CN108464208A - A kind of no-tillage comprehensive breeding method of rice fish ecology - Google Patents

A kind of no-tillage comprehensive breeding method of rice fish ecology Download PDF

Info

Publication number
CN108464208A
CN108464208A CN201810376314.XA CN201810376314A CN108464208A CN 108464208 A CN108464208 A CN 108464208A CN 201810376314 A CN201810376314 A CN 201810376314A CN 108464208 A CN108464208 A CN 108464208A
Authority
CN
China
Prior art keywords
rice
field
fish
water
rice field
Prior art date
Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.)
Pending
Application number
CN201810376314.XA
Other languages
Chinese (zh)
Inventor
彭务平
Original Assignee
彭务平
Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the date listed.)
Filing date
Publication date
Application filed by 彭务平 filed Critical 彭务平
Priority to CN201810376314.XA priority Critical patent/CN108464208A/en
Publication of CN108464208A publication Critical patent/CN108464208A/en
Pending legal-status Critical Current

Links

Classifications

    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/20Cereals
    • A01G22/22Rice
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/10Culture of aquatic animals of fish
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of no-tillage comprehensive breeding methods of rice fish ecology, the present invention establishes rice field rice fish synthesis breeding system, to the state breeded fish in deep water before second year rice transplanting after the harvesting of rice field, rice can be planted again by so that rice field is not needed secondary turn over, the activity of fish can allow rice field mud layer increasingly smooth, and fish can eat up all weeds in paddy field and the root and seed of weeds, annual harvested straw, weeds on ridge, the pest that trapping lamp kills, the various microorganisms that rice field is grown, all it is natural high-quality bait, natural bait is made full use of to increase aquatic products amount, reduce bait input, it is cost-effective;For the present invention without fertilizer and pesticide, output is green and healthy.

Description

A kind of no-tillage comprehensive breeding method of rice fish ecology
Technical field
The present invention relates to mixing breeding technical fields, the more particularly to a kind of no-tillage comprehensive breeding method of rice fish ecology.
Background technology
Comprehensive breeding refers to the relationship made full use of between the life habit of animals and plants and growth rhythm, by rice, swamp eel, The animals such as soft-shelled turtle, cray, fish are put into same rice field, make full use of its biological chain and food chain relation, reach mutualism, The breeding binding pattern of high-yield and high-efficiency, Hehua fish are a mutation for a carp, and also known as standing grain spends Wu Li ﹑ standing grain Hua Li ﹑ crow carps, belong to carp Section's temperate water fishes originate in Guilin, Quanzhou, gain the name due to being food with rice field standing grain flower in source area, are to have place special The high-quality breed variety of color, it is deep to be liked by raiser and consumption expense person.Present various regions all have been carried out introduction and promote, in pond Cultivating large area is carried out in the various waters such as the pool, net cage, river and rice field, but using paddy field aquaculture as certified products, but existing rice Fish integrate breeding there is also low output, technical difficulty is big the problems such as.
Invention content
The purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of no-tillage comprehensive breeding method of rice fish ecology, realize that the synthesis breeding of rice fish is high Production.
To achieve the above object, the present invention adopts the following technical scheme that:
A kind of no-tillage comprehensive breeding method of rice fish ecology, includes the following steps:
(1) rice field selects:It is required that selection water condition is good, pollution-free, irrigation and drainage are convenient, and former years invade without flood, arable layer Deeper, opposed flattened low-lying rice field in blocks;
(2) rice field is transformed:Discharge outlet in rice field builds dykes and dams and gate, and anti-escape network is carried out with close eye net, and when placement is in Arc, convex surface are inside, and are inserted into field mud 15cm or more, and dykes and dams should reserve sufficiently large floodwater releasing port, deepen existing irrigation canals and ditches, dig out Mud reinforces ridge, and the surrounding ridge in rice field must be increased to 40-60cm, and ridge will be tightened compacting, prevent avalanche leak Escape fish and reach the requirement that 5-10 does not silt up, and be connected with the pool for being mixed in field, then sows lime disinfection, rotation of pouring water Plough leak-stopping, according to the shape in rice field field excavate at sphere of movements for the elephants or " well " font field ditch, furrow width 30cm, deep 10-20cm, Area is less than the 1% of rice field area, and hollow hole, ditch is made all to be communicated with ditch;
(3) rice transplanting and fertilising:
A, variety selection selects strong resistance to fertility, resistance to deep water, resistant to lodging, adaptable tight fringe type high yield and high quality kind;
B, rice transplanting:Using the rice transplanter machine transplanting of rice, line-spacing 30cm, spacing in the rows 12-15cm participate 5 offspring per the root and stem of certain plants;
C, it applies fertilizer:For fertilizer based on base manure, supplemented by top dressing, base manure sows the cow dung 500kg of decomposed crushing per acre;The seedlings of cereal crops return When green, organic fertilizer 25kg makees top dressing per acre;
(4) seed being put in a suitable place to breed and feeds
A, fingerling stocking:It selects that germplasm is excellent, individual uniform, disease-free and injury-free Hehua fish kind, puts fingerling 800-1000 per acre Tail, early, semilate rice are put in a suitable place to breed behind whole field or rice transplanting, and large size fingerling is then put when the seedlings of cereal crops turn green again, and fingerling is allowed to adapt to water in field water temperature; When fingerling is not suitable with, new water is injected in time;Fish body disinfection is carried out, fingerling is placed in the brine of 3-5% and is disappeared 5-10 minutes It puts in a suitable place to breed again;
B, feeding management:Between the seedlings of cereal crops heading flowering period of rice field, after falling paddy pollen in water, petal except feeding, Can some granular mixed feeds of supplement appropriate, feed forage protein content requirement 32% or so, twice daily, in afternoon in the morning is each Once, daily ration, feeding quantity is the 3-5% of fish body weight, and fixed point, is quantitatively fed timing;
(5) rice pest is prevented:Using the physical units trapping such as black light lamp, shake frequency formula trapping lamp, coloured light plate Lepidoptera, Homoptera pest;The preceding rice field disinfection of 100kg quick limes rice transplanting per acre every year, prevention and control disease;
(6) daily management
A, the timely adjustment depth of water:Available depth is kept in paddy field aquaculture, changes within general 5-7 days water 1 time, is started the depth of water and is kept 10cm is until standing grain sends out the root and stem of certain plants, and then gradually the 15cm depth of waters are arrived in intensification;After July, field face keeps the 15cm-20cm depth of waters;
B, regulating water quality:Per two weeks 0.2ppm C5H6Br2N2O2s or copper sulphate 0.8ppm or the full fields bleaching powder 1ppm are sprinkled It spills, was splashed with the full field of 8ppm-10ppm photosynthetic bacterias every 10 days;
C, reinforce patrolling field:Field is often patrolled, pays attention to reducing temperature of heatstroke prevention and anti-escape bird repellent work;
(7) it harvests:By bimestrial raising, general fry both can reach listing specification, can both start at this time on one side Harvesting is sold on one side, until rice milking stage tail phase whole harvesting finishes, while after rice milking stage tail phase marketable fish harvesting, It drains immediately and does field, nine are divided into and ripe can both gather in;
(8) secondary fingerling stocking:Rice all after harvesting, immediately begins to pour water, fry temporarily foster in pool or New buying fry is put into Tanaka, is food with straw, ridge weeds, need not feed too many feed, and end of the year harvesting is a part of, and second Harvesting is complete before year rice transplanting.
Preferably, the area in rice field in blocks selected by step (1) is 10-50 mus.
Preferably, the main varieties of plant of rice is Huang Huazhan, beautiful needle is fragrant and brilliant excellent China accounts for.
Beneficial effects of the present invention:The present invention establishes rice field rice fish synthesis breeding system, is inserted to second year after the harvesting of rice field The state breeded fish in deep water before seedling, rice can be planted again by so that rice field is not needed secondary turn over, and the activity of fish can allow rice field Mud layer is increasingly smooth, and fish can eat up all weeds in paddy field and the root and seed of weeds, on annual harvested straw, ridge Weeds, the various microorganisms that grow of the pest that kills of trapping lamp, rice field, be all natural high-quality bait, make full use of natural Bait increases aquatic products amount, reduces bait input, cost-effective;For the present invention without fertilizer and pesticide, output is green and healthy.
Specific implementation mode
Technical solution of the present invention is further described below by way of specific embodiment.
Embodiment 1
(1) rice field selects:It is required that selection water condition is good, pollution-free, irrigation and drainage are convenient, and former years invade without flood, arable layer The area in deeper, opposed flattened low-lying rice field in blocks, rice field is 30 mu;
(2) rice field is transformed:Discharge outlet in rice field builds dykes and dams and gate, and anti-escape network is carried out with close eye net, and when placement is in Arc, convex surface are inside, and are inserted into field mud 15cm or more, and dykes and dams should reserve sufficiently large floodwater releasing port, deepen existing irrigation canals and ditches, dig out Mud reinforces ridge, and the surrounding ridge in rice field must be increased to 40-60cm, and ridge will be tightened compacting, prevent avalanche leak Escape fish and reach the requirement that 5-10 does not silt up, and be connected with the pool for being mixed in field, then sows lime disinfection, rotation of pouring water Plough leak-stopping, according to the shape in rice field field excavate at sphere of movements for the elephants or " well " font field ditch, furrow width 30cm, deep 10-20cm, Area is less than the 1% of rice field area, and hollow hole, ditch is made all to be communicated with ditch;
(3) rice transplanting and fertilising:
A, variety selection:The main varieties of plant of rice is Huang Huazhan;
B, rice transplanting:Using the rice transplanter machine transplanting of rice, line-spacing 30cm, spacing in the rows 12-15cm participate 5 offspring per the root and stem of certain plants;
C, it applies fertilizer:For fertilizer based on base manure, supplemented by top dressing, base manure sows the cow dung 500kg of decomposed crushing per acre;The seedlings of cereal crops return When green, organic fertilizer 25kg makees top dressing per acre;
(4) seed being put in a suitable place to breed and feeds
A, fingerling stocking:It selects that germplasm is excellent, individual uniform, disease-free and injury-free Hehua fish kind, puts fingerling 800-1000 per acre Tail, early, semilate rice are put in a suitable place to breed behind whole field or rice transplanting, and large size fingerling is then put when the seedlings of cereal crops turn green again, and fingerling is allowed to adapt to water in field water temperature; When fingerling is not suitable with, new water is injected in time;Fish body disinfection is carried out, fingerling is placed in the brine of 3-5% and is disappeared 5-10 minutes It puts in a suitable place to breed again;
B, feeding management:Between the seedlings of cereal crops heading flowering period of rice field, after falling paddy pollen in water, petal except feeding, Can some granular mixed feeds of supplement appropriate, feed forage protein content requirement 32% or so, twice daily, in afternoon in the morning is each Once, daily ration, feeding quantity is the 3-5% of fish body weight, and fixed point, is quantitatively fed timing;
(5) rice pest is prevented:Using the physical units trapping such as black light lamp, shake frequency formula trapping lamp, coloured light plate Lepidoptera, Homoptera pest;The preceding rice field disinfection of 100kg quick limes rice transplanting per acre every year, prevention and control disease;
(6) daily management
A, the timely adjustment depth of water:Available depth is kept in paddy field aquaculture, changes within general 5-7 days water 1 time, is started the depth of water and is kept 10cm is until standing grain sends out the root and stem of certain plants, and then gradually the 15cm depth of waters are arrived in intensification;After July, field face keeps the 15cm-20cm depth of waters;
B, regulating water quality:Per two weeks 0.2ppm C5H6Br2N2O2s or copper sulphate 0.8ppm or the full fields bleaching powder 1ppm are sprinkled It spills, was splashed with the full field of 8ppm-10ppm photosynthetic bacterias every 10 days;
C, reinforce patrolling field:Field is often patrolled, pays attention to reducing temperature of heatstroke prevention and anti-escape bird repellent work;
(7) it harvests:By bimestrial raising, general fry both can reach listing specification, can both start at this time on one side Harvesting is sold on one side, until rice milking stage tail phase whole harvesting finishes, while after rice milking stage tail phase marketable fish harvesting, It drains immediately and does field, nine are divided into and ripe can both gather in;
(8) secondary fingerling stocking:Rice all after harvesting, immediately begins to pour water, fry temporarily foster in pool or New buying fry is put into Tanaka, is food with straw, ridge weeds, need not feed too many feed, and end of the year harvesting is a part of, and second Harvesting is complete before year rice transplanting.

Claims (3)

1. a kind of no-tillage comprehensive breeding method of rice fish ecology, which is characterized in that include the following steps:
(1) rice field selects:It is required that selection water condition is good, pollution-free, irrigation and drainage are convenient, and former years invade without flood, arable layer is relatively deep, Opposed flattened low-lying rice field in blocks;
(2) rice field is transformed:Discharge outlet in rice field builds dykes and dams and gate, and anti-escape network is carried out with close eye net, when placement is arc-shaped, Convex surface is inside, and is inserted into field mud 15cm or more, and dykes and dams should reserve sufficiently large floodwater releasing port, deepen existing irrigation canals and ditches, the mud dug out Ridge is reinforced, the surrounding ridge in rice field must be increased to 40-60cm, and ridge will be tightened compacting, prevent avalanche leak from escaping fish Reach the requirement that 5-10 does not silt up, and be connected with the pool for being mixed in field, then sows lime disinfection, rotary tillage of pouring water stops Leakage excavates the field ditch at sphere of movements for the elephants or " well " font, furrow width 30cm, deep 10-20cm, area according to the shape in rice field in field Less than the 1% of rice field area, hollow hole, ditch is made all to be communicated with ditch;
(3) rice transplanting and fertilising:
A, variety selection selects strong resistance to fertility, resistance to deep water, resistant to lodging, adaptable tight fringe type high yield and high quality kind;
B, rice transplanting:Using the rice transplanter machine transplanting of rice, line-spacing 30cm, spacing in the rows 12-15cm participate 5 offspring per the root and stem of certain plants;
C, it applies fertilizer:For fertilizer based on base manure, supplemented by top dressing, base manure sows the cow dung 500kg of decomposed crushing per acre;The seedlings of cereal crops turn green When, organic fertilizer 25kg makees top dressing per acre;
(4) seed being put in a suitable place to breed and feeds
A, fingerling stocking:It selects that germplasm is excellent, individual uniform, disease-free and injury-free Hehua fish kind, puts fingerling 800-1000 tails per acre, Early, semilate rice is put in a suitable place to breed behind whole field or rice transplanting, and large size fingerling is then put when the seedlings of cereal crops turn green again, and fingerling is allowed to adapt to water in field water temperature;Fish When kind is not suitable with, new water is injected in time;Fish body disinfection is carried out, fingerling is placed in the brine of 3-5% and disappears 5-10 minutes again It puts in a suitable place to breed;
B, feeding management:Between the seedlings of cereal crops heading flowering period of rice field, after falling paddy pollen in water, petal except feeding, it can fit When supplement some granular mixed feeds, feed forage protein content requirement 32% or so, twice daily, each one in afternoon in the morning Secondary, daily ration, feeding quantity is the 3-5% of fish body weight, and fixed point, is quantitatively fed timing;
(5) rice pest is prevented:Using the physical units trapping such as black light lamp, shake frequency formula trapping lamp, coloured light plate Lepidoptera, same to wing Mesh pest;The preceding rice field disinfection of 100kg quick limes rice transplanting per acre every year, prevention and control disease;
(6) daily management
A, the timely adjustment depth of water:Available depth is kept in paddy field aquaculture, changes within general 5-7 days water 1 time, is started the depth of water and is kept 10cm Until standing grain sends out the root and stem of certain plants, then gradually deepen to arrive the 15cm depth of waters;After July, field face keeps the 15cm-20cm depth of waters;
B, regulating water quality:Per two weeks 0.2ppm C5H6Br2N2O2s or copper sulphate 0.8ppm or the full fields bleaching powder 1ppm are splashed, often It was splashed with the full field of 8ppm-10ppm photosynthetic bacterias every 10 days;
C, reinforce patrolling field:Field is often patrolled, pays attention to reducing temperature of heatstroke prevention and anti-escape bird repellent work;
(7) it harvests:By bimestrial raising, general fry both can reach listing specification, can both start at this time one side harvesting, It sells, until rice milking stage tail phase whole harvesting finishes, while after rice milking stage tail phase marketable fish harvesting, arranging immediately on one side Water does field, and nine are divided into and ripe can both gather in;
(8) secondary fingerling stocking:Rice all after harvesting, immediately begins to pour water, and adopts fry temporarily foster in pool or newly Purchase fry is put into Tanaka, is food with straw, ridge weeds, need not feed too many feed, an end of the year harvesting part, and second year is inserted Harvesting is complete before seedling.
2. the no-tillage comprehensive breeding method of rice fish ecology according to claim 1, which is characterized in that selected by step (1) in flakes The area in rice field is 10-50 mus.
3. the no-tillage comprehensive breeding method of rice fish ecology according to claim 1, which is characterized in that the main varieties of plant of rice For Huang Huazhan, beautiful needle is fragrant and the excellent China of crystalline substance accounts for.
CN201810376314.XA 2018-04-27 2018-04-27 A kind of no-tillage comprehensive breeding method of rice fish ecology Pending CN108464208A (en)

Priority Applications (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201810376314.XA CN108464208A (en) 2018-04-27 2018-04-27 A kind of no-tillage comprehensive breeding method of rice fish ecology

Applications Claiming Priority (1)

Application Number Priority Date Filing Date Title
CN201810376314.XA CN108464208A (en) 2018-04-27 2018-04-27 A kind of no-tillage comprehensive breeding method of rice fish ecology

Publications (1)

Publication Number Publication Date
CN108464208A true CN108464208A (en) 2018-08-31

Family

ID=63263701

Family Applications (1)

Application Number Title Priority Date Filing Date
CN201810376314.XA Pending CN108464208A (en) 2018-04-27 2018-04-27 A kind of no-tillage comprehensive breeding method of rice fish ecology

Country Status (1)

Country Link
CN (1) CN108464208A (en)

Cited By (7)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN109511498A (en) * 2018-11-23 2019-03-26 柳州市渔业技术推广站 A kind of comprehensive breeding technical method of rice fishing
CN109874710A (en) * 2019-04-25 2019-06-14 中国水产科学研究院淡水渔业研究中心 A kind of synthesis breeding method of paddy field aquaculture stick flower fish
CN110574650A (en) * 2019-09-30 2019-12-17 重庆三峡职业学院 no-tillage direct seeding method for fish culture in rice field
CN111386992A (en) * 2020-04-30 2020-07-10 湖南助农农业科技发展有限公司 Comprehensive breeding method and device for rice, shrimp and crab
CN111903569A (en) * 2020-07-13 2020-11-10 广西壮族自治区水产科学研究院 Timely coupled production mode for rice and fish habitat
CN113229078A (en) * 2021-04-20 2021-08-10 杭州昊琳农业开发股份有限公司 Diversified planting and breeding method
CN114051897A (en) * 2021-12-01 2022-02-18 衡阳县仕杰农产品加工有限公司 Method for polyculture of rice and fish in terrace region

Cited By (8)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN109511498A (en) * 2018-11-23 2019-03-26 柳州市渔业技术推广站 A kind of comprehensive breeding technical method of rice fishing
CN109874710A (en) * 2019-04-25 2019-06-14 中国水产科学研究院淡水渔业研究中心 A kind of synthesis breeding method of paddy field aquaculture stick flower fish
CN109874710B (en) * 2019-04-25 2021-07-13 中国水产科学研究院淡水渔业研究中心 Comprehensive planting and breeding method for breeding pihuayu in rice field
CN110574650A (en) * 2019-09-30 2019-12-17 重庆三峡职业学院 no-tillage direct seeding method for fish culture in rice field
CN111386992A (en) * 2020-04-30 2020-07-10 湖南助农农业科技发展有限公司 Comprehensive breeding method and device for rice, shrimp and crab
CN111903569A (en) * 2020-07-13 2020-11-10 广西壮族自治区水产科学研究院 Timely coupled production mode for rice and fish habitat
CN113229078A (en) * 2021-04-20 2021-08-10 杭州昊琳农业开发股份有限公司 Diversified planting and breeding method
CN114051897A (en) * 2021-12-01 2022-02-18 衡阳县仕杰农产品加工有限公司 Method for polyculture of rice and fish in terrace region

Similar Documents

Publication Publication Date Title
CN108718965B (en) Rice and shrimp ecological planting and breeding method for rice and shrimp co-culture
CN108464208A (en) A kind of no-tillage comprehensive breeding method of rice fish ecology
CN103493706B (en) A kind of organic rice production method
CN103719005B (en) Ecological breeding method for freshwater shrimp and bengal waterdropwort herb crop rotation
CN106942107A (en) A kind of cultural method of rice field ecology cray
CN108401953A (en) A kind of rice shrimp makees altogether, continuous cropping cultural method
CN106718451A (en) The cultural method that a kind of paddy rice makees altogether with cray
CN107455190A (en) A kind of method of rice field fish culture
CN101755581B (en) Method for three-dimensional planting and breeding of agricultural products
CN107125175A (en) One seed shrimp, paddy rice, turnip type rape continuous cropping ecological circulation breeding new model
CN106941988B (en) One seed shrimp, rice, barley continuous cropping ecological circulation breeding new model
CN103703984A (en) Hybrid aquatic method of loaches and lotus roots
CN109673436A (en) A kind of plantation of green rice and fish polyculture method
CN105918030A (en) Environment-friendly high-yield paddy rice cultivation method
CN106922584A (en) A kind of method of raising crabs in paddy field
CN110367160A (en) Rice shrimp is bred twice within a kind of cray 1 year make high-yield cultivation method altogether
CN109169454A (en) A kind of rice field cray comprehensive breeding method
CN106614181A (en) Rice and crab symbiotic breeding method
CN107047412A (en) One seed shrimp, paddy rice, Chinese milk vetch continuous cropping ecological circulation breeding new model
CN109452211A (en) A kind of method of mixed breed cray in rice field
CN111034560A (en) Ecological co-culture method for rice and shrimp
CN108184587A (en) Lotus field intercropping lobster zoology breeding method
CN109566499A (en) A method of making ecological rice shrimp using Chinese milk vetch and supports green manure altogether
CN110692466A (en) Soil improving, high yield and efficiency increasing method for rice and shrimp co-farming
CN111887111A (en) Method and system for comprehensively breeding rice, cress and red swamp crayfish

Legal Events

Date Code Title Description
PB01 Publication
PB01 Publication
WD01 Invention patent application deemed withdrawn after publication

Application publication date: 20180831

WD01 Invention patent application deemed withdrawn after publication