CN105110954A - Culture medium for selenium-rich organic edible fungi and culture method thereof - Google Patents

Culture medium for selenium-rich organic edible fungi and culture method thereof Download PDF

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CN105110954A
CN105110954A CN201510566501.0A CN201510566501A CN105110954A CN 105110954 A CN105110954 A CN 105110954A CN 201510566501 A CN201510566501 A CN 201510566501A CN 105110954 A CN105110954 A CN 105110954A
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culture
selenium
edible mushrooms
rich
cultivation
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曾济天
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Chongqing Zeng East combustion nanotechnology partnership (limited partnership)
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曾济天
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G18/00Cultivation of mushrooms

Abstract

The invention provides a culture medium for selenium-rich organic edible fungi, which is mainly prepared from the following raw materials in parts by mass: 60-90 parts of culture main material, 10-25 parts of carbon organic fertilizer, 1-5 parts of selenium-rich nutrient element, 1-6 parts of root irrigation culture agent, 0.2-0.5 part of compound probiotic fertilizer and 0.1-0.5 part of plant growth promoter. The method for culturing selenium-rich organic edible fungi by using the culture medium comprises the following steps: mixing the plant growth promoter and compound probiotic fertilizer, and dissolving in water to prepare a liquid; mixing the rest raw materials, adding the liquid, and fermenting to obtain the culture medium; and uniformly mixing a strain with the culture medium for inoculation, culturing for 10-15 days until the hypha are overgrown, and reinoculating the hypha. The culture medium has the advantages of reasonable component proportioning and high growth speed of hypha.

Description

The culture material of the organic edible mushrooms of a kind of rich selenium and cultural method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to edible mushrooms and cultivate cultivation field, in particular to culture material and the cultural method thereof of the organic edible mushrooms of a kind of rich selenium.
Background technology
Since the eighties initial stage, investment is little, the cycle is short, the project of having got rich of instant effect is able to fast development in China as one for edible fungus culturing, and once once supply falls short of demand for edible fungus, and selling price is high.Mushroom industry is a short, adaptable and fast rural economic development project integrating economic benefit, ecological benefits and social benefit, edible mushrooms is again that a class is organic, nutrition, health care green food.Development mushroom industry meets the needs that people consume growth and agricultural sustainable development, is the effective way that peasant gets rich fast.Based on above reason, planting edible mushroom field is flourish.
In prior art, the culture material that plantation edible mushrooms generally uses mostly is willow, willow, elm, maple, fruitlet banyan, the wood chip of Foliole banyan etc. is as Main Cultivation material, also adopt cotton seed hulls in addition, corn cob makes substratum and carries out cultivation edible mushrooms, but the culture material adopting these materials to make all needs first sterilizing before planting, timely sterilizing to be noted especially under the condition that particularly temperature is higher, with the infection of antiforeign bacteria, this artificially mandatory practice for edible fungi growth creation gnotobasis, operation is numerous and diverse, production efficiency is low, repeatedly carry pocket, aseptic result is also difficult to ensure completely, and the culture material after sterilizing does not have defensive ability/resistance ability completely to again infecting of harmful bacteria.Conventional sterilization procedures is time-consuming power consumption not only, the crucial requirement being also not suitable with Ecological Industrialization and producing.Also have bacterial classification in planting process to be easy to aging, the mycelia substantially grown can not be re-used as seed and reuse, and wastes very much.So, not only the operation steps of cultural method is more loaded down with trivial details, mycelia can not recycle and add running cost virtually, and owing to the addition of a large amount of grain class powders and high nitrogen height phosphatization fertilizer etc. in culture material as auxiliary material, people and animals are caused to strive grain, further exacerbate " bacterium grain contradiction ", its composition proportion is unreasonable, and the edible mushrooms quality of turning out is not high yet.The artificial culture of the wood-decay fungi such as mushroom of the prior art, auricularia auriculajudae, glossy ganoderma is all with forest tree resources such as pure wood chips for raw material, and along with the fast development of these wood-decay fungi variety production, " bacterium woods contradiction " highlights day by day.
In view of this, special proposition the present invention.
Summary of the invention
The first object of the present invention is the culture material providing the organic edible mushrooms of a kind of rich selenium, it is more reasonable that the culture material of the described organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium has each composition proportion, nutritive ingredient is more easily by mycelia sorption enhanced, improve the quality of edible mycelia, environmental protection, makes to be rich in the edible mushrooms turned out advantages such as the useful trace elements of human body.
The second object of the present invention is to provide a kind of method utilizing above-mentioned culture material to cultivate the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium, and the method has the step eliminating intermediate demand sterilizing and fully simplifies operation steps, operational condition gentleness, ecological, environmental protective, can be good at the advantages such as each effective constituent retained in culture material is not destroyed.
In order to realize above-mentioned purpose of the present invention, spy by the following technical solutions:
Embodiments provide the culture material of the organic edible mushrooms of a kind of rich selenium, obtain primarily of following raw material: in mass fraction, Cultivation use 60-90 part, carbon element fertilizer 10-25 part, selenium-rich nutritive Huolisu 1-5 part, root fills with cultivating agent 1-6 part, the fertile 0.2-0.5 part of compound probiotic, Promoting plant growth agent 0.1-0.5 part, wherein said selenium-rich nutritive Huolisu is primarily of natural mineral fertilizer, potassium-containing compound, magnesium-containing compound, calcium oxide, biochemical fulvic acid powder, VITAMIN, silicon-dioxide, Sodium Selenite and trace element replenisher are made, described Cultivation use is primarily of agricultural crop straw, corn cob, bagasse, bacterium grass, one or more in wood chip and cotton seed hulls are mixed.
So-called Cultivation use is primarily of agricultural crop straw, corn cob, bagasse, bacterium grass, the agricultural such as wood chip and cotton seed hulls organic waste is made, agricultural organic waste refers to agriculture, woods, herd, the refuse produced in each industry process for processing of fishing and peasant's daily life process, main with stalk, leaf, weeds and wood chip etc. are main, also comprise corresponding grain processing plant, brewery, the tankage of agricultural byproducts processing factory, process residues is as chaff skin, wheat bran, grain slag, corn cob, beanpod, Pericarppium arachidis hypogaeae etc., agriculture and forestry organic waste material is not only of a great variety, enormous amount, cheap and easy to get, and be the desirable feedstock of the good nutritive substance of microorganism and compost.Because generally all with stalk in prior art, leaf, weeds and wood chip are that culture material is to cultivate edible mushrooms, but this culture material adds due to not extra the nutritive substance being easy to edible fungi growth, before cultivating, first sterilizing is needed containing miscellaneous bacteria, and the edible fungi nutrition of turning out and local flavor abundant all not, it is aging that the most important is that the mycelia turned out is easy to, can not circulate as bacterial classification used during cultivation bacterium mushroom of future generation, also need additionally to supplement fresh bacterial classification to cultivate, be equivalent to adds additional raw materials cost, and complicated operation compares primitivation, do not meet the theory needing technological innovation the present age, more be not suitable for wide popularization and application because technology itself exists many drawbacks.
The present invention is in order to solve the technical problem of above appearance, spy provides a kind of special culture material, except the agricultural organic waste beyond the region of objective existence containing routine in this culture material, do not re-use the auxiliary material such as grain class powder and high nitrogen height phosphatization fertilizer, the edible mushrooms turned out is rich in the trace element useful to human body, is especially rich in the advantages such as organic-biological selenium element.The more important thing is and no longer add grain class powder and high nitrogen height phosphatization fertilizer etc. as auxiliary material, adopt no longer merely the forest tree resources such as wood chip as the main raw material of cultivation wood-decay fungi, solve " the bacterium grain contradiction " and " bacterium woods contradiction " in Edible Fungi, open the new way of one is not striven grain and not restricted by forest tree resource development Edible Fungi with people and animals.In culture material, also with the addition of carbon element fertilizer, selenium-rich nutritive Huolisu and compound probiotic fertilizer etc., wherein carbon element fertilizer wormcast fertilizer, Fulvic acid organic fertilizer or both mixtures, wormcast fertilizer is a kind of fertilizer efficiently, and maximum feature organism-microorganism-somatomedin is reasonably combined to improve edatope.Finally reach getting fat, disease-resistant, support the object of soil.The uniform particles of earthworm fertilizer, tasteless, health, water conservation ventilation property is 3 times of general soil, wherein comprises 18 seed amino acids, and containing organic 42.2%, probiotics reaches every gram 200,000 ~ 200,000,000.Therefore agricultural organic waste is organically combined with wormcast fertilizer, because it contains abundant probiotics, the consumption of agricultural organic waste can be reduced on the one hand, the mouthfeel of the mycelia turned out can be improved in addition and increase nutritive ingredient contained by it.
Wherein, described selenium-rich nutritive Huolisu is made primarily of natural mineral fertilizer, potassium-containing compound, magnesium-containing compound, calcium oxide, biochemical fulvic acid powder, VITAMIN, silicon-dioxide, Sodium Selenite and trace element replenisher.Natural mineral fertilizer preferably adopts the natural mineral fertilizer based on medical stone.
Selenium is the important component part of some antioxidases (Selenoperoxidase) and selenium-P albumen in human body and animal, play a part balance oxidation reduction atmosphere in vivo, research proves that selenium has the effect improving body immunity and preventing cancer, one of trace element being considered to needed by human, selenium is that inorganic selenium is converted into organoselenium by carrier by compound probiotic, edible mushrooms, therefore by adding rich selenium element additive, the edible mushrooms turned out can be made to be rich in organoselenium, and rich selenium element additive used is generally Sodium Selenite.
Noticeablely in addition to be, it is fertile that the present invention also added abundant compound probiotic, this kind of bacterial classification belongs to the living microorganism useful to host, be colonizated in human intestinal, reproductive system, energy produces definite health efficacy thus improves the active beneficial microorganism of host's microecological balance, performance beneficial effect, and conventional compound probiotic kind is lactobacillus, genus bacillus group, actinomycete group, photosynthetic bacteria group, yeast flora, bacillus aceticus group, Paecilomyces lilacinus flora.After adding rich selenium element additive and compound probiotic fertilizer, change the nutritional status of culture material, corrupt bacterial classification can be annexed by prebiotic bacterial classification, prebiotic bacterial classification is made to form ecological dominance occupy-place, spoilage organism is absorbed into probiotic bacterium, and collaborative growth, the specificity culture medium being conducive to hypha of edible fungus growth can be obtained.Nutritious, that mouthfeel is good mycelia still can be grown without sterilizing during follow-up like this cultivation edible mushrooms, and the mycelia grown substantially can not be aging, the sowing that can circulate uses, but when actually operating in order to improve the quality of mycelia, general circulation sowing 2-3 time.
In addition, potassium-containing compound and siliceous, calcium, magnesium elements compound are the essential nutrient elements of edible fungi growth, can increase substantially yield and quality, generally can select potassium oxide or potassium sulfate, calcium oxide, magnesium oxide or magnesium sulfate, silicon-dioxide etc.Natural mineral matter fertilizer based on medical stone, owing to being rich in the medium trace element needed for growth and development of plants, has the effect promoting mycelial growth, be conducive to the conversion of organic-biological selenium equally after therefore adding.
Promoting plant growth agent can promote that mycelia darkening grows, and growth regulation balances, the cumulative genetic good character of bacterial classification, the plant inductor that herbal medicine can be adopted to form or plant metabolism regulation and control element.Root is filled with acting as of cultivating agent and is made plant grew well, improves water and fertilizer utilization, economizes fertile water saving, avoids the loss of fertilizer, water.
In the present invention, on the consumption of each raw material of preparation culture material, except the agricultural organic waste dosage of routine is larger, wormcast fertilizer dosage is also relatively large, the consumption of other raw materials is all that contriver passes through to put into practice optimization in a large number, wherein the dosage of especially rich selenium element additive is particularly noted, general trace, because if dosage crosses conference, the growth to mycelia has restraining effect, therefore strictly dosage to be controlled, suitable dosage is not only of value to inorganic selenium and is converted into organoselenium in bacterial classification, obtain adaptability and be rich in organoselenium edible fungus variety preferably, and the growth of mycelia can be promoted.Compound probiotic and root are filled with cultivating agent and are all had dosage and cross conference and produce the effect of running counter to desire in addition, the waste of raw material can be caused unlike agricultural organic waste, large of wormcast fertilizer dosage but can not affect the growth of bacterial classification very large, therefore needing to control addition.Certain key protection point of the present invention had both been that the kind of culture material was selected also to be on the addition of each raw material; under the prerequisite only having raw material type and consumption simultaneously to meet; the culture material obtained just can be made to play its superior performance; not only organoselenium constituent content is high, quality is high for the edible mushrooms turned out, all the other nutritive element contents are also higher, and mouthfeel is natural.And culture material of the present invention can promote that mycelia grows fast, strong stress resistance, long-pending selenium ability are strong, these raw material types can not be replaced can not adding any one less by other raw materials.
In order to strengthen the synergy between raw material, make the best results of culture material, after optimizing, the consumption of each raw material is: Cultivation use 68-88 part, carbon element fertilizer 12-23 part, selenium-rich nutritive Huolisu 2-4 part, root fills with cultivating agent 1-2 part, the fertile 0.3-0.5 part of compound probiotic, Promoting plant growth agent 0.2-0.4 part.The embodiment of the present invention is except providing the formula of the culture material of the organic edible mushrooms of a kind of rich selenium, additionally provide the method utilizing above-mentioned culture material to cultivate the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium, thus cultural method and culture material are optimized integrated with the ecological process realizing the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium, specifically comprise the steps:
First Promoting plant growth agent and the fertile blending water of compound probiotic are dissolved and be made into liquid, for subsequent use;
By all the other raw material mix and blends, and stir after adding aforesaid liquid, fermentation 1-25d obtains culture material;
By bacterial classification and culture material mixing and stirring to sow, cultivate after 10-15d after covering with mycelia, after described mycelia again repeat sowing 2-3 time, obtain the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium.
The step that this cultural method eliminates intermediate demand high-temperature heat sterilization fully simplify operation steps, operational condition gentle, can be good at each effective constituent retained in culture material and be not destroyed.The more important thing is the significant technology issues solving in the existing Edible Fungi of puzzlement and certainly lead to a large amount of miscellaneous bacteria and cause the underproduction even to be had no harvest.
In this step of spice, by all the other raw material mix and blends, and the mass ratio of liquid in the step stirred after adding aforesaid liquid and all the other raw material total amounts is preferably 1:(1.2-1.3), restriction mass ratio is also to limit the water content of cultivating raw material.By the rate-controlling of all the other raw material mix and blends at 200-300rad/min; Preferably, the rate-controlling stirred after adding aforesaid liquid is at 200-300rad/min, and stir speed (S.S.) too fast being unfavorable for cultivates the uniformity coefficient that raw material fully absorbs moisture and impact stirring.。
In fermentation step, need decide the time length of fermenting according to different edible fungus varieties, edible mushrooms as organic in rich selenium is straw rotting fungus, then the 1-2d that ferments obtains culture material, and the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium as turned out is wood-decay fungi, then the 7-25d that ferments obtains culture material.
Sowing can be started after fermentation step, but it is active to strengthen it to need first to carry out pre-treatment to bacterial classification before planting, first with the solution soaking 10-30min that Promoting plant growth agent is mixed with, and the mass ratio between the solution that is mixed with of bacterial classification and Promoting plant growth agent is 1:(60-100).
In sowing step, adopt 50% advantage seeding method, and after planting in order to realize enclosed environment, common be operating as the culture material mixing and stirring fermented after load blend compounds circle tying in the cultivating bag of 22*45cm.After tying, the cultivating bag having broadcast bacterial classification is moved into bacteria canopy and carries out bacteria, the ambient moisture cultivated preferably controls below 60%, envrionment temperature preferably controls at 15-25 DEG C, bacterium bag can be covered with through about 10-15 days, will the mycelium second time of bacterium bag be covered with as bacterial classification, repeat sowing, so repeatedly carry out after three times, mycelial bacterium bag will be covered with and carry out fruiting.Can find out, can realize recycling of mycelia in the concrete culturing process of the present invention, bacterial classification is not easily aging.
This cultural method of the present invention is applicable to all edible fungus varieties on the market substantially, comprise the edible mushrooms and medicinal fungus kind that can cultivate, concrete is in flat mushroom, needle mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus nebrodensis, bisporous mushroom, mushroom, Auricularia polytricha (Mout) Sacc., black fungus, white fungus, golden ear, glossy ganoderma, rhizoma Gastrodiae, Poria cocos and umbellate pore furgus any one.The quality of the edible mushrooms grown own is also higher than equivalents on the market, and the speed of growth is also fast, has saved cultivation period, has created good economic benefit.
The concrete operation step cultivating the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium is as follows:
(1) batching also spice: edible fungus culturing major ingredient is one or more mixture of the agricultural organic wastes such as cotton seed hulls, corn cob, wood chip, bagasse, stalk, bacterium grass, and two or more major ingredient effect used in combination is best.Supplementary material for edible fungus cultivation is wormcast fertilizer, selenium-rich nutritive Huolisu, root fill with cultivating agent, compound probiotic is fertile; Growing of edible mushrooms, not only needs sufficient nutrient, the more important thing is will reach nutritive equilibrium in growth and development process.Wherein it is crucial that the concentration of carbon element in planting material and nitrogen will have suitable ratio, namely carbon-nitrogen ratio (C/N) is wanted rationally.The carbon-nitrogen ratio of most of hypha of edible fungus growth phase requires as 20:1, and the carbon-nitrogen ratio of fruiting body differentiation etap requires as 30-40:1.The carbon-nitrogen ratio of application claims vegetative stage is 40-80:1, and the carbon-nitrogen ratio of fruiting body differentiation etap is 80-100:1, because can increase substantially output like this.Method of calculation are, all kinds of raw-material carbon content is added, and gained sum is added divided by all kinds of raw-material nitrogen content, and the quotient of gained, just draws carbon-nitrogen ratio.Calculation formula is, C/N=(C 1w 1+ C 2w 2+ ...) ÷ (N 1w 1+ N 2w 2+ ...), the C in formula 1, C 2, be respectively all kinds of raw-material carbon content; N 1, N 2, be respectively all kinds of raw-material nitrogen content; W 1, W 2, be respectively all kinds of raw-material weight; After all kinds of starting material are weighed respectively according to formula rate, pour in stirrer, after dry mixing mixing and stirring, doubly add water left and right by the 1.2-1.3 of culture material weight again, the total water content of culture material is made to control 5055%, this is best suited for the water ratio fermented, mixing and stirring after adding water;
(2) ferment is ripe and cool: the culture material after mixing and stirring is built heap, and build heap and do not step on and do not press, pile high 1-1.2 rice, length and width are not limit, and appearance covers woven bag or gunnysack or high-density sunshade net, then capping plastic film heat and moisture preserving.Owing to adding the fermentation of compound probiotic fertilizer, quick heating, top temperature can reach 65-75 DEG C, exempts from turning, and it is ripe that 1-25d can complete ferment; By complete ferment ripe after the loose heap cooling of planting material, its temperature is down to after below 30 DEG C and sows;
(3) sow, pack and bacteria: adopt predominance circulation sowing bacteria method, application rate is 50% of culture material dry weight, and namely the 100kg bacterial classification that wets need be the culture material of 200kg by formulated dry weight.Sowing-pack-bacteria for the first time: the particulate state strain powder got ready being broken into soybean grain size, 1-30min is soaked with the plant metabolism regulation and control element of 60-100 times of liquid, after filtration is dried, with complete to pour into together with the ripe cooled planting material of ferment synchronized mixes sow in sack packer sow pack after carry out bacteria.Regulating and controlling temperature is 15-25 DEG C, and atmospheric moisture is less than 60%, and cultivate through 10-15d, mycelia can cover with bacterium bag.Second time sowing-pack-bacteria: stop immediately cultivating after first time, mycelia length was saturating, these mycelium are used as second batch bacterial classification, carries out according to first time working method, obtain mycelium for the second time.Sowing-pack-bacteria for the third time: stop immediately cultivating after second time mycelia length is saturating, these mycelium are used as the 3rd batch of bacterial classification, carries out according to first time working method, after obtaining third time mycelium, directly enter management of producing mushroom, this step is also the emphasis that the present invention protects simultaneously;
(4) management of producing mushroom: directly enter management of producing mushroom after sowing-pack-bacteria covers with bacterium bag until third time.Regulating and controlling temperature is 10-25 DEG C, and atmospheric moisture is 85-95%, strengthens ventilation, gives and light scattering, impels mushroom flower bud to break up and stretches, form normal sporophore.After first damp mushroom is gathered, fertile with 500 times of liquid compound probiotics, 800 times of plant metabolism regulation and control elements, plant immunization regulation and control elements, one or more mixture of 500 times of rich selenium component extenders carries out moisturizing.By the bacterium bag that loading amount is 1kg dry weight, every bag of moisturizing 300-500g, stop spraying after moisturizing, make atmospheric moisture not higher than 60%, allow bacterium bag live bacteria about 5-10d, after second damp mushroom flower bud to appear, raising atmospheric moisture is 85-95%, strengthens ventilation, gives and light scattering, impel mushroom flower bud to break up to stretch, form normal sporophore.So repeat management, different according to kind, 3-10 tide mushroom of can gathering, biological yields can reach 150%-300%.
The present invention is in preparation specificity culture medium+predominance circulation sowing bacteria ratio juris with according to integrate innovations on basis.Its over all Integration method is: compound probiotic process planting material+plant metabolism regulation and control element process bacterial classification+predominance circulation sowing bacteria method=ecological organic farming edible mushrooms.Its production technique is: → sowing of preparing burden, spice (stirrer) → ferment is ripe, cool, pack (synchronized mixes sowing sack packer) → bacteria, fruiting.
Compared with prior art, beneficial effect of the present invention is:
(1) the present invention proposes a kind of special culture material, in this culture material except the agricultural organic waste composition containing routine, in culture material, also with the addition of wormcast fertilizer, selenium-rich nutritive Huolisu and compound probiotic fertilizer etc., wherein the specific proportioning of each raw material be follow-up cultivation edible mushrooms culture material used how to prepare burden that aspect provides can the data of reference, there is directive significance;
(2) culture material environmental protection of the present invention, the various essential nutrient elements of edible fungi growth are provided, not only organoselenium constituent content is high, quality is high for the edible mushrooms turned out, all the other nutritive element contents are also higher, mouthfeel is natural, also the not easily aging sowing that can be recycled.And culture material of the present invention can promote that mycelia grows fast, strong stress resistance, long-pending selenium ability are strong;
(3) cultural method of the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium provided by the invention, cultural method and culture material optimized integrated thus realize the ecological process of the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium, the step eliminating intermediate demand sterilizing fully simplify operation steps, operational condition gentle, can be good at each effective constituent retained in culture material and be not destroyed.By the great many of experiments of contriver by concrete processing step mode standard, the organic edible fungi nutrition of rich selenium prepared is worth high;
(4) by utilizing the culture material with certain selenium content to carry out cultivation edible mushrooms, stopped to spray inorganic selenium, the extraneous situation forcing to improve selenium constituent content in the past, utilization ratio and the transformation efficiency of selenium element improve all greatly, the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium turned out not only content is improved, and organoselenium accounts for 99.9% of full selenium, other nutritive element contents also increase substantially, and sporophore shape is full, healthy and strong, color and luster is fresh and tender, quality is superior, and edible safety also greatly improves;
(5) be proven the organic edible fungus of rich selenium utilizing cultural method of the present invention to cultivate and can improve immune function of human body, there is gas defence, detoxify, the poison that purifies the blood, antipollution, Antiradiation, anti-oxidant, delay senility, the multi-efficiency such as anti-cancer and cancer-preventing, all have good preventive and therapeutic action for various diseases such as coronary heart disease, Keshan disease, joint disease, hepatitis, diabetes, illness in eye;
(6) the present invention establishes the technical guarantee system of complete set, enhance stability and the controllability of production process operative technique, Edible Fungi process is made not use sanitizer chemical, do not adopt high-temperature heat sterilization technology, do not adopt aseptic technique inoculation technique, can Open-Architecture Controller be implemented, open (micropore) aerated culture can be carried out, and yield rate be up to 100%.Particularly apply " synchronized mixes sowing sack packer " in process of production, change the production operation method of " empirical " or " stochastic pattern " in the past, instead of the uncontrollability of manual skill operation human factor, easily in being grasped utilization by the producer, be more conducive to penetration and promotion, production efficiency increases substantially, and compares can save artificial more than 75% with ordinary method, shorten mycelium and cultivate time 1/3-1/2, cost also significantly reduces thereupon;
(7) do not need to carry out high-temperature sterilization process to culture material again, but adopt the method that ferment is ripe.After culture material pack, long-time high-temperature sterilization process is carried out through sterilizing kitchen, it is conventional manufacturing techniques, this artificially mandatory practice for edible fungi growth creation gnotobasis, operation is numerous and diverse, and production efficiency is low, repeatedly carries pocket, aseptic result is also difficult to ensure completely, and the culture material after sterilizing does not have defensive ability/resistance ability completely to again infecting of harmful bacteria.Conventional sterilization procedures is time-consuming power consumption not only, the crucial requirement being also not suitable with Ecological Industrialization and producing.The ripe method of ferment is adopted to be use relevant technical measures and biotechnology principle, kill the worm in culture material, ovum and pernicious bacteria, cultivate beneficial microorganism dominant microflora, culture material is transformed into and is suitable only for edible mushrooms vigorous growth, and be not suitable with harmful bacteria growth there is optionally culture medium.This method has processed the relation of " absolute repellency and the relative aseptic objective helpfulness of Aseptic technique " dialectically, creates the matrix growth environment that has more nutrition to edible mushrooms;
(8) the present invention does not need to carry out closed cultivation to edible mushrooms again.The mycelium culture container of predominance circulation sowing bacteria method application is microporous plastics bag.It changes conventional edible mushrooms and cultivates and wanted hermetic cultivation limiting factor, makes edible mushrooms breed in seed procedure and can carry out fully and the air inerchange outside container, also efficiently solves the contradiction that water-in-bag and gas strive space.Thus people can require to allocate culture medium structure better according to the fertility of edible mushrooms self, and make growing of edible mushrooms more natural, more vigorous, vigor is stronger;
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with embodiment, embodiment of the present invention are described in detail, but it will be understood to those of skill in the art that the following example only for illustration of the present invention, and should not be considered as limiting the scope of the invention.Unreceipted actual conditions person in embodiment, the condition of conveniently conditioned disjunction manufacturers suggestion is carried out.Agents useful for same or the unreceipted production firm person of instrument, be and can buy by commercially available the conventional products obtained.
Embodiment 1
The raw material of the culture material of the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium is prepared according to following consumption:
Cultivation use 60kg, carbon element fertilizer 10kg, selenium-rich nutritive Huolisu 1kg, root fills with cultivating agent 1kg, plant inductor 0.1kg, compound probiotic fertilizer (lactobacillus, genus bacillus group, actinomycete group, photosynthetic bacteria group etc.) 0.2kg;
The cultural method of the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium is as follows:
1) liquid is become after plant inductor and the mixing of compound probiotic fertilizer by water dissolution in advance, for subsequent use;
2) all the other raw materials are poured in stirrer according to the proportioning raw materials (except plant inductor and compound probiotic fertilizer) of culture material and are mixed, and first dry mixing is even, in stirrer, then adds aforesaid liquid stir;
3) 24h that ferments can sow base, adopt 50% advantage seeding method, after the solution soaking 10-30min adopting 60 times of plant inductors to be mixed with 35kg bacterial classification, and after the culture material mixing and stirring fermented, load blend compounds circle tying in the cultivating bag of 22*45cm;
4) bacteria: the cultivating bag having broadcast bacterial classification is moved into bacteria canopy and carries out bacteria, bacterium bag can be covered with through about 10-15d, will the mycelium second time of bacterium bag be covered with as bacterial classification, repeat sowing, after so repeatedly carrying out secondary, mycelial bacterium bag will be covered with and carry out fruiting.
Embodiment 2
The raw material of the culture material of the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium is prepared according to following consumption:
Cultivation use 90kg, Fulvic acid organic fertilizer 25kg, selenium-rich nutritive Huolisu 5kg, root fills with cultivating agent 6kg, plant metabolism regulates and controls plain 0.5kg, compound probiotic fertilizer (comprising lactobacillus, genus bacillus group, actinomycete group, photosynthetic bacteria group, yeast flora, bacillus aceticus group, Paecilomyces lilacinus flora etc.) 0.5kg;
The cultural method of the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium is as follows:
1) liquid is become after plant metabolism regulation and control element and the fertile mixing of compound probiotic by water dissolution in advance, for subsequent use;
2) all the other raw materials according to culture material proportioning raw materials (except plant metabolism regulation and control element and compound probiotic fertile except) pour in stirrer that to carry out mixing first dry mixing even into, stir speed (S.S.) controls at 200rad/min, then in stirrer, add aforesaid liquid stir, stir speed (S.S.) also controls at 200rad/min, and wherein the mass ratio of liquid and all the other raw material total amounts is 1:1.2;
3) the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium because turning out is straw rotting fungus, fermentation 48h can sow base, adopt 50% advantage seeding method, after the solution soaking 10-30min being adopted by 63kg bacterial classification 100 times of plant metabolisms regulation and control element to be mixed with, and after the culture material mixing and stirring fermented, load blend compounds circle tying in the cultivating bag of 22*45cm;
4) bacteria: the cultivating bag having broadcast bacterial classification is moved into bacteria canopy and carries out bacteria, bacterium bag can be covered with through about 10-15d, will the mycelium second time of bacterium bag be covered with as bacterial classification, repeat sowing, after so repeatedly carrying out secondary, mycelial bacterium bag will be covered with and carry out fruiting.
Embodiment 3
The raw material of the culture material of the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium is prepared according to following consumption:
Cultivation use 68kg, wormcast fertilizer 12kg, selenium-rich nutritive Huolisu 2kg, root fills with cultivating agent 2kg, plant metabolism regulates and controls plain 0.2kg, compound probiotic fertilizer (comprising lactobacillus, genus bacillus group, actinomycete group, photosynthetic bacteria group, yeast flora, bacillus aceticus group, Paecilomyces lilacinus flora etc.) 0.3kg; The cultural method of the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium is as follows:
1) liquid is become after plant metabolism regulation and control element and the fertile mixing of compound probiotic by water dissolution in advance, for subsequent use;
2) all the other raw materials according to culture material proportioning raw materials (except plant metabolism regulation and control element and compound probiotic fertile except) pour in stirrer that to carry out mixing first dry mixing even into, stir speed (S.S.) controls at 300rad/min, then in stirrer, add aforesaid liquid stir, stir speed (S.S.) also controls at 300rad/min, and wherein the mass ratio of liquid and all the other raw material total amounts is 1:1.3;
3) the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium because turning out is wood-decay fungi, fermentation 25d can sow base, adopt 50% advantage seeding method, after the solution soaking 10-30min being adopted by 42kg bacterial classification 65 times of plant metabolisms regulation and control element to be mixed with, and after the culture material mixing and stirring fermented, load blend compounds circle tying in the cultivating bag of 22*45cm;
4) bacteria: the cultivating bag having broadcast bacterial classification is moved into bacteria canopy and carries out bacteria, bacterium bag can be covered with through about 10-15d, will the mycelium second time of bacterium bag be covered with as bacterial classification, repeat sowing, so repeatedly carry out after three times, mycelial bacterium bag will be covered with and carry out fruiting.
Embodiment 4
The raw material of the culture material of the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium is prepared according to following consumption:
Cultivation use 88kg, wormcast fertilizer 23kg, selenium-rich nutritive Huolisu 4kg, root fills with cultivating agent 1kg, plant metabolism regulates and controls plain 0.4kg, compound probiotic fertilizer (comprising lactobacillus, genus bacillus group, actinomycete group, photosynthetic bacteria group, yeast flora, bacillus aceticus group, Paecilomyces lilacinus flora etc.) 0.5kg; The cultural method of the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium is as follows:
1) liquid is become after plant metabolism regulation and control element and the fertile mixing of compound probiotic by water dissolution in advance, for subsequent use;
2) all the other raw materials according to culture material proportioning raw materials (except plant metabolism regulation and control element and compound probiotic fertile except) pour in stirrer that to carry out mixing first dry mixing even into, stir speed (S.S.) controls at 250rad/min, then in stirrer, add aforesaid liquid stir, stir speed (S.S.) also controls at 250rad/min, and wherein the mass ratio of liquid and all the other raw material total amounts is 1:1.2;
3) the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium because turning out is wood-decay fungi, fermentation 7d can sow base, adopt 50% advantage seeding method, after the solution soaking 10-30min being adopted by 58kg bacterial classification 65 times of plant metabolisms regulation and control element to be mixed with, and after the culture material mixing and stirring fermented, load blend compounds circle tying in the cultivating bag of 22*45cm;
4) bacteria: the cultivating bag having broadcast bacterial classification is moved into bacteria canopy and carries out bacteria, bacterium bag can be covered with through about 10-15d, will the mycelium second time of bacterium bag be covered with as bacterial classification, repeat sowing, so repeatedly carry out after three times, mycelial bacterium bag will be covered with and carry out fruiting.
Above four kinds of embodiments can be used for cultivating in flat mushroom, needle mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus nebrodensis, bisporous mushroom, mushroom, Auricularia polytricha (Mout) Sacc., black fungus, white fungus, golden ear, glossy ganoderma, rhizoma Gastrodiae, Poria cocos and umbellate pore furgus any one.
Comparative example 1
Adopt straw 1000kg, wood chip 200kg, calcium superphosphate 100kg and potassium primary phosphate 18kg, the mixture 35kg of calcium sulfate, magnesium sulfate and soluble silica cultivates edible mushrooms as culture material, culture material ferments after will first adopting autoclaving again, blend compounds circle tying in the cultivating bag of 22*45cm is loaded by after 100kg bacterial classification and the culture material mixing and stirring that ferments, the cultivating bag having broadcast bacterial classification is moved into bacteria canopy and carries out bacteria, bacterium bag can be covered with through about 20-30d, mycelial bacterium bag will be covered with and carry out fruiting.
Experimental example 1
The employing cultural method of the embodiment of the present invention 1 and the cultural method of comparative example 1 are cultivated mushroom, finds that the bacterial classification consumption of embodiment 1 is only 14%, always sow only 40 days bacteria time, fruiting of buddingging when the 42nd day 2 times.Mycelium growth vigor is pure white sturdy, and material feeding is fast, infects, yield rate 100% without 1 bag of miscellaneous bacteria, whole breeding time does not have disease and pest to occur, and the champignon stems of production is short, and cap is large and thick, and meat is pliable and tough, consolidation, mushroom shape is attractive in appearance, and bright in colour, thick flavor, productivity effect reaches 170%-230%.Compare, when same fruiting amount, the bacterial classification consumption of comparative example 1 is 20.3%, and mycelia jaundice is comparatively thin, and material feeding is also slow, has a little miscellaneous bacteria to infect, and also has disease and pest to occur in process of growth.
Experimental example 2
The employing cultural method of the embodiment of the present invention 3 and the cultural method of comparative example 1 are cultivated flat mushroom, and after 3 predominance circulation sowing bacterias, its bacterial classification consumption is only 4.1%, always sows only 45 days bacteria time, fruiting of buddingging during 47-51 days 3 times.Mycelium growth vigor is pure white sturdy, and material feeding is fast, infects, yield rate 100% without 1 bag of miscellaneous bacteria, whole breeding time does not have disease and pest to occur, and the flat mushroom handle of production is short, and cap is large and thick, and meat is pliable and tough, consolidation, mushroom shape is attractive in appearance, and bright in colour, thick flavor, productivity effect reaches 390%-450%.Compare, when same fruiting amount, the bacterial classification consumption of comparative example 1 is 25.6%, and mycelia jaundice is comparatively thin, and material feeding is also slow, has a little miscellaneous bacteria to infect, and also has disease and pest to occur in process of growth.
Although illustrate and describe the present invention with specific embodiment, however it will be appreciated that can to make when not deviating from the spirit and scope of the present invention many other change and amendment.Therefore, this means to comprise all such changes and modifications belonged in the scope of the invention in the following claims.

Claims (10)

1. the culture material of the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium, it is characterized in that, obtain primarily of following raw material: in mass fraction, Cultivation use 60-90 part, carbon element fertilizer 10-25 part, selenium-rich nutritive Huolisu 1-5 part, root fills with cultivating agent 1-6 part, the fertile 0.2-0.5 part of compound probiotic, Promoting plant growth agent 0.1-0.5 part, wherein said selenium-rich nutritive Huolisu is primarily of natural mineral fertilizer, potassium-containing compound, magnesium-containing compound, calcium oxide, biochemical fulvic acid powder, VITAMIN, silicon-dioxide, Sodium Selenite and trace element replenisher are made, described Cultivation use is primarily of agricultural crop straw, corn cob, bagasse, bacterium grass, one or more in wood chip and cotton seed hulls are mixed.
2. the culture material of the organic edible mushrooms of a kind of rich selenium according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, in mass fraction, described raw material comprises: Cultivation use 68-88 part, carbon element fertilizer 12-23 part, selenium-rich nutritive Huolisu 2-4 part, root fills with cultivating agent 1-2 part, the fertile 0.3-0.5 part of compound probiotic, Promoting plant growth agent 0.2-0.4 part.
3. the culture material of the organic edible mushrooms of a kind of rich selenium according to claim 1 and 2, is characterized in that, described carbon element fertilizer is wormcast fertilizer, Fulvic acid organic fertilizer or both mixtures;
Preferably, described Promoting plant growth agent is plant inductor or plant metabolism regulation and control element.
4. utilize the culture material described in any one of claim 1-3 to cultivate the method for the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium, it is characterized in that, comprise the steps:
First Promoting plant growth agent and the fertile blending water of compound probiotic are dissolved and be made into liquid, for subsequent use;
By all the other raw material mix and blends, and stir after adding aforesaid liquid, fermentation 1-25d obtains culture material;
By bacterial classification and culture material mixing and stirring to sow, cultivate after 10-15d after covering with mycelia, after described mycelia again repeat sowing 2-3 time, obtain the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium.
5. the method for the organic edible mushrooms of the rich selenium of cultivation according to claim 4, it is characterized in that, by all the other raw material mix and blends, and in the step stirred after adding aforesaid liquid, the mass ratio of liquid and all the other raw material total amounts is 1:(1.2-1.3).
6. the method for the organic edible mushrooms of the rich selenium of cultivation according to claim 4, is characterized in that, bacterial classification before sowing first with the solution soaking 10-30min that Promoting plant growth agent is mixed with; Preferably, the mass ratio between the solution that is mixed with of bacterial classification and Promoting plant growth agent is 1:(60-100).
7. the method for the organic edible mushrooms of the rich selenium of cultivation according to claim 4, is characterized in that, the ambient moisture of cultivation controls below 60%, and envrionment temperature controls at 20-25 DEG C.
8. the method for the organic edible mushrooms of the rich selenium of cultivation according to claim 4, is characterized in that, by the rate-controlling of all the other raw material mix and blends at 200-300rad/min; Preferably, the rate-controlling stirred after adding aforesaid liquid is at 200-300rad/min.
9. the method for the organic edible mushrooms of the rich selenium of cultivation according to claim 4, it is characterized in that, the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium as cultivated is straw rotting fungus, then the 1-2d that ferments obtains culture material, the organic edible mushrooms of rich selenium as cultivated is wood-decay fungi, then the 7-25d that ferments obtains culture material.
10. the method for the organic edible mushrooms of the rich selenium of the cultivation according to any one of claim 4-9, it is characterized in that, the organic edible mushrooms of described rich selenium is any one in flat mushroom, needle mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Pleurotus nebrodensis, bisporous mushroom, mushroom, Auricularia polytricha (Mout) Sacc., black fungus, white fungus, golden ear, glossy ganoderma, rhizoma Gastrodiae, Poria cocos and umbellate pore furgus.
CN201510566501.0A 2015-09-08 2015-09-08 Culture medium for selenium-rich organic edible fungi and culture method thereof Pending CN105110954A (en)

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CN105940950A (en) * 2016-05-18 2016-09-21 山东福国菌业有限公司 Mushroom culture method
CN105967809A (en) * 2016-07-11 2016-09-28 赖卫华 Selenium-rich black fungus compost and preparation method thereof
CN106305139A (en) * 2016-08-23 2017-01-11 李军 Method for growing lucid ganoderma by utilizing fungi grass
CN106305140A (en) * 2016-08-23 2017-01-11 李军 Method for growing black fungi by utilizing fungi grass
CN106396847A (en) * 2016-08-26 2017-02-15 福建省元盛农业综合开发有限公司 Black fungus culture medium taking lotus seedpod and lotus seed shell as raw materials
CN106565327A (en) * 2016-10-27 2017-04-19 安徽多多利农业科技有限公司 Culture substrate for culturing selenium-rich edible fungi
CN106631487A (en) * 2016-12-29 2017-05-10 芜湖野树林生物科技有限公司 Pleurotus citrinopileatus culture medium
CN106748201A (en) * 2016-12-29 2017-05-31 芜湖野树林生物科技有限公司 A kind of preparation method of Pleurotus citrinopileatus culture medium
CN106800475A (en) * 2017-03-17 2017-06-06 高攀宏 A kind of edible mushroom selenium-rich culturing base with Pepper stalk as primary raw material
CN107567950A (en) * 2017-08-29 2018-01-12 田林县群英农业有限公司 A kind of cultural method of ganoderma lucidum
CN107646531A (en) * 2017-09-30 2018-02-02 安徽利民生物科技股份有限公司 A kind of preparation method of Se-rich lucid ganoderma culture medium
CN108147875A (en) * 2018-03-07 2018-06-12 常熟理工学院 A kind of factory culture pleurotus eryngii cultivating material
CN109601246A (en) * 2019-01-18 2019-04-12 上海市农业科学院 A kind of cultural method and cultivation matrix of selenium-rich brown agaricus bisporus
CN109804893A (en) * 2017-11-21 2019-05-28 丹阳市陵口镇庙头土地股份专业合作社 A kind of dedicated compost of Poria cocos

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CN105393797A (en) * 2015-12-03 2016-03-16 镇江市丹徒区南山溪园茶叶专业合作社 Production method of Pleurotus nebrodensis with rich organic selenium zinc
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CN105967809A (en) * 2016-07-11 2016-09-28 赖卫华 Selenium-rich black fungus compost and preparation method thereof
CN106305139A (en) * 2016-08-23 2017-01-11 李军 Method for growing lucid ganoderma by utilizing fungi grass
CN106305140A (en) * 2016-08-23 2017-01-11 李军 Method for growing black fungi by utilizing fungi grass
CN106396847A (en) * 2016-08-26 2017-02-15 福建省元盛农业综合开发有限公司 Black fungus culture medium taking lotus seedpod and lotus seed shell as raw materials
CN106565327A (en) * 2016-10-27 2017-04-19 安徽多多利农业科技有限公司 Culture substrate for culturing selenium-rich edible fungi
CN106748201A (en) * 2016-12-29 2017-05-31 芜湖野树林生物科技有限公司 A kind of preparation method of Pleurotus citrinopileatus culture medium
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CN106800475A (en) * 2017-03-17 2017-06-06 高攀宏 A kind of edible mushroom selenium-rich culturing base with Pepper stalk as primary raw material
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CN107646531A (en) * 2017-09-30 2018-02-02 安徽利民生物科技股份有限公司 A kind of preparation method of Se-rich lucid ganoderma culture medium
CN109804893A (en) * 2017-11-21 2019-05-28 丹阳市陵口镇庙头土地股份专业合作社 A kind of dedicated compost of Poria cocos
CN108147875A (en) * 2018-03-07 2018-06-12 常熟理工学院 A kind of factory culture pleurotus eryngii cultivating material
CN109601246A (en) * 2019-01-18 2019-04-12 上海市农业科学院 A kind of cultural method and cultivation matrix of selenium-rich brown agaricus bisporus

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