CN103387463B - A kind of cultivating method of black fungus and cultivation culture material thereof - Google Patents

A kind of cultivating method of black fungus and cultivation culture material thereof Download PDF

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CN103387463B
CN103387463B CN201310331056.0A CN201310331056A CN103387463B CN 103387463 B CN103387463 B CN 103387463B CN 201310331056 A CN201310331056 A CN 201310331056A CN 103387463 B CN103387463 B CN 103387463B
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black fungus
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CN103387463A (en
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孙文胜
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QINGHE COUNTY LONGHAO DEVELOPMENT Co Ltd
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QINGHE COUNTY LONGHAO DEVELOPMENT Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention provides a kind of cultivating method of black fungus, step is as follows: (1) preparation culture material, by the sea-buckthorn branch of the formula ratio after pulverizing, and certain herbaceous plants with big flowers head, Semen Maydis powder, wheat bran, the dregs of fat, lime, gypsum mixes, adjusted to ph to 8.5; (2) sterilizing, inoculation, cultivate mycelia, disturb bacterium; (3) bacterium bag is moved to the cultivation field cultivation fruiting of 22-28 DEG C that sterilizes in advance; (4) when black fungus sporophore is grown to medium well, finished product is gathered, and obtains black fungus of the present invention.Apply method of the present invention, not only increase the output of black fungus, and after measured in black fungus general flavone content also have increase.Meanwhile, black fungus of the present invention is compared with commonly black fungus cultivation and is shown six large advantages: 1, the cycle is short; 2, cost is low; 3, pollute less; 4, ear is gone out neat; 5, stdn; 6, industrialization.

Description

A kind of cultivating method of black fungus and cultivation culture material thereof
Technical field
The invention belongs to field of food, be specifically related to a kind of black fungus.
Background technology
In recent years, " the healthy lecture " of the experts such as China famous physician flood clear light, Qi Baili, introducing black fungus towards masses is " healthcare products that the mankind are rare ", " be able to eat 5 grams of black fungus for each person every day, can prevent and treat thrombus ".This is on the dining table of China big and medium-sized cities people, blows and plays a burst of " black whirlwind ", black fungus is become very powerful and exceedingly arrogant commodity.Health industry is the maximum industry of Construction Technologies in Twenty-one Century.The country of the past such as current Korea S, Russia less edible black fungus custom, also starts a large amount of import black fungus; American-European countries is limiting inlet China Dark auricularia auriculajudae once, so be in state out of stock in spite of rising price for a long time.But the current black fungus ultimate production of China only 100,000 tons, only domestic 1,200,000,000 people, by " for each person every day edible 5 grams " criterion calculation, also supply less than 2 days, if annual supply output need improve 200 times.In addition, elongate industry chain (supply chain) and can create more high added value, the intensive processing products such as Auricularia polycose extraction, the various preparation of black fungus, black fungus Freshkeeping Packaging, domestic and international market especially prospect is immeasurable.
During commonly black fungus cultivation industry develops in the past for 10 years, create splendidness.The material being suitable for cultivating black fungus in the northern area of China is a lot, mainly contains cotton seed hull, wood sawdust, corn cob, soya bean stem meal and rice straw powder etc.; But still not use sea-buckthorn branch in the planting material used at present.The invention provides a kind of planting material being main raw material(s) with sea-buckthorn branch, meanwhile, the present invention also provides the method for sea-buckthorn branch being added to cultivating black fungus in planting material.
Summary of the invention
The invention provides a kind of cultivating method of black fungus, for this reason, the present invention also provides the cultivation used in above-mentioned cultivating method culture material.
The invention provides a kind of cultivating black fungus culture material, described culture material is made up of each material of following weight percentage: sea-buckthorn branch 32-50%, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers head 22-40%, Semen Maydis powder 3-5%, wheat bran 5-15%, dregs of fat 1-3%, lime 1-3%, gypsum 1-2%.
The culture material be applied within the scope of this cultivates black fungus all can make the general flavone content in black fungus reach 0.002g-0.004g.
Sea-buckthorn branch can make general flavone content in black fungus improve, the nutrient needed when all the other components can provide black fungus to grow.
Further, described culture material is made up of each material of following weight percentage: sea-buckthorn branch 50%, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers 30%, Semen Maydis powder 5%, wheat bran 10%, the dregs of fat 2%, lime 2%, gypsum 1%.
Applying this culture material cultivation black fungus all can make the general flavone content of every 100 grams of common auricularia auriculajudaes reach 0.004 gram.
Second object of the present invention is to provide a kind of cultivating method of black fungus, and step is as follows:
(1), culture material is prepared, by the sea-buckthorn branch of the formula ratio after pulverizing, certain herbaceous plants with big flowers head, Semen Maydis powder, wheat bran, the dregs of fat, lime, gypsum mixes, adjusted to ph to 8.5, sterilizing;
(2), inoculate, cultivate mycelia, disturb bacterium;
(3), bacterium bag is moved to the cultivation field cultivation fruiting of 22-28 DEG C that sterilizes in advance;
(4), black fungus sporophore when growing to medium well finished product gather, obtain black fungus of the present invention.
Further, condition when cultivating mycelia described in step (2) is the water content of culture material is 60-65%, by bacterium bag 22 DEG C-26 DEG C, dark without the condition of sunlight under cultivate.
Further, cultivating temperature in field described in step (3) is 22-28 DEG C, and humidity is 85-95%, and in cultivation field, sunlight is scattered light.
3rd object of the present invention is to provide the black fungus that the above-mentioned arbitrary described method of application obtains.
Further, in rutin, described in every 100g, the general flavone content of black fungus is 0.004g.
Black fungus is a kind of saprophytic fungus, and it does not have chlorophyll, and oneself can not manufacture food, and it will rely on organic substance in other biological body as its nutriment.Black fungus in growth and development process, the mainly nutrition of required ambient conditions, temperature, moisture, illumination, air and potential of hydrogen.Here affecting larger factor is moisture and illumination.The black fungus sheet that the sporophore of black fungus grows between 22 DEG C ~ 28 DEG C is large, meat is thick, quality good.The mycelium of black fungus, in growth and development process, itself is constantly secreted multiple ferment (enzyme), is thus had very strong capacity of decomposition to firewood or culture material, where mycelia spreads to, where it just decomposes, and absorbs required nutrient by decomposing, the needs of supply sporophore.Sea-buckthorn branch is selected to grow to the needs of nutrition to meet black fungus.
Agaric mycelium and sporophore all need a large amount of moisture in growing, but both requirements are different, and under same optimal temperature, it is very fast that mycelium develops field planting in low humidity situation, and sporophore develops rapidly in high humidity situation.Therefore, when dibbling, the water content of substitute culture material is 65%, is conducive to the development field planting of mycelia like this.Growing of sporophore, although need higher moisture, do wet combination, also according to temperature height situation, to suitably give spraying, during proper temperature, the relative humidity of cultivation field air can reach 85% ~ 95%, and growing of so entity is rapider.When temperature is lower, can not be too much award moisture, otherwise rotten ear can be caused.Cultivate the mycelia stage and want dry; Sporophore growth is moistening, namely " first does and wets afterwards ".
Although the suffertibility of black fungus to directing light is stronger, but (sea-buckthorn auricularia auriculajudae is fruiting in the booth being stamped sunshade net in local fruiting place must to give suitable scattered light, such light is scattered light) not so can make auricle atrophy, drying, stop producing, affect output, therefore, in production management, create a kind of " colored sunlight " preferably to cultivation field, impel the rapid growing of sporophore.When dark, mycelia can form fruit body primordium, but does not open a business.When there being certain scattered light, just opening a business, forming sporophore.I.e. " first dark rear bright ".Black fungus is suitable for living in slightly acidic environment, is best with pH value 5.5-6.5.In substituting stuff cultivation, this is a problem that can not ignore, and the value that goes out of culture material (material) must be adjusted to suitable degree.During substituting stuff cultivation, be first transferred to optimum range meta-alkali one side, by spontaneous fermentation, namely reach optimum degree, require in a word " after first alkali acid ".
The present invention with sea-buckthorn branch for raw material, add in cultivation of auricularia auricula material, obtain black fungus, not only increase the output of black fungus, and after measured in black fungus general flavone content also have increase, there is cooperative compensating and strengthen the effect of black fungus control cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.Sea-buckthorn is Elaeangnaceae plant, and contain VITAMIN, organic acid, monose, flavonoid, lipid acid, protein and various trace elements etc. in fruit and leaf, wherein flavones is main activeconstituents.Experiment proves that Fructus Hippophae flavone is the natural drug of the diseases such as treatment hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, suppression platelet aggregation, heart failure, has very high pharmaceutical use.Main containing flavonoid compound (white anthocyanidin, catechin, brass alcohol (Isorhamnetol, quassin)) and 5-hydroxyl look ammonia, SOD(superoxide dismutase in Fructus Hippophae leaf branch skin after testing) etc. tens kinds of bioactive ingredients.The animal nutrition that the present invention section of utilization emulates the advanced, transforms these activeconstituentss, cultivates into people and can accept and traditional food---black fungus easily.
Black fungus of the present invention is compared with commonly black fungus cultivation and is shown six large advantages:
1, the cycle is short: before and after gathering, do not surpass 60 days from the production of hybrid seeds.The wherein sea-buckthorn production of hybrid seeds only 3 days (being 1/10 of conventional solid bacterial classification), bacteria needs about 20 days (being half in the past), goes out ear only about 30 days.
Common auricularia auriculajudae one season fruiting originally, the time period starts to prepare starting material in the December of First Year, and Second Year makes bacterial classification January, 2 to April bacteria, 5 to September is going out ear.Black fungus of the present invention shortens the bacteria time to start to prepare starting material in the December of First Year, Second Year makes bacterial classification January, February bacteria, just can start ear until the auricularia auriculajudae of this time in July belongs to summer auricularia auriculajudae at the beginning of 3 months by the end of February, second batch bacterial classification is made from March, April bacteria, 5 to September is autumn auricularia auriculajudae in the auricularia auriculajudae of this time period output of fruiting.Owing to cultivating the time shorten of mycelia, make from original one season fruiting become and two seasons went out ear.
2, cost is low: reduce bacterial classification cost (with about kind of cost 3 points of/bags) in production, labour costs saving is over half.
3, pollute less: black fungus mycelia is more weak than general mushroom class, and therefore traditional cultivating method pollution rate is high, and sea-buckthorn bacterial classification sprouts material feeding fast (mycelia was covered with cultivation charge level in 24 hours); Sea-buckthorn bacterial classification automatic vaccination machine can under hundred grades of gnotobasiss, and whole basket is inoculated fast, can effective Control pollution.
4, go out ear neat: cultivating black fungus, cell age is more responsive than other mushroom class, and cell age is longer, forms sporophore ability poorer.It is fast again that culture material containing sea-buckthorn branch makes black fungus bacteria add, and in bag, mycelia upper and lower cell age difference is little, goes out ear up and down consistent, mechanized production bacterium bag, spice Homogeneous Aqueous amount is accurate, and pack standard is consistent, so it is neat to go out ear, improve seed output and quality (output increased about 11%).
5, stdn: mechanize and automatization, batch production make this production controllability improve, and the quality of production is secure, can establish and formulate and perform production standard, technological standard and target level of product quality; The black fungus product neat and consistent of producing, production whole process does not execute chemicals.
6, industrialization: this project both can invest independent enforcement of founding the factory, can drive huge numbers of families again, can from production to secondary industry comprehensive exploitation.
Embodiment
Following embodiment is convenient to understand the present invention better, but does not limit the present invention.Experimental technique in following embodiment, if no special instructions, is ordinary method.Test materials used in following embodiment, if no special instructions, is commercially available.
embodiment 1
The preparation process of black fungus of the present invention is as follows:
1), culture material is prepared: by the sea-buckthorn branch 50g after pulverizing, oil certain herbaceous plants with big flowers head 30g, Semen Maydis powder 5g, wheat bran 10g, dregs of fat 2g, lime 2g, gypsum 1g(company location is positioned at agriculture industrialization garden, Qinghe County, location periphery has the white birch forest belt of 20 kilometers to surround, and has a river to pass through, and does not pollute.The culture material obtained within the scope of this can both cultivate quality, the good black fungus of output) mix, add water, make the water content in culture material be 60%-65%, adjustment pH to 8.5, obtained culture material; Culture material is filled at 0.15MPa after cultivating bag sealing, autoclaving 3 hours at 120 DEG C, or 100 DEG C of normal-pressure sterilizations 10 hours, then naturally cool to less than 25 DEG C.
2), inoculation and cultivation mycelia: by automatic vaccination machine (model: ZJZ-1, buy ground: Qingyuan County, Zhejiang Fu Sheng agricultural development company limited) under hundred grades of gnotobasiss, the commercially available whole basket of black fungus bacterial classification is seeded in culture material fast, form bacterium bag, now the water content of culture material is 65%, by bacterium bag 22 DEG C-26 DEG C, dark without the condition of sunlight under cultivation 20 days, in dark conditions, mycelia can form fruit body primordium, but does not open a business.
Black fungus mycelia is more weak than general mushroom class, uses traditional inoculation method pollution rate high, and sea-buckthorn bacterial classification sprouts material feeding fast (24 hours mycelia be covered with cultivate charge level), therefore selects automatic vaccination machine to inoculate, and operating like this can effective Control pollution.
3), by bacterium bag sterilize under 100 DEG C of-120 DEG C of high temperature, scarfing, carries out disturbing bacterium, the culture material of one deck 0.8 cm thick of pruning, and the time is 3-5 days;
4), by bacterium bag move to the cultivation field cultivation fruiting of 22-28 DEG C, the temperature in cultivation field is at about 25 DEG C, and humidity is at 85-95%, and during proper temperature (25 DEG C), in cultivation field, humidity is 85%-95%; When temperature is too high (when temperature is higher than 35 DEG C), need to spray; When temperature is lower (when temperature is lower than 18 DEG C), can not be too much give moisture, otherwise rotten ear can be caused.Build the atmosphere of a kind of " colored sunlight " (so-called colored sunlight refers to that the booth that sunlight passes through to be stamped sunshade net enters booth, is not direct sunlight) to cultivation field, impel the rapid growing of sporophore.Cultivation field carried out disinfection to booth with lime, sterilization ling before one plants, the cultivation area of indication of the present invention be exactly will the bacterium bag of fruiting move to disinfect booth carry out bacterium bag fruiting, do not plant.
5), black fungus sporophore when growing to medium well finished product gather, obtain black fungus of the present invention.By its airing or the obtained black fungus dry product of the present invention of oven dry, or fresh goods deep processing is become food in deep processing workshop by it.
By detecting 200-300 gram of common auricularia auriculajudae dry sample, it is 0.002 gram in the general flavone content of the every 100 grams of common auricularia auriculajudaes of rutin; Black fungus 200-300 gram dry sample of the present invention is 0.004 gram in the general flavone content of the every 100 grams of common auricularia auriculajudaes of rutin; The annual production of applying method black fungus of the present invention is 200,000 bags (10 tons).
embodiment 2
The present embodiment is from the difference of embodiment 1: the formula of culture material is different.
In culture material, the mass percent of each component is as follows: sea-buckthorn branch 32%, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers 40%, Semen Maydis powder 5%, wheat bran 15%, the dregs of fat 3%, lime 3%, gypsum 2%.
All the other are all identical.
embodiment 3
The present embodiment is from the difference of embodiment 1: the formula of culture material is different.
In culture material, the mass percent of each component is as follows: sea-buckthorn branch 50%, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers 22%, Semen Maydis powder 5%, wheat bran 15%, the dregs of fat 3%, lime 3%, gypsum 2%.
All the other are all identical.
embodiment 4
The present embodiment is from the difference of embodiment 1: the formula of culture material is different.
In culture material, the mass percent of each component is as follows: sea-buckthorn branch 50%, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers 30%, Semen Maydis powder 5%, wheat bran 7%, the dregs of fat 3%, lime 3%, gypsum 2%.
All the other are all identical.
embodiment 5
The present embodiment is from the difference of embodiment 1: the formula of culture material is different.
In culture material, the mass percent of each component is as follows: sea-buckthorn branch 40%, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers 40%, Semen Maydis powder 5%, wheat bran 10%, the dregs of fat 2%, lime 2%, gypsum 1%.
All the other are all identical.
embodiment 6
The present embodiment is from the difference of embodiment 1: the formula of culture material is different.
In culture material, the mass percent of each component is as follows: sea-buckthorn branch 50%, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers 39%, Semen Maydis powder 3%, wheat bran 5%, the dregs of fat 1%, lime 1%, gypsum 1%.
All the other are all identical.
Last it is noted that the foregoing is only the preferred embodiments of the present invention, be not limited to the present invention, although with reference to previous embodiment to invention has been detailed description, for a person skilled in the art, it still can be modified to the technical scheme described in foregoing embodiments, or carries out equivalent replacement to wherein portion of techniques feature.Within the spirit and principles in the present invention all, any amendment done, equivalent replacement, improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (6)

1. a cultivating black fungus culture material, is characterized in that: described culture material is made up of each material of following weight percentage: sea-buckthorn branch 32-50%, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers head 22-40%, Semen Maydis powder 3-5%, wheat bran 5-15%, dregs of fat 1-3%, lime 1-3%, gypsum 1-2%.
2. cultivating black fungus culture material according to claim 1, is characterized in that: described culture material is made up of each material of following weight percentage: sea-buckthorn branch 50%, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers 30%, Semen Maydis powder 5%, wheat bran 10%, the dregs of fat 2%, lime 2%, gypsum 1%.
3. a cultivating method for black fungus, step is as follows:
(1), culture material is prepared, by the sea-buckthorn branch of the formula ratio after pulverizing, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers head, Semen Maydis powder, wheat bran, the dregs of fat, lime, gypsum mixes, adjusted to ph to 8.5, sterilizing;
(2), inoculate, cultivate mycelia, disturb bacterium;
(3), bacterium bag is moved to the cultivation field cultivation fruiting of 22-28 DEG C that sterilizes in advance;
(4), black fungus sporophore when growing to medium well finished product gather, obtain black fungus of the present invention;
Wherein, described culture material is made up of each material of following weight percentage: sea-buckthorn branch 32-50%, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers head 22-40%, Semen Maydis powder 3-5%, wheat bran 5-15%, dregs of fat 1-3%, lime 1-3%, gypsum 1-2%.
4. cultivating method according to claim 3, is characterized in that: described culture material is made up of each material of following weight percentage: sea-buckthorn branch 50%, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers 30%, Semen Maydis powder 5%, wheat bran 10%, the dregs of fat 2%, lime 2%, gypsum 1%.
5. the cultivating method according to claim 3 or 4, is characterized in that: condition when cultivating mycelia described in step (2) is the water content of culture material is 60%-65%, by bacterium bag 22 DEG C-26 DEG C, dark without the condition of sunlight under cultivate.
6. the cultivating method according to claim 3 or 4, is characterized in that: cultivating temperature in field described in step (3) is 22-28 DEG C, and humidity is 85-95%, and in cultivation field, sunlight is scattered light.
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