CN111887111A - Method and system for comprehensively breeding rice, cress and red swamp crayfish - Google Patents

Method and system for comprehensively breeding rice, cress and red swamp crayfish Download PDF

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Publication number
CN111887111A
CN111887111A CN202010345044.3A CN202010345044A CN111887111A CN 111887111 A CN111887111 A CN 111887111A CN 202010345044 A CN202010345044 A CN 202010345044A CN 111887111 A CN111887111 A CN 111887111A
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China
Prior art keywords
rice
annular ditch
water
crayfish
red
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CN202010345044.3A
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Inventor
沈亚强
徐卫国
程旺大
蒋路平
王保君
张红梅
陈贵
姚祥坦
吴国利
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Jiaxing Agricultural And Fishery Technology Extension Station
JIAXING ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
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Jiaxing Agricultural And Fishery Technology Extension Station
JIAXING ACADEMY OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
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Priority to CN202010345044.3A priority Critical patent/CN111887111A/en
Publication of CN111887111A publication Critical patent/CN111887111A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/20Cereals
    • A01G22/22Rice
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • A01K61/50Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish
    • A01K61/59Culture of aquatic animals of shellfish of crustaceans, e.g. lobsters or shrimps
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/60Fishing; Aquaculture; Aquafarming

Abstract

The application discloses a comprehensive planting and breeding method and system for rice-cress-red crayfish, comprising the following steps: digging an annular ditch between the paddy field and the embankment ridge of the paddy field, arranging a floating bed, a micropore oxygenation device and a marked thick temporary culture groove separated by a mesh fabric in the annular ditch, and arranging an escape-proof device on the embankment ridge; planting rice in the rice field and performing rice planting management; carrying out cress cultivation and cress cultivation management in the floating bed; and (5) cultivating the red crayfish in the annular ditch and managing the cultivation of the red crayfish. The application utilizes the annular ditch in the paddy field to breed the red swamp crayfish, utilizes the floating bed to cultivate cress at the annular ditch water level simultaneously, has improved land use rate. The rice-aquatic vegetable-shrimp symbiotic system is established, the rice fertilizer input is reduced through mutual beneficial symbiosis, high-quality ecological rice can be produced without using pesticides, the grain safety is guaranteed, and the agricultural synergism, the farmer income increase and the rural beauty increase are realized.

Description

Method and system for comprehensively breeding rice, cress and red swamp crayfish
Technical Field
The application relates to the technical field of ecological agriculture, in particular to a method and a system for comprehensively breeding rice, cress and red crayfish.
Background
Red crayfish, the academic name Cherax aquaticarinatus, the English name Redclad crayfish, and also Australian crayfish and crayfish. Belongs to the order of the ten-legged order in classification, the family of Paecilomyces, the genus of Red Tiger. The red crayfish is originally produced in a stream in a tropical region in northern Australia, is similar to the lobsters in the sea in appearance, has the body color of brilliant blue, turquoise or iron-cyan, has color difference according to mineral substances and algae colors in different water areas, and has bright red membranous patches on the outer sides of two pairs of large crayfish male adult crayfish, so the red crayfish is called the red crayfish. The red swamp crayfish is originally wild crayfish, starts artificial culture in 1971, is introduced in the last 90 th century in China, and is one of the most excellent freshwater shrimps in the world at present.
The red swamp crayfish live in fresh water for the whole life, has weak aggressiveness and strong adaptability, and is suitable for growth at the temperature of 22-28 ℃. The nature is pleased with darkness and light, is good for crawling life, is not good for swimming, and is fond of going up to the back water. The red swamp crayfish is fed with food impurities, has a relatively high growth speed, and is mainly fed with organic debris, algae, roots, leaves, fragments and the like of aquatic plants and animal feed including oligotrichines, aquatic insects, snails, clams, fish meat and the like under natural conditions. Has the advantages of simple artificial propagation equipment, low cost and the like.
The meat of the red crayfish is firm, smooth and crisp, and delicious and sweet in taste, is similar to the meat of the sea crayfish, and has high meat yield, and the edible part can reach about 40 percent and is far higher than the original crayfish of the Krause's name. Although the individual weight of the lobster is obviously larger than that of common domestic lobsters, the individual weight is generally 100-200 g, the maximum individual weight in Australia can reach 500g, and the lobster is very eye-sucking in the market. In addition, the red swamp crayfish can endure long-distance transportation, can be brought to the market in a fresh and alive mode, can be taken out of water for dry transportation for 24 hours, and can survive for a longer time if a slight moistening measure is taken. In recent years, a stream of red-swamp crayfish breeding heat is raised under the influence of factors such as the reduction of breeding benefits of mainstream varieties of south America white shrimps, macrobrachium rosenbergii and the like and the large increase of market demand of lobsters.
Oenanthe javanica, a scientific name of Oenanthe javanica, is a perennial aquatic vegetable of umbelliferae, and has a cultivation history of more than 3000 years in China. The cress is widely distributed in China, and is especially suitable for wild or artificial cultivation in Yangtze river watersheds. The cress is used as a hygrophyte, can be cultivated in a hilling way and in a greenhouse for moist cultivation, and is suitable for ordinary shallow water cultivation. Meanwhile, the cress grows fast, has large biomass, can absorb nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrient elements in the water body, and has a certain purification effect on the water body.
The rice is one of three major food crops in the world and is also the most important food crop in China, and more than 65% of people in China use rice as staple food. Therefore, rice is also a national food-safe cornerstone. The shallow water environment of the rice field can provide excellent natural habitat for a plurality of aquatic organisms and can provide good natural conditions for breeding aquatic animals such as fish, crabs, shrimps, soft-shelled turtles and the like, so that the comprehensive breeding mode of rice and fisheries is continuously concerned. Under the correct leadership of various governments in the party and the country, the comprehensive rice field planting and breeding in China gradually becomes a new modern agricultural development mode with various functions of grain stabilization, fish promotion, efficiency enhancement, quality improvement, ecology and the like, and the rice field planting and breeding method has already stepped into a great strategic opportunity period and has raised a new round of development heat tide.
Disclosure of Invention
The application provides a comprehensive planting and breeding method and a comprehensive planting and breeding system for rice, cress and red swamp crayfish, and the method is easy to implement and simple and convenient to operate.
A comprehensive planting and breeding method of rice-cress-red crayfish comprises the following steps:
digging an annular ditch between the paddy field and the embankment ridge of the paddy field, wherein a floating bed, a micropore oxygenation device and a marked thick temporary culture groove separated by a mesh fabric are arranged in the annular ditch, and an anti-escape device is arranged on the embankment ridge; planting rice in the rice field and performing rice planting management; carrying out cress cultivation and cress cultivation management in the floating bed;
the method is characterized in that the annular ditch is used for breeding the red crayfish, and the breeding of the red crayfish comprises the following steps:
(a) cleaning the annular ditch to remove impurities;
(b) putting decomposed organic fertilizer or fertilizer water paste into the annular ditch to cultivate plankton;
(c) after 10-15 days of cultivation, putting the juvenile crayfish of the red swamp crayfish into a rough temporary rearing tank: controlling the content of dissolved oxygen in water in the annular ditch through a micropore oxygenation device, and gradually increasing the water level in the annular ditch after seedlings are put;
(d) temporarily culturing the red chelonian shrimp seeds in the temporary standard culture groove for 20-25 days, then removing the partition screen cloth of the temporary standard culture groove, and enabling the red chelonian shrimp seeds to enter the whole annular ditch and the water area of the rice field;
daily feeding and managing the red swamp crayfish in the steps (c) and (d).
The application utilizes the annular ditch in the paddy field to breed the red swamp crayfish, utilizes the floating bed to cultivate cress at the annular ditch water level simultaneously, has improved land use rate. The rice-aquatic vegetable-shrimp symbiotic system is established, the rice fertilizer input is reduced through mutual beneficial symbiosis, high-quality ecological rice can be produced without using pesticides, the grain safety is guaranteed, and the agricultural synergism, the farmer income increase and the rural beauty increase are realized. On the premise of fully making a pond and impurity cleaning, the method directly carries out thickness marking in situ on the circular ditch of the rice field, simplifies the flow and saves the seedling purchasing cost.
Several alternatives are provided below, but not as an additional limitation to the above general solution, but merely as a further addition or preference, each alternative being combinable individually for the above general solution or among several alternatives without technical or logical contradictions.
Optionally, in the step (a) of cultivating the red crayfish: and (3) cleaning the annular ditch by adopting bleaching powder to remove impurities, sprinkling 60-70 kg of bleaching powder with 35% of effective chlorine content per mu according to the water depth of 1m, or sprinkling 75-85 kg of bleaching powder with 28-32% of effective chlorine content per mu according to the water depth of 1m, and detoxifying by using potassium hydrogen persulfate composite salt or organic acid after sprinkling for 6-7 days.
The annular ditch is cleaned and decontaminated by directly adopting bleaching powder (lime containing chlorine), and the cleaning of the pond by adopting the bleaching powder can kill various pathogenic microorganisms and various wild trash fishes, snails, shrimps, crabs and the like in the water body on one hand, and can also increase calcium in the water body on the other hand, so as to achieve the effects of enriching water and increasing mineral substances.
Optionally, in the step (c) of cultivating the red crayfish: seedling is put at night or before sunrise in sunny weather, the water depth in the annular ditch is 0.6-0.9 m and the water temperature is 20-25 ℃ during seedling putting; the feeding density is 1500-2500 shrimp seedlings are fed per mu according to the total area of the rice field, and the shrimp seedlings are 0.8-1.0 cm/tail.
When putting the shrimp seeds, the difference between the water temperature in the annular ditch and the water temperature of the shrimp seed bag is required to be less than 2 ℃, a small amount of pond water in the annular ditch is slowly added into the shrimp seed bag before putting the shrimp seeds until the water temperatures of the shrimp seed bag and the annular ditch are close to each other, then the shrimp seed bag is placed in the annular ditch for 10 minutes, and then the shrimp seeds are put into the water in the annular ditch.
Optionally, the content of dissolved oxygen in water in the annular ditch is kept above 5mg/L after the seedlings are put; keeping 24 hours for oxygenation within 1 week of seedling throwing. Then the micropore oxygenation device can be opened according to the actual situation. After the shrimp seeds are put in the annular ditch, the water level in the annular ditch is gradually increased to more than 1m, the partitions can be removed after the shrimp seeds are temporarily cultured in the temporary culture groove for 20-25 days, and the water quality is kept fresh and cool.
Optionally, daily feeding of the red crayfish comprises:
feeding the feed of the red swamp crayfish on the 2 nd day after the fry is released, uniformly throwing the feed on the shallow water side of the slope bank of the annular ditch, and feeding the red swamp crayfish for 1 time respectively in the early morning and in the evening each day; the daily feeding amount at the initial stage of seedling release is controlled to be 750-1250 g/ten thousand seedlings. And then, adjusting according to actual conditions such as ingestion condition, weather and the like, mainly feeding feed No. 0 within 45 days after the crayfish fries are put in, and transferring the feed No. 1 after the crayfish fries grow to 2-3 cm in specification and transferring the feed No. 2 after the crayfish fries grow to 4-6 cm in specification.
Optionally, the daily management of the red crayfish comprises:
daily management pays attention to water quality regulation, keeps the water quality 'fertile, alive, tender and cool', and has the transparency of 30-50 cm. When the water color of the annular ditch is not fresh enough, the water is changed in time, when the water evaporation level of the pond falls, fresh water is filled in time, and the water depth in the annular ditch is kept to be 1.2-1.5 m in the middle and later periods of cultivation and high-temperature seasons. Adding ionized calcium preparation 1 time every 10 days to adjust water hardness, and using EM probiotic bacteria and substrate modifier to adjust water quality and modify substrate every half month. And (5) insisting on daily pond patrol, observing the activities, ingestion and growth conditions of the shrimps, timely processing the problems when the shrimps are found, and making detailed records.
Optionally, when the size of the cultured individual of the red swamp crayfish reaches more than 50g, the red swamp crayfish can be caught and marketed, and a ground cage is adopted for catching. And finally draining the water in the annular ditch when the ground cage can not be basically caught, and catching the water in the dry pond.
Optionally, in the rice cultivation process: the seed consumption of conventional rice varieties in direct-seeding fields is 3.0-4.0 kg per mu; the seed consumption of each mu of hybrid rice variety is 0.75-1.5 kg; the seed consumption of each mu of the special rice variety for the fishpond is 0.2-0.35 kg; transplanting row spacing is 20-30 cm, plant spacing is 10-15 cm, and 2-3 plants are planted in each hole. The rice variety is preferably disease-resistant, lodging-resistant and rice-quality. Direct seeding or transplanting, early sowing at proper time, and sowing in the northern area of Zhejiang from 5 months to 6 months. The seed consumption is low when the seeds are sowed early, and the seed consumption is increased when the seeds are sowed late.
Optionally, the coverage area of the floating bed for cultivating cress is 20-30% of the total area of the annular ditch.
The water surface floating bed cultivation mode is adopted for the cress cultivation. The floating bed main body frame is made of PVC pipes, the width of the floating bed is 1.0m, the length of the floating bed is 2.0-4.0 m, a 20-mesh plastic net is paved on the floating bed to be used as the floating bed for cress cultivation, heat-resistant varieties such as 'cress No. 1' and the like are adopted for cress varieties, seed sowing is carried out at the bottom of 7 months, the seed stem seed sowing density is one per 10cm, and the main body frame is directly arranged on the water surface of an annular ditch of the rice field for cultivation after seed sowing. The coverage area of the water fennel floating bed is controlled to be 20-30% of the total area of the annular ditch. And no pesticide or chemical fertilizer is applied in the whole floating bed cultivation process of the cress, and the cress can be harvested when the plants grow to about 50 cm.
Optionally, the paddy field area 3 ~ 10 mu, rectangle, aspect ratio 1: about 3.
Optionally, the width of the annular groove is 1.5-2.5 m, the depth is 1.0-1.5 m, and the slope ratio is 1: 1.5; the area of the annular ditch accounts for 8-10% of the total area of the whole field.
Optionally, the width of the embankment ridge surface is 1.0-1.2 m, and the plane of the embankment ridge surface is 0.8-1.5 m higher than the rice field surface.
Optionally, the mesh cloth of the partition mark coarse temporary rearing groove is 20 meshes of polyester mesh cloth.
The application also provides a rice-cress-red crayfish comprehensive planting and breeding system, which comprises:
a paddy field for planting rice in the center;
a bank surrounding the rice field;
the anti-escape device is arranged on the embankment;
excavating an annular ditch for cultivating the red crayfish between the rice field and the embankment ridge, wherein the annular ditch is provided with a water inlet and a water outlet;
a standard rough temporary culture groove and a micropore oxygenation device which are arranged in the annular ditch;
and a floating bed arranged in the annular ditch and used for cress cultivation.
The water inlet is connected with an irrigation machine room through a water inlet pipe; the water outlet is communicated to the outer drainage channel of the embankment ridge through a drainage pipe; mesh cloth is arranged at the water inlet and the water outlet; the micropore oxygenation device is externally connected with an air blower through an air pipe and a control valve. The micropore oxygenation device adopts a micropore aeration disc. The blower is a Roots blower. The anti-escape device adopts an anti-escape film (net/plate).
Compared with the prior art, the application has at least the following beneficial effects:
(1) the ecological agriculture organically combines rice planting, water fennel floating bed cultivation and red crayfish cultivation by adopting ecological economics and ecological agriculture theories, fully utilizes space, land resources and water resources, realizes organic combination of special agricultural product production, ecological cycle water quality improvement and beautiful country construction, and is resource-saving and environment-friendly sustainable development ecological agriculture.
(2) Through mutual beneficial symbiosis of rice, vegetables and shrimps, the fertilizer investment is reduced, pesticides are not needed, high-quality ecological rice can be produced, and the grain safety is guaranteed. Compared with the rice planted in the field, the rice planted in the comprehensive planting mode has the advantages that the amylose content is reduced, the polished rice rate, the protein content and the like are improved, the quality is good, and the taste is better. In addition, the crayfish procumbens are intercropped with rice and cress, the quality of the crayfish procumbens is improved to a certain extent compared with a pond single-culture mode, and the contents of protein and amino acid of the crayfish procumbens are higher than those of the crayfish single-culture mode.
(3) On the premise of fully making a pond and impurity cleaning, the method directly carries out thickness marking in situ on the circular ditch of the rice field, simplifies the flow and saves the seedling purchasing cost.
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic structural diagram of the integrated system of the present application.
Fig. 2 is a graph comparing the protein and amino acid content of synthetically grown crayfish and individually grown crayfish in a pond.
The reference numerals shown in the figures are as follows:
1-rice field 2-annular ditch 3-escape-proof device
4-embankment ridge 5-floating bed 6-drainage pipeline
7-micropore oxygenation device 8-blower 9-mark thick temporary culture tank
10-irrigation machine room 11-water inlet pipeline 12-mechanical operation channel
Detailed Description
The technical solutions in the embodiments of the present application will be clearly and completely described below with reference to the drawings in the embodiments of the present application, and it is obvious that the described embodiments are only a part of the embodiments of the present application, and not all of the embodiments. All other embodiments, which can be derived by a person skilled in the art from the embodiments given herein without making any creative effort, shall fall within the protection scope of the present application.
For a better description and illustration of embodiments of the application, reference may be made to one or more of the drawings, but additional details or examples used in describing the drawings should not be construed as limiting the scope of any of the inventive concepts of the present application, the presently described embodiments, or the preferred versions.
Unless defined otherwise, all technical and scientific terms used herein have the same meaning as commonly understood by one of ordinary skill in the art to which this application belongs. The terminology used herein in the description of the present application is for the purpose of describing particular embodiments only and is not intended to be limiting of the application.
As shown in fig. 1, a comprehensive planting and breeding system for rice, cress and crayfish comprises: the rice field 1 that is located the central authorities, the dyke ridge 4 that encircles the rice field, excavate the annular ditch 2 between rice field 1 and dyke ridge 4, set up the floating bed 5, micropore oxygenation device 7 and mark thick groove 9 of fostering temporarily in the annular ditch, the annular ditch sets up water inlet and outlet, the water inlet overlaps and has 80 mesh dacron screen cloth, the water inlet is connected with irrigation computer lab 10 through inlet channel 11, the outlet cover has 40 mesh dacron screen cloth, the outlet links to each other with the ditch through drainage pipe 6. Rice is planted in the rice field, the red swamp crayfish is cultured in the annular ditch, and the floating bed can be used for culturing cress, so that the comprehensive planting and breeding of the rice, the cress and the red swamp crayfish are realized.
The plane of the embankment ridge 4 is 0.8-1.5 m higher than the field surface of the rice field 1, and the width of the embankment ridge surface is 1.0-1.2 m; the width of the annular ditch 2 is 1.5-2.5 m, the depth is 1.0-1.5 m, the slope ratio is 1: 1-1: 2, and the area is controlled to be 8-10% of the total area of the whole field; the width of the floating bed 5 is 1.0m, the length is 2.0-4.0 m, and a 20-mesh plastic net is laid on the floating bed. In one embodiment, the rice field area is 3-10 mu, the rice field area is rectangular, and the length-width ratio is 1: about 3. One side of the rice field is reserved with a section of soil slope with the width of 3-5 m, and the soil slope is used as a mechanical operation channel 12 for mechanical field operation. The "total area of the whole field piece" in this embodiment may refer to the total area of the rice field and the annular trench; in the embodiment, the two side surfaces of the annular groove are both slope surfaces, and the slope ratio meets 1: 1-1: 2.
A section of groove with a set length is separated from the annular groove by 20 meshes of polyester mesh cloth and is directly used as a standard rough temporary culture groove. The bottom and two sides of the terylene mesh partition are embedded in the mud by 30-40 cm and compacted.
Micropore aeration device 7 can adopt micropore aeration dish, evenly distributed in annular ditch, through the external blower 8 of gas transmission hose and air inlet valve, the blower can adopt the roots blower, selects the roots blower of suitable power according to breeding the area size. The micropore oxygenation device meets the high dissolved oxygen requirement of the red crayfish.
The red swamp crayfish has strong climbing capability and likes to move on the land at night or in rainy days, so that an escape-proof facility needs to be erected. Besides, the frog, the mouse, the snake and the like can be prevented from entering the rice field after the escape-proof facility is erected. The embankment is provided with the escape-preventing device 3, and facilities for preventing the red crayfish from escaping can be built by plastic films, net sheets, asbestos tiles, hard calcium-plastic plates, brick walls or aluminum-plastic plates and the like. The film escaping/net/plate is buried in ridge soil for 15-20 cm, the ground is reserved for 30-50 cm, and then the film escaping/net/plate is fixed by using timber piles or iron pipes every 1.5-3.0 m.
One construction method of the comprehensive breeding system comprises the following steps:
(1) selection and modification of rice field
The paddy field with quiet environment, no pollution, sufficient water source, excellent water quality, fertilizer and non-silting base, no dry in dry seasons, no flooding in rainy seasons, convenient water intake and drainage, convenient traffic and good water retention performance is selected. Considering factors such as facility cost and management, the area of a single field is preferably 3-10 mu, the rectangular shape is the length-width ratio of 1: about 3. A ring-shaped ditch with the width of 1.5-2.5 m, the depth of 1.0-1.5 m and the slope ratio of 1:1.5 is excavated around the rice field and is used as a place for the red crayfish to inhabit, move and avoid summer heat at high temperature, and the area of the ring-shaped ditch is controlled to be 8-10% of the total area of the whole field. For the field with the area exceeding 15 mu, a cross fish slip with the width of 0.5-1.0 m, the depth of 0.8-1.2 m and two through ends can be dug in the middle.
And (4) heightening, widening and tamping the embankment ridge by combining the annular ditch excavation project. The dug soil is directly used for heightening and widening the embankment, the plane of the embankment is 0.8-1.5 m higher than the rice field surface, and the width of the embankment reaches 1.0-1.2 m. When the embankment is widened and heightened, soil is compacted to ensure that the embankment is not cracked, collapsed and leaked, so that the water retention and escape prevention capability of the embankment is improved. And (3) at the end of the ditching operation, reserving a section of soil slope with the width of 3.0-5.0 m on one side of the rice field as a channel for mechanical field planting operation.
In addition, a small ridge with the width of 0.4-0.6 m and the surface 0.3-0.4 m higher than the surface of the rice field can be formed around the middle rice field, so that the rice field and the annular ditch can be temporarily isolated during mechanical plowing and fertilizing (when necessary) operation, and the adverse effect of the processes on the water quality of the annular ditch is reduced.
A plurality of water inlets and outlets are reasonably arranged in the rice field. The water inlet is connected with the irrigation machine room through a pipeline, and the water outlet is connected with the outer canal through a pipeline. All water inlets are sleeved with 80-mesh terylene mesh cloth, and all water outlets are sleeved with 40-mesh terylene mesh cloth so as to prevent wild trash fish and the like from entering and red chelonian from escaping.
(2) Temporary culture trough with setting mark
The depth of the annular ditch is controlled to be 0.6-0.9 m when the crayfish fries are marked to be thick, and 7.5-10.0 m is needed when 1000 shrimp fries (with the specification of 0.8-1.0 cm) are put in2And on the water surface, determining the length of the standard rough temporary culture groove in the annular groove according to the proportion and the required seedling feeding amount, and separating a section of annular groove with the length by using 20-mesh polyester mesh cloth in the annular groove on one side of the rice field to directly serve as the standard rough temporary culture groove. The bottom and two sides of the terylene mesh partition are embedded in the mud by 30-40 cm and compacted.
(3) Micro-hole oxygen increasing device
And erecting a micropore oxygenation device at a proper position of the rice field. A roots blower with proper power is selected according to the size of the culture area, a plurality of micropore oxygenation discs are arranged in the circular ditch of the rice field, and the micropore oxygenation discs are connected with the lower end of the roots blower through gas transmission hoses and gas inlet valves.
(4) Erection of escape-proof facilities
The red swamp crayfish has strong climbing capability and likes to move on the land at night or in rainy days, so that an escape-proof facility needs to be erected. Besides, the frog, the mouse, the snake and the like can be prevented from entering the rice field after the escape-proof facility is erected. The facilities for preventing the red crayfish from escaping can be constructed by adopting materials such as plastic films, meshes, asbestos tiles, hard calcium-plastic plates, brick walls or aluminum-plastic plates and the like. The film escaping/net/plate is buried in ridge soil for 15-20 cm, the ground is reserved for 30-50 cm, and then the film escaping/net/plate is fixed by using timber piles or iron pipes every 1.5-3.0 m.
One method for comprehensively planting rice, cress and red crayfish in the integrated system is as follows:
(1) cleaning pond and removing impurities
The annular ditch is cleaned and decontaminated by directly adopting bleaching powder (lime containing chlorine), and the cleaning of the pond by adopting the bleaching powder can kill various pathogenic microorganisms and various wild trash fishes, snails, shrimps, crabs and the like in the water body on one hand, and can also increase calcium in the water body on the other hand, so as to achieve the effects of enriching water and increasing mineral substances. 60-70 kg of bleaching powder with 35% of available chlorine content is sprinkled per mu (calculated according to the water depth of 1 m), or 75-85 kg of bleaching powder with 28-32% of available chlorine content is sprinkled per mu (calculated according to the water depth of 1 m), and the potassium hydrogen persulfate composite salt or the organic acid is used for detoxification after 6-7 days of sprinkling.
(2) Putting shrimp larvae
And (3) putting decomposed organic fertilizer or fertilizer water paste and the like into the annular ditch 10-15 days before the shrimp larvae are put in to cultivate plankton. The water depth of the annular ditch is 0.6-0.9 m, and the shrimp seeds are thrown in at the water temperature of 20-25 ℃. The specification of the fries is 0.8-1.0 cm, the density is calculated according to the total area of the rice field, and 1500-2500 shrimp fries are thrown in each mu. The fry placing is carried out at the evening or before sunrise in sunny weather, the difference between the water temperature in the annular ditch and the water temperature of the fry bag is required to be less than 2 ℃, a small amount of pond water in the annular ditch is slowly added into the fry bag before the fry placing until the water temperatures of the two are close to each other, then the fry bag is placed in the annular ditch for 10 minutes, and the fry is put into the water in the annular ditch.
(3) Marked with thick line
The requirement of the red swamp crayfish on dissolved oxygen is high, and the dissolved oxygen in water must be kept above 5 mg/L. Keeping the 24-hour oxygenation state within 1 week of seedling throwing, and then opening the micropore oxygenation device according to the actual situation. After the shrimp seeds are put in the annular ditch, the water level in the annular ditch is gradually increased to more than 1m, the partitions can be removed after the shrimp seeds are temporarily cultured in the temporary culture groove for 20-25 days, and the water quality is kept fresh and cool.
(4) Daily feeding and management
Feeding the feed of the red swamp crayfish in the 2 nd day after the fry is released, directly and uniformly throwing the feed to the shallow water side of the annular ditch slope, and feeding the red swamp crayfish for 1 time respectively at 7:30 in the morning and 17:30 in the afternoon. The daily feeding amount at the initial stage of seedling release is controlled to be 750-1250 g (every ten thousand seedlings), and then the daily feeding amount is adjusted according to actual conditions such as ingestion conditions, weather and the like. Feeding the feed No. 0 mainly in 45 days after the crayfish fries are put in, turning to the feed No. 1 after the crayfish fries grow to 2-3 cm, and turning to the feed No. 2 after the crayfish fries grow to 4-6 cm.
Daily management pays attention to water quality regulation, keeps the water quality 'fertile, alive, tender and cool', and has the transparency of 30-50 cm. When the water color of the annular ditch is not fresh enough, the water is changed in time, when the water evaporation level of the pond falls, fresh water is filled in time, and the water depth in the annular ditch is kept to be 1.2-1.5 m in the middle and later periods of cultivation and high-temperature seasons. Adding ionized calcium preparation 1 time every 10 days to adjust water hardness, and using EM probiotic bacteria and substrate modifier to adjust water quality and modify substrate every half month. And (5) insisting on daily pond patrol, observing the activities, ingestion and growth conditions of the shrimps, timely processing the problems when the shrimps are found, and making detailed records.
(5) Catching adult shrimps
When the size of the cultured individual of the red swamp crayfish reaches more than 50g, the red swamp crayfish can be caught and sold on the market by adopting a ground cage. And finally draining the water in the annular ditch when the ground cage can not be basically caught, and catching the water in the dry pond.
(6) Cultivation of rice
The rice variety is preferably disease-resistant, lodging-resistant and rice-quality. Direct seeding or transplanting, early sowing at proper time, and sowing in the northern area of Zhejiang from 5 months to 6 months. The seed consumption of conventional rice varieties in direct seeding fields is 3.0-4.0 kg per mu, the seed consumption of hybrid rice varieties is 0.75-1.5 kg per mu, the seed consumption of special rice varieties in fishponds is 0.2-0.35 kg per mu, the seed consumption for early seeding is low, and the seed consumption for late seeding can be increased properly. Transplanting row spacing is 20-30 cm, plant spacing is 10-15 cm, and 2-3 plants are planted in each hole.
(7) Cultivation of cress
The water surface floating bed cultivation mode is adopted for the cress cultivation. The floating bed main body frame is made of PVC pipes, the width of the floating bed is 1.0m, the length of the floating bed is 2.0-4.0 m, a 20-mesh plastic net is paved on the floating bed to be used as the floating bed for cress cultivation, heat-resistant varieties such as 'cress No. 1' and the like are adopted for cress varieties, seed sowing is carried out at the bottom of 7 months, the seed stem seed sowing density is one per 10cm, and the main body frame is directly arranged on the water surface of an annular ditch of the rice field for cultivation after seed sowing. The coverage area of the water fennel floating bed is controlled to be 20-30% of the total area of the annular ditch. And no pesticide or chemical fertilizer is applied in the whole floating bed cultivation process of the cress, and the cress can be harvested when the plants grow to about 50 cm.
According to the method, the crayfish procumbens, the rice and the cress are intercropped together, the quality of the crayfish procumbens is improved to a certain extent compared with a pond single-breeding mode, the contents of protein and amino acid of the crayfish procumbens are higher than those of the pond single-breeding mode, and the result is shown in figure 2. The following is further illustrated by specific examples:
example 1:
(a) selection and modification of rice field
The paddy field with quiet environment, no pollution, sufficient water source, excellent water quality, fertilizer and non-silting base, no dry in dry seasons, no flooding in rainy seasons, convenient water intake and drainage, convenient traffic and good water retention performance is selected. The area of the rice field is 3.5 mu, an annular ditch with the width of 2m, the depth of 1.2m and the slope ratio of 1:1.5 is dug around the rice field to be used as a place for the red crayfish to inhabit, move and avoid summer heat at high temperature, and the area of the annular ditch is controlled to be 10 percent of the total area of the whole field.
And (4) heightening, widening and tamping the embankment ridge by combining the annular ditch excavation project. The dug soil is directly used for heightening and widening the embankment, the plane of the embankment is 1.2m higher than the paddy field surface, the width of the embankment reaches 1.2m, and the soil is tamped to ensure that the embankment is not cracked, collapsed and watertight. And finally, reserving a section of soil slope with the width of 4.0m on one side of the rice field as a channel for mechanical field operation. In addition, a small ridge with the width of 0.5m and the surface 0.3m higher than the surface of the rice field is formed on the periphery of the middle rice field.
Two water inlets and two water outlets are respectively arranged in the rice field, the water inlets are connected with an irrigation machine room through pipelines, the water outlets are connected with an outer channel through pipelines, all the water inlets are sleeved with 80-mesh polyester mesh cloth, and all the water outlets are sleeved with 40-mesh polyester mesh cloth.
(b) Temporary culture trough with setting mark
A section of 20m long annular groove is separated by 20-mesh polyester mesh cloth at one side of the annular groove of the rice field and is directly used as a coarse temporary culture groove, the bottom and two sides of the polyester mesh cloth partition are buried in mud for 30cm and compacted, the depth of the annular groove is controlled to be 0.7-0.8 m,
(c) micro-hole oxygen increasing device
A1.5 kw Roots blower is erected at a proper position in a rice field, and a plurality of micropore oxygenation discs are arranged in an annular ditch of the rice field and are connected with the lower end of the Roots blower through a gas transmission hose and a gas inlet valve.
(d) Erection of escape-proof facilities
Plastic films 50cm high are buried in ridge soil for 15cm, and then are fixed by wooden piles every 2.0m, and the whole rice field is surrounded to prevent the red crayfish from escaping.
(e) Cleaning pond and removing impurities
The annular ditch is cleaned and decontaminated by bleaching powder (lime containing chlorine), 80kg of bleaching powder with 28 percent of effective chlorine content is splashed per mu (calculated according to the depth of 1m water) to kill various pathogenic microorganisms and various wild trash fishes, snails, shrimps, crabs and the like in the water body, and the detoxification is carried out by organic acids after 6 days of splashing.
(f) Putting shrimp larvae
Mature organic fertilizer or fertilizer water paste and the like are put into the annular ditch 15 days before the shrimp larvae are put in to cultivate plankton. The water depth of the annular ditch is 0.6-0.9 m, and the shrimp seeds are thrown in at the water temperature of 20-25 ℃. The specification of the fries is 0.8-1.0 cm/tail, the density is calculated according to the total area of the rice field, and 1500 shrimps are thrown in each mu. The fry placing is carried out at the evening or before sunrise in sunny weather, the difference between the water temperature in the annular ditch and the water temperature of the fry bag is required to be less than 2 ℃, a small amount of pond water in the annular ditch is slowly added into the fry bag before the fry placing until the water temperatures of the two are close to each other, then the fry bag is placed in the annular ditch for 10 minutes, and the fry is put into the water in the annular ditch.
(g) Marked with thick line
Keeping the 24-hour oxygenation state within 1 week of seedling throwing, and then starting the micropore oxygenation device according to the actual situation. After the shrimp seeds are put in the annular ditch, the water level in the annular ditch is gradually increased to 1m, the partition is removed after the shrimp seeds are temporarily cultured in the temporary culture groove for 25 days, and the water quality is kept fresh and cool.
(h) Daily feeding and management
Feeding the Tianbang Macao-Longus feed on the 2 nd day of the fry of the red crayfish, directly and uniformly throwing the feed on the shallow water side of the slope bank of the annular ditch, and feeding the red crayfish for 1 time respectively at 7:30 in the morning and 17:30 in the afternoon every day. The daily feeding amount at the initial stage of seedling release is controlled to be 750g (every ten thousand seedlings), and then the daily feeding amount is adjusted according to actual conditions such as ingestion condition, weather and the like. Feeding the feed No. 0 of the Tianbang Auolon mainly within 45 days after the seedlings of the red crayfish are put in, and transferring the feed No. 1 after the seedlings grow to 2-3 cm in specification and transferring the feed No. 2 after the seedlings grow to 4-6 cm in specification.
Daily management pays attention to water quality regulation, keeps the water quality 'fertile, alive, tender and cool', and has the transparency of 30-50 cm. When the water color of the annular ditch is not fresh enough, the water is changed in time, when the water evaporation level of the pond falls, fresh water is filled in time, and the water depth in the annular ditch is kept to be 1.2-1.5 m in the middle and later periods of cultivation and high-temperature seasons. Adding ionized calcium preparation 1 time every 10 days to adjust water hardness, and using EM probiotic bacteria and substrate modifier to adjust water quality and modify substrate every half month. And (5) insisting on daily pond patrol, observing the activities, ingestion and growth conditions of the shrimps, timely processing the problems when the shrimps are found, and making detailed records.
(i) Catching adult shrimps
When the size of the cultured individual of the red swamp crayfish reaches more than 50g, the red swamp crayfish is caught and sold on the market and is caught by a ground cage. And finally draining the water in the annular ditch when the ground cage can not be basically caught, and catching the water in the dry pond. Through measurement and calculation, the yield per mu of the red crayfish reaches 45kg, the average selling price is 80 yuan/kg, and the yield per mu of the red crayfish reaches 3600 yuan.
(j) Cultivation of rice
The Zhejiang Hai Xiang No. 2 (also named as 'Soft Xiang No. 2' and 'Xiuxiang No. 2') strain bred by agricultural science research institute in Jiaxing city is selected, and the strain has the advantages of good palatability, wampee flavor, stout stem, fertilizer tolerance, lodging resistance and the like of rice, and the Jinprize of 'Zhejiang Hai rice' and 'Hecheng Hai rice' is evaluated in 2018. Sowing the seeds at 27 days in 5 months, manually transplanting the seeds at 22 days in 6 months, wherein the row spacing is 25cm multiplied by 14cm, and 2 seeds are inserted into each hole. And (3) in the 3-5 leaf stage of the seedling, performing manual seedling supplement, density supplement and thinning, and enabling seedlings to be uniformly planted in the whole field. Through determination, the rice yield (based on the total area of the field) reaches 501 kg/mu, and as the rice in the mode belongs to an ecological green cultivation mode, no pesticide is applied in the whole process of production, the rice yield is calculated according to 70%, the average selling price is 10 yuan/kg, and the selling value of rice per mu reaches 3507 yuan.
(k) Cultivation of cress
A cress cultivation floating bed with the width of 1.0m and the length of 3.0m is manufactured by adopting a PVC pipe, and a 20-mesh plastic net is paved on the cress cultivation floating bed. The cress variety adopts 'cress No. 1', seeding is carried out at the bottom of 7 months, seed stems are uniformly arranged on a plastic net, the seeding density is one seed stem per 10cm, and the cress variety is directly placed on the water surface of an annular ditch of a rice field for cultivation after seeding. The area covered by the water fennel floating bed is controlled to be 20 percent of the total area of the annular ditch. And (3) applying no pesticide or chemical fertilizer in the whole floating bed cultivation process of the cress, and harvesting when the plants grow to about 50 cm.
Example 2:
(a) selection and modification of rice field
The paddy field with quiet environment, no pollution, sufficient water source, excellent water quality, fertilizer and non-silting base, no dry in dry seasons, no flooding in rainy seasons, convenient water intake and drainage, convenient traffic and good water retention performance is selected. The area of the rice field is 10 mu, an annular ditch with the width of 2m, the depth of 1.2m and the slope ratio of 1:1.5 is excavated around the rice field and is used as a place for the red crayfish to perch, move and avoid summer heat at high temperature, and the area of the annular ditch is controlled to be 10 percent of the total area of the whole field.
And (4) heightening, widening and tamping the embankment ridge by combining the annular ditch excavation project. The dug soil is directly used for heightening and widening the embankment, the plane of the embankment is 1.5m higher than the paddy field surface, the width of the embankment reaches 1.2m, and the soil is tamped to ensure that the embankment is not cracked, collapsed and watertight. And finally, reserving a section of soil slope with the width of 4.0m on one side of the rice field as a channel for mechanical field operation. In addition, a small ridge with the width of 0.5m and the surface 0.3m higher than the surface of the rice field is formed on the periphery of the middle rice field.
Two water inlets and two water outlets are respectively arranged in the rice field, the water inlets are connected with an irrigation machine room through pipelines, the water outlets are connected with an outer channel through pipelines, all the water inlets are sleeved with 80-mesh polyester mesh cloth, and all the water outlets are sleeved with 40-mesh polyester mesh cloth.
(b) Temporary culture trough with setting mark
A section of 20m long annular groove is separated by 20-mesh polyester mesh cloth at one side of the annular groove of the rice field and is directly used as a coarse temporary culture groove, the bottom and two sides of the polyester mesh cloth partition are buried in mud for 30cm and compacted, the depth of the annular groove is controlled to be 0.7-0.8 m,
(c) micro-hole oxygen increasing device
A1.5 kw Roots blower is erected at a proper position in a rice field, and a plurality of micropore oxygenation discs are arranged in an annular ditch of the rice field and are connected with the lower end of the Roots blower through a gas transmission hose and a gas inlet valve.
(d) Erection of escape-proof facilities
Plastic films 50cm high are buried in ridge soil for 15cm, and then are fixed by wooden piles every 2.0m, and the whole rice field is surrounded to prevent the red crayfish from escaping.
(e) Cleaning pond and removing impurities
The annular ditch is cleaned and decontaminated by bleaching powder (lime containing chlorine), 80kg of bleaching powder with 28 percent of effective chlorine content is splashed per mu (calculated according to the depth of 1m water) to kill various pathogenic microorganisms and various wild trash fishes, snails, shrimps, crabs and the like in the water body, and the detoxification is carried out by organic acids after 6 days of splashing.
(f) Putting shrimp larvae
Mature organic fertilizer or fertilizer water paste and the like are put into the annular ditch 15 days before the shrimp larvae are put in to cultivate plankton. The water depth of the annular ditch is 0.6-0.9 m, and the shrimp seeds are thrown in at the water temperature of 20-25 ℃. The specification of the fries is 0.8-1.0 cm, the density is calculated according to the total area of the rice field, and 2500 shrimp fries are thrown in each mu. The fry placing is carried out at the evening or before sunrise in sunny weather, the difference between the water temperature in the annular ditch and the water temperature of the fry bag is required to be less than 2 ℃, a small amount of pond water in the annular ditch is slowly added into the fry bag before the fry placing until the water temperatures of the two are close to each other, then the fry bag is placed in the annular ditch for 10 minutes, and the fry is put into the water in the annular ditch.
(g) Marked with thick line
Keeping the 24-hour oxygenation state within 1 week of seedling throwing, and then starting the micropore oxygenation device according to the actual situation. After the shrimp seeds are put in the annular ditch, the water level in the annular ditch is gradually increased to 1m, the partition is removed after the shrimp seeds are temporarily cultured in the temporary culture groove for 25 days, and the water quality is kept fresh and cool.
(h) Daily feeding and management
Feeding the Tianbang Macao-Longus feed on the 2 nd day of the fry of the red crayfish, directly and uniformly throwing the feed on the shallow water side of the slope bank of the annular ditch, and feeding the red crayfish for 1 time respectively at 7:30 in the morning and 17:30 in the afternoon every day. The daily feeding amount at the initial stage of seedling release is controlled to be 750g (every ten thousand seedlings), and then the daily feeding amount is adjusted according to actual conditions such as ingestion condition, weather and the like. Feeding the feed No. 0 of the Tianbang Auolon mainly within 45 days after the seedlings of the red crayfish are put in, and transferring the feed No. 1 after the seedlings grow to 2-3 cm in specification and transferring the feed No. 2 after the seedlings grow to 4-6 cm in specification.
Daily management pays attention to water quality regulation, keeps the water quality 'fertile, alive, tender and cool', and has the transparency of 30-50 cm. When the water color of the annular ditch is not fresh enough, the water is changed in time, when the water evaporation level of the pond falls, fresh water is filled in time, and the water depth in the annular ditch is kept to be 1.2-1.5 m in the middle and later periods of cultivation and high-temperature seasons. Adding ionized calcium preparation 1 time every 10 days to adjust water hardness, and using EM probiotic bacteria and substrate modifier to adjust water quality and modify substrate every half month. And (5) insisting on daily pond patrol, observing the activities, ingestion and growth conditions of the shrimps, timely processing the problems when the shrimps are found, and making detailed records.
(i) Catching adult shrimps
When the size of the cultured individual of the red swamp crayfish reaches more than 50g, the red swamp crayfish is caught and sold on the market and is caught by a ground cage. And finally draining the water in the annular ditch when the ground cage can not be basically caught, and catching the water in the dry pond. Through measurement and calculation, the yield per mu of the red crayfish reaches 95kg, the average selling price is 80 yuan/kg, and the yield value per mu of the red crayfish reaches 7600 yuan.
(j) Cultivation of rice
Selecting a conventional late japonica rice variety 'Jia 67' bred by the agricultural science research institute in Jiaxing city. The variety has low amylose content, good rice quality, good taste and great yield-increasing potential. Sowing the seeds at 27 days in 5 months, manually transplanting the seeds at 22 days in 6 months, wherein the row spacing is 25cm multiplied by 14cm, and 2 seeds are inserted into each hole. And (3) in the 3-5 leaf stage of the seedling, performing manual seedling supplement, density supplement and thinning, and enabling seedlings to be uniformly planted in the whole field. Through determination, the rice yield (based on the total area of the field) reaches 594 kg/mu, and because the rice in the mode belongs to an ecological green cultivation mode, no pesticide is applied in the whole process of production, the rice yield is calculated according to 70%, the average selling price is 10 yuan/kg, and the selling value of the rice per mu reaches 4158 yuan.
(k) Cultivation of cress
A cress cultivation floating bed with the width of 1.0m and the length of 3.0m is manufactured by adopting a PVC pipe, and a 20-mesh plastic net is paved on the cress cultivation floating bed. The cress variety adopts 'cress No. 1', seeding is carried out at the bottom of 7 months, seed stems are uniformly arranged on a plastic net, the seeding density is one seed stem per 10cm, and the cress variety is directly placed on the water surface of an annular ditch of a rice field for cultivation after seeding. The area covered by the water fennel floating bed is controlled to be 20 percent of the total area of the annular ditch. And (3) applying no pesticide or chemical fertilizer in the whole floating bed cultivation process of the cress, and harvesting when the plants grow to about 50 cm.
The technical features of the embodiments described above may be arbitrarily combined, and for the sake of brevity, all possible combinations of the technical features in the embodiments described above are not described, but should be considered as being within the scope of the present specification as long as there is no contradiction between the combinations of the technical features.
The above-mentioned embodiments only express several embodiments of the present application, and the description thereof is more specific and detailed, but not construed as limiting the scope of the invention. It should be noted that, for a person skilled in the art, several variations and modifications can be made without departing from the concept of the present application, which falls within the scope of protection of the present application. Therefore, the protection scope of the present patent shall be subject to the appended claims.

Claims (10)

1. A method for comprehensively breeding rice, cress and red crayfish is characterized by comprising the following steps:
digging an annular ditch between the paddy field and the embankment ridge of the paddy field, arranging a floating bed, a micropore oxygenation device and a marked thick temporary culture groove separated by a mesh fabric in the annular ditch, and arranging an escape-proof device on the embankment ridge; planting rice in the rice field and performing rice planting management; carrying out cress cultivation and cress cultivation management in the floating bed;
the method is characterized in that the annular ditch is used for breeding the red crayfish, and the breeding of the red crayfish comprises the following steps:
(a) cleaning the annular ditch to remove impurities;
(b) putting decomposed organic fertilizer or fertilizer water paste into the annular ditch to cultivate plankton;
(c) after 10-15 days of cultivation, putting the juvenile crayfish of the red swamp crayfish into a rough temporary rearing tank: controlling the content of dissolved oxygen in water in the annular ditch through a micropore oxygenation device, and gradually increasing the water level in the annular ditch after seedlings are put;
(d) temporarily culturing the red chelonian shrimp seeds in the temporary standard culture groove for 20-25 days, then removing the partition screen cloth of the temporary standard culture groove, and enabling the red chelonian shrimp seeds to enter the whole annular ditch and the water area of the rice field;
daily feeding and managing the red swamp crayfish in the steps (c) and (d).
2. The method according to claim 1, wherein in the step (a) of cultivating the red crayfish: and (3) cleaning the annular ditch by adopting bleaching powder to remove impurities, sprinkling 60-70 kg of bleaching powder with 35% of effective chlorine content per mu according to the water depth of 1m, or sprinkling 75-85 kg of bleaching powder with 28-32% of effective chlorine content per mu according to the water depth of 1m, and detoxifying by using potassium hydrogen persulfate composite salt or organic acid after sprinkling for 6-7 days.
3. The method according to claim 1, wherein in the step (c) of cultivating the red crayfish: seedling is put at night or before sunrise in sunny weather, the water depth in the annular ditch is 0.6-0.9 m and the water temperature is 20-25 ℃ during seedling putting; the feeding density is 1500-2500 shrimp seedlings are fed per mu according to the total area of the rice field, and the shrimp seedlings are 0.8-1.0 cm/tail.
4. The method according to claim 1, wherein the content of dissolved oxygen in water in the annular trench is maintained above 5mg/L after seedling release; keeping 24 hours for oxygenation within 1 week of seedling throwing.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein daily feeding of the red swamp crayfish comprises:
feeding the feed of the red swamp crayfish on the 2 nd day after the fry is released, uniformly throwing the feed on the shallow water side of the slope bank of the annular ditch, and feeding the red swamp crayfish for 1 time respectively in the early morning and in the evening each day; the daily feeding amount at the initial stage of seedling release is controlled to be 750-1250 g/ten thousand seedlings.
6. The method of claim 1, wherein during the cultivation of rice: the seed consumption of conventional rice varieties in direct-seeding fields is 3.0-4.0 kg per mu; the seed consumption of each mu of hybrid rice variety is 0.75-1.5 kg; the seed consumption of each mu of the special rice variety for the fishpond is 0.2-0.35 kg; transplanting row spacing is 20-30 cm, plant spacing is 10-15 cm, and 2-3 plants are planted in each hole.
7. The method as claimed in claim 1, wherein the area covered by the floating bed for cultivating cress is 20-30% of the total area of the annular trench.
8. The method of claim 1, wherein the annular trench has dimensions of 1.5-2.5 m wide, 1.0-1.5 m deep, 1:1.5 slope ratio; the area of the annular ditch accounts for 8-10% of the total area of the whole field.
9. The comprehensive planting and breeding method according to claim 1, wherein the width of the embankment is 1.0-1.2 m, and the level of the embankment is 0.8-1.5 m higher than the paddy field surface.
10. A system for comprehensively breeding rice, cress and red crayfish is characterized by comprising:
a paddy field for planting rice in the center;
a bank surrounding the rice field;
the anti-escape device is arranged on the embankment;
excavating an annular ditch for cultivating the red crayfish between the rice field and the embankment ridge, wherein the annular ditch is provided with a water inlet and a water outlet;
a standard rough temporary culture groove and a micropore oxygenation device which are arranged in the annular ditch;
and a floating bed arranged in the annular ditch and used for cress cultivation.
CN202010345044.3A 2020-04-27 2020-04-27 Method and system for comprehensively breeding rice, cress and red swamp crayfish Pending CN111887111A (en)

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