each amount of water is no more than pond In original water 1/3.The just before giving birth previous moon will stop filling the water.
(5) spawning and hatching
1. fish nest is arranged.Material generally uses fortune windmillpalm sheath-fibre, willow root, water plant, staple fibre etc.;The generally every tail raun 2~3 of quantity Beam;Disinfection treatment mode has salt water immersion, solarization, boiling etc.;Set-up mode is usually that above-mentioned material is bundled into beam, is in a row hung In water;The setting time will accurately estimate egg-laying time, launch in time, too early or too late, and cannot take out hatching in time.
2. pairing oviposition.Annual spring can carry out breeding hatching when water temperature goes back up to 18 DEG C or more, generally annual clear and bright Front and back, early March or the middle ten days.Female, male ratio usual 1: 2.
3. hatching naturally.The fish nest for producing full fish-egg is focused on into progress collective's hatching in hatchery, 300,000 pieces of fish-egg can be put per acre Left and right.Fish nest and fish-egg prevent water mold with 3% salt water sterilization.Hatching water temperature is advisable with 20~25 DEG C, needs 91 hours at 20 DEG C Left and right is hatched, and 25 DEG C need to hatch for 49 hours, and 30 DEG C of whens need hatch for 43 hours.
4. managing." four fixed ", " four see " principle are adhered in feeding, usually carry out patrol the pool and water quality management and it is anti-escape, take precautions against drought Flood, disease prevention.
(3) seed selection criteria
Fry rearing it is long to 4~5cm when body colour sufficiently shown, 5 months bottoms start to carry out harvesting by pond, and screen simultaneously, excellent Stay bad eliminate.Screening criteria is the symptom that is visible by naked eyes of body surface, and travelling is active, and property is strong against the current, and body colour is bright-coloured, fry body colour is pure, Body colour is identical or more apparent as new parent, the bodily form is good, growth is fast, physical strong.According to each growth phase trait differentiation primary and secondary Difference, this stage preferred primary and secondary is successively are as follows: A body colour, the B speed of growth and figure, C anti-adversity.
(4) rice field disinfection and application base manure
1, it sterilizes
Rice field carries out rice field disinfection with 60~80 kilograms of quick limes in the first half of the month that breeds fish fry, per acre and kills enemy.To 5~ After quick lime alkalinity disappears within 6 days, 30 centimetres of priming petock or so, it is gradually injected new water again later.With the mesh bag of 40 mesh when pouring water Filtering, enters rice field to prevent wild fishes.
2, basal dressing
Use sufficient base manure within 7 days or so after disinfection.Before cultivated land per acre 400~500 kilograms of organic fertilizer, rice transplanting when apply compound fertilizer per acre 15 kilograms and 10 kilograms of urea are made base manure.
(5) rice is planted
I.e. perfusion shallow water starts rice transplanting after excavating fish ditch.It is 26.67cm × 23.33cm according to conventional equidistant mode distance between rows and hills, often Mu inserts 10714 root and stem of certain plants;Or width line mode transplanting, rice transplanting specification (distance between rows and hills) be 40cm × 20cm, 26.67cm × 20cm, per acre Insert 10000 root and stem of certain plants.
The middle ten days and the last ten days in May completes Rice Cropping, promotes the use of and is suitble to local climate, the open country that resistance is high, quality is good is excellent No. 3 fragrant, The excellent variety such as middle No. 1 excellent, the super rice varieties in Zhejiang.
(6) fry is put in a suitable place to breed
Start to put fingerling in a suitable place to breed within 15 days or so after rice transplanting, puts kind in a suitable place to breed based on carp, grass carp of arranging in pairs or groups.Per acre rice field launch 5cm with Upper 300 tail of carp fingerling, 20 tail of 5cm or more Grass carp or so.
(7) it applies fertilizer
7~10 days after rice transplanting, 7.5 kilograms of potassium chloride, 5~10 kilograms of urea are imposed per acre;The Rice Heading stage sprays di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate The foliar fertilizers such as hydrogen potassium or Shi Baole.
(8) rice field pour water and dry field
1, the irrigation and drainage of fish-culture paddy field
Paddy field can routinely irrigation and drainage, but must be noted that first is that when late tillering state dry field cannot shine fish, and the dry field time is wanted It is short;Second is that During Grain-filling, it is desirable that fill water in the ditch of Tanaka's no water layer;Third is that the maturity period cannot cut off the water supply too early.
2, dry field ditch cleaning
It wants Jiang Yugou, the soil cleaning in fish hole primary before dry field, the mud cleaned out is deposited into outside field side or field, to increase Then standing grain dotted cyprinoid is rushed to Yu Gou again by the reservoir storage of Yu Gou and fish hole, fish goes in hole.When dry field in the good Yu Gou of to master and fish hole The depth of water.It keeps having in ditch 30 centimetres, have the water levels of 60~80 centimetres of depths in hole.Rice dry field purpose can be reached in this way, The normal growth of Fish Sampled from Paddy Field is not influenced again.
(9) fertilising in rice field
Fertilizer is based on base manure, supplemented by top dressing;Mainly based on organic fertilizer, supplemented by chemical fertilizer.The total dose 70%~80% of base manure Zhan.Top dressing Each dosage is controlled, urea, ammonium nitrate, calcium superphosphate, potassium chloride etc. are generally used in top dressing, it is proposed that application bio-feritlizer and compound Fertilizer sprays the outer fertilizer of root;Hot weather should be avoided when fertilising, be sure not directly to apply chemical fertilizer Yu Gou, in fish hole.Organic fertilizer is necessary Abundant fermentation maturity rear can be used.Unusable ammonium hydroxide and ammonium hydrogencarbonate.When applying chemical fertilizer, dosage should be controlled 7.5 per acre ~10 kilograms, also suitably to deepen water in field while fertilising.Before cultivated land per acre 400~500 kilograms of organic fertilizer, rice transplanting when 15 kilograms and 10 kilograms of urea of compound fertilizer is applied per acre makees base manure;7~10 days after rice transplanting, 7.5 kilograms of potassium chloride plus urine are imposed per acre 5~10 kilograms of element;The Rice Heading stage sprays the foliar fertilizers such as potassium dihydrogen phosphate or Shi Baole.
(10) feedstuff feeding
It feeds with biogas pulp water farmyard manure, stalk, rice straw powder, rice bran, corn flour etc. and through beneficial microbe fermentation material and cultivation Beneficial microbe natural bait.According to water quality, weather, the ingesting of fish, upgrowth situation, flexibly grasp fertilising and the type to feed intake and Quantity.Feed usually is fed at 9 points in the morning and at 5 points in afternoon, feeding volume should be eaten up in 2 hours to be advisable, and carries out and determines matter, determines Four amount, positioning, timing principles.
(11) daily management
Summer kind rice will be according to the upgrowth situation of rice, in the case where not influencing rice tillering, and water in field is maintained at 10~30 lis Rice, winter then according to the height of Tian Ji and breed fish and overwintering need to keep the maximum depth of water as far as possible.Frame is built on fishpond and is added Lid black-out cloth plants melon and fruit on fishpond periphery, provides cooling in summer for fish and hides the place of enemy (such as birds).
(12) prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control
When rice desinsection is needed using pesticide, low toxicity, highly effective pesticide are used.Spray head is upward when application, is not injected directly into fish ditch. It is forbidden to use fishing medicine, the pesticide of country's disabling.
(13) it harvests and fills the gaps with seedlings
Complete a season rice harvesting mid-August.15 kilograms of compound fertilizer is discharged in first 10 days of harvesting per acre, reduces water level and introduces fish Fish hole, by " catch stay greatly it is small, catch mend greatly it is small " principle harvest adult fish and supplement fry.Gather in one season rice cut off rice strain the upper surface of 2/ Spike of rice is collected at 3 position, leaves following 1/3 plant and root system and its cultivation is allowed to grow second season rice again after fertilising and cultivation That is ratooning rice.When mid or late October gathering in ratooning rice, by " catch stay greatly small " principle harvest adult fish, small fish is overwintering in fish is cheated, Fish stacks straw in hole, and fish is put into rice field after next year completes Rice Cropping and supplements new fry to standard density, can be every Harvest year, paddy two seasons and two batches fishery -ies product.
The comprehensive breeding tail water processing of (14) rice fishing
100 mu in flakes are concentrated according to the comprehensive breeding of rice fishing, designs auxiliary construction tail water processing pond, whole breeding tail water concentrate discharge Enter pond.100 square metres of pool area of processing, can be with brick mix structure, cement pit, Tu Chi, and 1.0 meters of the depth of water.Planting aquatic plants in pond, Bottom of pond launches the water purifications benthic molluscs such as spiral shell, freshwater mussel, periodically launches beneficial microbe.Tail water purifies heel row up to standard through processing pond It puts.
The three river rice field carps that the present invention cultivates send Guangxi Institute of Analysis to detect, and nutritional ingredient forms situation detection knot Fruit is shown in Table 1, and amino acid composition situation is shown in Table 2.
The county Biao1.San Jiang rice field carp nutritional ingredient forms situation
The county Biao2.San Jiang rice field carp meat amino acid forms situation
Testing result shows:
The three river rice field carps that the present invention cultivates are abundant containing selenium, very useful to human body.It is reported that selenium be it is needed by human, can not Or one of scarce microelement, there is very strong oxidation resistance, chemical carcinogen can be inhibited, decompose carcinogen, have natural Removing toxic substances, toxin expelling effect, the normal configuration and function of cardiovascular system can be maintained.The GB standard of selenium-rich aquatic products is 0.08- 0.60mg/kg is common aquatic products lower than 0.08mg/kg, and the three river rice field carps that the present invention cultivates are through sending Guangxi to analyze Test center's testing result (see Table 1) shows: between 0.219-0.645mg/kg, average value reaches three river rice field carp selenium contents To 0.392 mg/kg, belong to selenium-rich aquatic products, and several times are higher than silver carp (0.016) in four large Chinese carps, bighead (0.019g), blueness Fish (0.038g), grass carp (0.007g), also significantly greater than common carp (0.015g).
The three river rice field carp fine and tender tastes that the present invention cultivates, protein content is high, is rich in particulate metal element.According to inspection Survey the comparison of ingredients such as result (table 1) and four everybody fish proteins: every 100 gram of three river rice field carp meat is averagely rich in protein 16.5g is higher than bighead (15.3g) in four large Chinese carps, flat with grass carp (16.6), slightly below common carp (17.6);Every 100 gram three River rice field carp meat is rich in zinc 7.4g, and significant several times are higher than silver carp (1.2g), bighead (0.8g), black carp in four large Chinese carps (1.0g), grass carp (0.9g);Every 100 gram of three river rice field carp meat is rich in iron 1.64g, is above silver carp in four large Chinese carps (1.4g), bighead (0.8g), black carp (0.9g), grass carp (0.8g).
The three river rice field carp meat amino acid classes that the present invention cultivates are complete, share 19 kinds of amino acid, it is necessary to amino acid, fresh Taste amino acid and delicate flavour enhancing amino acid content are significantly higher.According to Guangxi Institute of Analysis testing result (table 2) Ji Yusi Large Chinese carp silver carp meat aminoacid ingredient compares: every 100 gram of three river rice field carp meat average amino acid total amount 15.11g is significantly higher than silver carp Fish (3.26g) is also significantly greater than mandarin fish (3.47);Every 100 gram of three river rice field carp meat Fresh ear field (aspartic acid, paddy ammonia Acid, glycine, alanine) and delicate flavour enhancing amino acid (aspartic acid, glutamic acid) be respectively 5.84g and 4.1g, be significantly higher than Silver carp (2.13g and 1.53g);Aspartic acid in the carp meat of every 100 gram of three river rice field, glutamic acid, leucine, lysine (1.59, 2.51,1.24 and 1.48g) content be significantly higher than aspartic acid in silver carp meat, glutamic acid, leucine, lysine (0.83,0.69, 0.75 and 0.18g) content.

Claims (3)

1. a kind of comprehensive breeding technical method of rice fishing, it is characterised in that: the following steps are included:
(1) rice field is built
(1) rice field selects: selection soil property is fertile, the strong rice field of moisture holding capacity;
(2) field base is transformed: building block hardening, hardening thickness are as follows: concrete upper thickness with 425# concrete on the inside of original Tian Ji 10 ㎝, 12 ㎝ of infrastructure thickness;Hardening height are as follows: using field base hardened bottom basis as starting point, until being higher by paddy field cultivation soil layer 40 ㎝ or more of surface;Base transformation in field is whole to be required: it is neat it is secured, non-leakage, can arrange and can fill;
(3) fish hole construction: when field area is greater than or equal to 0.3 mu, 15~20 ㎡ of area is excavated in every piece of field at water inlet Fish hole, fish pit area accounts for the 3%~5% of the rice field gross area, and fish cheats 0.5~1 meter of depth, do not plant rice in fish hole, fish cheat pit foundation with Tian Ji equally builds block hardening with concrete, and pit foundation is higher by 10~20 centimetres of paddy field cultivation layer soil surface, and Yu Keng communicates phase with Yu Gou It connects;When field area is less than 0.3 mu, the fish hole of 4.5~5.5 ㎡ of area is excavated, while with band one, leaf branch lid yin canopy, It inhabites, avoid heat for fish;
(4) fish ditch is built: after harrowing a field before rice transplanting, excavating sphere of movements for the elephants type or " ten " font or " mesh " font different shape in field Fish ditch, 30~50 centimetres of fish trench depth, width, 3~5%, the Yu Gou that fish ditch area accounts for the rice field gross area communicates with Yu Keng;
(5) barricade: barricade is set at the inlet and outlet in rice field, prevents from escaping fish;
(2) rice field disinfection and application base manure
(1) sterilize: rice field carries out rice field disinfection and kills to oppose with 60~80 kilograms of quick limes per acre in the first half of the month that breeds fish fry Evil 10~30 centimetres of priming petock, is gradually injected new water after 5~6 days quick lime alkalinity disappears again later;
(2) basal dressing: using sufficient base manure in 7 days after disinfection, 400~500 kilograms of field organic fertilizer per acre before cultivated land;
(3) rice is planted
I.e. perfusion shallow water starts rice transplanting after excavating fish ditch;The middle ten days and the last ten days in May completes Rice Cropping, the wild perfume excellent 3 of rice varieties selection Number, middle Zhejiang excellent No. 1 or super hybridization rice;Rice field imposes 15 kilograms of compound fertilizer per acre before rice transplanting and 10 kilograms of urea are made base manure;
(4) it applies fertilizer
7~10 days after rice transplanting, 7.5 kilograms of potassium chloride plus 5~10 kilograms of urea are imposed per acre;The Rice Heading stage sprays di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate Hydrogen potassium or Shi Baole foliar fertilizer;
(5) fry is put in a suitable place to breed
Rice transplanting started to put fingerling in a suitable place to breed after 15 days, put kind in a suitable place to breed based on three river rice field carps of two sideband of fish body Phnom Penh, collocation grass Fish, 1.5 cun or more three river rice field carp fingerlings, 300 tails, 3 cun or more 20 tails of Grass carp are launched in rice field per acre;
(6) feedstuff feeding
It feeds with biogas pulp water farmyard manure, stalk, rice straw powder, rice bran, corn flour and has through beneficial microbe fermentation material and cultivation Beneficial microorganism natural bait, at 9 points in the morning with feed feed at 5 points in afternoon, subject to feeding volume is eaten up in 2 hours;
(7) daily management
Summer kind rice will be according to the upgrowth situation of rice, in the case where not influencing rice tillering, and water in field is maintained at 10~30 lis Rice builds frame on fish hole and covers black-out cloth or plant melon and fruit on the periphery Yu Keng, and winter then according to the height of Tian Ji and supports Fish is overwintering to need to keep the maximum depth of water as far as possible;
(8) it harvests and fills the gaps with seedlings
It completes the harvesting of the first season rice mid-August, gathers in first 10 days, discharge 15 kilograms of compound fertilizer per acre, reduce water level before gathering in, By fish introduce fish hole, by " catch stay greatly it is small, catch mend greatly it is small " principle harvest adult fish and supplement fry, harvesting one season rice cut off rice strain Upper 2/3 position collect spike of rice, leave following 1/3 plant and root system, after fertilising and cultivation, its cultivation allowed to grow the again Two season rice, that is, ratooning rice, when mid or late October gathering in ratooning rice, by " catch stay greatly small " principle harvest adult fish, small fish is in Yu Keng In it is overwintering, straw is stacked in rice field, fish is put into rice field after next year completes Rice Cropping and supplements new fry to breeding density, Can harvest every year two season paddy and two batches fishery -ies product.
2. the comprehensive breeding technical method of a kind of rice fishing according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: further include having step (9) rice The comprehensive breeding tail water processing of fishing: concentrating 100 mu of rice fields in flakes according to the comprehensive breeding of rice fishing, design auxiliary construction tail water processing pond, Whole breeding tail water concentrations drain into tail water processing pond, 100 square metres of pool area are handled, with brick mix structure pond, cement pit, Tu Chi Based on, 1.0 meters of the depth of water, planting aquatic plants in pond, bottom of pond launches water purification benthic mollusc, periodically launches beneficial to micro- life Object, tail water through processing pond purify it is up to standard after discharge.
3. the comprehensive breeding technical method of a kind of rice fishing according to claim 1 or 2, it is characterised in that: three river rice field carps Parent population cultivation with selection method particularly includes:
(1) it cleans up the pond disinfection: before parent population pond-inputting, being carried out disinfection with quick lime or tea seed cake to pond;
(2) cultivation of parent population
1. parent population selects: the selection age, the milter of 1.5 kilograms of weight or more of three river rice field carps was parent population 3 more than age;Choosing The age is selected 4 more than age, the raun of 2 kilograms of weight or more of three river rice field carps is parent population;It is required that physical strong grossness, specification Neatly, energy is strong, disease-free and injury-free;
2. female-male proportion: raun, milter ratio 1: 3;
(3) breeding density
Pond puts 100~150 kilograms in a suitable place to breed per acre, and antenatal raun, milter are separated;
(4) feeding management
1. feeding intake: feed has compound feed for carps, other concentrated feeds, and feeding volume is the 2%~4% of parent population weight;
2. fertilising: suitably launching fermented pig manure, cow dung and other farmyard manures;
3. filling new water: average per two weeks 1 time;Every 10 days antenatal 2 months plus water 1 time, each amount of water was no more than pond Central Plains There is the 1/3 of water;The just before giving birth previous moon will stop filling the water;
(5) spawning and hatching
1. fish nest: material fortune windmillpalm sheath-fibre, willow root, water plant, staple fibre is arranged;Every 2~3 beam of tail raun of quantity;Disinfection treatment Mode has salt water immersion, solarization, boiling;Set-up mode is that above-mentioned material is bundled into beam, is in a row hung in water;The setting time is wanted Accurate estimation egg-laying time, is launched in time;
2. pairing oviposition: annual spring can carry out breeding hatching when water temperature goes back up to 18 degree or more, before annual Clear and Bright Afterwards, early March or the middle ten days, female, male ratio usual 1: 2;
3. hatching naturally: the fish nest for producing full fish-egg being focused on progress collective's hatching in hatchery, fish-egg 25~35 can be put per acre 3% salt water sterilization of Wan Mei, fish nest and fish-egg, to prevent water mould;
4. management: carrying out and patrol the pool and water quality management and anti-escape, anti-drought-waterlogging, disease prevention.
CN201811408266.4A 2018-11-23 2018-11-23 A kind of comprehensive breeding technical method of rice fishing Pending CN109511498A (en)

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