CN107864795A - The compost and cultural method of a kind of elegant precious mushroom - Google Patents

The compost and cultural method of a kind of elegant precious mushroom Download PDF

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CN107864795A
CN107864795A CN201711266144.1A CN201711266144A CN107864795A CN 107864795 A CN107864795 A CN 107864795A CN 201711266144 A CN201711266144 A CN 201711266144A CN 107864795 A CN107864795 A CN 107864795A
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compost
mushroom
elegant precious
precious mushroom
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罗成喜
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罗成喜
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    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B7/00Fertilisers based essentially on alkali or ammonium orthophosphates

Abstract

This application discloses a kind of compost of elegant precious mushroom and cultural method, the compost includes major ingredient and auxiliary material;Major ingredient includes cotton stalk, honeysuckle cauline leaf, the dregs of a decoction and mushroom stems;Auxiliary material includes soya-bean cake, silkworm faeces, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, lime and gypsum.Cultural method includes crushing compost and uniform stirring, carries out fermenting twice, obtains compost after fermenting twice;Sterilized after compost after fermenting twice is loaded into bacterium bag, obtain sterilising medium;Cultured elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain is linked on sterilising medium, is placed in culturing room's culture, obtains covering with the bacterium bag of mycelia;Bacterium bag is displaced to after being cultivated in cultivating chamber, the ripe elegant precious mushroom of harvesting cultivation.The application cultivates cotton stalk, honeysuckle cauline leaf, the agricultural wastes such as the dregs of a decoction and mushroom stems for elegant precious mushroom, not only reduces the agricultural wastes wasting of resources, and rational nutrition arrangement promotes oyster mushroom pieces growth, improves the yield of elegant precious mushroom.

Description

The compost and cultural method of a kind of elegant precious mushroom
Technical field
The application is related to fungus growing technique field, the compost and cultural method of more particularly to a kind of elegant precious mushroom.
Background technology
Elegant precious mushroom, also known as handle mushroom, it is one kind of flat mushroom.This title of elegant precious mushroom derives from Taiwan, is business taste ratio A kind of denseer phoenix-tail mushroom.It is different from common phoenix-tail mushroom, and its mushroom body is smaller, and the long 5-6cm of handle, lid diameter is less than 3cm, So claim elegant precious.Elegant precious mushroom because profile is pleasing, fresh and tender clear and melodious, delicious flavour, it is nutritious obtain person sponging on an aristocrat's favorable comment.The battalion of elegant precious mushroom Value is supported equivalent to milk.Rich in protein in fresh mushroom, amino acid classes are more, and needed by human 8 kinds of amino acid are complete.
Elegant precious mushroom, which is grown, needs carbon, nitrogen and various mineral matter nutrients etc..It is saprophytic mushroom, with other true Bacterium is the same, without chlorophyll, it is impossible to oneself carries out photosynthesis manufacture nutrient, and fully relies on ready-made organic substance job It is living.In its growth course, required carbon, nitrogen, mineral matter and auxin etc., obtained out of planting material.At present The key of elegant precious mushroom artificial cultivation technique is the collocation of compost.Compost is the various nutriments that edible mushroom depends on for existence Source.Nutriment required for edible fungi growth, generally there are carbon nutrition, nitrogen nutrition, vitamin and mineral matter etc.. The composition of composition edible mushroom culture matter is broadly divided into major ingredient and auxiliary material.Major ingredient refers to account for the heavy carbon battalion of clinker in compost Material is supported, auxiliary material refers to that dispensing is less in compost, nitrogen content is higher, the material of carbon-nitrogen ratio for adjusting compost. In elegant precious mushroom cultivation, traditional major ingredient has cottonseed, weed tree sawdust, crop material etc., and traditional auxiliary material has wheat bran, rice bran, corn flour, soybean Powder etc..
Traditional elegant precious mushroom compost species is more single, and cost is higher, and compost nutrition arrangement is unreasonable and environment The yield that temperature control is bad to cause elegant precious mushroom is relatively low.
The content of the invention
The purpose of the application is the compost and cultural method for providing a kind of elegant precious mushroom, relatively low to solve elegant precious mushroom yield The problem of.
On the one hand, according to embodiments herein, there is provided a kind of compost of elegant precious mushroom, the compost include major ingredient And auxiliary material;
The major ingredient includes cotton stalk, honeysuckle cauline leaf, the dregs of a decoction and mushroom stems;
The auxiliary material includes soya-bean cake, silkworm faeces, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, lime and gypsum.
Alternatively, the weight ratio of the major ingredient and the auxiliary material is 9:1.
Alternatively, the major ingredient is made up of the raw material of following parts by weight:40 parts of cotton stalks, 40 parts of honeysuckle cauline leafs, 20 Part dregs of a decoction and 10 parts of mushroom stems.
Alternatively, the auxiliary material is made up of the raw material of following parts by weight:5 portions of soya-bean cakes, 5 parts of silkworm faeces, 1 part of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 1.5 parts of lime and 1.5 parts of gypsum.
On the other hand, according to embodiments herein, there is provided a kind of cultivation side of elegant precious mushroom using above-mentioned compost Method, comprise the following steps:
The compost is crushed and uniform stirring, controls the water content of the compost to be sent out twice in 60-65% Ferment, obtain compost after fermenting twice;
Sterilized after compost after the fermenting twice is loaded into bacterium bag, obtain sterilising medium;
Cultured elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain is linked on sterilising medium, culturing room's culture is placed in, obtains covering with mycelia Bacterium bag;
The bacterium bag for covering with mycelia is displaced to after being cultivated in cultivating chamber, the ripe elegant precious mushroom of harvesting cultivation.
Alternatively, the fermenting twice includes:
Compost after stirring is subjected to first time fermentation, obtains compost after fermenting for the first time, the first time fermentation Temperature be 60-65 DEG C, the time be 2-3 days;
Compost carries out second of fermentation after the first time is fermented, and obtains compost after the fermenting twice, described The temperature of second of fermentation is 50-60 DEG C, and the time is 12-14 days.
Alternatively, the temperature of the cultivating chamber is 18-22 DEG C, relative air humidity 90-95%, and gas concentration lwevel is protected Hold in below 400ppm.
Alternatively, the sterilization method is microwave sterilization.
Alternatively, the granularity of the compost after the crushing is 6-8mm.
From above technical scheme, embodiments herein provides a kind of compost and cultural method of elegant precious mushroom, institute Stating compost includes major ingredient and auxiliary material;The major ingredient includes cotton stalk, honeysuckle cauline leaf, the dregs of a decoction and mushroom stems;The auxiliary material Including soya-bean cake, silkworm faeces, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, lime and gypsum.The cultural method comprises the following steps:The compost is crushed And uniform stirring, control the water content of the compost to carry out fermenting twice, obtain compost after fermenting twice in 60-65%; Sterilized after compost after the fermenting twice is loaded into bacterium bag, obtain sterilising medium;By cultured elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain It is linked on sterilising medium, is placed in culturing room's culture, obtains covering with the bacterium bag of mycelia;By the bacterium bag dislocation for covering with mycelia After being cultivated into cultivating chamber, the ripe elegant precious mushroom of harvesting cultivation.Cotton stalk, the dregs of a decoction and mushroom stems provide rich for elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain Rich nutriment, and accelerate the catalytic decomposition of compost.Honeysuckle cauline leaf can suppress the growth of some miscellaneous bacterias, so as to improve The cultivation yield of elegant precious mushroom.Soya-bean cake and silkworm faeces are used for the carbon-nitrogen ratio for adjusting compost, ensure the collocation of elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain nutrient Rationally.Potassium dihydrogen phosphate, gypsum and lime can make up phosphorus element in compost, potassium, the deficiency of calcium element, accelerate compost to decompose. The raw material of compost gives full play to respective effect, and collaboration cultivates the high quality elegant precious mushroom of high yield after use of arranging in pairs or groups. The application cultivates the agricultural wastes such as cotton stalk, the dregs of a decoction for elegant precious mushroom, not only reduces the agricultural wastes wasting of resources, and And rational nutrition arrangement promotes oyster mushroom pieces growth, the yield of elegant precious mushroom is improved.In addition, fermenting twice contributes to cotton The fermenting raw materials such as chopped straw stalk, honeysuckle cauline leaf improve elegant precious mushroom into the nutrient for being easy to elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain to absorb and utilize Yield.
Brief description of the drawings
, below will be to institute in embodiment in order to illustrate more clearly of the embodiment of the present application or technical scheme of the prior art The accompanying drawing needed to use is briefly described, it should be apparent that, drawings in the following description are only some implementations of the application Example, for those of ordinary skill in the art, on the premise of not paying creative work, can also be obtained according to these accompanying drawings Obtain other accompanying drawings.
Fig. 1 is a kind of flow chart of the cultural method of elegant precious mushroom according to the embodiment of the present application;
Fig. 2 is the flow chart of the fermenting twice according to the embodiment of the present application.
Embodiment
The embodiment of the present application provides a kind of compost of elegant precious mushroom, and the compost includes major ingredient and auxiliary material;
Major ingredient refers to account for the heavy carbon nutrition material of clinker in compost, auxiliary material refer in compost dispensing compared with Less, the material of higher, for adjusting compost the carbon-nitrogen ratio of nitrogen content.
The major ingredient includes cotton stalk, honeysuckle cauline leaf, the dregs of a decoction and mushroom stems;
Cotton stalk is the byproduct of Cotton Production, in the cotton region that China is main, cotton stalk resource very abundant.Cotton Stalk main chemical compositions are lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose, also containing tannin, pectin element, organic solvent extract (bag Include resin, fat, wax etc.), pigment and ash grade a small amount of component, be a kind of huge regenerative resource of resource.Cotton stalk contains There are abundant nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and trace element, organic fertilizer resource that can be important as elegant precious mushroom, improve the cultivation yield of elegant precious mushroom.
Honeysuckle cauline leaf is the cauline leaf of caprifoliaceae plant honeysuckle.Honeysuckle cauline leaf and honeysuckle are the clinical conventional heat that disappears Antidote, but the effect of honeysuckle cauline leaf is more poor than honeysuckle.It is annual available with the popularization of honeysuckle trimming and finishing technology Substantial amounts of branches and leaves, and these branches and leaves are not utilized effectively, cause the very big wasting of resources.Honeysuckle cauline leaf crude protein and crude fibre Content is high, and ash content and total nitrogen content are also higher, but crude fat content is relatively low, and its carbon-nitrogen ratio is 32.9, can meet that elegant precious mushroom grows Needed for development
The dregs of a decoction refer to the dregs of a decoction remained in Chinese Traditional Medicine, point the mixing dregs of a decoction and the single dregs of a decoction.Usually contain crude protein, Crude fibre and multi mineral prime element and a small amount of vitamin, cultivated for elegant precious mushroom, the speed of growth of elegant precious mushroom can be accelerated, carried High biologicak efficiency, lift the quality of elegant precious mushroom.
Mushroom stems are a parts for mushroom, because its quality is close, coarse, strong and be not easy to chew, cause its mouthfeel not It is good, and get the brush-off.Mushroom stems are not only containing abundant nutrition, and most of nutrient composition content is higher than full mushroom, such as protein, meals Fiber, Na, Ca, Fe equal size are eaten, and mushroom stems also contain a large amount of bioactive ingredients, beneficial microbe can be promoted to breed, Improve the microorganism species in compost, accelerate the catalytic decomposition of compost.
Cotton stalk provides abundant nutriment for elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain, and the dregs of a decoction and mushroom stems provide for elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain must While the nutrient wanted, the catalytic decomposition for accelerating compost is additionally aided.And honeysuckle cauline leaf can suppress some miscellaneous bacterias Growth, ensure elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain can be with vigorous breeding, so as to improve the cultivation yield of elegant precious mushroom in compost.Major ingredient is respectively taken charge of Its duty, the high quality elegant precious mushroom for cultivating high yield is cooperateed with after use of arranging in pairs or groups.
The auxiliary material includes soya-bean cake, silkworm faeces, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, lime and gypsum.
Soya-bean cake, it is the gained oil cake after soybean extract oil also known as " lucky cake ".Soya-bean cake is soybean (mainly soya bean and black soya bean) Byproduct after oil expression, the nutritive value highest in various plants.In general, digestible energy is equal in the dry of every kilogram of soya-bean cake More than 3000 kilocalories, for gross protein value more than 40%, the biological value of protein is higher than any Oilseed meal. Soya-bean cake is organic nitrogen source, oyster mushroom pieces can be promoted to grow, and strengthens growing way, improves yield.
Silkworm faeces is also referred to as silkworm excrement, wherein containing higher nutritional ingredient:Organic matter 80%, nitrogen 2.8%, phosphorus 07%, potassium 2.6%. The hormones such as also a large amount of chlorophyll and heteroauxin, triacontanol, octacosanol, it can be used as the compost of elegant precious mushroom cultivation, carry The yield of high elegant precious mushroom.
Potassium dihydrogen phosphate is a kind of phosphate-potash composite fertilizer, containing a small amount of nitrogen, can promote bud differentiation, root growth, protect flower and promote Fruit positive effect.
Gypsum is monoclinic system mineral, be main chemical compositions be calcium sulfate hydrate, the training as elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain Nutriment can increase production elegant precious mushroom.
Soya-bean cake and silkworm faeces are used for the carbon-nitrogen ratio for adjusting compost, and carbon-nitrogen ratio is with (20-30):1 is advisable, and ensures elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain Nutrient collocation is reasonable.Potassium dihydrogen phosphate can make up phosphorus element in compost, potassium, the deficiency of calcium element, while promote microorganism Decomposition active, beneficial to the fermentation maturity of compost, also have the function that to improve compost physicochemical character, promote oyster mushroom pieces Robust growth.Gypsum and lime can directly supplement sulphur, hypocalcia in compost, fixed gaseous nitrogen, accelerate compost to decompose.
From above technical scheme, embodiments herein provides a kind of compost of elegant precious mushroom, the compost bag Include major ingredient and auxiliary material;The major ingredient includes cotton stalk, honeysuckle cauline leaf, the dregs of a decoction and mushroom stems;The auxiliary material includes soya-bean cake, silkworm Excrement, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, lime and gypsum.The application is by cotton stalk, honeysuckle cauline leaf, the agricultural wastes such as the dregs of a decoction and mushroom stems Cultivated for elegant precious mushroom, not only reduce the agricultural wastes wasting of resources, and rational nutrition arrangement promote oyster mushroom pieces into It is long, improve the yield of elegant precious mushroom.
Alternatively, the weight ratio of the major ingredient and the auxiliary material is 9:1.Major ingredient refers to account for heavy carbon in compost Nutriment, auxiliary material refer to that dispensing is less in compost, nitrogen content is higher, the material of carbon-nitrogen ratio for adjusting compost. Suitable main and supplementary materials proportion can ensure the nutritive element balance of elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain, so as to improve the yield of elegant precious mushroom.It is a large amount of real Trample proof, the weight ratio of major ingredient and auxiliary material is 9:When 1, the yield of elegant precious mushroom can be improved.
Alternatively, the major ingredient is made up of the raw material of following parts by weight:40 parts of cotton stalks, 40 parts of honeysuckle cauline leafs, 20 Part dregs of a decoction and 10 parts of mushroom stems.Cotton stalk provides abundant nutriment, the dregs of a decoction and mushroom stems for elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain as elegant treasure While mushroom bacterial strain provides necessary nutrient, the catalytic decomposition for accelerating compost is additionally aided.And honeysuckle cauline leaf can be with Suppress the growth of some miscellaneous bacterias, ensure that elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain can be with vigorous breeding, so as to improve the cultivation of elegant precious mushroom in compost Yield.Largely it was verified that raw material composition is 40 parts of cotton stalks, 40 parts of honeysuckle cauline leafs, 20 parts of dregs of a decoction and 10 parts of mushroom stems When, nutrient collocation is reasonable, can improve the yield of elegant precious mushroom.
Alternatively, the auxiliary material is made up of the raw material of following parts by weight:5 portions of soya-bean cakes, 5 parts of silkworm faeces, 1 part of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 1.5 parts of lime and 1.5 parts of gypsum.The carbon-nitrogen ratio of compost can be adjusted by the soya-bean cake and silkworm faeces that add approrpiate wts, makes it Meet the needs of oyster mushroom pieces growth.The too high levels of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, lime and gypsum can suppress elegant precious mushroom strain growth. It is a large amount of it was verified that raw material composition is 5 portions of soya-bean cakes, 5 parts of silkworm faeces, 1 part of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, when 1.5 parts of lime and 1.5 parts of gypsum, Nutrient collocation is reasonable, can improve the yield of elegant precious mushroom.
Alternatively, the compost also includes carbendazim and/or tolelofos-methyl, and the carbendazim and/or methyl stand withered The addition of phosphorus is the 0.5% of the compost weight.
Carbendazim also known as carbendazol, carbendazol.Carbendazim is a kind of broad-spectrum germicide, to various crop by true Disease caused by bacterium (such as Fungi Imperfecti, more sac fungus) has prevention effect.Available for foliar spray, seed treatment and soil treatment Deng.Carbendazim can eliminate miscellaneous bacteria and not influence the growth of elegant precious mushroom strain.
Tolelofos-methyl be called rizolex, it is vertical it is withered go out, be a kind of wide spectrum systemic fungicide.For preventing and treating soil-borne disease, Mainly shield.Its suction-operated is strong, not easily runs off, and the lasting period is longer, has absorbability wide sterilization spectrum, suitable for vegetables, Safety interval 10 days.Tolelofos-methyl can eliminate miscellaneous bacteria and not influence the growth of elegant precious mushroom strain.
The long-term single use of carbendazim, easily makes germ develop immunity to drugs, and can use or mix with tolelofos-methyl rotation makes With.
From above technical scheme, embodiments herein provides a kind of compost of elegant precious mushroom, the compost bag Include major ingredient and auxiliary material;The major ingredient includes cotton stalk, honeysuckle cauline leaf, the dregs of a decoction and mushroom stems;The auxiliary material includes soya-bean cake, silkworm Excrement, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, lime and gypsum.The application is by cotton stalk, honeysuckle cauline leaf, the agricultural wastes such as the dregs of a decoction and mushroom stems Cultivated for elegant precious mushroom, not only reduce the agricultural wastes wasting of resources, and rational nutrition arrangement promote oyster mushroom pieces into It is long, improve the yield of elegant precious mushroom.
Refering to Fig. 1, a kind of elegant precious mushroom cultural method using above-mentioned compost, comprise the following steps:
Step S1, the compost is crushed and uniform stirring, controls the water content of the compost to enter in 60-65% Row fermenting twice, compost after being fermented;
The compost includes major ingredient and auxiliary material;The major ingredient includes cotton stalk, honeysuckle cauline leaf, the dregs of a decoction and mushroom Handle;The auxiliary material includes soya-bean cake, silkworm faeces, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, lime and gypsum.
After mushroom stems are crushed add 25 times of weight than clear water, soak at room temperature 20h, obtain mushroom stems soak, filter Mushroom stems soak, obtain mushroom stems leachate and mushroom stems slag.Mushroom stems leachate is full-natural nutritive liquid, contains carbohydrate thing Matter, amino acid, peptide and trace element, the bio-hormone also enriched containing species, beneficial microbe breeding is helped lend some impetus to, is improved Microorganism species in material, accelerate the catalytic decomposition of compost.
By cotton stalk and stem of Flos Lonicerae leaf segment, crush and stir together with other major ingredients such as mushroom stems slag and auxiliary material, Agitating mode can be artificial stirring or be stirred using mixer.In whipping process, when spraying mushroom stems leachate Stir, sprinkling is uniform, ensures that the uniform moisture in compost disperses.Meanwhile ensure that the water content of compost is 60-65%. 60-65% water content can ensure the comfortable growth environment of microorganism, elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain is quickly bred.Compost moisture content Low, mycelial growth is suppressed.Water content is too high, then the density increase of compost, poor air permeability, makes the weak nothing of mycelial growth Power, the two can all influence the yield of elegant precious mushroom.
The pH of compost is controlled in whipping process, and the suitable pH value of elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain growth is 7-7.5 between 7-7.5. PH value is too high or too low will all to influence oyster mushroom pieces growth.The pH value of compost, pulverized limestone can be adjusted by pulverized limestone The calcium element of compost can be increased, may also suppress the growth of some miscellaneous bacterias.
Specifically various nature cultures exactly are heaped fermenting twice by fermentation reactor system, composting by certain way twice, Change the chemistry of matrix and physical property by the activity of various microorganisms.During composting, matrix can occur mutually Chemical change, physical change and the microbal flora of association.Result caused by these changes is containing a large amount of in windrow The nutrition that can be absorbed by oyster mushroom pieces.
Step S2, sterilized after compost after fermentation being loaded into bacterium bag, obtain sterilising medium;
The mode of sterilizing generally selects high-temperature sterilization, and high-temperature sterilization can eliminate the microorganism of institute's band in compost, prevent this Influence of the biology to elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain slightly, and ensure to obtain the elegant precious mushroom of high yield.Compost after sterilizing needs nature to drop Wen Hou, elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain could be accessed, prevent elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain from being influenceed and dead by high temperature, so as to influence elegant precious mushroom yield.
Common sterilization method is that sterilization temperature is 100 DEG C, sterilizing time 12-14h.Bacterium bag should be discharged uprightly during sterilization With in retort.
Step S3, cultured elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain is linked on sterilising medium, is placed in culturing room's culture, is covered with The bacterium bag of mycelia;
The room temperature of culturing room is controlled at 20-23 DEG C, and before culture mycelia after 4 days, room temperature is maintained at into 25-28 DEG C, logical daily Wind 4-5 times, after 3-4 days, room temperature is down to 23-25 DEG C, relative humidity control is in 60-65%, ventilation 1-2 times daily, and every time 20 Minute.Mycelial growth rate is slow when cultivation temperature is more than 33 DEG C, stops growing, or even dead, for a long time under high temperature, bacterium Silk can turn yellow aging, have a strong impact on yield.
Generally, mycelial growth is better than varying temperature environment in stationary temperature environment, and elegant precious mushroom growing way is uniform.Therefore The temperature of culturing room can be transferred to 20-26 DEG C, elegant precious mushroom production is very fast at a temperature of this.
Wherein, it is aseptically to carry out cultured elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain to be linked on sterilising medium, prevent by Miscellaneous bacteria is introduced in sterilising medium, influences oyster mushroom pieces growth.
Aseptic condition is referred specifically to carry out in transfer room, is lighted in transfer room and protects mushroom king, and aerosol is carried out to sterilising medium Sterilization, after to be sterilized, spraying purification air is carried out to transfer room with 84 thimerosals before further taking out sterilising medium inoculation.
It is sootiness sprinkling dual-purpose type disinfectant to protect mushroom king, is the disinfectant powder using chlorine Monosodium urate as principle active component, effectively Chlorinity 36%-44%.The bacterium in pathogenic entero becteria, pyococcus and air can be killed.It is mainly used in edible fungi inoculation The sterilization processing in space, it is very convenient for inoculating hood or transfer room sterilization.
84 thimerosals are a kind of high effect disinfectantses based on sodium hypochlorite, and main component is sodium hypochlorite (NaClO).Nothing Color or weak yellow liquid, available chlorine content 5.5-6.5%.It is widely used in hotel, tourism, hospital, food-processing industry, family Deng disinfecting, and there is penetrating odor.
During inoculation, bacterium bag mouth will be at Alcohol Flame, but can not encounter flame, easily by bacterium bag scorification.Inoculum concentration one As be siccative 15-18%.Divide the sowing of 3-4 layers, every layer of application rate is spread some strains at 40-50g, the sack of bacterium bag more, made Mycelia preferred growth, miscellaneous bacteria are difficult to grow.
Step S4, the bacterium bag for covering with mycelia is displaced to after being cultivated in cultivating chamber, the ripe elegant precious mushroom of harvesting cultivation.
After elegant precious mushroom spore germination.To pass through three phases could harvest.That is vegetative stage, fruiting body differentiation stage With the fruit body development stage.Oyster mushroom pieces growth phase needs half-light culture, and strong light can suppress mycelial growth, arrive fructification Differential period and fruit body development stage need to be cultivated by weak scattering light.Under conditions of unglazed, fructification is difficult to be formed, If mushroom house light intensity is excessive, be not easy to form former base, or occur mushroom handle it is short and thick be not easy exhibition lid.It is favourable to growing to scatter light, especially exists Winter needs stronger scattering light, keeps mushroom body partially white.
Wherein, scattering just refers to because photon mutually collides with material molecule, make the direction of motion of photon change and The light scattered to different angle.Like scattering luminous environment during elegant precious mushroom sporophore growth, generally, scattering luminous environment is exactly The sun is shone less than but very bright place.
After being placed 10 days in cultivating chamber, the tampon in bacterium bag is pulled out, gives 200-300lux scattering light, cultivating chamber is every Its ventilation 1 time, each 20-30min.
After small fructification occurs, room temperature is down to 14-18 DEG C, 14-18 DEG C of temperature is easy to fructification to be broken up, and goes out Mushroom is neat, and yield increases.Fruiting body differentiation is that former base is formed, and is expanded, ripe to the fruit-body formation stage.Accelerate fructification point The yield of elegant precious mushroom can be improved by changing.After 10 days, then return to 18-22 DEG C of room temperature, wherein, 18-22 DEG C be sporophore growth conjunction Thermophilic degree, oyster mushroom pieces growing way can be made vigorous.Control the relative air humidity 90-95% of cultivating chamber.
Wherein, fructification is the production spore construction of higher fungus, i.e. sporocarp, is made up of the mycelium texturized.Bacterium Fructification of the main specialization of aerial mycelium of silk into various forms.Fructification refers to inside it or can produce asexual above or have Spermatium, there is any Mycelial Tissue of certain form and construction.Fructification typically has cap and stem.
The ripe standard of elegant precious mushroom is that bacteria cover diameter is 2-3cm, and cap edge is involute, and color by gradually becoming shallower as deeply, spore Not yet launch.Elegant precious mushroom harvesting is timely, grow to six or seven be divided into it is ripe can harvest, in order to avoid mushroom body grows up to great Ye mushrooms, reduce commodity Value and selling price.
From above technical scheme, embodiments herein provides a kind of cultural method of elegant precious mushroom, the cultivation side Method comprises the following steps:The compost is crushed and uniform stirring, controls the water content of the compost to enter in 60-65% Row fermenting twice, obtain compost after fermenting twice;Sterilized, obtained after compost after the fermenting twice is loaded into bacterium bag Sterilising medium;Cultured elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain is linked on sterilising medium, culturing room's culture is placed in, obtains covering with mycelia Bacterium bag;The bacterium bag for covering with mycelia is displaced to after being cultivated in cultivating chamber, the ripe elegant precious mushroom of harvesting cultivation.The application will Cotton stalk, honeysuckle cauline leaf, the agricultural wastes such as the dregs of a decoction and mushroom stems are cultivated for elegant precious mushroom, not only reduce agricultural wastes The wasting of resources, and rational nutrition arrangement promotes oyster mushroom pieces growth, improves the yield of elegant precious mushroom.In addition, send out twice Ferment contributes to the fermenting raw materials such as cotton stalk, honeysuckle cauline leaf into being easy to elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain to absorb and the nutrient that utilizes, Improve the yield of elegant precious mushroom.
Alternatively, include refering to Fig. 2, the fermenting twice:
Step S11, the compost after stirring is subjected to first time fermentation, obtains compost after fermenting for the first time, described the The temperature of one time fermentation is 60-65 DEG C, and the time is 2-3 days;
The purpose of fermentation is that various raw materials are mixed with water and start to ferment for the first time, and various microorganisms are to base during this period Lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose in matter (mainly cotton stalk) carry out degraded utilization, meanwhile, by simple nitrogen, Such as ammonia and nitrate, the protein of complexity is converted into, increases the organic nitrogen in matrix.Due to different temperature during composting be present Region is spent, so turning several times must be carried out during fermenting for the first time, the material of different zones is mutually replaced, makes whole composts There is good aeration condition within a certain period of time.Fermentation is typically in outdoor progress for the first time.
Step S12, compost carries out second of fermentation after the first time is fermented, and is cultivated after obtaining the fermenting twice Material, the temperature of second of fermentation is 50-60 DEG C, and the time is 12-14 days.
It is abundant also for high temperature microbe is made in order to kill the miscellaneous bacteria and insect that remaining is got off after first time fermentation ends Growth, so as to further matrix degradation, second is carried out to compost and is fermented.Second of fermentation is mainly sent out using indoor bedstead formula Ferment, steam can be imported mushroom house, temperature is reached 60-62 DEG C, after a few houres, temperature is down to 50-60 DEG C, maintains 12-14 days.
It is can aid in using fermenting twice by the fermenting raw materials such as cotton stalk, honeysuckle cauline leaf into being easy to elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain The nutrient for absorbing and utilizing, improve the yield of elegant precious mushroom.
Alternatively, the temperature of the cultivating chamber is 18-22 DEG C, relative air humidity 90-95%, and gas concentration lwevel is protected Hold in below 400ppm.The parameter of this cultivating chamber is adapted to the breeding of elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain fast-growth, can improve the yield of elegant precious mushroom.
Mushroom weight is good during low temperature, but grows slow;The growth of mushroom body is fast but of poor quality during high temperature, is advisable with 18-22 DEG C.
If relative air humidity is less than 70%, air is excessively dried, and fructification is not susceptible to, and mushroom body will diminish, seriously When can also cause the death of the atrophy of mushroom former base and mushroom flower bud.When relative air humidity is more than 95%, it is long stem occur, not long mushroom lid Misshapen mushroom, it is easy to change rot.Relative air humidity 90-95% is more suitable, and elegant precious mushroom growing way is good.
Elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain is aerobic fungi, and fresh air is required in mycelial growth and mushroom body growth course, is fully protected The environment of ventilation is demonstrate,proved, is allowed to keep good growth conditions.The mycelia life stage is resistant to the carbon dioxide higher than 1 times of air Concentration, sporophore growth are weaker to carbon dioxide tolerance.If mushroom house improper ventilation, when gas concentration lwevel is excessive, with Cause the death of misshapen mushroom and prematurity fructification, therefore gas concentration lwevel control is within 400ppm.
Alternatively, the bacterium bag is a diameter of 17-20cm, and length is 30-35cm film cylinder bag.The specification mistake of bacterium bag Greatly, easy infection miscellaneous bacteria, and stem easily lodges.Such as fruit part compost introducing miscellaneous bacteria, the elegant precious mushroom that may result in whole bag can not Harvesting, loss are larger.Cumbersome if bacterium bag is too small, workload is larger, and operating efficiency is low.A diameter of 17-20cm, it is long It is suitable for the bacterium bag workload of 30-35cm specifications to spend, and if miscellaneous bacteria infection will not cause very big loss.To cultivate during pack Material is close to bag wall for degree.Charging is too tight, breathes freely bad, influences mycelial growth;Too loose then mycelial growth is loosely powerless.
Alternatively, the material of the bacterium bag is polypropylene.Polypropylene is a kind of hemicrystalline thermoplastic.With higher Impact resistance, engineering properties is tough, resist a variety of organic solvents and acid and alkali corrosion.Polypropylene wide material sources, and its premium properties It can prevent that bacterium bag is damaged under external force, ensure the stable growing environment of elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain.
Alternatively, the sterilization method is microwave sterilization.Microwave sterilization is to use heat energy killing caused by microwave irradiation micro- The method of biology and gemma.Microwave energy is penetrated into the deep of medium and material, can make as one man to heat in medium and material table, from And reach sterilizing purpose.Compared with normal sterile method, microwave sterilization is substantially shorter sterilizing time, improves operating efficiency.
Alternatively, the granularity of the compost after the crushing is 6-8mm.The compost of elegant precious mushroom is the mixing of shot shape Thing, there is different material composition.Its granule size has certain relation to the yield of elegant precious mushroom.The bacterial strain of elegant precious mushroom is a kind of oxygen consumption Biology, the granule size of compost determine compost gas permeability and retentiveness.When compost particle is excessively small, air is not easy Flow, poor air permeability, oxygen content deficiency, then be unfavorable for mycelial growth in compost;But when particle is excessively big, it is unfavorable for bacterial strain Absorption to nutrition, and dehydration is fast, and retentiveness is poor, is also unfavorable for the growth of mycelia.By repeatedly practice have shown that, elegant precious mushroom training The granularity of nutriment is more suitable in 6-8mm, is grown beneficial to oyster mushroom pieces, so as to provide the yield of elegant precious mushroom.
From above technical scheme, embodiments herein provides a kind of compost and cultural method of elegant precious mushroom, institute Stating compost includes major ingredient and auxiliary material;The major ingredient includes cotton stalk, honeysuckle cauline leaf, the dregs of a decoction and mushroom stems;The auxiliary material Including soya-bean cake, silkworm faeces, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, lime and gypsum.The cultural method comprises the following steps:The compost is crushed And uniform stirring, control the water content of the compost to carry out fermenting twice, obtain compost after fermenting twice in 60-65%; Sterilized after compost after the fermenting twice is loaded into bacterium bag, obtain sterilising medium;By cultured elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain It is linked on sterilising medium, is placed in culturing room's culture, obtains covering with the bacterium bag of mycelia;By the bacterium bag dislocation for covering with mycelia After being cultivated into cultivating chamber, the ripe elegant precious mushroom of harvesting cultivation.Cotton stalk, the dregs of a decoction and mushroom stems provide rich for elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain Rich nutriment, and accelerate the catalytic decomposition of compost.Honeysuckle cauline leaf can suppress the growth of some miscellaneous bacterias, so as to improve The cultivation yield of elegant precious mushroom.Soya-bean cake and silkworm faeces are used for the carbon-nitrogen ratio for adjusting compost, ensure the collocation of elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain nutrient Rationally.Potassium dihydrogen phosphate, gypsum and lime can make up phosphorus element in compost, potassium, the deficiency of calcium element, accelerate compost to decompose. The raw material of compost gives full play to respective effect, and collaboration cultivates the high quality elegant precious mushroom of high yield after use of arranging in pairs or groups. The application cultivates the agricultural wastes such as cotton stalk, the dregs of a decoction for elegant precious mushroom, not only reduces the agricultural wastes wasting of resources, and And rational nutrition arrangement promotes oyster mushroom pieces growth, the yield of elegant precious mushroom is improved.In addition, fermenting twice contributes to cotton The fermenting raw materials such as chopped straw stalk, honeysuckle cauline leaf improve elegant precious mushroom into the nutrient for being easy to elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain to absorb and utilize Yield.
Those skilled in the art will readily occur to the application its after considering specification and putting into practice application disclosed herein Its embodiment.The application is intended to any modification, purposes or the adaptations of the application, these modifications, purposes or Person's adaptations follow the general principle of the application and including the undocumented common knowledges in the art of the application Or conventional techniques.Description and embodiments are considered only as exemplary, and the true scope of the application and spirit are by following Claim is pointed out.
It should be appreciated that the precision architecture that the application is not limited to be described above and is shown in the drawings, and And various modifications and changes can be being carried out without departing from the scope.Scope of the present application is only limited by appended claim.

Claims (9)

1. a kind of compost of elegant precious mushroom, it is characterised in that the compost includes major ingredient and auxiliary material;
The major ingredient includes cotton stalk, honeysuckle cauline leaf, the dregs of a decoction and mushroom stems;
The auxiliary material includes soya-bean cake, silkworm faeces, potassium dihydrogen phosphate, lime and gypsum.
2. compost according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the weight ratio of the major ingredient and the auxiliary material is 9:1.
3. compost according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the major ingredient is made up of the raw material of following parts by weight:40 Part cotton stalk, 40 parts of honeysuckle cauline leafs, 20 parts of dregs of a decoction and 10 parts of mushroom stems.
4. compost according to claim 1, it is characterised in that the auxiliary material is made up of the raw material of following parts by weight:5 parts Soya-bean cake, 5 parts of silkworm faeces, 1 part of potassium dihydrogen phosphate, 1.5 parts of lime and 1.5 parts of gypsum.
5. a kind of cultural method of elegant precious mushroom, it is characterised in that comprise the following steps:
Compost is crushed and uniform stirring, controls the water content of the compost to carry out fermenting twice, obtain in 60-65% Compost after fermenting twice;
Sterilized after compost after the fermenting twice is loaded into bacterium bag, obtain sterilising medium;
Cultured elegant precious mushroom bacterial strain is linked on sterilising medium, is placed in culturing room's culture, obtains covering with the bacterium bag of mycelia;
The bacterium bag for covering with mycelia is displaced to after being cultivated in cultivating chamber, the ripe elegant precious mushroom of harvesting cultivation.
6. cultural method according to claim 5, it is characterised in that the fermenting twice includes:
Compost after stirring is subjected to first time fermentation, obtains compost after fermenting for the first time, the temperature of the first time fermentation Spend for 60-65 DEG C, the time is 2-3 days;
Compost carries out second and fermented after the first time is fermented, and obtains compost after the fermenting twice, and described second The temperature of secondary fermentation is 50-60 DEG C, and the time is 12-14 days.
7. cultural method according to claim 5, it is characterised in that the temperature of the cultivating chamber is 18-22 DEG C, air phase It is 90-95% to humidity, gas concentration lwevel is maintained at below 400ppm.
8. cultural method according to claim 5, it is characterised in that the sterilization method is microwave sterilization.
9. cultural method according to claim 5, it is characterised in that the granularity of the compost after the crushing is 6-8mm.
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