CN101836607B - Method for breeding macrobrachium nipponensis - Google Patents

Method for breeding macrobrachium nipponensis Download PDF

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CN101836607B
CN101836607B CN2010101663028A CN201010166302A CN101836607B CN 101836607 B CN101836607 B CN 101836607B CN 2010101663028 A CN2010101663028 A CN 2010101663028A CN 201010166302 A CN201010166302 A CN 201010166302A CN 101836607 B CN101836607 B CN 101836607B
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shrimp
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freshwater
pond
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CN101836607A (en
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王志铮
吕敢堂
杨阳
储张杰
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Zhejiang Ocean University ZJOU
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Zhejiang Ocean University ZJOU
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for breeding macrobrachium nipponensis. In the method, the macrobrachium nipponensis is bred by using the freshwater shrimp resource, and the method comprises the following steps of: collecting wild macrobrachium nipponensis of the water system of the Tai lake before a breeding season, wherein the length of the female shrimp is more than or equal to 5.0cm and the length of the male shrimp is more than or equal to 5.5cm; temporarily culturing the selected shrimps for 4 days in a cement pit, wherein the culturing water in the cement pit has such a quality that the pH value is between 6.0 and 6.5 and the ammonium nitrogen value is between 0.5 and 1.0mg/L; picking the parent macrobrachium nipponensis; performing high-density breeding on the high-grade shrimp fries obtained by enlarging the parent macrobrachium nipponensis for 30 days; then introducing a certain amount of benthic carnivorous fierce aquatic economic animals into a culture pond to establish a biological selection mechanism for the macrobrachium nipponensis; and timely placing shrimp cages in the culture pond to catch the high-grade male shrimps with the body length of more than or equal to 6.0cm and high-grade female shrimps with the body length of more than or equal to 5.5cm in batches to serving as a source for the parent macrobrachium nipponensis. By repeatedly and circularly applying the steps for more than 8 times, the reliability of the quality of the selected macrobrachium nipponensis can be ensured, the success rate of selectively breeding the superior species of the macrobrachium nipponensis is increased greatly, and the problem of deterioration of variety of the macrobrachium nipponensis at present is completely solved.

Description

The breeding method of a kind of freshwater shrimp
Technical field the present invention relates to the breeding method of a kind of freshwater shrimp in the culture fishery, belongs to shrimps aquatic biological breeding technical field in the agriculture aquaculture.
The background technology freshwater shrimp is also claimed Japanese macrobrachium supernbum, is under the jurisdiction of Arthropoda, Crustachia, Decapoda, Palaemonidae, pond crayfish genus, and its geographical distribution is very narrow, only limits to China and Japan.Because of its meat delicate flavour is beautiful, the nutrition economic worth is high, growth is quick, the cycle of forming is short; Feed request is low, seed from numerous easily, advantage such as can round-the-clockly culture; Stepped into breed development Sheng since the phase from the end of the eighties in last century; The breed scale enlarges rapidly; Cultural technique becomes better and approaching perfection day by day, and has become China's freshwater aquiculture shrimps govern-house-variety and one of main fresh water new, special products of famous brands, of extra fine quality breed variety, and culturing area spreads all over ground such as China Jiangsu, Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Hunan, Hubei, Sichuan, Hebei, Henan, Shandong.But be greatly improved at per unit area yield; Economic benefit obtains the significantly behind of increase; Because of not noting germplasm protection and fine-variety breeding for a long time; Cause germplasm degradation phenomena days such as sexual maturity shifts to an earlier date, poor growth, commercial specification miniaturization apparent serious, deterioration of variety has become the key issue that hinders the healthy sustainable development of shrimp culture.
The breeding mode of aquatic livestock mainly comprises methods such as haploid breeding, polyploid breeding, crossbreeding, heterosis utilization, mutation breeding, transgenic breeding, and crossbreeding and heterosis utilization are the main dual modes of present freshwater shrimp breeding.Wherein, Crossbreeding is through sexual hybridization between a plurality of kinds with excellent genes; From separate the offspring, select the new varieties that are integrated with these excellent genes; Heterosis utilization is through having two high pure lines intermolecular hybrids of heterogeneity, coordinate force, obtaining the F1 generation that each proterties is superior to parents, is the phase I work of crossbreeding.
The freshwater shrimp cross method is mainly at present: 1, intraspecific hybridization: gather each good landrace, enlarge quantity through artificial propagation, divide pool cultivated; After sorting ripe parent; Carry out cross mating with not comprovincial good shrimp species, and, obtain the stable new varieties of target merit through continuous selfing; 2, interspecific cross: adopt artificial insemination method; Through freshwater shrimp and Hainan pond crayfish quadrature and reciprocal cross; The F1 that acquisition can be educated is for hybrid; Utilize RAPD, dna sequencing equimolecular genetics technology that freshwater shrimp and Hainan pond crayfish of separate sources have been carried out comparative analysis simultaneously, obtained to can be used for distinguishing the molecular labeling of freshwater shrimp and Hainan pond crayfish.
The basic step of freshwater shrimp intraspecific hybridization at present is followed successively by: 1, gather the good endemic population that are used for hybridizing, enlarge quantity through artificial propagation, and divide pool cultivated respectively; 2, in culturing the pond, place lobster basket and fish for, the lobster basket mesh is set to that female shrimp can escape from and specification that male shrimp can not escape from, is being aided with hand picking, rejects a small amount of male shrimp, obtains male shrimp in batches; 3, sort out the female shrimp of oogenesis the season of female shrimp oogenesis in batches from culturing the pond, adopt the female shrimp efficient lossless wound of oogenesis to take off the ovum method again and slough the shrimp ovum, obtain the female shrimp of sexual maturity in batches; 4, use male shrimp and female shrimp cross mating from different endemic population; 5, carry out freshwater shrimp artificial propagation and shrimp seed rearing by conventional method, obtain high-quality shrimp seedling.
Though said method has improved hybrid rate and male parent's saving rate; And institute educates the shrimp seedling and has demonstrated fully hybrid vigour at aspects such as growth rate, disease-resistant anti-adversity ability and delay maturations; But defective is also comparatively obvious; Mainly show as: 1, this method is a heterosis utilization, do not cultivate really can continuous passage stable strain; 2, degenerate for the germplasm of the endemic population that prevent to be used for hybridizing, need constantly to replenish the good parent in various places, troublesome poeration is cultivated the cost height; 3, only carry out seed selection around specification proterties and outward appearance vigor, cause inferior health person to be full of wherein, the reliability of selected freshwater shrimp physique proterties can't be guaranteed; 4, fail to combine envirment factors such as ammonia nitrogen, pH value, main pathogen to carry out seed selection, cause the reliability of the degeneration-resistant proterties of selected freshwater shrimp to be guaranteed.
Summary of the invention is in order to overcome the problem of the deterioration of variety that exists in the present shrimp culture; The present invention provides the breeding method of a kind of a kind of freshwater shrimp completely newly; Adopt and gather the wild parent of Taihu Lake water system high-quality, adopt the final election of environmental pressure mode, set up freshwater shrimp biological elimination mechanism through the freshwater shrimp parent; Catch the mode of suitable specification freshwater shrimp primary election in the freshwater shrimp, realize the purpose of acquired character stable high quality freshwater shrimp kind.
The technical scheme that the present invention adopts is:
The breeding method of a kind of freshwater shrimp utilizes the fresh water shrimp resources to culture breeding, and it comprises following basic skills one:
A, in freshwater shrimp before mating season, gather the wild freshwater shrimp of Taihu Lake water system high-quality, require female shrimp body long >=5.0 centimetres with male shrimp body long >=5.5 centimetres some;
B, in the cement pit of plant or net cage, raise and train stablize 7 days after, their are moved in the cement pit that cultivate water is pH value 6.0-6.5 and ammonia nitrogen value 0.5-1.0mg/L after temporary foster 4 days, select the high some high-quality individualities of health degree as close shrimp;
C, close shrimp are by female-male proportion 3-5: 1 carries out special pond cultivates;
D, contain the phase, specially support from close shrimp and sort out long >=5.5 centimetres of body the pond, the some conducts of the female shrimp of high-quality oogenesis energetic, that reaction is quick are grown seedlings and use the parent, cultivate and obtain shrimp seedling in batches, enforcement high-density breeding by conventional method in female shrimp oogenesis;
E, young shrimp high density culture are after 30 days, and when promptly the freshwater shrimp body reached 3.0 centimetres of left and right sides, river eel or the Chinese soft-shelled turtle or the mandarin fish of in culturing the pond, putting into some were set up freshwater shrimp biological elimination mechanism,
Be that freshwater shrimp was put seedling after 30 days; Be freshwater shrimp body when reaching 3 centimetres of left and right sides, culture and put into the end carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling in the pond: a, the end dwell carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal kind and specification: river eel 250-350 gram/tail or Chinese soft-shelled turtle 200-300 gram/or mandarin fish 150-200 gram/tail; B, the end carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling is put quantity in a suitable place to breed: by the freshwater shrimp stocking rate is 50,000 tail/mus, stocking rate be river eel 60-100 tail/mu or Chinese soft-shelled turtle 40-60 only/mu or mandarin fish 60-100 tail/mu; C, the end carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling is put individual the requirement in a suitable place to breed: whole, the anosis nothing of specification is hindered does not have deformity, be quick on the draw, healthy active, locomitivity is strong; Dwell and put in a suitable place to breed after carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal should be disinfected in d, the end;
F, cultured before mating season in close shrimp and to place lobster basket in the pond and fish for high-quality freshwater shrimp in batches, require male shrimp body long >=6.0 centimetres with long >=5.5 centimetres of female shrimp body;
G, use by above-mentioned B, C, D, E, F step repetitive cycling successively, repetitive cycling is more than 8 times, acquired character stable high quality freshwater shrimp strain.
The breeding method of a kind of freshwater shrimp utilizes the fresh water shrimp resources to culture breeding, and it comprises following basic skills two:
A, contain the phase, gather the some conducts of the female shrimp of the wild oogenesis of Taihu Lake water system high-quality and grow seedlings and use the parent in female shrimp oogenesis, require energetic, reaction is quick, long >=5.5 centimetres of body, oogenesis is measured >=4000/tail;
B, cultivate according to a conventional method and obtain in batches shrimp seedling, implement high-density breeding;
C, young shrimp high density culture are after 30 days, and when promptly the freshwater shrimp body reached 3.0 centimetres of left and right sides, river eel or the Chinese soft-shelled turtle or the mandarin fish of in culturing the pond, putting into some were set up freshwater shrimp biological elimination mechanism,
Be that freshwater shrimp was put seedling after 30 days; Be freshwater shrimp body when reaching 3 centimetres of left and right sides, culture and put into the end carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling in the pond: a, the end dwell carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal kind and specification: river eel 250-350 gram/tail or Chinese soft-shelled turtle 200-300 gram/or mandarin fish 150-200 gram/tail; B, the end carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling is put quantity in a suitable place to breed: by the freshwater shrimp stocking rate is 50,000 tail/mus, stocking rate be river eel 60-100 tail/mu or Chinese soft-shelled turtle 40-60 only/mu or mandarin fish 60-100 tail/mu; C, the end carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling is put individual the requirement in a suitable place to breed: whole, the anosis nothing of specification is hindered does not have deformity, be quick on the draw, healthy active, locomitivity is strong; Dwell and put in a suitable place to breed after carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal should be disinfected in d, the end;
D, cultured before mating season in freshwater shrimp and to place lobster basket in the pond and fish for high-quality freshwater shrimp in batches, require male shrimp body long >=6.0 centimetres with long >=5.5 centimetres of female shrimp body;
E, with above-mentioned selected freshwater shrimp in the cement pit of plant or net cage, raise and train stablize 7 days after; Their are moved in the cement pit that cultivate water is pH value 6.0-6.5 and ammonia nitrogen value 0.5-1.0mg/L after temporary foster 4 days, select the high some high-quality individualities of health degree as close shrimp;
F, close shrimp are by female-male proportion 3-5: 1 carries out special pond cultivates;
G, contain the phase, specially support from close shrimp and sort out long >=5.5 centimetres of body the pond, the some conducts of the female shrimp of high-quality oogenesis energetic, that reaction is quick are grown seedlings and used the parent in female shrimp oogenesis;
H, undertaken by above-mentioned B, C, D, E, F, G step repetitive cycling successively, repetitive cycling is more than 8 times, acquired character stable high quality freshwater shrimp strain.
Employing gives the environmental pressure mode and selects close shrimp; Being about to raise and train the female shrimp of end, male shrimp moves into respectively in the cement pit that cultivate water is pH value 6.0-6.5 and ammonia nitrogen value 0.5-1.0mg/L and supported four days temporarily; The feed of not throwing something and feeding during supporting is temporarily in time removed ight soil and dead shrimp in the pond, support temporarily finish after; Select energetic several body as close shrimp with ocular estimate, and press female-male proportion 3-5: 1 moves in the parent shrimp rearing pond.
Catch and select suitable specification freshwater shrimp in the freshwater shrimp; Promptly catch the freshwater shrimp in the pond with the big 0.3-0.4 of order centimetre lobster basket; Letter sorting is vivaciously healthy and strong, limbs are complete, body surface is bright and clean, anosis nothing is hindered, it is strong to be quick on the draw, to bounce, and the female shrimp that male shrimp that body is long>=6.0 centimetres and body are long>=5.5 centimetres moves into respectively to stablize temporarily in cement pit or the net cage and supported 7 days; After its breeding method: Ying Jing debugs water temperature repeatedly, raise and train in cement pit or 10 orders/cm 2Polyethylene do not have in the tubercle net cage, supporting density temporarily is 100-120 tail/m 2, a small amount of pasture and water of interior layout require that water quality is pure and fresh, dissolved oxygen in water amount>=5mg/L; Raising and train 3 days, after the 3rd day, is feedstuff feeding with the spiral shell meat and the freshwater mussel meat of grating; Day, feeding volume elder generation tried to shoot by the 3-5% of shrimp gross weight, took the circumstances into consideration suitable the increase and decrease, the secondary of throwing something and feeding day; In time remove residual bait and dead shrimp, the cycle of raising and train is 7 days.
Beneficial effect of the present invention is: because after having adopted this advanced breeding technique of breeding method of freshwater shrimp of the present invention; Through setting up the freshwater shrimp artificial screening, giving environmental pressure and select close shrimp, biological elimination in comprehensive colony's breeding technique system of one; Guaranteed the reliability of selected freshwater shrimp germplasm, for sturdy germplasm basis has been established in the seed selection of freshwater shrimp excellent strain; Through introducing biological elimination mechanism, reduced the transmission chance during the freshwater shrimp seed selection, improved the success rate of freshwater shrimp excellent strain seed selection greatly; Through introducing biological elimination mechanism; The wild nature of carnivorous fish of also having recovered to dwell at the bottom of the violent property; Can thoroughly solve the problem of present freshwater shrimp deterioration of variety, can also improve and raise together with kind: the commodity value of river eel, Chinese soft-shelled turtle, mandarin fish, improve body colour and the meat of river eel, Chinese soft-shelled turtle, mandarin fish.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1: freshwater shrimp breeding technique process route approach one sketch map;
Fig. 2: freshwater shrimp breeding technique process route approach two sketch mapes.
Embodiment
One, one signal of freshwater shrimp breeding technique process route approach is as shown in Figure 1.
Two, two signals of freshwater shrimp breeding technique process route approach are as shown in Figure 2.
Three, freshwater shrimp breeding technique process route approach one
(1) the wild high-quality freshwater shrimp purchase of Taihu Lake water system
Before mating season, promptly in early March to late April or 7 months, gather the last ten-days period from natural waters, requires long >=5.0 centimetres of female shrimp body, long >=5.5 centimetres of male shrimp body.Female shrimp, male shrimp sex character are following: 1, female shrimp: ovary is green-yellow or light brown; When ovary becomes very big crocus ovary agglomerate, account for the major part at the carapace back side, the base pitch elongation of preceding four pairs of abdominal foots; When long ovum bristle appearred in inner edge, ovary was promptly reached maturity; 2, male shrimp: a mastoid process like needle point appears in male genital.
(2) freshwater shrimp keep-alive transportation and artificial screening
1, keep-alive transportation
The separately shipment of the female shrimp of before mating season, purchasing, male shrimp.Transportation can be taked following two kinds of methods: (1) polythene film bag oxygenation sealing transportation; Use the double-layer polyethylene film bag; General requirements 40 cm x are pig for 70 centimetres; Put 100-150 tail freshwater shrimp for every bag,, can its frontal eminence tip be cut before the dress for preventing in the transportation that freshwater shrimp volume sword punctures film and lets out oxygen and leak; (2) tank oxygenation transportation, freshwater shrimp is an amount of, and every 100kg water dress shrimp 2kg in the wooden barrel of the existing water of packing into, canvas bucket, the tank, is put the pasture and water that clean up in right amount, and oxygenation adds an amount of ice block cooling, the sunshade transportation.
2, artificial screening
Require active stalwartness, limbs are complete, and body surface is bright and clean, and anosis nothing is hindered, and are quick on the draw, and spring is strong.
(3) stability of freshwater shrimp is raised and train
Freshwater shrimp is transported to the destination, after Ying Jing debugs water temperature repeatedly, raises and train in cement pit or 10 orders/cm 2Polyethylene do not have in the tubercle net cage, supporting density temporarily is 100-120 tail/m 2, a small amount of pasture and water of interior layout require that water quality is pure and fresh, dissolved oxygen in water amount>=5mg/L.Raising and train three days, after the 3rd day, is feedstuff feeding with the spiral shell meat and the freshwater mussel meat of grating, and day feeding volume by 3%~5% trial throw of shrimp gross weight, is looked feelings and suitably increased and decreased earlier, and the secondary of throwing something and feeding day is in time removed residual bait and dead shrimp, and the cycle of raising and train is seven days.
(4) give environmental pressure and select close shrimp
Female, the male parent shrimp of raising and train end were moved in the cement pit that cultivate water is pH value 6.0-6.5 and ammonia nitrogen value 0.5-1.0mg/L transition respectively four days, during the feed of not throwing something and feeding, in time remove ight soil and dead shrimp.After transition in four days finishes, select energetic several body as parent with ocular estimate, and move in the parents culture pond.The initial ammonia nitrogen value and the pH value that are used for the cement pit water quality of parent selection are used NH respectively 4Cl, HCl and NaOH regulate.It is comparatively responsive and to be coerced the freshwater shrimp that the back vigor obviously descends individual to pH value and ammonia nitrogen value that this stage is mainly used in rejecting, to guarantee close shrimp quality.
(5) close shrimp is cultivated
To pass through male and female shrimp that environmental pressure selects in 3-5: 1 ratio, put into 10 orders/cm 2Polyethylene do not have in the tubercle net cage, cultivating density is 80-100 tail or 0.5kg/m 2, a small amount of pasture and water of interior cloth require water quality pure and fresh, dissolved oxygen in water>=5mg/L.Spiral shell meat and freshwater mussel meat with grating are bait, and every day, the bait feeding amount was thrown something and fed by 3%~5% of shrimp gross weight, look the feelings increase and decrease; In 2 hours, eat up, throw something and feed every day 2 times, the morning 1 time to good; It is full-time 1/3 that daily ration, feeding quantity accounts for, and afternoon 1 time, daily ration, feeding quantity accounts for full-time 2/3; In time remove residual bait and dead shrimp, and observe the development of fertilized ova situation, the freshwater shrimp that need survive the winter stops the feed of throwing something and feeding when water temperature is lower than 10 ℃.Behind the female shrimp oogenesis, the individuality of selecting >=4000/tail of oogenesis amount is as formal artificial breeding parent.
(6) artificial breeding of freshwater shrimp
Can be according to actual conditions, select that cement pit is bred, net cage is bred with suiting measures to local conditions and following mode such as breed to carry out artificial breeding with the pond.
1, cement pit is bred
A, water for larval nursing
Requirement meets China's fishery cultivating water standard (GB 11607289); Can adopt motor-pumped well water and cistern water; Use through oxygenation, after being exposed to the sun, allocate salinity, the pond salinity water is reached about 2 Baume degrees with sodium chloride, iron sulfate, calcium chloride, potassium chloride, Boratex, magnesium sulfate etc.
B, culture facility and the pre-treatment of growing seedlings
The cement pit floor space is with 12~20m 2, the depth of water 1.2~1.5m is advisable.Requirement has independently, drainage system, grows seedlings and uses concentration to carry out the full pool spilling head sterilization as the Eusol of 20mg/L in preceding 5 days.Grow seedlings and settle 9 orders/cm among the Shi Zaichi 2, floor space 4~6m 2Uncovered hatching net cage, case is inside and outside places pasture and water to play sunshade and purifying water body effect.
C, parent management and young hatching
When female shrimp belly ovum grain becomes canescence by glossy dark green look and eyespot is clear, when the heartbeat number of times reaches 200 times/minute, just get into the artificial breeding program.Shrimp with ovums is with density 0.5kg/m 2After the cartonning of the left and right sides, with feedstuff feedings such as trash fish, soya-bean cakes, daily ration of feeding is generally about 8% of close shrimp body weight; Throw something and feed every day at twice, each 1 time sooner or later, adopts every day miniflow water to stimulate; The flow velocity of miniflow water is at 0.15~0.20m/s, and residual bait and ight soil are regularly removed in day blowdown 1 time; Check that close shrimp takes off growth of cereal crop seedlings condition, oxygenation also keeps dissolved oxygen more than the 5.5mg/L, between the pH value 7~8.Treat that the young hatches, zoea reaches 500 tails/when L is above, can close shrimp and incubator box be shifted out in the water of pond, carries out shrimp seed rearing.
D, larval culture
Zoea is hatched after 2-3 days and is begun the bait of throwing something and feeding, and the egg yolk of throwing something and feeding and ripe fish are rotten splashes after filtering with 80 mesh sieve thin,tough silk, and a day feeding volume is throw something and feed 0.5kg fresh fish and 2 eggs of per 100,000 tail shrimp seedlings, and day throws something and feeds 6-7 time.After 7 days, use bean powder and fish meal instead, divide every day and throw something and feed for 3 times.Begin to throw something and feed after 15 days fish meal, face chaff and corn flour mixed feed, a day feeding volume is the 4-5% of shrimp seedling TBW, throws in along pool wall, day throws something and feeds 2 times, wherein throws 40% of the whole day abundance of food morning, throws 60% of the whole day abundance of food afternoon.Every new water 1 time of annotating at a distance from 2-3 days adds water height 10-15cm/ time between nursery stage, totally cultures highly water level of about 1 meter of maintenance in the pond in.
2, net cage is bred
If no special breeding and seedling pond, can carry out net cage seedling nursery in marketable fish poud or the fingerling pond preferably in water quality.Oxygen increasing equipment is set up in the pond, breeds preceding 30 days, with quicklime 50kg/ mu full pool spilling head is thoroughly cleaned up the pond in the pond; The first breeding 15-20 days, look splash soya-bean milk 3-5 days rich water of water quality situation and cultivate natural bait.The incubator mesh is 120 orders/cm 2, area 25-30m 2, being placed in above, the transparency 35-40cm of depth of water 1.5m, dissolved oxygen remains on the place of 5mg/L, and the incubator box mesh is 9 orders/cm 2, floor space 8-10m 2, being nested with in incubator, close shrimp stocking rate is 0.5kg/m in the incubator box 2About, after the young hatches, close shrimp and incubator box shifted out carry out shrimp seed rearing; For guaranteeing that the young has sufficient natural bait, the nurturing period is executed soya-bean milk 3 times altogether, 3-5 days/inferior; Execute soybean milk quantity 5kg/ mu at every turn; And in time annotate draining according to the transparency of water, seed rearing later stage height of water level keeps about 1.2m, guarantees that the young grows in good water environment.The method that throw something and feed kind and the quantity of feed is bred with cement pit during the larval culture, along with the continuous input of artificial feed and soya-bean milk, water pH value slowly descends; Chi Shui grows fat, thickens; Especially cultivating the later stage, annotating new water once, and added 5 cm heights at every turn in every separated 5-7 days; And, improve water quality environment in the pond by the coverage of water in the pond of the growing seedlings biologic product of suitably splashing.Will use the oxygenation of gas stone during this period, whether the running check net cage is damaged, and cleaning, water exchange unobstructed on every side to keep net cage.
3, breed in the pond
A, pond condition
Selecting several areas is the pond of 1-3 mu, require the pond dark >=1.5 meters, the pond water drainage-supply system is perfect, water condition is better, water nonpollution.
B, thoroughly clean up the pond
At the beginning of 5 months, to carry out disinfection by the end of April to the pond.Chi Shui is drained into 10-20 centimetre, clean up the pond with quicklime band water, quicklime consumption 150-200kg/ mu requires to splash evenly.
C, plantation pasture and water
Began to transplant pasture and water after cleaning up the pond 7-10 days, treat to throw in shrimp with ovums after pasture and water in groups.To look the situation in the pond before throwing in shrimp with ovums; Carrying out desinsection handles; Used in 4-5 days before throwing in worm for fishing kill magnitude to the bland insecticidal materials of shrimps to kill aquatic insects such as large-scale cladocera in the water, water spider, simultaneously pool inner water is added to the 50-60 cm height.
D, input shrimp with ovums
After treating that the property of medicine disappears, throw in shrimp with ovums 8-10kg/ mu.For ease of observing shrimp with ovums development of fertilized ova situation, it is 1-2m that several floor spaces can be set in the pond 2Net cage, every net cage is thrown in about shrimp with ovums 50 tails, observes the change color of shrimp with ovums fertilized egg every day; When fertilized egg becomes purple and eyespot occurs; Should be in the pond four jiaos of heaps execute the fertilizer of slaking, cultivate the foundation bait in the pond, so that the zoea of rupture of membranes obtains open-mouthed bait.
E, larval culture
Zoea is cultivated feed and is mainly plankton, can take to cultivate the method for natural bait, satisfies its needs.When the young after casting off a skin for 6~7 times, the appendage of chest belly is zoon, profile with become shrimp the same, the pellet of throwing something and feeding behind long 0.8~1 centimetre of the body.Monitor water quality index such as dissolved oxygen, pH value, ammonia nitrogen value, nitrite every day nurturing period, pinpoint the problems and in time dispose.
(7) freshwater shrimp is propagated artificially
1, cultivating pool
Cultivating pool area 2-5 mu is good, and about depth of water 1.2-1.8 rice, will there be certain gradient on the ridge, the pool, pond, and the ratio of slope is generally 1: 2-3.The pond water drainage-supply system is perfect, and pasture and water are arranged, thick about 10 centimetres of Pond Silt.General 1/mu in the 1.5KW aerator that is equipped with advances discharge outlet and will block with close eye net or double-deck bolting silk, prevents that the ovum of harmful organisms and wild fishes and discharge from getting into the pond.
2, breeding water
Requirement is had abundant water resources, and water quality is pure and fresh pollution-free, dissolved oxygen amount >=5mg/L, bottom dissolved oxygen content >=3mg/L, pH value 7.5-8.0.
3, the sterilization of cleaning up the pond
Tan by the sun the pond winter, and the shrimp seedling was put in a suitable place to breed preceding 7-10 days, with the quicklime full pool spilling head sterilization of 75-100kg/ mu, to kill pathogene and harmful organisms.Sterilizing and transplanted water plants in back 10 days in the pond, transplants all around along the shrimp pool in 1 meter away from ridge, the pool be shallow water area, and straw cord is wide about 1 meter, transplants area and account for about 1/5 of full pool area.
4, add the water fertilising
After lime disinfection 2-3 days, add 50-60 centimetre of water height in the pond, apply fertilizer 150-200kg/ mu by fermentation, to cultivate the natural foundation food organisms in the water of pond.
5, breeding environment regulation and control
Grass is planted after adding water immediately in the shrimp pond, and the pasture and water area coverage is controlled at about 30% of total water surface, about 30 centimetres of the transparencies of Chi Shui.Execute 0.5-0.75 ton/mu muck toward the pond behind the transplanting pasture and water and make base manure.
6, seed is put in a suitable place to breed
The sterilization of waiting to clean up the pond was put the shrimp seedling in a suitable place to breed in back 7-10 days, and shrimp seedling stocking rate is 5-6 ten thousand tail/mus, and specification is about 1.5 centimetres.The shrimp seedling is put in a suitable place to breed and should answered morning or evening to put seedling in case of fine cloudy day or overcast and rainy carrying out, and avoids the sunlight direct projection, influences survival rate.Seed requires neat specification, and limbs are complete, the disposable seedling abundance of putting.
7, the feed and the skill of throwing something and feeding
Freshwater shrimp is omnivorous inclined to one side animality feeding habits, and available dregs of beans, dish cake, rice bran, fish meal, wild fishes, freshwater mussel, snail are as feed.Feed request high-quality, fresh, agreeable to the taste, the juvenile prawn phase requires the feed gross protein value to reach 35%-40%, and the middle and later periods body is long more than 4 centimetres, throws something and feeds into the shrimp material, and gross protein value reaches 30-32%.
Day feeding volume is shrimp TBW 7-10%, respectively throws something and feeds in the morning, afternoon 1 time, and the morning, feeding volume was 1/3rd of a full-time feeding volume, be main with animal bait; Afternoon, feeding volume was 2/3rds of a full-time feeding volume, be main with the freshwater shrimp pellet, and bait will be thrown on the limit, shallow water beach from nearly 1 meter, Tang Geng limit along the pond equably all around.
8, daily management
Sooner or later patrol the pool every day, meet muggy weather, increase and patrol the pool number of times midnight, examine the freshwater shrimp activity.According to regulating water level season, 7-9 month high temperature season changed water 1 time in 5-7 days, and quantity of exchanged water is 20~30 centimetres of a pool inner heights, will carry out the oxygenation of the shrimp pool simultaneously, accomplished the oxygenation of starting shooting fine noon, the oxygenation of starting shooting early morning at cloudy day, the oxygenation of starting shooting continuously overcast and rainy midnight.As find to raise the nose above water to breathe sign, and the oxygenation of should starting shooting as early as possible, the new water of annotating again in case of necessity carries out first aid with the oxygenation agent of splashing.
(8) set up freshwater shrimp biological elimination mechanism
Freshwater shrimp was put seedling after 30 days, when promptly the freshwater shrimp body reaches 3 centimetres of left and right sides, cultured the end of putting into some in the pond carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling, and utilized its predator pressure that freshwater shrimp is produced, and implemented biological elimination.Specific requirement is:
1, the end dwell carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal kind and specification: river eel 250-350 gram/tail or Chinese soft-shelled turtle 200-300 gram/only or mandarin fish 150-200 gram/tail.
2, the carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling is put quantity in a suitable place to breed at the end: by the freshwater shrimp stocking rate is 50,000 tail/mus, stocking rate be river eel 60-100 tail/mu or Chinese soft-shelled turtle 40-60 only/mu or mandarin fish 160-100 tail/mu.
3, the carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling is put individual the requirement in a suitable place to breed at the end: whole, the anosis nothing of specification is hindered does not have deformity, be quick on the draw, healthy active, locomitivity is strong.
4, the carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling is put pre-treatment in a suitable place to breed at the end: put in a suitable place to breed after disinfecting by conventional method.
The purpose of this biological elimination mechanism is: the individual and sex premature individuality of those relative tender constitution freshwater shrimps is eliminated in (1), reduces transmission, improves the seed selection success rate; (2) with the supplementary means of predator pressure, improve freshwater shrimp individual motoricity and meat quality as selection freshwater shrimp germplasm; (3) through the freshwater shrimp inferior that ingests, the commodity value of the carnivorous fish that dwell at the bottom of the raising ferociousness property.
(9) catch the suitable specification freshwater shrimp of selection in the freshwater shrimp
Caught the freshwater shrimp in the pond with the big 0.3-0.4 of order centimetre large mesh lobster basket before mating season; Letter sorting is vivaciously healthy and strong, limbs are complete, body surface is bright and clean, anosis nothing is hindered, be quick on the draw, have spring; The female shrimp that male shrimp that body is long >=6.0 centimetres and body are long >=5.5 centimetres; Move into stable temporary supporting 7 days in cement pit or the net cage respectively, its breeding method is with aforementioned: " stability of (three) freshwater shrimp is raised and train " content is identical.The end of putting in a suitable place to breed in the pond at this moment, the also visual market conditions of carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling are fished for listing.
More than repetitive cycling " stability of (three) freshwater shrimp is raised and train " to " (nine) catch in the freshwater shrimp and the to select suitable specification freshwater shrimp " step 8 time, just can obtain proterties stable high quality freshwater shrimp kind.
Four, freshwater shrimp breeding technique process route approach two
(1) purchase of the female shrimp of the wild high-quality oogenesis of Taihu Lake water system
Contain the phase in female shrimp oogenesis, the some conducts of the collection female shrimp of the wild oogenesis of Taihu Lake water system high-quality are grown seedlings and are used the parent, require energetic, reaction agility, long 5.5 centimetres of female shrimp body, >=4000/tail of oogenesis amount;
(2) oogenesis female shrimp keep-alive transportation and artificial screening
1, keep-alive transportation
Need the ovum grain that should select of long-distance transport to be the close shrimp of green or green-yellow, body early embryo is difficult drop-off in transit, and the optional ovum grain of short-distance transport is the close shrimp that eyespot appears in light brown and idiosome end fully.Transportation can be taked following two kinds of methods: (1) polythene film bag oxygenation sealing transportation; Use the double-layer polyethylene film bag; General requirements 40 cm x are pig for 70 centimetres; Put 100-150 tail parent shrimp for every bag,, can its frontal eminence tip be cut before the dress for preventing in the transportation that freshwater shrimp volume sword punctures film and lets out oxygen and leak; (2) tank oxygenation transportation, close shrimp is an amount of, and every 100kg water dress shrimp 2kg in the wooden barrel of the existing water of packing into, canvas bucket, the tank, is put the pasture and water that clean up in right amount, and oxygenation adds an amount of ice block cooling, the sunshade transportation.
2, artificial screening
Require active stalwartness, limbs are complete, and body surface is bright and clean, and anosis nothing is hindered, and is quick on the draw, and spring is arranged.
(3) artificial breeding of freshwater shrimp
Can be according to actual conditions, select that cement pit is bred, net cage is bred with suiting measures to local conditions and following mode such as breed to carry out artificial breeding with the pond.
1, cement pit is bred
A, water for larval nursing
Requirement meets China's fishery cultivating water standard (GB 11607289); Can adopt motor-pumped well water and cistern water; Use through oxygenation, after being exposed to the sun, allocate salinity, the pond salinity water is reached about 2 Baume degrees with sodium chloride, iron sulfate, calcium chloride, potassium chloride, Boratex, magnesium sulfate etc.
B, culture facility and the pre-treatment of growing seedlings
The cement pit floor space is with 12-20m 2, depth of water 1.2-1.5m is advisable.Requirement has independently, drainage system, grows seedlings and uses concentration to carry out the full pool spilling head sterilization as the Eusol of 20mg/L in preceding 5 days.Grow seedlings and settle 9 orders/cm among the Shi Zaichi 2, floor space 4~6m 2Uncovered hatching net cage, case is inside and outside places pasture and water to play sunshade and purifying water body effect.
C, parent management and young hatching
When female shrimp belly ovum grain becomes canescence by glossy dark green look and eyespot is clear, when the heartbeat number of times reaches 200 times/minute, just get into the artificial breeding program.Shrimp with ovums is with density 0.5kg/m 2After the cartonning of the left and right sides, with feedstuff feedings such as trash fish, soya-bean cakes, daily ration of feeding is generally about 8% of close shrimp body weight; Throw something and feed every day at twice, each 1 time sooner or later, adopts every day miniflow water to stimulate; The flow velocity of miniflow water is at 0.15-0.20m/s, and residual bait and ight soil are regularly removed in day blowdown 1 time; Check that close shrimp takes off growth of cereal crop seedlings condition, oxygenation also keeps dissolved oxygen more than the 5.5mg/L, between the pH value 7-8.Treat that the young hatches, zoea reaches 500 tails/when L is above, can close shrimp and incubator box be shifted out in the water of pond, carries out shrimp seed rearing.
D, larval culture
Zoea is hatched after 2-3 days and is begun the bait of throwing something and feeding, and the egg yolk of throwing something and feeding and ripe fish are rotten splashes after filtering with 80 mesh sieve thin,tough silk, and a day feeding volume is throw something and feed 0.5kg fresh fish and 2 eggs of per 100,000 tail shrimp seedlings, and day throws something and feeds 6-7 time.After 7 days, use bean powder and fish meal instead, divide every day and throw something and feed for 3 times.Begin to throw something and feed after 15 days fish meal, face chaff and corn flour mixed feed, a day feeding volume is the 4-5% of shrimp seedling TBW, throws in along pool wall, day throws something and feeds 2 times, wherein throws 40% of the whole day abundance of food morning, throws 60% of the whole day abundance of food afternoon.Every new water 1 time of annotating at a distance from 2-3 days adds water height 10-15cm/ time between nursery stage, totally cultures highly water level of about 1 meter of maintenance in the pond in.
2, net cage is bred
If no special breeding and seedling pond, can carry out net cage seedling nursery in marketable fish poud or the fingerling pond preferably in water quality.Oxygen increasing equipment is set up in the pond, breeds preceding 30 days, with quicklime 50kg/ mu full pool spilling head is thoroughly cleaned up the pond in the pond; The first breeding 15-20 days, look water quality situation 3~5 days rich water of soya-bean milk of splashing and cultivate natural bait.The incubator mesh is 120 orders/cm 2, area 25-30m 2, being placed in above, the transparency 35-40cm of depth of water 1.5m, dissolved oxygen remains on the place of 5mg/L, and the incubator box mesh is 9 orders/cm 2, floor space 8-10m 2, being nested with in incubator, close shrimp stocking rate is 0.5kg/m in the incubator box 2About, after the young hatches, close shrimp and incubator box shifted out carry out shrimp seed rearing; For guaranteeing that the young has sufficient natural bait, the nurturing period is executed soya-bean milk 3 times altogether, 3-5 days/inferior; Execute soybean milk quantity 5kg/ mu at every turn; And in time annotate draining according to the transparency of water, seed rearing later stage height of water level keeps about 1.2m, guarantees that the young grows in good water environment.The method that throw something and feed kind and the quantity of feed is bred with cement pit during the larval culture, along with the continuous input of artificial feed and soya-bean milk, water pH value slowly descends; Chi Shui grows fat, thickens; Especially cultivating the later stage, annotating new water once, and added 5 cm heights at every turn in every separated 5-7 days; And, improve water quality environment in the pond by the coverage of water in the pond of the growing seedlings biologic product of suitably splashing.Will use the oxygenation of gas stone during this period, whether the running check net cage is damaged, and cleaning, water exchange unobstructed on every side to keep net cage.
3, breed in the pond
A, pond condition
Selecting several areas is the pond of 1-3 mu, require the pond dark >=1.5 meters, the pond water drainage-supply system is perfect, water condition is better, water nonpollution.
B, thoroughly clean up the pond
At the beginning of 5 months, to carry out disinfection by the end of April to the pond.Chi Shui is drained into 10-20 centimetre, clean up the pond with quicklime band water, quicklime consumption 150-200kg/ mu requires to splash evenly.
C, plantation pasture and water
Began to transplant pasture and water after cleaning up the pond 7-10 days, treat to throw in shrimp with ovums after pasture and water in groups.To look the situation in the pond before throwing in shrimp with ovums; Carrying out desinsection handles; Used in 4-5 days before throwing in worm for fishing kill magnitude to the bland insecticidal materials of shrimps to kill aquatic insects such as large-scale cladocera in the water, water spider, simultaneously pool inner water is added to the 50-60 cm height.
D, input shrimp with ovums
After treating that the property of medicine disappears, throw in shrimp with ovums 8-10kg/ mu.For ease of observing shrimp with ovums development of fertilized ova situation, it is 1-2m that several floor spaces can be set in the pond 2Net cage, every net cage is thrown in about shrimp with ovums 50 tails, observes the change color of shrimp with ovums fertilized egg every day; When fertilized egg becomes purple and eyespot occurs; Should be in the pond four jiaos of heaps execute the fertilizer of slaking, cultivate the foundation bait in the pond, so that the zoea of rupture of membranes obtains open-mouthed bait.
E, larval culture
Zoea is cultivated feed and is mainly plankton, can take to cultivate the method for natural bait, satisfies its needs.When the young after casting off a skin for 6-7 time, the appendage of chest belly is zoon, profile with become shrimp the same, the pellet of throwing something and feeding after the long 0.8-1 of body centimetre.Monitor water quality index such as dissolved oxygen, pH value, ammonia nitrogen value, nitrite every day nurturing period, pinpoint the problems and in time dispose.
Cultivation through 30-40 days goes out the pond and is used for culturing when juvenile prawn grows to 2 centimetres of left and right sides Shi Ke.Emerge and draw in the net to get final product, before fishing for, should pasture and water in the pond be rejected so that draw in the net operation with the summer flower net.In container, should suitably assist during transportation and establish some pasture and water, to improve the survival rate of transportation.
(4) freshwater shrimp is propagated artificially
1, cultivating pool
Cultivating pool area 2-5 mu is good, and about depth of water 1.2-1.8 rice, will there be certain gradient on the ridge, the pool, pond, and the ratio of slope is generally 1: 2-3.The pond water drainage-supply system is perfect, and pasture and water are arranged, thick about 10 centimetres of Pond Silt.General 1/mu in the 1.5KW aerator that is equipped with advances discharge outlet and will block with close eye net or double-deck bolting silk, prevents that the ovum of harmful organisms and wild fishes and discharge from getting into the pond.
2, breeding water
Requirement is had abundant water resources, and water quality is pure and fresh pollution-free, dissolved oxygen amount >=5mg/L, bottom dissolved oxygen content >=3mg/L, pH value 7.5-8.0.
3, the sterilization of cleaning up the pond
Tan by the sun the pond winter, and the shrimp seedling was put in a suitable place to breed preceding 7-10 days, with the quicklime full pool spilling head sterilization of 75-100kg/ mu, to kill pathogene and harmful organisms.Sterilizing and transplanted water plants in back 10 days in the pond, transplants all around along the shrimp pool in 1 meter away from ridge, the pool be shallow water area, and straw cord is wide about 1 meter, transplants area and account for about 1/5 of full pool area.
4, add the water fertilising
After lime disinfection 2-3 days, add 50-60 centimetre of water height in the pond, apply fertilizer 150-200kg/ mu by fermentation, to cultivate the natural foundation food organisms in the water of pond.
5, breeding environment regulation and control
Grass is planted after adding water immediately in the shrimp pond, and the pasture and water area coverage is controlled at about 30% of total water surface, about 30 centimetres of the transparencies of Chi Shui.Execute 0.5-0.75 ton/mu muck toward the pond behind the transplanting pasture and water and make base manure.
6, seed is put in a suitable place to breed
The sterilization of waiting to clean up the pond was put the shrimp seedling in a suitable place to breed in back 7-10 days, and shrimp seedling stocking rate is 5-6 ten thousand tail/mus, and specification is about 1.5 centimetres.The shrimp seedling is put in a suitable place to breed and should answered morning or evening to put seedling in case of fine cloudy day or overcast and rainy carrying out, and avoids the sunlight direct projection, influences survival rate.Seed requires neat specification, and limbs are complete, the disposable seedling abundance of putting.
7, the feed and the skill of throwing something and feeding
Freshwater shrimp is omnivorous inclined to one side animality feeding habits, and available dregs of beans, dish cake, rice bran, fish meal, wild fishes, freshwater mussel, snail are as feed.Feed request high-quality, fresh, agreeable to the taste, the juvenile prawn phase requires the feed gross protein value to reach 35-40%, and the middle and later periods body is long more than 4 centimetres, throws something and feeds into the shrimp material, and gross protein value reaches 30-32%.
Day feeding volume is shrimp TBW 7-10%, respectively throws something and feeds in the morning, afternoon 1 time, and the morning, feeding volume was 1/3rd of a full-time feeding volume, be main with animal bait; Afternoon, feeding volume was 2/3rds of a full-time feeding volume, be main with the freshwater shrimp pellet, and bait will be thrown on the limit, shallow water beach from nearly 1 meter, Tang Geng limit along the pond equably all around.
8, daily management
Sooner or later patrol the pool every day, meet muggy weather, increase and patrol the pool number of times midnight, examine the freshwater shrimp activity.According to regulating water level season, 7-9 month high temperature season changed water 1 time in 5-7 days, and quantity of exchanged water is pool inner height 20-30 centimetre, will carry out the oxygenation of the shrimp pool simultaneously, accomplished the oxygenation of starting shooting fine noon, the oxygenation of starting shooting early morning at cloudy day, the oxygenation of starting shooting continuously overcast and rainy midnight.As find to raise the nose above water to breathe sign, and the oxygenation of should starting shooting as early as possible, the new water of annotating again in case of necessity carries out first aid with the oxygenation agent of splashing.
(5) set up freshwater shrimp biological elimination mechanism
Freshwater shrimp was put seedling after 30 days, when promptly the freshwater shrimp body reaches 3 centimetres of left and right sides, cultured the end of putting into some in the pond carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling, and utilized its predator pressure that freshwater shrimp is produced, and implemented biological elimination.Specific requirement is:
1, the end dwell carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal kind and specification: river eel 250-350 gram/tail or Chinese soft-shelled turtle 200-300 gram/only or mandarin fish 150-200 gram/tail.
2, the carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling is put quantity in a suitable place to breed at the end: by the freshwater shrimp stocking rate is 50,000 tail/mus, stocking rate be river eel 60-100 tail/mu or Chinese soft-shelled turtle 40-60 only/mu or mandarin fish 60-100 tail/mu.
3, the carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling is put individual the requirement in a suitable place to breed at the end: whole, the anosis nothing of specification is hindered does not have deformity, be quick on the draw, healthy active, locomitivity is strong.
4, the carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling is put pre-treatment in a suitable place to breed at the end: put in a suitable place to breed after disinfecting by conventional method.
The purpose of this biological elimination mechanism is: the individual and sex premature individuality of those relative tender constitution freshwater shrimps is eliminated in (1), reduces transmission, improves the seed selection success rate; (2) with the supplementary means of predator pressure, improve freshwater shrimp individual motoricity and meat quality as selection freshwater shrimp germplasm; (3) through the freshwater shrimp inferior that ingests, the commodity value of the carnivorous fish that dwell at the bottom of the raising ferociousness property.
(6) catch the suitable specification freshwater shrimp of selection in the freshwater shrimp
Caught the freshwater shrimp in the pond with the big 0.3-0.4 of order centimetre large mesh lobster basket before mating season, letter sorting is vivaciously healthy and strong, limbs are complete, body surface is bright and clean, anosis nothing is hindered, be quick on the draw, have spring, the female shrimp that male shrimp that body is long >=6.0 centimetres and body are long >=5.5 centimetres.The end of putting in a suitable place to breed in the pond at this moment, the also visual market conditions of carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling are fished for listing.
(7) stability of freshwater shrimp is raised and train
With selected female, male freshwater shrimp, raise and train respectively in cement pit or 10 orders/cm 2Polyethylene do not have in the tubercle net cage, supporting density temporarily is 100-120 tail/m 2, a small amount of pasture and water of interior layout require that water quality is pure and fresh, dissolved oxygen in water amount>=5mg/L.Raising and train three days, after the 3rd day, is feedstuff feeding with the spiral shell meat and the freshwater mussel meat of grating, and day feeding volume by the 3-5% trial throw of shrimp gross weight, is looked feelings and suitably increased and decreased earlier, and the secondary of throwing something and feeding day is in time removed residual bait and dead shrimp, and the cycle of raising and train is seven days.
(8) give environmental pressure and select close shrimp
Female, the male freshwater shrimp of raising and train end was moved in the cement pit that cultivate water is pH value 6.0-6.5 and ammonia nitrogen value 0.5-1.0mg/L transition respectively four days, during the feed of not throwing something and feeding, in time remove ight soil and dead shrimp.After transition in four days finishes, select energetic several body as close shrimp with ocular estimate, and move in the parents culture pond.The initial ammonia nitrogen value and the pH value that are used for the cement pit water quality of close shrimp selection are used NH respectively 4Cl, HCl and NaOH regulate.It is comparatively responsive and to be coerced the freshwater shrimp that the back vigor obviously descends individual to pH value and ammonia nitrogen value that this stage is mainly used in rejecting, to guarantee close shrimp quality.
(9) close shrimp is cultivated
To pass through male and female shrimp that environmental pressure selects in 3-5: 1 ratio, put into 10 orders/cm 2Polyethylene do not have in the tubercle net cage, cultivating density is 80-100 tail or 0.5kg/m 2, a small amount of pasture and water of interior cloth require water quality pure and fresh, dissolved oxygen in water>=5mg/L.Spiral shell meat and freshwater mussel meat with grating are bait, and every day, the bait feeding amount was thrown something and fed by the 3-5% of shrimp gross weight, look the feelings increase and decrease; In 2 hours, eat up, throw something and feed every day 2 times, the morning 1 time to good; It is full-time 1/3 that daily ration, feeding quantity accounts for, and afternoon 1 time, daily ration, feeding quantity accounts for full-time 2/3; In time remove residual bait and dead shrimp, and observe the development of fertilized ova situation, the freshwater shrimp that need survive the winter stops the feed of throwing something and feeding when water temperature is lower than 10 ℃.Behind the female shrimp oogenesis, the individuality of selecting >=4000/tail of oogenesis amount is as formal artificial breeding parent.
Repetitive cycling is used more than from " artificial breeding of (three) freshwater shrimp " to " (nine) close shrimp is cultivated " step 8 time, just can obtain proterties stable high quality freshwater shrimp kind.

Claims (4)

1. the breeding method of a freshwater shrimp utilizes the fresh water shrimp resources to culture breeding, and it is characterized in that: it comprises following basic skills one:
A, in freshwater shrimp before mating season, gather the wild freshwater shrimp of Taihu Lake water system high-quality, require female shrimp body long >=5.0 centimetres with male shrimp body long >=5.5 centimetres some;
B, in the cement pit of plant or net cage, raise and train stablize 7 days after, their are moved in the cement pit that cultivate water is pH value 6.0-6.5 and ammonia nitrogen value 0.5-1.0mg/L after temporary foster 4 days, select the high some high-quality individualities of health degree as close shrimp;
C, close shrimp are by female-male proportion 3-5: 1 carries out special pond cultivates;
D, contain the phase, specially support from close shrimp and sort out long >=5.5 centimetres of body the pond, the some conducts of the female shrimp of high-quality oogenesis energetic, that reaction is quick are grown seedlings and use the parent, cultivate and obtain shrimp seedling in batches, enforcement high-density breeding by conventional method in female shrimp oogenesis;
E, young shrimp high density culture are after 30 days, and when promptly the freshwater shrimp body reached 3.0 centimetres of left and right sides, river eel or the Chinese soft-shelled turtle or the mandarin fish of in culturing the pond, putting into some were set up freshwater shrimp biological elimination mechanism,
Be that freshwater shrimp was put seedling after 30 days; Be freshwater shrimp body when reaching 3 centimetres of left and right sides, culture and put into the end carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling in the pond: a, the end dwell carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal kind and specification: river eel 250-350 gram/tail or Chinese soft-shelled turtle 200-300 gram/or mandarin fish 150-200 gram/tail; B, the end carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling is put quantity in a suitable place to breed: by the freshwater shrimp stocking rate is 50,000 tail/mus, stocking rate be river eel 60-100 tail/mu or Chinese soft-shelled turtle 40-60 only/mu or mandarin fish 60-100 tail/mu; C, the end carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling is put individual the requirement in a suitable place to breed: whole, the anosis nothing of specification is hindered does not have deformity, be quick on the draw, healthy active, locomitivity is strong; Dwell and put in a suitable place to breed after carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal should be disinfected in d, the end;
F, cultured before mating season in close shrimp and to place lobster basket in the pond and fish for high-quality freshwater shrimp in batches, require male shrimp body long >=6.0 centimetres with long >=5.5 centimetres of female shrimp body;
G, use by above-mentioned B, C, D, E, F step repetitive cycling successively, repetitive cycling is more than 8 times, acquired character stable high quality freshwater shrimp strain.
2. the breeding method of a freshwater shrimp utilizes the fresh water shrimp resources to culture breeding, and it is characterized in that: it comprises following basic skills two:
A, contain the phase, gather the some conducts of the female shrimp of the wild oogenesis of Taihu Lake water system high-quality and grow seedlings and use the parent in female shrimp oogenesis, require energetic, reaction is quick, long >=5.5 centimetres of body, oogenesis is measured >=4000/tail;
B, cultivate according to a conventional method and obtain in batches shrimp seedling, implement high-density breeding;
C, young shrimp high density culture are after 30 days, and when promptly the freshwater shrimp body reached 3.0 centimetres of left and right sides, river eel or the Chinese soft-shelled turtle or the mandarin fish of in culturing the pond, putting into some were set up freshwater shrimp biological elimination mechanism,
Be that freshwater shrimp was put seedling after 30 days; Be freshwater shrimp body when reaching 3 centimetres of left and right sides, culture and put into the end carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling in the pond: a, the end dwell carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal kind and specification: river eel 250-350 gram/tail or Chinese soft-shelled turtle 200-300 gram/or mandarin fish 150-200 gram/tail; B, the end carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling is put quantity in a suitable place to breed: by the freshwater shrimp stocking rate is 50,000 tail/mus, stocking rate be river eel 60-100 tail/mu or Chinese soft-shelled turtle 40-60 only/mu or mandarin fish 60-100 tail/mu; C, the end carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal of dwelling is put individual the requirement in a suitable place to breed: whole, the anosis nothing of specification is hindered does not have deformity, be quick on the draw, healthy active, locomitivity is strong; Dwell and put in a suitable place to breed after carnivorous ferociousness property aquatic economic animal should be disinfected in d, the end;
D, cultured before mating season in freshwater shrimp and to place lobster basket in the pond and fish for high-quality freshwater shrimp in batches, require male shrimp body long >=6.0 centimetres with long >=5.5 centimetres of female shrimp body;
E, with above-mentioned selected freshwater shrimp in the cement pit of plant or net cage, raise and train stablize 7 days after; Their are moved in the cement pit that cultivate water is pH value 6.0-6.5 and ammonia nitrogen value 0.5-1.0mg/L after temporary foster 4 days, select the high some high-quality individualities of health degree as close shrimp;
F, close shrimp are by female-male proportion 3-5: 1 carries out special pond cultivates;
G, contain the phase, specially support from close shrimp and sort out long >=5.5 centimetres of body the pond, the some conducts of the female shrimp of high-quality oogenesis energetic, that reaction is quick are grown seedlings and used the parent in female shrimp oogenesis;
H, undertaken by above-mentioned B, C, D, E, F, G step repetitive cycling successively, repetitive cycling is more than 8 times, acquired character stable high quality freshwater shrimp strain.
3. the breeding method of a kind of freshwater shrimp according to claim 1 and 2; It is characterized in that: employing gives the environmental pressure mode and selects close shrimp; Being about to raise and train the female shrimp of end, male shrimp moves into respectively in the cement pit that cultivate water is pH value 6.0-6.5 and ammonia nitrogen value 0.5-1.0mg/L and supported four days temporarily; The feed of not throwing something and feeding during supporting is temporarily in time removed ight soil and dead shrimp in the pond, support temporarily finish after; Select energetic several body as close shrimp with ocular estimate, and press female-male proportion 3-5: 1 moves in the parent shrimp rearing pond.
4. the breeding method of a kind of freshwater shrimp according to claim 1 and 2; It is characterized in that: catch and select suitable specification freshwater shrimp in the freshwater shrimp; Promptly catch the freshwater shrimp in the pond with the big 0.3-0.4 of order centimetre lobster basket; Letter sorting is vivaciously healthy and strong, limbs are complete, body surface is bright and clean, anosis nothing is hindered, it is strong to be quick on the draw, to bounce, and the female shrimp that male shrimp that body is long>=6.0 centimetres and body are long>=5.5 centimetres moves into respectively to stablize temporarily in cement pit or the net cage and supported 7 days; After its breeding method: Ying Jing debugs water temperature repeatedly, raise and train in cement pit or 10 orders/cm 2Polyethylene do not have in the tubercle net cage, supporting density temporarily is 100-120 tail/m 2, a small amount of pasture and water of interior layout require that water quality is pure and fresh, dissolved oxygen in water amount>=5mg/L; Raising and train 3 days, after the 3rd day, is feedstuff feeding with the spiral shell meat and the freshwater mussel meat of grating; Day, feeding volume elder generation tried to shoot by the 3-5% of shrimp gross weight, took the circumstances into consideration suitable the increase and decrease, the secondary of throwing something and feeding day; In time remove residual bait and dead shrimp, the cycle of raising and train is 7 days.
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