CN101628834B - Formula of toadstool culturing materials and toadstool natural culturing method - Google Patents

Formula of toadstool culturing materials and toadstool natural culturing method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101628834B
CN101628834B CN2009100603991A CN200910060399A CN101628834B CN 101628834 B CN101628834 B CN 101628834B CN 2009100603991 A CN2009100603991 A CN 2009100603991A CN 200910060399 A CN200910060399 A CN 200910060399A CN 101628834 B CN101628834 B CN 101628834B
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morel
culture
soil
toadstool
cultivar
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CN101628834A (en
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蔡知桂
张立
张可军
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Chengdu Jinyi Real Estate Co Ltd
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Chengdu Jinyi Real Estate Co Ltd
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Abstract

The present invention discloses two toadstool natural culturing methods belonging to one general invention conception. The first method comprises the following steps of mixing toadstool cultivated species with toadstool culturing materials and soil evenly, forming the mixture of the toadstool cultivated species, culturing materials and soil, sowing the mixture containing the toadstool cultivated species in a land and covering with soil with the thickness of 0.5cm-2.5cm; the toadstool culturing materials comprise herbaceous plant in grass family, crop straws, bran and KH2PO4, MgSO4, urea and other nutrient substances. The second method is as follows: hole sowing the toadstool cultivated species in the land directly and covering with soil with the thickness of 0.5cm-2.5cm. For the above two methods, at least one time of nutrition supplementation is carried out when mycelial is mature, and the nutrient supplementary solution is prepared by grass ash leachate, KH2PO4, MgSO4 and urea.

Description

Morel culture material prescription and toadstool natural cultivating method
Technical field
The invention belongs to a kind of rare class field of edible fungus culture, particularly the crude culture method of culture material prescription of morel and morel.
Background technology
Morel is one of most precious world-renowned edible mushrooms, and its protein content height and amino acid A wide selection of colours and designs (having 19 seed amino acids) are delicious good to eat, are regarded as kitchen treasure by people between east and west; Morel also has certain health care curative effect value simultaneously, food and medicine consangunity, and Ming Dynasty's Compendium of Material Medica is early on the books, and the long-term edible immunizing power that can improve human body strengthens functions of intestines and stomach.But morel artificial culture difficulty is very big, and market is supported by limited natural morel always for a long time, so the morel artificial culture is the popular research field of edible mushrooms industry always.
The patent No. is that 4757640 United States Patent (USP) is a morel cultivation patent with milestone, can be at indoor anniversary production Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore, but input cost is big, and main problem be the cultivation the morel local flavor greatly degenerate, with natural morel evident difference is arranged.Publication number is the Chinese patent application of CN1095885A, CN101283658A, CN101438667A and Granted publication number disclose morel for the Chinese patent of CN1140164C a cultivating method.But the poor stability of described cultivating method, morel output is not high, can not realize commercialization cultivation truly.Up to now, the efficient fidelity artificial culture of morel remains the whole world all in a difficult problem of carrying out exploratory development.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of this invention is to provide crude culture method of morel and culture material prescription and the nutritional supplementation liquid formula that the toadstool natural cultivating method uses, close with the nutritive value and the local flavor that solve tame high yield of morel and stable yields technical barrier, make simultaneously the morel cultivated and wild toadstool.
Toadstool natural cultivating method of the present invention has dual mode, but they belong to a total inventive concept.
One, first kind of toadstool natural cultivating method
The component of the first kind of used morel culture material of toadstool natural cultivating method prescription and the weight percentage of each component are: herbage class herbaceous plant 60%~80%, agricultural crop straw 8%~20%, wheat bran 8%~20%, lime 2%~5%, gypsum 1%~2%, KH 2PO 40.2%~0.5%, MgSO 40.1%~0.3%, urea 0.1%~0.3%; Described herbage class herbaceous plant, agricultural crop straw and wheat bran are siccative, aqueous weight percentage≤13%.
In the above-mentioned morel culture material prescription, herbage class herbaceous plant is at least a in hybrid giant napier, rye grass, clover, the witloof.Hybrid giant napier, rye grass, clover, witloof all belong to the higher plant of protein content.
The operation steps of first kind of toadstool natural cultivating method is as follows successively:
(1) culture material preparation
Morel culture material prescription is above-mentioned prescription, and working method is: at first with load weighted KH 2PO 4, MgSO 4Add in the entry with urea and mix and form the aqueous solution (amount of water does not have strict demand, as long as can make KH 2PO 4, MgSO 4Get final product with urea dissolving formation solution), will contain KH then 2PO 4, MgSO 4Mix with the aqueous solution and load weighted herbage class herbaceous plant, agricultural crop straw, wheat bran, lime and the gypsum of urea, add water again and adjust the water content of culture material, making the aqueous weight percentage of culture material is 55%~65%, promptly directly uses behind use or the normal-pressure sterilization;
(2) miscegenation
Weight ratio by morel cultivar and morel culture material is the morel culture material of 1: 2~4 weighing morel cultivars and step (1) preparation, and they are mixed form morel cultivar-culture material mixture, weight ratio by morel cultivar-culture material mixture and soil is 1: 2~3 weighing morel cultivar-culture material mixture and soil again, and they are mixed formation morel cultivar-culture material-soil mixture;
(3) sowing
Be under 10~20 ℃ the condition, the morel cultivar-culture material-soil mixture of step (2) preparation evenly to be broadcast in the soil at natural temperature, blinding thickness is 0.5 centimetre~2.5 centimetres;
(4) send out the management of bacterium and mycelial growth
After morel cultivar-culture material-soil mixture was broadcast in the soil, the natural temperature of mycelial growth was 5 ℃~20 ℃, kept soil moisture content 70%~90%, relative air humidity 60%~80%, CO in the control air 2Content≤350ppm;
When mycelia is ripe, to carry out one time of nutrition at least and replenish, described nutritional supplementation is the nutritional supplementation liquid of nitrogenous, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, the amount of application of each nutritional supplementation liquid is every square metre of soil 200ml~500ml.
(5) sporophore growth management
Develop in the process of growth of sporophore and sporophore at original hase, natural temperature keeps soil moisture content 50%~70%, relative air humidity 80%~95%, CO in the control air at 10 ℃~25 ℃ 2Content≤200ppm.
Experiment shows, during sowing, preferably sows by 3 jin~10 jin morel cultivar-culture material-soil mixtures in every square metre of soil.
In the aforesaid method, the morel cultivar is cultivated according to the following steps:
1, with the Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore sterilization of gathering, under 15 ℃~20 ℃ the condition, the PDA culture medium culturing obtained pure mycelium in 3 days~4 days in incubator, promptly formed female the kind.
Elimination is to boil water and it is dried when 2, wheat being boiled to the no white heart, the bottling sterilization, and aseptic condition inserts down that morel is female to be planted, and cultivates 10 days~15 days at 10 ℃~22 ℃, promptly forms the morel original seed.
3, the cultivar culture material is that (wheat and stalk are siccative for wheat and stalk, aqueous weight percentage≤13%), the weight ratio of wheat and stalk is 5: 1, elimination is to boil water and it is dried when boiling wheat to the no white heart, with stalk aqueous weight percentage transfer to 55%~65% and add and to boil to the no white heart and the wheat after drying mixes the back bottling and sterilizes, aseptic condition inserts the morel original seed down, cultivates 20 days-30 days at 10 ℃~22 ℃, promptly forms the morel cultivar.
Two, second kind of toadstool natural cultivating method
The component of the second kind of used morel culture material of toadstool natural cultivating method prescription and the weight percentage of each component are: wheat 60%~70%, agricultural crop straw 10%~20%, black earth 10%~20%, KH 2PO 40.2%~0.5%, MgSO 40.1%~0.3%, urea 0.1%~0.3%; Described wheat, agricultural crop straw are siccative, aqueous weight percentage≤13%.
The operation steps of second kind of toadstool natural cultivating method is as follows successively:
(1) preparation of culture material
Morel culture material prescription is above-mentioned prescription, and working method is: when boiling load weighted wheat to the no white heart elimination to boil water and it is dried, with load weighted KH 2PO 4, MgSO 4Add in the entry with urea and mix and form the aqueous solution (amount of water does not have strict demand, as long as can make KH 2PO 4, MgSO 4Get final product with urea dissolving formation solution), will contain KH then 2PO 4, MgSO 4Mix with the aqueous solution of urea and load weighted agricultural crop straw and black earth, add the water content that water is adjusted culture material again, making the aqueous weight percentage of culture material is 55%~65%, continue after adding boiling to the wheat of the no white heart and mix after drying;
(2) cultivar is cultivated
Bottling of morel culture material or pack sterilization with step (1) preparation, under aseptic condition, insert the morel original seed, the volume ratio of morel original seed and morel culture material is 13~20: 400, in temperature is to cultivate 20 days~30 days under 10 ℃~22 ℃ the condition, promptly forms the morel cultivar;
(3) sowing
Be under 10 ℃~20 ℃ the condition at natural temperature, in the soil, blinding thickness is 0.5 centimetre~2.5 centimetres with the direct bunch planting of morel cultivar of step (2) preparation;
(4) send out the management of bacterium and mycelial growth
After the bunch planting of morel cultivar was gone in the soil, the natural temperature of mycelial growth was 5 ℃~20 ℃, kept soil moisture content 70%~90%, relative air humidity 60%~80%, CO in the control air 2Content≤350ppm.
When mycelia is ripe, to carry out one time of nutrition at least and replenish, described nutritional supplementation is the nutritional supplementation liquid of nitrogenous, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, the amount of application of each nutritional supplementation liquid is every square metre of soil 200ml~500ml;
(5) sporophore growth management
Develop in the process of growth of sporophore and sporophore at original hase, natural temperature keeps soil moisture content 50%~70%, relative air humidity 80%~95%, CO in the control air at 10 ℃~25 ℃ 2Content≤200ppm.
Experiment shows, during sowing, preferably sows by 3 jin~6 jin morel cultivars in every square metre of soil.
In the aforesaid method, the morel original seed is cultivated according to the following steps:
1, with the Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore sterilization of gathering, under 15 ℃~20 ℃ the condition, the PDA culture medium culturing obtained pure mycelium in 3 days~4 days in incubator, promptly formed female the kind.
Elimination is to boil water and it is dried when 2, wheat being boiled to the no white heart, the bottling sterilization, and aseptic condition inserts down that morel is female to be planted, and cultivates 10 days~15 days at 10 ℃~22 ℃, promptly forms the morel original seed.
In above-mentioned first kind of toadstool natural cultivating method and the second kind of toadstool natural cultivating method, the prescription of described nutritional supplementation liquid all is: add KH in every liter of plant ash leach liquor 2PO 42 grams~5 grams, MgSO 41 gram~3 grams, urea 0.5 gram~3 grams, described plant ash leach liquor are elimination plant ash institute obtain filtrates after under the room temperature (indoor natural temperature) plant ash being soaked at least 1 hour in water, are 1: 25~30 to measure plant ash and water by the weight ratio of plant ash and water during preparation; With KH 2PO 4, MgSO 4Add with urea and to make its dissolving in the plant ash leach liquor, with lime the pH value of this mixed solution is adjusted to 7 then and promptly obtains nutritional supplementation liquid.
Above-mentioned first kind of toadstool natural cultivating method and second kind of toadstool natural cultivating method all can be built simple plastic greenhouse, and the booth of building requires to ventilate, preserves moisture, is convenient to manual operation.
The present invention has following beneficial effect:
1, the method for the invention is not added any sterilant or sterilant, allows self-sow under the very close environment of morel and wild condition, has kept the natural ecological characteristic of morel to greatest extent.
2, the method for the invention is compared with existing morel cultivating method, can increase substantially the tame output of morel, has realized commercialization cultivation truly.
3, because morel culture material of the present invention contains a large amount of green crops, can not only provide abundant nutriment, promote the morel high yield, and cost be low, is convenient to obtain for morel.
Embodiment
Below by embodiment morel culture material prescription of the present invention and toadstool natural cultivating method are described further.
Embodiment 1
In the present embodiment, morel culture material prescription is: hybrid giant napier 20%, clover 40%, wheat straw 12%, wheat bran 20%, lime 5%, gypsum 2%, KH 2PO 40.5%, MgSO 40.3%, urea 0.2%, and the percentage ratio of each component is weight percentage.Hybrid giant napier, clover, wheat straw are 1 centimetre~3 centimetres pipe nipple material, and wheat bran is a powder, aqueous weight percentage≤13%.
Embodiment 2
In the present embodiment, morel culture material prescription is: rye grass 50%, witloof 30%, corn stalk 8%, wheat bran 8%, lime 2.4%, gypsum 1.2%, KH 2PO 40.2%, MgSO 40.1%, urea 0.1%, and the percentage ratio of each component is weight percentage.Rye grass, witloof, cornstalk are 1 centimetre~3 centimetres pipe nipple material, and wheat bran is a powder, aqueous weight percentage≤13%.
Embodiment 3
In the present embodiment, the operation steps of toadstool natural cultivating method is as follows successively:
(1) cultivar is cultivated
The morel cultivar is cultivated according to the following steps:
A, the Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore of gathering is washed with sterilized water, carry out surface sterilization with 75% alcohol again, be on 0.5 centimetre~1 centimetre the tissue block access PDA substratum with scalper intercepting size then, in incubator under 15 ℃~20 ℃ the condition, cultivate and obtained pure mycelium in 3~4 days, promptly form female the kind;
B, wheat is boiled to there not being when the heart elimination to boil water and it is dried, bottling then to room temperature, inserts that morel is female to be planted at 2 hours postcooling of 124 ℃ ± 2 ℃ sterilizations under aseptic condition continue the back, 15 ℃~20 ℃ cultivations about 10 days, promptly form the morel original seed;
C, cultivar culture material are wheat and stalk (siccative, aqueous weight percentage≤13%), the weight ratio of wheat and stalk is 5: 1, elimination is to boil water and it is dried when boiling wheat to the no white heart, with stalk aqueous weight percentage transfer to 60% and add and to boil to the no white heart and the wheat after drying mixes the back and bottles, 124 ℃ ± 2 ℃ sterilizations 2 hours, under aseptic condition, insert the morel original seed after being cooled to room temperature, cultivated about 22 days at 15 ℃~20 ℃, promptly form the morel cultivar;
(2) culture material preparation
Morel culture material prescription is embodiment 1 a described prescription, and working method is: at first with load weighted KH 2PO 4, MgSO 4Add in the entry with urea and mix the formation aqueous solution, will contain KH then 2PO 4, MgSO 4Mix with the aqueous solution and load weighted herbage class herbaceous plant, agricultural crop straw, wheat bran, lime and the gypsum of urea, add the water content that water is adjusted culture material again, making the aqueous weight percentage of culture material is about 65%, uses behind the normal-pressure sterilization; The operation of normal-pressure sterilization: the culture material after will mixing thoroughly is packed in the plastics bag, and every packed 20 jin~30 jin, 100 ℃ of sterilizations of normal pressure 6 hours~8 hours, sterilization naturally cools to room temperature after finishing;
(3) miscegenation
By the weight ratio of morel cultivar and morel culture material is the morel culture material of 1: 2 weighing morel cultivar and step (2) preparation, and they are mixed form morel cultivar-culture material mixture, weight ratio by morel cultivar-culture material mixture and soil is 1: 2 weighing morel cultivar-culture material mixture and soil again, and they are mixed formation morel cultivar-culture material-soil mixture;
(4) sowing
Natural temperature is (China's Chengdu Plain late October~early December) under 10 ℃~20 ℃ the condition, and morel cultivar-culture material-every square metre of soil of soil mixture of step (3) preparation is evenly broadcast in the soil for 10 jin, and blinding thickness is 2.5 centimetres.
(5) send out the management of bacterium and mycelial growth
After bacterial classification was broadcast in the soil, the natural temperature of mycelial growth was 5 ℃~20 ℃, kept soil moisture content 75%~85%, relative air humidity 65%~75%, CO in the control air 2Content≤350ppm.
When mycelia is ripe, carry out one time of nutrition and replenish, the prescription of nutritional supplementation liquid is: add KH in every liter of plant ash leach liquor 2PO 42 grams, MgSO 41 gram, urea 0.5 gram, described plant ash leach liquor is that plant ash are soaked elimination plant ash institute obtain filtrate after 2 hours in water, is to measure plant ash and water at 1: 30 by the weight ratio of plant ash and water during preparation; With KH 2PO 4, MgSO 4Add with urea and to make its dissolving in the plant ash leach liquor, with lime the pH value of this mixed solution is adjusted to 7 then and promptly obtains nutritional supplementation liquid.The amount of application of nutritional supplementation liquid is about every square metre of soil 500ml.
(6) sporophore growth management
Develop in the process of growth of sporophore and sporophore at original hase, natural temperature keeps soil moisture content 55%~65%, relative air humidity 80%~90%, CO in the control air at 10 ℃~25 ℃ 2Content≤200ppm.
The described method of present embodiment, from sowing to sporophore ripe about 100 days~120 days, 200 kilograms~300 kilograms of fresh morels can be plucked in every mu of soil.
Embodiment 4
In the present embodiment, the operation steps of toadstool natural cultivating method is as follows successively:
(1) cultivar is cultivated
The culturing step of morel cultivar is identical with embodiment 3.
(2) culture material preparation
Morel culture material prescription is embodiment 2 described prescriptions, and working method is: at first with load weighted KH 2PO 4, MgSO 4Add in the entry with urea and mix the formation aqueous solution, will contain KH then 2PO 4, MgSO 4Mix with the aqueous solution and load weighted herbage class herbaceous plant, agricultural crop straw, wheat bran, lime and the gypsum of urea, add the water content that water is adjusted culture material again, making the aqueous weight percentage of culture material is about 55%, promptly directly uses;
(3) miscegenation
By the weight ratio of morel cultivar and morel culture material is the morel culture material of 1: 4 weighing morel cultivar and step (2) preparation, and they are mixed form morel cultivar-culture material mixture, weight ratio by morel cultivar-culture material mixture and soil is 1: 3 weighing morel cultivar-culture material mixture and soil again, and they are mixed formation morel cultivar-culture material-soil mixture;
(4) sowing
Natural temperature is (China's Chengdu Plain late October~early December) under 10~20 ℃ the condition, and morel cultivar-culture material-every square metre of soil of soil mixture of step (3) preparation is evenly broadcast in the soil for 3 jin, and blinding thickness is 0.5 centimetre.
(5) send out the management of bacterium and mycelial growth
After bacterial classification was broadcast in the soil, the natural temperature of mycelial growth was 5 ℃~20 ℃, kept soil moisture content 75%~85%, relative air humidity 65%~75%, CO in the control air 2Content≤35Oppm.
When mycelia is ripe, carry out one time of nutrition and replenish, the prescription of nutritional supplementation liquid is: add KH in every liter of plant ash leach liquor 2PO 45 grams, MgSO 43 grams, urea 3 gram, described plant ash leach liquor is that plant ash are soaked elimination plant ash institute obtain filtrate after 1 hour in water, is to measure plant ash and water at 1: 25 by the weight ratio of plant ash and water during preparation; With KH 2PO 4, MgSO 4Add with urea and to make its dissolving in the plant ash leach liquor, with lime the pH value of this mixed solution is adjusted to 7 then and promptly obtains nutritional supplementation liquid.The amount of application of nutritional supplementation liquid is about every square metre of soil 200ml.
(6) sporophore growth management
Develop in the process of growth of sporophore and sporophore at original hase, natural temperature keeps soil moisture content 55%~65%, relative air humidity 80%~90%, CO in the control air at 10 ℃~25 ℃ 2Content≤200ppm.
The described method of present embodiment, from sowing to sporophore ripe about 100~120 days, 150~180 kilograms of fresh morels can be plucked in every mu of soil.
Embodiment 5
In the present embodiment, morel culture material prescription is: wheat 60%, wheat straw 19%, black earth 20%, KH 2PO 40.4%, MgSO 40.3% and urea 0.3%, the percentage ratio of each component is weight percentage, and described wheat is that particle, wheat straw are 1 centimetre~3 centimetres pipe nipple material, aqueous weight percentage≤13%.
Embodiment 6
In the present embodiment, morel culture material prescription is: wheat 70%, straw 11.6%, black earth 18%, KH 2PO 40.2%, MgSO 40.1% and urea 0.1%, the percentage ratio of each component is weight percentage, and described wheat is that particle, wheat straw are 1 centimetre~3 centimetres pipe nipple material, aqueous weight percentage≤13%.
Embodiment 7
In the present embodiment, the operation steps of toadstool natural cultivating method is as follows successively:
(1) original seed is cultivated
The morel original seed is cultivated according to the following steps:
A, the Morchella esculenta (L.) Pers sporophore of gathering is washed with sterilized water, carry out surface sterilization with 75% alcohol again, be on 0.5 centimetre~1 centimetre the tissue block access PDA substratum with scalper intercepting size then, in incubator under 15 ℃~20 ℃ the condition, cultivate and obtained pure mycelium in 3~4 days, promptly form female the kind;
B, when boiling wheat to the no white heart elimination to boil water and it is dried, bottling then to room temperature, inserts that morel is female to be planted at 2 hours postcooling of 124 ℃ ± 2 ℃ sterilizations under aseptic condition continue the back, 15 ℃~20 ℃ cultivations about 10 days, promptly form the morel original seed;
(2) culture material preparation
Morel culture material prescription is embodiment 5 described prescriptions, and working method is: when boiling load weighted wheat to the no white heart elimination to boil water and it is dried, with load weighted KH 2PO 4, MgSO 4Add in the entry with urea and mix the formation aqueous solution, will contain KH then 2PO 4, MgSO 4Mix with the aqueous solution of urea and load weighted agricultural crop straw and black earth, add the water content that water is adjusted culture material again, making the aqueous weight percentage of culture material is about 55%, continue after adding boiling to the wheat of the no white heart and mix after drying;
(3) cultivar is cultivated
Morel culture material bottling with step (2) preparation, sterilized 2 hours for 124 ℃ ± 2 ℃, after being cooled to room temperature, under aseptic condition, insert the morel original seed, the volume ratio of morel original seed and morel culture material is 13: 400, cultivated about 25 days at 15 ℃~20 ℃, promptly form the morel cultivar;
(4) sowing
At natural temperature is under the condition of 10 ℃~20 ℃ (China's Chengdu Plain late October~early Decembers), and the morel cultivar of step (3) preparation is pressed the 6 jin of direct bunch plantings in every square metre of soil in the soil, and blinding thickness is 2 centimetres;
(5) send out the management of bacterium and mycelial growth
After the bunch planting of morel cultivar was gone in the soil, the natural temperature of mycelial growth was 5 ℃~20 ℃, kept soil moisture content 70%~90%, relative air humidity 60%~80%, CO in the control air 2Content≤350ppm.
When mycelia is ripe, carry out one time of nutrition and replenish, the prescription of nutritional supplementation liquid is: add KH in every liter of plant ash leach liquor 2PO 42 grams, MgSO 41 gram, urea 3 gram, described plant ash leach liquor is that plant ash are soaked elimination plant ash institute obtain filtrate after 2 hours in water, is to measure plant ash and water at 1: 25 by the weight ratio of plant ash and water during preparation; With KH 2PO 4, MgSO 4Add with urea and to make its dissolving in the plant ash leach liquor, with lime the pH value of this mixed solution is adjusted to 7 then and promptly obtains nutritional supplementation liquid.The amount of application of nutritional supplementation liquid is about every square metre of soil 450ml;
(6) sporophore growth management
Develop in the process of growth of sporophore and sporophore at original hase, natural temperature keeps soil moisture content 55%~65%, relative air humidity 80%~90%, CO in the control air at 10 ℃~25 ℃ 2Content≤200ppm.
The described method of present embodiment, from sowing to sporophore ripe about 100 days~120 days, 100 kilograms~160 kilograms of fresh morels can be plucked in every mu of soil.
Embodiment 8
In the present embodiment, the operation steps of toadstool natural cultivating method is as follows successively:
(1) original seed is cultivated
The culturing step of morel original seed is identical with embodiment 7.
(2) culture material preparation
Morel culture material prescription is embodiment 6 described prescriptions, and working method is: when boiling load weighted wheat to the no white heart elimination to boil water and it is dried, with load weighted KH 2PO 4, MgSO 4Add in the entry with urea and mix the formation aqueous solution, will contain KH then 2PO 4, MgSO 4Mix with the aqueous solution of urea and load weighted agricultural crop straw and black earth, add the water content that water is adjusted culture material again, making the aqueous weight percentage of culture material is about 65%, continue after adding boiling to the wheat of the no white heart and mix after drying;
(3) cultivar is cultivated
Morel culture material bottling with step (2) preparation, 124 ℃ ± 2 ℃ sterilizations 2 hours are cooled to and insert the morel original seed after the room temperature under aseptic conditions, and the volume ratio of morel original seed and morel culture material is 20: 400, cultivated about 22 days at 15 ℃~20 ℃, promptly form the morel cultivar;
(4) sowing
At natural temperature is under the condition of 10 ℃~20 ℃ (China's Chengdu Plain late October~early Decembers), and the morel cultivar of step (3) preparation is pressed the 3 jin of direct bunch plantings in every square metre of soil in the soil, and blinding thickness is 1 centimetre;
(5) send out the management of bacterium and mycelial growth
After the bunch planting of morel cultivar was gone in the soil, the natural temperature of mycelial growth was 5 ℃~20 ℃, kept soil moisture content 70%~90%, relative air humidity 60%~80%, CO in the control air 2Content≤350ppm.
When mycelia is ripe, carry out one time of nutrition and replenish, the prescription of nutritional supplementation liquid is: add KH in every liter of plant ash leach liquor 2PO 44 grams, MgSO 42 grams, urea 1 gram; Described plant ash leach liquor is that plant ash are soaked elimination plant ash institute obtain filtrate after 1 hour in water, is 1: 30 metering plant ash and water by the weight ratio of plant ash and water during preparation; With KH 2PO 4, MgSO 4Add with urea and to make its dissolving in the plant ash leach liquor, with lime the pH value of this mixed solution is adjusted to 7 then and promptly obtains nutritional supplementation liquid.The amount of application of nutritional supplementation liquid is about every square metre of soil 250ml.
(6) sporophore growth management
Develop in the process of growth of sporophore and sporophore at original hase, natural temperature keeps soil moisture content 55%~65%, relative air humidity 80%~90%, CO in the control air at 10 ℃~25 ℃ 2Content≤200ppm.
The described method of present embodiment, from sowing to sporophore ripe about 100 days~120 days, 80 kilograms~100 kilograms of fresh morels can be plucked in every mu of soil.
Above embodiment all can build simple plastic greenhouse in the situation of the related temperature of cultivation process, humidity, requires in the booth of being built to ventilate, preserves moisture, is convenient to manual operation and get final product.

Claims (4)

1. a morel culture material prescription is characterized in that the component of this prescription and the weight percentage of each component are: herbage class herbaceous plant 60%~80%, agricultural crop straw 8%~20%, wheat bran 8%~20%, lime 2%~5%, gypsum 1%~2%, KH 2PO 40.2%~0.5%, MgSO 40.1%~0.3%, urea 0.1%~0.3%; Described herbage class herbaceous plant is at least a in hybrid giant napier, rye grass, clover, the witloof, and described herbage class herbaceous plant, agricultural crop straw and wheat bran are siccative, aqueous weight percentage≤13%.
2. toadstool natural cultivating method is characterized in that the operation steps of described method is as follows successively:
(1) culture material preparation
Morel culture material prescription is the described prescription of claim 1, and working method is: at first with load weighted KH 2PO 4, MgSO 4Add in the entry with urea and mix the formation aqueous solution, will contain KH then 2PO 4, MgSO 4Mix with the aqueous solution and load weighted herbage class herbaceous plant, agricultural crop straw, wheat bran, lime and the gypsum of urea, add water again and adjust the water content of culture material, making the aqueous weight percentage of culture material is 55%~65%, promptly directly uses behind use or the normal-pressure sterilization;
(2) miscegenation
Weight ratio by morel cultivar and morel culture material is the morel culture material of 1: 2~4 weighing morel cultivars and step (1) preparation, and they are mixed form morel cultivar-culture material mixture, weight ratio by morel cultivar-culture material mixture and soil is 1: 2~3 weighing morel cultivar-culture material mixture and soil again, and they are mixed formation morel cultivar-culture material-soil mixture;
(3) sowing
Be under 10 ℃~20 ℃ the condition, the morel cultivar-culture material-soil mixture of step (2) preparation evenly to be broadcast in the soil at natural temperature, blinding thickness is 0.5 centimetre~2.5 centimetres;
(4) send out the management of bacterium and mycelial growth
After morel cultivar-culture material-soil mixture was broadcast in the soil, the natural temperature of mycelial growth was 5 ℃~20 ℃, kept soil moisture content 70%~90%, relative air humidity 60%~80%, CO in the control air 2Content≤350ppm;
When mycelia is ripe, to carry out one time of nutrition at least and replenish, described nutritional supplementation is to use the nutritional supplementation liquid of nitrogenous, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, the amount of application of each nutritional supplementation liquid is every square metre of soil 200ml~500ml; The prescription of described nutritional supplementation liquid is: add KH in every liter of plant ash leach liquor 2PO 42 grams~5 grams, MgSO 41 gram~3 grams, urea 0.5 gram~3 grams, described plant ash leach liquor is at room temperature plant ash to be soaked elimination plant ash institute obtain filtrate after at least 1 hour in water, the weight ratio by plant ash and water during preparation is 1: 25~30 metering plant ash and water; With KH 2PO 4, MgSO 4Add with urea and to make its dissolving in the plant ash leach liquor, with lime the pH value of this mixed solution is adjusted to 7 then and promptly obtains nutritional supplementation liquid;
(5) sporophore growth management
Develop in the process of growth of sporophore and sporophore at original hase, natural temperature keeps soil moisture content 50%~70%, relative air humidity 80%~95%, CO in the control air at 10 ℃~25 ℃ 2Content≤200ppm.
3. toadstool natural cultivating method according to claim 2 is characterized in that sowing by 3 jin~10 jin morel cultivar-culture material-soil mixtures in every square metre of soil.
4. according to claim 2 or 3 described toadstool natural cultivating methods, it is characterized in that on the soil of cultivation morel, building simple plastic greenhouse with ventilation, performance of keeping humidity.
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