CN100387115C - Application of fish raising technology in rice field in paddy rice planting process - Google Patents

Application of fish raising technology in rice field in paddy rice planting process Download PDF

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CN100387115C
CN100387115C CNB2004100051014A CN200410005101A CN100387115C CN 100387115 C CN100387115 C CN 100387115C CN B2004100051014 A CNB2004100051014 A CN B2004100051014A CN 200410005101 A CN200410005101 A CN 200410005101A CN 100387115 C CN100387115 C CN 100387115C
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李世臣
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李世臣
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
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    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The present invention relates to the application of a fish raising technology in rice fields in the process of planting paddy rice. Wild carps, prussian carps, blunt snout breams and loaches are scientifically raised in a rice field in proper time; in the process of planting paddy rice, the functions of scarification, tillage, weed removal replacing chemical pesticides, the elimination pf insects in water by replacing the chemical pesticides, temperature rise, oxygen enhancement, precocity promotion, yield increase, quality enhancement for a synergistic effect, and green environmental protection are reached.

Description

Rice field fish-cultivating method in the paddy rice planting process
Technical field:
The present invention relates to utilize the prescription of four kinds of fresh water young fish compositions, science is put the application in the paddy rice planting process in a suitable place to breed in good time.
Background technology:
Rice field fish culture China has long history, according to " food system during Wei Wusi " record before more than 1700 years: " the sub-fish in Pixian County, the red tail of yellow squama goes out the rice field, can be sauce ".Though China's rice field fish culture with a long history is subjected to the constraint of natural economy in the very long old society, only be fragmentary subsistence field sideline production.During nineteen eighty-three whole nation rice field fish culture meeting for the first time, propose one mu of paddy field and will strive the new typical case of " hundred jin of fishes of very heavy rice ", rice field crop plantation landing, standardization, standardization, scientific new typical case appearred in all parts of the country, plant rice on the face of ridge, plant wheat, plant vegetables etc., breeds fish, supports duckweed in furrow.Can also support shrimp etc., in the latent worn-out main body agricultural of supporting diversified economy animal and plant productions such as auricularia auriculajudae, mushroom, edible mushroom down of paddy rice.The rice field forms at many levels, multipurpose, high benefit, knowledge-and-technology-intensive comprehensive multi-storied agriculture and good paddy ecosystem.The scientific research of rice field fish culture also deepens continuously, and the masses' production practices constantly develop, and the theory of rice field fish culture also will be enriched constantly, improve.
The development of rice field fish culture provides fresh fish for market on the one hand, and breeding fish for large-scale science again on the other hand provides the large standard high quality fingerling.Most importantly, when guaranteeing that rice yield steadily improves, increased the income of fish to the rice field.That is to say that fish crop is high more, the big more benefit of specification is good more.In rice field fish culture practice for many years, there are the good experience of a lot of rice field fish cultures, good technology in all parts of the country, do not enumerate one by one here." rice field fish culture " is to utilize the remaining space development fishery in rice field in a word, thereby reaches paddy rice good harvest, the purpose that aquatic products are additionally overcharged.State Intellectual Property Office has has formally accepted my application (00104243.2) about " paddy field utilizes fry herbicide pesticide new technology " patent of invention on April 20th, 2000.And November 23 calendar year 2001, on State Intellectual Property Office's the 17th volume the 43rd phase patent of invention newspaper, announced, this technology is the rice field of putting into after the rice transplanting with two kinds of fries combinations of carp and grass carp 5-7 days, various chemical herbicides and insecticide can be replaced according to its technical regulation operation, raising, the generation of weeds in field and insect can be controlled.This technology is to producing the pollution-free food rice of non agricultural chemical residuum, and is significant to the mankind's safety and Health, and not having the agricultural chemicals plantation to paddy rice provides technology leading in the world.But find that in practice for many years this technology remains in some shortcoming and defect, need further improvement and perfect.The topmost shortcoming of this technology is:
One, single, the weak effect of food fish products kind, promptly have only two kinds of fries of carp and grass carp, because a large amount of numerous life of the various weeds in the rice field, mainly be that seed is living in the majority, the fry herbicide pesticide mainly is to rely on various ominivore-fish, in the various stages of weeds elimination before the rudiment of grass-seed, just the various grass-seeds before these rudiments are directly eaten up, remainder grows up to being eaten up by herbivorous fishes again of careless bud, and food fish products kind is single, has influenced the herbicide pesticide effect to a certain extent.
Two, because grass carp seedling adaptability in the rice field is bad, there are following four kinds of diseases heavier to its harm.
(1) white head and mouth fish disease; (2) red skin disease; (3) gill rot; (4) hemorrhage.
These four kinds of diseases have seriously influenced the survival rate of grass carp seedling, the serious plot of falling ill has not had the trace of grass carp at all in the rice field to autumn, therefore cause plot out of the ordinary herbicidal effect bad, having increased burden for peasant's artificial weeding, more seriously is that the large-area applications that has influenced fry herbicide pesticide new technology is promoted.
Summary of the invention:
" rice field fish culture " method, be combining closely of aquaculture technology and paddy rice planting technology, can be used as the important content of farming operation system reform, be promote increasing production of rice, precocity, improve the soil, ecological, environmental protective, production green, high-quality, healthy food rice effective technical measures.Be to the facilitation of paddy growth, improve the interior quality of rice, no residual toxicity, the economic benefit that increases substantially plant husbandry are put into first.The output of fish height, specification size are put into back burner, even can consider benefit and the income of fish itself.
" rice field fish culture " is to utilize the feeding habits of four kinds of fresh water young fish, habit and biological property, carries out the combination collocation of science, and mixing is in good time put into the rice field and reached following purpose:
1, loosen the soil arable land effect;
2, desinsection replaces the agricultural chemicals herbicide effect;
3, replace chemical pesticide to eliminate insect effect in the water;
4, temperature raising effect;
5, oxygenation effect;
6, short precocious production-increasing function;
7, upgrading synergistic effect;
8, environmental protection effect.
" rice field fish culture " method has been considered each link of paddy growth fully, and necessary various technical measures during the paddy growth, the application of my " rice field fish culture " method in calendar year 2001 experimental study paddy rice planting process.Four kinds of fresh water young fish scientifically are grouped together, after the field is put in mixing, for promoting that paddy growth reaches following beyond thought technique effect.That is: carp, crucian carp, loach are the arable land chessons that can loosen the soil for three kinds.Carp, crucian carp, triangular bream, four kinds of fishes of loach can directly eat up insect in preceding grass-seed of various rudiments and the various water.Carp, crucian carp, three kinds of fishes of triangular bream can directly eat up various careless buds.Carp, crucian carp, triangular bream, four kinds of fishes of loach can be rice field temperature raising, oxygenation, short precocious, upgrading synergy jointly, reach the effect of environmental protection.
The scientific and effective combination of these four kinds of fishes mixes and puts into the rice field, is very desirable biotechnology prescription, and the effect with eight rice field fish cultures more has the herbicide pesticide effect that replaces chemical pesticide above fry herbicide pesticide new technology.Therefore the more creative and novelty of " rice field fish culture " method, it is constantly to explore, find, develop, transform on the basis of rice field fish culture and in the practice, " rice field fish culture " method is newly filled a prescription in the paddy rice planting process of growing up day by day.According to " symbiosis of fish rice " theory, breeding fish fry in the rice field reaches beyond thought various effect.The method marrow of " rice field fish culture " is to utilize fry to do " labourer ".
The feeding habits characteristics of various fries:
(1) wild carp: wild carp belongs to omnivorousness, euryphagy fish.Mollusk, high water plants fragment, zoobenthos are so that tiny algae all is its frequent food.Its dens pharyngeala has three rows, and shape such as mortar tooth except that first of lining row is smooth, all have translot on remaining face.Because carp is wide to the scope that foodstuff adapts to, and also very not strict to the requirement of other living condition, therefore, viability is strong especially, adapts in the paddy field very much and grows.
(2) pond crucian carp fish: pond crucian carp also is an ominivore-fish.The main distinction of feeding habits and carp is the spiral shell of seldom ingesting, and idol has discovery sometimes.Crucian have scrape lick on bank, the ratchel and on other submerged object the custom of living algae.The more high water plants that ingests.Immature individuality, feeding habits almost are identical with carp, promptly are algae, wheel animalcule, cladocera, copepoda, chironomus larvas and other mixed worm larva etc.
(3) megalobrama amblycephala: megalobrama amblycephala is herbivorous fishes, and the juvenile fish before the 3.5cm comprises wheel animalcule, cladocera and other small-sized shellfish young based on the food zooplankton.3.5cm later juvenile fish begins to eat water plants tender leafs such as hydrilla verticillata, later on progressively based on pasture and water, the various weeds tender shoots in the rice field are all very liked food.
(4) loach: loach is an ominivore-fish, its foodstuff has plankton, small-sized shell-fish, the insect and the young thereof, flat spiral shell, drought are given birth to and water plants chip and algae etc., sometimes also humus or body refuse at the bottom of the drinking water, happiness is dwelt on the mud top layer of bottom humus, diving when water temperature is high occupies 10-30cm place at the bottom of the mud, is very desirable " rice field fish culture " fish.
Put the effect in the rice field after the various fry science combinations in a suitable place to breed in good time:
1, wild carp: the wild carp bodily form is elongated, adapt to very much in the shallow water of rice field and grow, wild carp summer flower is because its bodily form is elongated, it is movable more to adapt in the most shallow 5cm water layer of rice transplanting initial stage, because its wild nature is constant, it is vigorous to ingest in the rice field, and excavating, stir bed mud when seeking food is that the arable land effect of loosening the soil has been played in the rice field.Along with constantly growing up of wild carp specification, its excavation bed mud degree of depth also changes thereupon, has also catered in advance paddy rice and has taken root shallowly, and wild carp specification is dredged shallow for a short time, does not destroy rice root.The later stage rice root is dark, well developed root system, and fry grows up gradually and excavates the bed mud intensification, but the degree of depth is limited, can not destroy rice root.During rice seedling and the synchronous growth of wild carp summer flower fry, wild carp fry has guaranteed that whole growth process of riceplant soil is soft, takes root vigorous growth smoothly.Wild carp is that rice field duty cycle mesosome length should be controlled in the 12cm, excavates bed mud and be the paddy rice pine soil depth between 2-5cm, and the footprint that it stays in the time of can be rice transplantation by hand is filled and led up, and ridge ditch, ridge platform that it stays in the time of can be the rice transplanter rice transplanting are filled and led up.
2, pond crucian carp: pond crucian carp omnivorousness is food with aquatic insect, organic debris and pasture and water etc., can eat up grass-seed, careless bud, insect etc. in the rice field.Also loosen the soil when seeking food together arable land effect with carp.
3, blunt-snout gurnards: the blunt-snout gurnards phytophagy, in the rice field, can eat up careless bud, little grass.Mix to be placed in the rice field with other kind fish, can give prominence to the ability of the careless bud of elimination, little grass especially.
4, loach: loach is an omnivorousness, can eat up insect in grass-seed, careless bud, zooplankton, worm's ovum, the water in the rice field.The following ability of seeking food and perching of sludge 15cm is arranged, and is dark loose paddy soil indispensable " instrument ".
" rice field fish culture " method data and operational procedure
One, the selection in rice field
Selection is had abundant water resources, and water quality is pure and fresh pollution-free, and is convenient near road traffic, the plot good water-retaining property, and every pond rice field area must not be less than 1 mu (667 square metres).
Two, irrigation facility
1, ridge: the old ridge of planting rice for many years will be redressed, and reach high 40cm, bottom width 50cm, top width 30cm, wants compacting after the finishing, and rat hole and mole cricket hole mustn't be arranged.
2, fish gathering ditch: the fish gathering ditch does not need independent excavation, rakes the soil level when finishing at water, and tractor is not with planker to lean on balk to go separately.
3, fish screen
(1) adopt the rice field of natural river, river-water irrigation to advance, discharge outlet will be provided with fish screen, prevent that wild fishes and harmful animal from sneaking into field harm fry when water filling, fish barrier will be made with summer flower screen cloth or window screening.Can reach smoothly and to cross water, prevent from that pond fish top stream from runing away or jumping to run away to get final product.
Can not establish fish screen when (2) adopting grou1ndwater irrigation, because ground water temperature is very low, fry is met far that cold water can hide, and can not remove top stream, also without any harmful animal.
Three, wholely
The plot of " rice field fish culture " must be to plough in the autumn or the spring ploughs, and ploughing depth will reach 20cm, must reach cun water when water is raked the soil level and not leak mud, mustn't have and leak the plot of turning over and leaking rake, want about timely backwater 6cm in plot after water is raked the soil level, mustn't airing, more mustn't spend to reach water.To determine that water rakes the soil level the time according to transplanting time, be i.e. can rake the soil level by water in 1-2 days before the rice transplanting.
Four, paddy rice planting requirement
1, rice varieties: select high-quality, high yield, cane is strong, resistant to lodging, the disease resistance ability is strong kind.
2, seedling raise period: calculate the correct time of determining to grow seedlings (the general length of time rice seedlings grow is taken 30 days) forward according to transplanting time.
3, seedling-cultivating method: must adopt alms bowl body sprout-tray seedling growth, carry out non-irrigated seedling, educate strong seedling.
4, rice transplanting method: planting of alms bowl body or rice transplanting.
5, transplanting time: decide transplanting time according to the correct time that breeds fish fry, that is, putting fish preceding 2-3 days was best transplanting times.
6, transplanting density: line-spacing 40cm, spacing in the rows 20cm, every strain 2-3.Also the transplanting method of the paddy rice optimum point of production that can promote according to the locality is determined no specific (special) requirements.
Five, fry is put in a suitable place to breed
1, in time purchase the various fries of sufficient amount according to the accurate area of " rice field fish culture ", and guarantee:
(1) quantity is accurate;
(2) neat specification;
(3) anosis nothing wound, physique stalwartness are vivaciously.
" rice field fish culture " fry is put tables of data in a suitable place to breed
Sequence number Kind Specification (cm) Mu stocking rate (tail) Put the time in a suitable place to breed
1 Wild carp 2 700 After the rice transplanting in 2-5 days
2 Pond crucian carp 2 200 After the rice transplanting in 2-5 days
3 Megalobrama amblycephala 2 300 After the rice transplanting in 2-5 days
4 Loach 2 300 After the rice transplanting in 2-5 days
2, put in a suitable place to breed the time: behind rice transplanting, all put end in 2-5 days in a suitable place to breed.
3, the correct time of each link will correctly determine according to the actual conditions of spring temperature, the correct time of each link, i.e. seedling time, water rake the soil level time, transplanting time, put the fish time, these links will be carried out most important synchronously, careful plan must be arranged, must not go on business.
4, fry is put into the rice field method:
(1) to delay seedling 10 minutes, put into the field when treating the inside and outside water temperature basically identical of Nylon Bag, concrete grammar is the deep water place that the Nylon Bag that fry is housed is put into the rice field, water temperature in the bag and water temperature in rice field adjusting automatically, about about 10 minutes, the inside and outside water temperature of bag differs when being no more than 3 ℃ can put into the rice field.
(2) fish body sterilization, behind the slow seedling of fry, put into the rice field before, the saline solution with 3%, 2% Xiao Su reach hydrating agents and embathed the fish body 3-5 minute, slowly put into the rice field afterwards.
Six, water layer management
1, will keep water layer about 5cm behind the rice transplanting, this is and the fundamental difference part of the common species method for planting of paddy rice, and " rice field fish culture " is the water conservation irrigation method, and the common species planting paddy rice is " shallow, wet, do " irrigation method.This also is the idea that vast plantation family must be accepted and upgrade.Water conservation plantation can not influence takes root and tillers, and can promote rice growth on the contrary, production-increasing function obviously.
2, owing to " rice field fish culture " rice cultivation, the field does not have any chemical pesticide herbicide pesticide, and these challenges all rely on fry to finish.The fry of putting into one week of field does not have the ability of herbicide pesticide again, can only keep behind the rice transplanting about water layer 5cm, and after the week, when body length was above above 3.5cm, feeding habits can be eaten up grass-seed and careless bud after transforming.
3, water conservation is irrigated behind the rice transplanting, and also the critical period that rice seedling can normal growth is worried in the rice farming most just, and during this as cooperate badly, if lack of water, fry can normal growth, and not reaching expection specification rice field can the farmland running to weeds, will lead to the failure when serious.
4, owing to take the planting of alms bowl body, pour water about 5cm in the rice field, and slow greatly seedling phenomenon can not appear in rice seedling meeting smooth growth, because seedling is strong, the blade that falls into water also can not cause the harm of Liriomyza.
5, along with the growth of paddy rice seedling and fry, water irrigating depth also will add simultaneously and is deep to more than the 6cm.Rice seedling later stage of tillering adds high water level, the control rice ineffective tillering, and more favourable fry growth more can be brought into play the effect of " rice field fish culture ".
6, according to the mature condition of paddy rice, the depth of water in rice field also should because " rice field fish culture " task is finished substantially behind the neat fringe of paddy rice, can be fished according to the needs increase and decrease water level of paddy rice in draining.
Seven, field management
1, fry bait feeding: the fry natural bait in the reliable rice field that is thrown into paddy fields in a week is kept normal growth, and fry is little during this mainly is food by the zooplankton in the rice field.Continuous growth and feeding habits conversion along with various fries, be food progressively with the grass-seed in the rice field, careless bud, insect etc., but it is required that the limited very fast quilt of these size of food is eaten up the fry of not satisfying quick growth, starvation appears in fry, this also be " rice field fish culture " the link that must have, in order to allow fry be the rice field service better, must keep this starvation, but can not too hungry influence grow, want the bait of throwing something and feeding of suitable supplementary, that be exactly take the next day bait throwing in method once feed fish.
The bait throwing in time: the next day bait throwing at dusk once.
Daily ration, feeding quantity: exceed to eat up morning next day.
The bait throwing in point: unfixed point is thrown something and fed, and each bait throwing in all will be changed a place.
Food quality: the pellet of the content 30% of thick egg.
Bait throwing in total amount: 25 kilograms in per hectare rice field.Should be emphasized that fry in order to earn a bare living and normal growth, can remove to seek the various utilizable foods in field insanely in hunger, the various effects of " rice field fish culture " all are to realize by the process that fish seek food and food.
2, fish disease prevention and cure: regularly (whenever biweekly) adds antibiotic or the ready-made pharmaceutical chemistry of feed-processing plant's preparation of throwing something and feeding in bait, prevents the generation of bacteriosis.
3, patrol the field: will adhere to sooner or later patrolling the field every day.
Whether (1) observe fish ingests normal.
(2) observe the floating amounts of various weeds at following public attention place in rice field.
(3) check whether ridge is leaky, and whether fish screen damages or the foreign material congestion affects is crossed water.Pinpoint the problems and in time to take measures.
4, fertilising:
(1) use sufficient base manure before water is raked the soil level, fertilizing amount can decide according to fertile soil degree and design rice yield.
Will be when (2) topdressing in line with a small amount of principle repeatedly, urea, sulfate of ammoniac are each, at most mustn't be above 10 kilograms.
(3) mustn't to use carbon ammonia, ammoniacal liquor etc. volatile in " rice field fish culture " plot, and the fertilizer that excitant is strong prevents that fish are poisoned to death.
5, the minimum depth of water: in order to ensure the success of " rice field fish culture ", after fry is put into the rice field to rise catch before, the early stage during this, minimum depth of water must not be less than 3cm, the later stage must not be less than 6cm.
6, the control of paddy rice disease, worm, crop smothering
(1) plot of " rice field fish culture " need not used any chemical herbicide and insecticide and do not needed the weeding of chemicals feud yet, and the desinsection in rice field, weeding task are finished by fry, have very desirable effect.
(2) select the good rice varieties that resistance against diseases is strong, rice quality is good, rice blast can not take place in normal yield, in case because improper fertilization, the rice blast that serious excess of nitrogenous fertilizer or the rainy widow of low temperature factor such as shine causes in the time of must medication, select for use the medicine of plant resource or microbial source to treat.
When (3) causing blade face insect serious threat rice yield, select for use the vegetable source pesticide medicine of high-efficiency low-toxicity to treat as special circumstances.Mustn't use the above persistent pesticide of high poison.If the blade face insect is not serious, will fall into the water to be eaten up by fry with artificial treatment as scotellaris etc. need dispenser.
Barnyard grass grass of (4) sneaking into during rice transplanting or sandwich barnyard grass grass (grass in the rice cave) will be at any time with manually extracting when being higher than rice seedling.
Beneficial effect:
1, loosen the soil arable land effect
The rice field is put in four kinds of fry mixing in good time all stronger adaptability, and their first tasks in the rice field are exactly to remove to seek, eat up food according to feeding habits characteristics of oneself and biological property.Their comprehensive food composition is: grass-seed, careless bud, little grass, zooplankton, worm's ovum and insect.They have brought into play strong point and characteristics separately when seeking these foods, and wild carp, pond crucian carp, loach have played the effect of loosen the soil arable land, chesson.Particularly loach fish can freely be come in and gone out in plow layer, just about the 15cm below the rice field mud face, because freely coming in and going out of they played dark pine effect to the rice field.Wild carp, pond crucian carp, loach are worked in coordination and can play manpower, the machinery loosening function that is beyond one's reach in the rice fields, and the soil total porosity can reach about 60%.
In the rice field of applying pesticides method farming, after the paddy rice maturation was dried the rice field, the footprint that stays during rice transplantation by hand was high-visible, and the degree of depth is more than 10cm.The furrow that machine rice transplantation stays, ridge platform are also high-visible, and height is more than 5cm.And the field soil property hardens hard, walks up as walking to step down on the stone.
In the rice field of " rice field fish culture " method farming, after the paddy rice maturation is dried the rice field, all vestiges during artificial or machine rice transplantation completely without, ground, rice field is as the level of manually smearing, and the field soil property is soft, it is soft as stepping down on the carpet to walk up.
2, replace the chemical pesticide herbicide effect
Four kinds of fries mix, put into the rice field in good time after, they ceaselessly seek any utilizable food in order to keep the life of oneself, that is: grass-seed, careless bud, little grass, zooplankton, worm's ovum and insect.After the rice transplanting of rice field, because the field soil property is fertile, various natural baits are extremely abundant, these foods can satisfy four kinds of fries seven days with interior all the year round needs fast, occur starvation afterwards,, must keep starvation in order to allow various fries control the weeds in rice field and insect etc. better, also be unlikely to hungry to death, suitably subsidize artitificial food.The key of this link be allow fry pastures, the speed of worm is forever greater than the growth rate of worm, grass.Reach the weeding, the deinsectization effect that replace agricultural chemicals.
Weeding scope: long awns wild barnyard grass, no awns barnyard grass, convexutricle sedge herb, Herba Cyperi Glomerati, ball fringe grass, Monochoria vaginalis, cut each seed life, root weeds such as Gu Ying.Through agricultural experts' actual measurement, the various weeds in per hundred square meter rice fields are no more than 4 in the model field of " rice field fish culture ".And no pesticide grown, do not put in the check plot of fry, per 1 square meter rice field just has 90 of rice barnyard grass more than 300, convexutricle sedge herbs, other grass only not to add up these two kinds of grass just above 390.
3, replace chemical pesticide to eliminate insect effect in the water
Wild carp, pond crucian carp, megalobrama amblycephala, four kinds of fry science combinations of loach after the rice field is put in mixing in good time, have also directly been eaten up rice grub when eating up various zooplanktons, worm's ovum and zoobenthos.As: rice lice, leafhopper snout moth's larva, leafhopper, rice midge etc.Thereby reached the effect of utterly destroying insect in the paddy field water either.These four kinds of fries mix, can replace the chemical pesticide desinsection after putting into the rice field in good time.
4, temperature raising effect
Wild carp, pond crucian carp, megalobrama amblycephala, four kinds of fries of loach mix, put into the rice field in good time after, be divided into some little colonies automatically, population size 3-50 tail does not wait, and seeks food in the rice field, any one position, corner in the rice field can not let slip.Be " willingly ", the ground " work " of working diligently and conscientiously, particularly wild carp, pond crucian carp, loach are ceaselessly excavated the rice field bed mud, whole rice field Chi Shui is stired and make muddy, the water body color is increased the weight of, strengthened the absorbing capacity of water body, played the effect that heats for the paddy field sunlight.Four kinds of fries are in the process of rice field growth, and can be the rice field increases 80-100 ℃ of effective accumulated temperature.
5, oxygenation effect
The top layer dissolved oxygen content of not putting the static rice field of fry and be water is higher, and rice field bottom water-soluble oxygen content is lower.The rice field dissolved oxygen in water mainly contains two sources; The one, the photosynthesis of phytoplankton produces oxygen in the water; The 2nd, airborne oxygen dissolves in the water, and this two kinds of dissolved oxygens source all is confined to the upper strata of paddy field water either, adds that the paddy rice rhizome constantly breathes oxygen consumption, causes in the paddy field water either bottom oxygen content lower.After four kinds of fries mixing are put into the rice field in good time, constantly move about and ingest, stir water body, make rice field water layer convection current up and down, broken the dissolved oxygen critical layer, add that fish give birth to ripple at water middle reaches movable property, airborne oxygen is dissolved in the water continuously, these links have just improved the dissolved oxygen amount of whole paddyfield water.The paddyfield water dissolved oxygen amount that the fish activity is arranged after measured is 11.0 milligrams every liter, and no fish rice field dissolved oxygen amount is 8.0 milligrams.Owing to improved dissolved oxygen amount in the paddy field water either, increased the permeability of paddy soil, promoted the quick growth of rice root.
6, short precocious production-increasing function
Wild carp, pond crucian carp, megalobrama amblycephala, four kinds of fries of loach mix, put into the rice field in good time after, utilize their various feeding habits, habit and biological characteristic to carry out " rice field fish culture ", various benefits such as the arable land of loosening the soil, weeding deinsectization replacement agricultural chemicals, temperature raising, oxygenation have been played respectively, thereby promoted the quick growth of paddy rice and tillered, promoted well developed root system, therefore can promote eary maturity of rice seven days, to north frost-free season weak point, this seven day time seems precious especially, be the assurance of paddy rice good harvest, maturation, also can increase output 10%.
7, upgrading synergistic effect
" rice field fish culture " method is to begin test calendar year 2001, field trial in 2002, experiment and demonstration in 2003, obtained very desirable technological achievement.This technology be put in the rice field that omnivorousness and four kinds of fries of phytophagy reach the arable land of loosening the soil, replace the chemical agent weeding in a suitable place to breed, the effect of desinsection, temperature raising, oxygenation, precocious volume increase, upgrading synergy, environmental protection.Improved the paddy field soil ecological ragime, production safety does not have residual hazard, high nutrition, high-quality rice.For keeping the continuous utilization of land resources, major contribution is made in the realization sustainable development.This technology large tracts of land is implemented to promote and will be spurred the local economy growth, increases considerably farmers' income.This technical method is simple, with low cost, the peasant is willing to accept, the peasant utilizes 1 hectare in commonsense method kind paddy rice can produce 7500 kilograms of paddy, can process rice 4875kg by milled rice rate 65% calculating, 1.8 yuan of general rice market price per kilograms, gross income is 8,775 yuans, and utilize " rice field fish culture " method to cultivate one hectare of rice field, and output is also pressed 7500kg and is calculated, and milled rice rate is also calculated by 65%, can process 4875 kilograms in rice, the high-quality rice of no residual toxicity can be sold for the RMB per kilogram more than 3.6 yuan, and by 3.6 yuan of calculating, gross income is 17,550 yuans, the cost of two all method for planting is the same substantially, 6,000 yuan of about per hectare expenses, the profit volume that the commonsense method plantation is one hectare is 2775 yuan, one hectare of profit volume of " rice field fish culture " method plantation is 11550 yuan, overcharges into 8775 yuan than common species method per hectare, and be 4.16 times of common species method.
8, environmental protection effect
The Nature is the unlimited fine mankind that dedicated to, and it has not only given human blue sky, ocean, the earth, has also given human sunlight, moisture, air, comprises home, field, comprises hope, dream.The mankind should report mutually with spring,, have but exactly felt ashamed in the face of the favor of the Nature, have competed to destroy the Nature between consciously or unconsciously and have given the fine environment of oneself.
Atmosphere has been subjected to pollution, and rivers are polluted, and the soil is polluted.Beautiful field, though it is still beautiful on the surface, but in that golden fruit, but immersion silently the material of harmful human body, especially agricultural production has been used since chemical herbicide, desinsection and the bactericidal agent in a large number, nearly all agricultural byproducts all can not be escaped by luck, and as the mankind's staple food of rice also exception, human beings'health and life security have been subjected to direct threat.
On the Chinese side, up to now, season paddy rice use agricultural chemicals is just nearly more than ten times.Example: seed soaking once, nursery bed disinfection once, the seedbed weed eradication once, before the shoot transplanting equipment spray medicine once, twice of medicine of deinsectization spray after the rice transplanting, twice, diseases prevention two to three times of using chemical herbicide.It is really a pity, sad especially, and current high yield grain is paddy rice particularly, and competing is to grow up under the care of modern pesticide technology.
Using in a large number of agriculture chemical improved the output of paddy rice significantly, also extremely reduced rice quality simultaneously.Remain in the residual toxicity in the rice, the lighter can cause the inferior health of human body, becomes to cause other Disease Inducement, and weight person can cause canceration, deformity and gene mutation.According to medical expert's introduction, six human big alimentary tract cancers all are the results that the serious residual food product accumulation of edible chemical pesticide is poisoned.
In order to prevent the pollution of the environment and the harm of food residual hazard, China and many in the world countries are all advocating pollution-free food and the nuisanceless helping digestion product produced, environmental pollution and food residual hazard problems that causes at effort solution agricultural chemicals all, and this is a global difficult problem.For this reason, many scientists earnestly exploring, seek assiduously, though also sought thousand and one way, all fail to accomplish thoroughly to remove the pollution of agricultural chemicals to environment and paddy rice.Although pollution-free food and pollution-free food have been selected low-toxin farm chemicals, its safe coefficient is still unsatisfactory.
" rice field fish culture " method is according to rice fish symbiosis theory, constantly explores, develops transformation in the practice of rice field fish culture, improves day by day to grow up.It is feeding habits, habit and the biological property that utilizes fry, rationally breeds fish fry in the rice field in good time, allows the fry look round for of capacity hunger, eats up the grass-seed that supply falls short of demand, careless bud, worm's ovum and insect, thereby reaches the purpose of " rice field fish culture ".
This Study on Technology, on macroscopic view, be based on Strategy of Clean Production and the Green Design that carry out in the whole world, green technology, the Three Greens development strategy of green manufacturing, and the agricultural production carried out energetically of China must meet and ecologically goes up that flourishing two variable doulbe-sides' victory strategies carry out on the safety and economy, on microcosmic, then be to create a good ecosystem environment for paddy growth, that is: the fry searching food that in the paddy field, moves about, excavate bed mud, thereby improved the soil nutrient ecological ragime, improved the interior quality of rice.
The popularization of " rice field fish culture " method, to improving the ecological environment, the continuous utilization of maintenance resources promotes the sustainable development of agricultural and the raising of China's agricultural integral production level, and very valuable using value and rosy prospect are widely all arranged.This technology utilizes biological method to solve the global problem of paddy rice planting process, thereby for the production of green and organic food rice provides reliable guidance, produces pollution-free food and organic food, is the inexorable trend of the future of agriculture development." rice field fish culture " method makes the earth back to nature, and the field is no longer polluted, if further be generalized in the world, it will make remarkable more contribution for the whole mankind's health.
Because the rice interior quality of " rice field fish culture " method plantation is high, per kilogram 3.6 yuans are sitting in family and just are all sold out.This produce market space is huge, and the today of especially improve constantly in people's living standard, consumption idea being maked rapid progress, the market space is with the constantly swollen expansion of rising, and prospect is unlimited.
" rice field fish culture " method application example:
The side used 30 mu of " rice field fish culture " method rice cultivations in 2003 among Yue Lai town, Huachuan County, the Heilongjiang Province Shuan Xing village rice farming king, and strict with the operational procedure operation, all processes is as follows:
Carry out the autumn after the autumn waters--limid eyes rice results in 2002 and plough ploughing depth 20cm.
On April 15th, 2003, rice seedling on upland field adopted alms bowl body seedling dish to educate strong seedling.
On May 22nd, 2003, water was raked the soil level, and reached cun water and did not reveal mud, and tractor is gone by ridge one side when raking the soil level end, and the fish gathering ditch forms.
The disposable fertile 500kg of compound that applies of per hectare before on May 22nd, 2003, water was raked the soil level.
May 23, the finishing ridge reaches high 40cm, top width 30cm, bottom width 50cm.
The planting of alms bowl body is carried out in rice transplanting on May 24, and seeding row spacing is 40cm * 20cm, and water filling 5cm after the rice transplanting adopts underground water water conservation irrigation method.
Breed fish fry and be all over May 26 to May 30.
Put wild carp fry 700 tails in a suitable place to breed for every mu, specification 2cm puts 2.1 ten thousand tails altogether in a suitable place to breed;
Put pond crucian carp fry 200 tails in a suitable place to breed for every mu, specification 2cm puts 0.6 ten thousand tails altogether in a suitable place to breed;
Put megalobrama amblycephala fry 300 tails in a suitable place to breed for every mu, specification 2cm puts 0.9 ten thousand tails altogether in a suitable place to breed;
Put loach fry 300 tails in a suitable place to breed for every mu, specification 2cm puts 0.9 ten thousand tails altogether in a suitable place to breed;
Delayed seedling before fry is put in a suitable place to breed 10 minutes, and reach hydrating agents, the fish body was carried out disinfection 3-5 minute, slowly put into the rice field afterwards with 3% saline solution and 2% Xiao Su.
Fish is fed in June 5 beginning bait throwing in, the next day at dusk once, particulate material, daily ration, feeding quantity is a standard to eat up morning next day, per two weeks dispensing baits are are once prevented and treated fish disease.Finish to August 15 " rice field fish culture ", throw feed 50kg altogether, per hectare 25kg.
In whole paddy rice planting process, realized the effect of all " rice field fish cultures " on October 15.Paddy rice is all gathered in the crops output per hectare 7500kg, common property paddy rice 15000kg sent processing factory's processing on November 10, milled rice rate 65%, process 9750 kilograms in rice altogether, all bought 35,100 yuan of gross incomes with the price of 3.6 yuan of per kilograms by a correspondent, remove kind of a ground cost per hectare 6,000 yuan, 2 hectares 1.2 ten thousand yuan, 23100 yuan of net incomes.
Compare with common rice.
1, volume increase 10%.
2, precocious 7 days in advance.
3,, overcharge into 15,600 yuan than general rice altogether than 1.6 yuan/kilogram of general rice oversold.

Claims (1)

1. rice field fish-cultivating method in the paddy rice planting process, it comprises: field Chi Geng will reach high 40cm, bottom width 50cm, top width 30cm, the fish gathering ditch does not need independent excavation, rake the soil level when finishing at water, tractor is not with planker to lean on balk to go separately, and the autumn turns over or the spring degree of depth of ploughing will reach 20cm, must reach cun water when water is raked the soil level and not leak mud, want about timely backwater 6cm in plot after water is raked the soil level, be before rice transplanting carried out water in 1-2 days and rake the soil level, and carried out rice transplanting before putting fish in 2-3 days, slow seedling was 10 minutes when fry was put into the rice field, the fish body will carry out disinfection, and the invention is characterized in: it is with wild carp 2cm, every mu of stocking rate 700 tails, pond crucian carp fish 2cm, every mu of stocking rate 200 tails, blunt-snout gurnards 2cm, every mu of stocking rate 300 tails, loach fish 2cm, every mu of stocking rate 300 tails are all put in a suitable place to breed in the rice field in 2-5 days behind rice transplanting.
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