CN103387463A - Cultivation method and cultivation culture material of black fungus - Google Patents

Cultivation method and cultivation culture material of black fungus Download PDF

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CN103387463A
CN103387463A CN2013103310560A CN201310331056A CN103387463A CN 103387463 A CN103387463 A CN 103387463A CN 2013103310560 A CN2013103310560 A CN 2013103310560A CN 201310331056 A CN201310331056 A CN 201310331056A CN 103387463 A CN103387463 A CN 103387463A
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black fungus
cultivation
culture material
fungus
sea
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CN103387463B (en
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孙文胜
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QINGHE COUNTY LONGHAO DEVELOPMENT Co Ltd
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QINGHE COUNTY LONGHAO DEVELOPMENT Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention provides a cultivation method of black fungus. The cultivation method comprises the steps of: (1) preparing a culture material, uniformly mixing crushed sea-buckthorn twigs, sunflower heads, maize meal, bran, oil residues, lime and gypsum in formula ratio, regulating pH value to 8.5, and sterilizing; (2) inoculating, culturing hyphae, and cleaning fungus; (3) moving fungus bags to a previously disinfected cultivation field with temperature of 22-28 DEG C for fruiting cultivation; (4) picking finished products when black fungus sporocarp grows to ripe at eighty percent to obtain the black fungus. The cultivation method provided by the invention can not only increase the output of the black fungus, but also increase the total flavonoid content of the black fungus through measurement. In addition, compared with common field cultivation black fungus, the black fungus has the advantages of short period, low cost, less pollution, uniformity in fungus growth, standardization and industrialization.

Description

A kind of cultivating method of black fungus and cultivation culture material thereof
Technical field
The invention belongs to field of food, be specifically related to a kind of black fungus.
Background technology
In recent years, the experts' such as the clear light of the famous physician's flood of China, Qi Baili " healthy lecture ", introducing black fungus towards masses is " healthcare products that the mankind are rare ", " be able to eat for each person every day 5 gram black fungus, can prevent and treat thrombus ".This has swept a burst of " black whirlwind " on China big and medium-sized cities people's dining table, make black fungus become very powerful and exceedingly arrogant commodity.Health industry is the industry of Construction Technologies in Twenty-one Century maximum.The country of the in the past less edible black fungus custom such as Korea S, Russia, also start a large amount of import black fungus at present; American-European countries is limiting inlet China Dark auricularia auriculajudae once, so be in for a long time state out of stock in spite of rising price.Yet only 100,000 tons of the present black fungus ultimate productions of China, only domestic 1,200,000,000 people,, by " edible 5 grams for each person every day " criterion calculation, also supply less than 2 days, if annual supply output need improve 200 times.In addition, elongate industry chain (supply chain) and can create more high added value, the intensive processing products such as Auricularia polycose extraction, the various preparations of black fungus, black fungus Freshkeeping Packaging, domestic and international market prospect especially is immeasurable.
Common ground black fungus cultivation industry has been created splendidness in developing in 10 years in the past.The material that is suitable for cultivating black fungus in the northern area of China is a lot, mainly contains cotton seed hull, wood sawdust, corn cob, soya bean stem meal and rice straw powder etc.; But still do not use the sea-buckthorn branch in the planting material that uses at present.The invention provides a kind of planting material take the sea-buckthorn branch as main raw material(s), simultaneously, the present invention also provides the method for the sea-buckthorn branch being added to cultivating black fungus in planting material.
Summary of the invention
The invention provides a kind of cultivating method of black fungus, for this reason, the present invention also provides the cultivation of using in above-mentioned cultivating method culture material.
The invention provides a kind of cultivating black fungus culture material, described culture material is comprised of each material of following weight percentage: sea-buckthorn branch 32-50%, an oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers 22-40%, Semen Maydis powder 3-5%, wheat bran 5-15%, dregs of fat 1-3%, lime 1-3%, gypsum 1-2%.
The culture material cultivation black fungus that is applied in this scope all can make the general flavone content in black fungus reach 0.002g-0.004g.
The sea-buckthorn branch can make general flavone content in black fungus improve, the nutrient that all the other components need when the black fungus growth can be provided.
Further, described culture material is comprised of each material of following weight percentage: sea-buckthorn branch 50%, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers 30%, Semen Maydis powder 5%, wheat bran 10%, the dregs of fat 2%, lime 2%, gypsum 1%.
Applying this culture material cultivation black fungus all can make the general flavone content of every 100 common auricularia auriculajudaes of gram reach 0.004 gram.
Second purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of cultivating method of black fungus, and step is as follows:
(1), the preparation culture material, with the sea-buckthorn branch of the formula ratio after pulverizing, the certain herbaceous plants with big flowers head, Semen Maydis powder, wheat bran, the dregs of fat, lime, gypsum mixes, and adjusts pH value to 8.5, and is sterilizing;
(2), inoculation, cultivate mycelia, disturb bacterium;
(3), the bacterium bag is moved to the cultivation field cultivation fruiting of 22-28 ℃ of sterilization in advance;
(4), the black fungus sporophore grows to finished product when medium well and gathers, and obtains black fungus of the present invention.
Further, the condition while cultivating mycelia described in step (2) is that the water content of culture material is 60-65%, and the bacterium bag is cultivated under 22 ℃-26 ℃, dark condition without sunlight.
Further, in the field of cultivation described in step (3), temperature is 22-28 ℃, and humidity is 85-95%, and in the cultivation field, sunlight is scattered light.
The 3rd purpose of the present invention is to provide the black fungus that the above-mentioned arbitrary described method of application obtains.
Further, in rutin, the general flavone content of the described black fungus of every 100g is 0.004g.
Black fungus is a kind of saprophytic fungus, and it does not have chlorophyll, and oneself can not make food, and it will rely on organic substance in the other biological body as its nutriment.Black fungus is in growth and development process, and needed ambient conditions is mainly nutrition, temperature, moisture, illumination, air and potential of hydrogen.Here the larger factor of impact is moisture and illumination.The sporophore of black fungus is grown between 22 ℃~28 ℃ black fungus sheet is large, meat is thick, quality good.The mycelium of black fungus in growth and development process, itself constantly secretes multiple ferment (enzyme), thereby firewood or culture material are had very strong capacity of decomposition, where mycelia spreads to, where it just decomposes, and by decomposition, absorbs required nutrient, supplies with the needs of sporophore.Select the sea-buckthorn branch to grow to the needs of nutrition to meet black fungus.
Agaric mycelium and sporophore all need a large amount of moisture in growing, but both requirements are different, and under same optimal temperature, mycelium develops field planting in the low humidity situation very fast, and sporophore develops rapidly in the high humidity situation.Therefore when dibbling, the water content of substitute culture material is 65%, is conducive to like this development field planting of mycelia.Growing of sporophore,, although need higher moisture, do wet combination, also to, according to temperature height situation, suitably give spraying, when temperature is suitable, the relative humidity of a cultivation air can reach 85%~95%, and growing of so entity is rapider.When temperature is low, can not be too much award moisture, otherwise can cause rotten ear.Cultivate the mycelia stage and want dry; Sporophore growth is moistening, namely " first does afterwards and wets ".
Although black fungus is stronger to the suffertibility of directing light, but (the sea-buckthorn auricularia auriculajudae is to be stamped fruiting in the booth of sunshade net in local fruiting place must to give suitable scattered light, such light is scattered light) not so can make auricle atrophy, drying, stop producing, affect output, therefore, in production management, create a kind of " colored sunlight " preferably for cultivation, impel the rapid growing of sporophore.In the situation that dark, mycelia can form fruit body primordium, but does not open a business.When certain scattered light is arranged, just open a business, form sporophore.I.e. " first dark rear bright ".Black fungus is suitable lives in slightly acidic environment, take pH value 5.5-6.5 as best.In substituting stuff cultivation, this is the problem that can not ignore, must adjust to suitable degree to the value that goes out of culture material (material).During substituting stuff cultivation, first be transferred to optimum range meta-alkali one side,, by spontaneous fermentation, namely reach the optimum degree, require in a word " acid after first alkali ".
The present invention is take the sea-buckthorn branch as raw material, add in the cultivation of auricularia auricula material, obtain black fungus, not only increased the output of black fungus, and after measured in black fungus general flavone content increase is also arranged, have cooperative compensating and strengthen the effect of black fungus control cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases.Sea-buckthorn is the Elaeangnaceae plant, contains VITAMIN, organic acid, monose, flavonoid, lipid acid, protein and various trace elements etc. in fruit and leaf, and wherein flavones is main activeconstituents.Experimental results show that Fructus Hippophae flavone is the natural drug of the diseases such as treatment hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, inhibition platelet aggregation, heart failure, has very high pharmaceutical use.Mainly contain after testing flavonoid compound (white anthocyanidin, catechin, brass alcohol (Isorhamnetol, quassin)) and 5-hydroxyl look ammonia, SOD(superoxide dismutase in Fructus Hippophae leaf branch skin) etc. tens kinds of bioactive ingredients.The animal nutrition that the present invention section of utilization emulates the advanced, transform these activeconstituentss, cultivates into that people can accept and traditional food---black fungus easily.
Black fungus of the present invention is compared the six large advantages that show with common ground black fungus cultivation:
1, the cycle is short: from the production of hybrid seeds, do not surpass 60 days before and after gathering.The wherein sea-buckthorn production of hybrid seeds only 3 days (be conventional solid bacterial classification 1/10), bacteria needs about 20 days (being in the past half), goes out ear only about 30 days.
One season of common auricularia auriculajudae fruiting originally, the time period is to start to prepare starting material in the December of First Year, and Second Year is made bacterial classification January, and 2 to the bacteria in April, and going out ear 5 to September.Black fungus of the present invention has shortened the bacteria time and has started to prepare starting material in the December of First Year, Second Year is made bacterial classification January, February bacteria, just can start ear at the beginning of 3 months by the end of February until the auricularia auriculajudae of this time in July belongs to the summer auricularia auriculajudae, make the second batch bacterial classification since March, April bacteria, 5 to September, the auricularia auriculajudae in this time period output of fruiting was the autumn auricularia auriculajudae.Due to the time shorten of cultivating mycelia, make by original one season fruiting become and two seasons went out ear.
2, cost is low: reduction bacterial classification cost in production (with 3 minutes/bag left and right of kind of cost), labour costs are saved over half.
3, pollute few: the black fungus mycelia than general mushroom class a little less than, therefore traditional cultivating method pollution rate is high, and the sea-buckthorn bacterial classification is sprouted material feeding fast (24 hours mycelia be covered with cultivate charge level); Sea-buckthorn bacterial classification automatic vaccination machine can be under hundred grades of gnotobasiss, and the inoculation fast of whole basket, can effectively control pollution.
4, go out ear neat: cultivating black fungus, cell age is more responsive than other mushroom class, and cell age is longer, forms the sporophore ability poorer.It is fast again that the culture material that contains the sea-buckthorn branch adds the black fungus bacteria, and in bag, mycelia up and down cell age difference is little, goes out up and down ear consistent, mechanized production bacterium bag, the even water content of spice is accurate, and the pack standard is consistent,, so it is neat to go out ear, output and quality (output improves 11% left and right) have been improved.
5, stdn: mechanize and automatization, batch production improve this production controllability, and the quality of production is secure, can establish and formulate and carry out production standard, technological standard and target level of product quality; The black fungus product neat and consistent of producing, the production whole process is not executed chemicals.
6, industrialization: this project both can be invested the independent enforcement of founding the factory, and can drive huge numbers of families again, can be from producing to the secondary industry comprehensive exploitation.
Embodiment
Following embodiment is convenient to understand better the present invention, but does not limit the present invention.Experimental technique in following embodiment, if no special instructions, be ordinary method.Test materials used in following embodiment, if no special instructions, be commercially available.
Embodiment 1
The preparation process of black fungus of the present invention is as follows:
1), preparation culture material: the sea-buckthorn branch 50g after pulverizing, an oil certain herbaceous plants with big flowers 30g, Semen Maydis powder 5g, wheat bran 10g, dregs of fat 2g, lime 2g, gypsum 1g(company location is positioned at agriculture industrialization garden, Qinghe County, the location periphery has the white birch forest belt of 20 kilometers to surround, and has a river to pass through, and does not pollute.The culture material that obtains in this scope can both be cultivated quality, the good black fungus of output) mix, add water, making the water content in culture material is 60%-65%, adjusts pH to 8.5, makes culture material; Culture material is filled after cultivating bag sealing at 0.15MPa, and 120 ℃ of lower autoclavings 3 hours, or 100 ℃ of normal-pressure sterilizations 10 hours, then naturally cool to below 25 ℃.
2), inoculation and cultivation mycelia: with automatic vaccination machine (model: ZJZ-1, buy ground: the rich agricultural development company limited that rises in Qingyuan County, Zhejiang) under hundred grades of gnotobasiss, be seeded in fast the whole basket of commercially available black fungus bacterial classification in culture material, form the bacterium bag, this moment, the water content of culture material was 65%, with the bacterium bag 22 ℃-26 ℃, dark cultivated 20 days under without the condition of sunlight, under the environment of dark, mycelia can form fruit body primordium, but does not open a business.
The black fungus mycelia than general mushroom class a little less than, use traditional inoculation method pollution rate high, and the sea-buckthorn bacterial classification is sprouted material feeding fast (24 hours mycelia be covered with cultivate charge level), therefore selects automatic vaccination machine to inoculate, pollution can be effectively controlled in operation like this.
3), the bacterium bag is sterilized under 100 ℃ of-120 ℃ of high temperature, scarfing, disturb bacterium, the culture material of one deck 0.8 cm thick of pruning, and the time is 3-5 days;
4), the bacterium bag is moved to the cultivation field cultivation fruiting of 22-28 ℃, the temperature in cultivation is 25 ℃ of left and right, humidity is at 85-95%, when temperature is suitable (25 ℃), in cultivation, humidity is 85%-95%; During excess Temperature (temperature higher than 35 ℃ time), need to spray; When temperature is low (temperature lower than 18 ℃ time), can not be too much give moisture, otherwise can cause rotten ear.Give the atmosphere of cultivation construction a kind of " colored sunlight " (so-called colored sunlight refers to that sunlight enters booth by the booth that is stamped sunshade net, is not direct sunlight), impel the rapid growing of sporophore.Cultivation will carry out disinfection to booth with lime, sterilization ling before planting one, the cultivation place of indication of the present invention be exactly will fruiting the bacterium bag move to disinfect booth carry out bacterium bag fruiting, not cultivation with being.
5), the black fungus sporophore grows to finished product when medium well and gathers, and obtains black fungus of the present invention.Its airing or oven dry are made black fungus dry product of the present invention, or it is become food in the deep processing workshop with the fresh goods deep processing.
By detecting the common auricularia auriculajudae dry sample of 200-300 gram, take the general flavone contents of the every 100 common auricularia auriculajudaes of gram of rutin as 0.002 gram; Black fungus 200-300 gram dry sample of the present invention, take the general flavone contents of the every 100 common auricularia auriculajudaes of gram of rutin as 0.004 gram; The annual production of applying method black fungus of the present invention is 200,000 bags (10 tons).
Embodiment 2
The present embodiment is from the difference of embodiment 1: the formula of culture material is different.
In culture material, the mass percent of each component is as follows: sea-buckthorn branch 32%, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers 40%, Semen Maydis powder 5%, wheat bran 15%, the dregs of fat 3%, lime 3%, gypsum 2%.
All the other are all identical.
Embodiment 3
The present embodiment is from the difference of embodiment 1: the formula of culture material is different.
In culture material, the mass percent of each component is as follows: sea-buckthorn branch 50%, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers 22%, Semen Maydis powder 5%, wheat bran 15%, the dregs of fat 3%, lime 3%, gypsum 2%.
All the other are all identical.
Embodiment 4
The present embodiment is from the difference of embodiment 1: the formula of culture material is different.
In culture material, the mass percent of each component is as follows: sea-buckthorn branch 50%, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers 30%, Semen Maydis powder 5%, wheat bran 7%, the dregs of fat 3%, lime 3%, gypsum 2%.
All the other are all identical.
Embodiment 5
The present embodiment is from the difference of embodiment 1: the formula of culture material is different.
In culture material, the mass percent of each component is as follows: sea-buckthorn branch 40%, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers 40%, Semen Maydis powder 5%, wheat bran 10%, the dregs of fat 2%, lime 2%, gypsum 1%.
All the other are all identical.
Embodiment 6
The present embodiment is from the difference of embodiment 1: the formula of culture material is different.
In culture material, the mass percent of each component is as follows: sea-buckthorn branch 50%, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers 39%, Semen Maydis powder 3%, wheat bran 5%, the dregs of fat 1%, lime 1%, gypsum 1%.
All the other are all identical.
It should be noted that finally: the foregoing is only the preferred embodiments of the present invention, be not limited to the present invention, although with reference to previous embodiment, the present invention is had been described in detail, for a person skilled in the art, it still can be modified to the technical scheme that aforementioned each embodiment puts down in writing, and perhaps part technical characterictic wherein is equal to replacement.Within the spirit and principles in the present invention all, any modification of doing, be equal to replacement, improvement etc., within all should being included in protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. cultivating black fungus culture material, it is characterized in that: described culture material is comprised of each material of following weight percentage: sea-buckthorn branch 32-50%, an oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers 22-40%, Semen Maydis powder 3-5%, wheat bran 5-15%, dregs of fat 1-3%, lime 1-3%, gypsum 1-2%.
2. cultivating black fungus culture material according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described culture material is comprised of each material of following weight percentage: sea-buckthorn branch 50%, oily certain herbaceous plants with big flowers 30%, Semen Maydis powder 5%, wheat bran 10%, the dregs of fat 2%, lime 2%, gypsum 1%.
3. the cultivating method of a black fungus, step is as follows:
(1), the preparation culture material, with the sea-buckthorn branch of the formula ratio after pulverizing, the certain herbaceous plants with big flowers head, Semen Maydis powder, wheat bran, the dregs of fat, lime, gypsum mixes, and adjusts pH value to 8.5, and is sterilizing;
(2), inoculation, cultivate mycelia, disturb bacterium;
(3), the bacterium bag is moved to the cultivation field cultivation fruiting of 22-28 ℃ of sterilization in advance;
(4), the black fungus sporophore grows to finished product when medium well and gathers, and obtains black fungus of the present invention.
4. cultivating method according to claim 3 is characterized in that: the condition while cultivating mycelia described in step (2) is that the water content of culture material is 60%-65%, and the bacterium bag is cultivated under 22 ℃-26 ℃, dark condition without sunlight.
5. cultivating method according to claim 3 is characterized in that: in cultivation described in step (3), temperature is 22-28 ℃, and humidity is 85-95%, and in cultivation, sunlight is scattered light.
6. application rights requires the black fungus that the arbitrary described method of 3-5 obtains.
7. black fungus according to claim 6, it is characterized in that: in rutin, the general flavone content of the described black fungus of every 100g is 0.004g.
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CN103922848A (en) * 2014-04-16 2014-07-16 伊春金瑞森林食品有限责任公司 Edible fungus compost rich in flavone
CN104584878A (en) * 2015-02-22 2015-05-06 邬方成 Cultivation method for auricularia auricula
CN104737800A (en) * 2015-03-18 2015-07-01 邬方成 Cultivation method for auricularia auricula-judae
CN105009935A (en) * 2015-06-26 2015-11-04 德阳市明润农业开发有限公司 Cultivation method for post nutrition material of morchella esculenta
CN105166925A (en) * 2015-08-07 2015-12-23 黑龙江省玄鸟生物科技股份有限公司 Fructus hippophae and black fungus health preserving paste
CN105394485A (en) * 2015-11-18 2016-03-16 黑龙江省玄鸟生物科技股份有限公司 Seabuckthorn and black fungi plant composite beverage capable of moistening lung and preparation method for composite beverage
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CN106508423A (en) * 2016-09-12 2017-03-22 伊春林业科学院 A production method for cultivating multi-nutrient-integrated black fungi by using medicinal and edible materials
CN107691108A (en) * 2017-11-15 2018-02-16 黑龙江省科学院微生物研究所 The sea-buckthorn black fungus implantation methods of stable high flavones content
CN108618123A (en) * 2018-04-25 2018-10-09 贵州高山生物科技有限公司 A kind of extracting process of Rosa roxburghii Tratt monkey mushroom liquid
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CN112335486A (en) * 2020-09-30 2021-02-09 南京农业大学 Method for culturing edible and medicinal fungi with high flavone content

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CN103922848A (en) * 2014-04-16 2014-07-16 伊春金瑞森林食品有限责任公司 Edible fungus compost rich in flavone
CN103922843A (en) * 2014-04-18 2014-07-16 李殿明 Sea-buckthorn pleurotus citrinopileutus culture medium
CN104584878A (en) * 2015-02-22 2015-05-06 邬方成 Cultivation method for auricularia auricula
CN104737800A (en) * 2015-03-18 2015-07-01 邬方成 Cultivation method for auricularia auricula-judae
CN105009935A (en) * 2015-06-26 2015-11-04 德阳市明润农业开发有限公司 Cultivation method for post nutrition material of morchella esculenta
CN105166925A (en) * 2015-08-07 2015-12-23 黑龙江省玄鸟生物科技股份有限公司 Fructus hippophae and black fungus health preserving paste
CN105166925B (en) * 2015-08-07 2018-06-08 黑龙江省玄鸟生物科技股份有限公司 A kind of sea-buckthorn black fungus life nourishing paste
CN105394485B (en) * 2015-11-18 2018-01-30 黑龙江省玄鸟生物科技股份有限公司 A kind of sea-buckthorn black fungus moistening lung plant composite beverage and preparation method thereof
CN105394485A (en) * 2015-11-18 2016-03-16 黑龙江省玄鸟生物科技股份有限公司 Seabuckthorn and black fungi plant composite beverage capable of moistening lung and preparation method for composite beverage
CN105475765A (en) * 2015-12-07 2016-04-13 黑龙江省玄鸟生物科技股份有限公司 Lung moistening black and white fungus suspension beverage and preparation method thereof
CN105475765B (en) * 2015-12-07 2018-01-30 黑龙江省玄鸟生物科技股份有限公司 A kind of ears moistening lung suspending beverage and preparation method thereof
CN105766377A (en) * 2016-04-19 2016-07-20 牡丹江师范学院 Culture method capable of increasing the flavonoid content and varieties of auricularia auricula
CN106508423A (en) * 2016-09-12 2017-03-22 伊春林业科学院 A production method for cultivating multi-nutrient-integrated black fungi by using medicinal and edible materials
CN107691108A (en) * 2017-11-15 2018-02-16 黑龙江省科学院微生物研究所 The sea-buckthorn black fungus implantation methods of stable high flavones content
CN108618123A (en) * 2018-04-25 2018-10-09 贵州高山生物科技有限公司 A kind of extracting process of Rosa roxburghii Tratt monkey mushroom liquid
CN110063202A (en) * 2019-05-24 2019-07-30 陈献珍 The cultural method of edible mushroom rich in SOD
CN110063202B (en) * 2019-05-24 2021-12-07 五月阳光生物科技(浙江)有限公司 Cultivation method of edible fungi rich in SOD
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