CN105910247B - 住宅解决方案的hvac的监视和诊断 - Google Patents

住宅解决方案的hvac的监视和诊断 Download PDF

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CN105910247B
CN105910247B CN201610244700.4A CN201610244700A CN105910247B CN 105910247 B CN105910247 B CN 105910247B CN 201610244700 A CN201610244700 A CN 201610244700A CN 105910247 B CN105910247 B CN 105910247B
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hvac
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CN105910247A (zh
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杰弗里·N·阿伦斯迈尔
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Emerson Electric Co
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    • HELECTRICITY
    • H04ELECTRIC COMMUNICATION TECHNIQUE
    • H04LTRANSMISSION OF DIGITAL INFORMATION, e.g. TELEGRAPHIC COMMUNICATION
    • H04L12/00Data switching networks
    • H04L12/02Details
    • H04L12/12Arrangements for remote connection or disconnection of substations or of equipment thereof
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B23/00Testing or monitoring of control systems or parts thereof
    • G05B23/02Electric testing or monitoring
    • G05B23/0205Electric testing or monitoring by means of a monitoring system capable of detecting and responding to faults
    • G05B23/0218Electric testing or monitoring by means of a monitoring system capable of detecting and responding to faults characterised by the fault detection method dealing with either existing or incipient faults
    • G05B23/0221Preprocessing measurements, e.g. data collection rate adjustment; Standardization of measurements; Time series or signal analysis, e.g. frequency analysis or wavelets; Trustworthiness of measurements; Indexes therefor; Measurements using easily measured parameters to estimate parameters difficult to measure; Virtual sensor creation; De-noising; Sensor fusion; Unconventional preprocessing inherently present in specific fault detection methods like PCA-based methods
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24FAIR-CONDITIONING; AIR-HUMIDIFICATION; VENTILATION; USE OF AIR CURRENTS FOR SCREENING
    • F24F11/00Control or safety arrangements
    • F24F11/30Control or safety arrangements for purposes related to the operation of the system, e.g. for safety or monitoring
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24FAIR-CONDITIONING; AIR-HUMIDIFICATION; VENTILATION; USE OF AIR CURRENTS FOR SCREENING
    • F24F11/00Control or safety arrangements
    • F24F11/62Control or safety arrangements characterised by the type of control or by internal processing, e.g. using fuzzy logic, adaptive control or estimation of values
    • GPHYSICS
    • G05CONTROLLING; REGULATING
    • G05BCONTROL OR REGULATING SYSTEMS IN GENERAL; FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS OF SUCH SYSTEMS; MONITORING OR TESTING ARRANGEMENTS FOR SUCH SYSTEMS OR ELEMENTS
    • G05B23/00Testing or monitoring of control systems or parts thereof
    • G05B23/02Electric testing or monitoring
    • G05B23/0205Electric testing or monitoring by means of a monitoring system capable of detecting and responding to faults
    • G05B23/0218Electric testing or monitoring by means of a monitoring system capable of detecting and responding to faults characterised by the fault detection method dealing with either existing or incipient faults
    • G05B23/0224Process history based detection method, e.g. whereby history implies the availability of large amounts of data
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24FAIR-CONDITIONING; AIR-HUMIDIFICATION; VENTILATION; USE OF AIR CURRENTS FOR SCREENING
    • F24F11/00Control or safety arrangements
    • F24F11/30Control or safety arrangements for purposes related to the operation of the system, e.g. for safety or monitoring
    • F24F11/32Responding to malfunctions or emergencies
    • FMECHANICAL ENGINEERING; LIGHTING; HEATING; WEAPONS; BLASTING
    • F24HEATING; RANGES; VENTILATING
    • F24FAIR-CONDITIONING; AIR-HUMIDIFICATION; VENTILATION; USE OF AIR CURRENTS FOR SCREENING
    • F24F11/00Control or safety arrangements
    • F24F11/50Control or safety arrangements characterised by user interfaces or communication
    • F24F11/56Remote control
    • F24F11/58Remote control using Internet communication

Abstract

一种用于住宅的供暖、通风和空调(HVAC)系统的监视系统包括:安装在住宅处的监视装置;以及远离住宅被定位的服务器。该监视装置测量被提供给HVAC系统的多个部件的总电流并且传送基于所测量的总电流的电流数据。服务器接收所传送的电流数据,并且基于接收到的电流来评定在HVAC系统的多个部件中的第一部件中是否已经发生故障以及评定在HVAC系统的多个部件中的第二部件中是否已经发生故障。

Description

住宅解决方案的HVAC的监视和诊断
[0001]本发明申请是国际申请日为2〇12年2月28日的、于2013年8月28日进入中国国家阶 段的申请号为201280010796 •8 (国际申请号为PCT/US2012/026973)以及发明名称为“住宅 解决方案的HVAC的监视和诊断”的发明专利申请的分案申请。
[0002]相关申请的交叉引用
[0003] 本申请要求2012年2月28日提交的美国实用申请第13/4〇7,18〇号的优先权,并要 求2011年2月28日提交的美国临时申请第61/447,681号和2011年10月I7日提交的美国临时 申请第61/548,009号的权益。上述申请的全部公开内容通过引用合并到本文中。
技术领域
[0004] 本公开内容涉及环境舒适系统,更具体地涉及对住宅环境舒适系统的远程监视和 诊断。
背景技术
[0005] 本文中所提供的背景描述是出于总体上呈现本公开内容的背景的目的。当前署名 的发明人的工作(到下述程度:在本背景技术部分中描述的工作)以及提交时可以不成为现 有技术的说明书中的方面,既未被明确地视为相对于本公开内容的现有技术,也未被隐含 地视为相对于本公开内容的现有技术。
[0006] 住宅HVAC (供暖、通风和空调)系统控制住宅的环境参数,例如温度和湿度。该HVAC 系统可以包括但不限于提供供暖、制冷、加湿和除湿的部件。环境参数的目标值例如温度设 置点可以由房主来指定。
[0007] 现在参照图1,呈现了示例性HVAC系统的框图。在该特定示例中,示出了具有气炉 的强制空气系统。由鼓风机114通过过滤器110从住宅抽出回风(return air)。也被称为风 扇的鼓风机114由控制模块118来控制。控制模块118从恒温器122接收信号。仅作为示例,恒 温器122可以包括由房主指定的一个或更多个温度设置点。
[0008] 恒温器122可以导引鼓风机114始终开启或仅当出现供暖请求或制冷请求时开启。 还可以在预定时间或根据要求开启鼓风机114。在各种实现方式中,鼓风机114可以以多个 速度或以预定范围内的任何速度来进行操作。可以使用一个或更多个开关继电器(未示出) 来控制鼓风机114和/或选择鼓风机114的速度。
[0009] 恒温器122还向控制模块118提供供暖请求和/或制冷请求。当得到供暖请求时,控 制模块118使燃烧器126点火。燃烧产生的热在热交换器130中被引入到鼓风机114所提供的 回风。加热的空气被提供给住宅并被称为送风(supply air)。
[0010] 燃烧器126可以包括引火小火(pilot light),该引火小火是在燃烧器126中用于 点燃主火焰的小的恒定火焰。替选地,可以使用间歇性引火,其中在燃烧器126中在点燃主 火焰之前首先点燃小火焰。可以使用火花器以用于间歇性引火实现或者用于直接的燃烧器 点火。另外的点火选择包括热表面点火器,该热表面点火器将表面加热至足够高温度,使得 在气体被引入时,加热的表面使燃烧开始。用于燃烧的燃料例如天然气可以通过气阀(未示 出)来提供。
[0011] 燃烧产物被排出至住宅之外,导风轮鼓风机(inducer blower) 134可以在燃烧器 126点火之前被开启。导风轮鼓风机134提供风(draft)以从燃烧器126去除燃烧产物。导风 轮鼓风机134可以在燃烧器126工作的同时保持运行。另外,导风轮鼓风机134可以在燃烧器 126关闭之后在设置的时段内继续运行。在高效炉中,燃烧产物可能不够热而不具有足够的 浮性以经由传导排出。因此,导风轮鼓风机134产生风以排出燃烧产物。
[0012] 将被称为空气处理器208的单个外壳(enclosure)可以包括:过滤器110、鼓风机 114、控制模块118、燃烧器126、热交换器130、导风轮鼓风机134、膨胀阀188、蒸发器192、以 及冷凝液盘196。
[0013] 在图1的HVAC系统中,还示出了分立式空调系统。制冷剂经由压缩机180、冷凝器 184、膨胀阀188和蒸发器192而循环。蒸发器192与送风串行布置,以使得当需要制冷时,蒸 发器去除来自送风的热,从而制冷送风。在制冷期间,蒸发器192是冷的,这使得水蒸气冷 凝。该水蒸气在冷凝液盘196中被收集并被排出或抽出。
[0014] 压缩机控制模块200从控制模块118接收制冷请求,并且相应地控制压缩机180。压 缩机控制模块200还控制冷凝器风扇204,该冷凝器风扇增加冷凝器184与外部空气之间的 热交换。在这样的分立式系统中,压缩机180、冷凝器184、压缩机控制模块200和冷凝器风扇 204被定位在住宅外部,通常在单个室外外壳212中。
[0015]在各种实现方式中,压缩机控制模块200可以仅包括运行电容器、启动电容器、以 及接触器或继电器。实际上,在特定实现方式中,例如当使用涡旋式压缩机而不是往复式压 缩机时,启动电容器可以被省去。压缩机180可以是可变容量压缩机,并且可以响应多级制 冷请求。例如,制冷请求可以表示中容量制冷要求或高容量制冷要求。
[0016] 提供给室外外壳212的电线可以包括240伏主电力线和24伏切换的控制线。24伏控 制线可以对应于图1中所示的制冷请求。24伏控制线控制接触器的操作。当控制线表明压缩 机应当开启时,接触器的接触部分闭合,从而将240伏电源连接至压缩机。另外,接触器可以 将240伏电源连接至冷凝器风扇204。在各种实现方式中,例如当室外外壳212作为地热系统 的一部分被定位在地下时,冷凝器风扇204可以被省去。当240伏主电源到达两条引线(这在 美国是常见的)时,接触器可以具有两组接触部分并被称为双极单掷开关。
[0017] 传统地,已经通过多个分立传感器对室外外壳212和空气处理器208中的部件的操 作执行监视,从而测量分别到每个部件的电流。例如,传感器可以感测由马达汲取的电流, 另外的传感器测量点火器的电阻或电流流量,又一传感器监视气阀的状态。然而,这些传感 器的成本和安装所需要的时间会使得监视成本过高。
发明内容
[0018] 一种用于住宅的供暖、通风和空调(HVAC)系统的监视系统包括:安装在住宅处的 监视装置;以及远离住宅被定位的服务器。该监视装置测量被提供给HVAC系统的多个部件 的总电流,并且传送基于所测量的总电流的电流数据。该服务器接收所传送的电流数据,并 且基于所接收到的电流来评定在HVAC系统的多个部件中的第一部件中是否已经发生故障, 以及评定在HVAC系统的多个部件中的第二部件中是否已经发生故障。
[0019] 在其他特征方面,监视装置对一时段的总电流进行采样,对该时段的样本执行频 域分析,并且向服务器传送频域数据。服务器识别电流数据中的转变点并且分析在所识别 的转变点周围的频域数据。服务器通过将频域数据与基线数据进行比较来确定在第一部件 中是否己经发生故障。服务器基于HVAC系统的正常操作来调节基线数据。监视装置针对该 时段确定单个电流值,并且向服务器传送单个电流值,而不是向服务器传送样本。
[0020] 在另外的特征方面,单个电流值是均方根电流、平均电流和峰值电流之一。监视装 置测量一系列连续时段的总电流并且针对每个时段向服务器传送信息帧。针对该时段中的 第一时段,监视装置传送第一帧,该第一帧包括(i)第一时段期间的总电流的单个值以及 (ii)第一时段期间的总电流的频域表示。
[0021] 在另外的特征方面,第一帧不包括总电流的各个样本。第一帧包括在第一时段期 间的到达HVAC系统的电力的电压测量、温度测量、以及HVAC控制线的状态的表示。监视装置 记录来自恒温器的控制信号并且向服务器传送基于控制信号的信息。控制信号包括供暖要 求、通风要求和制冷要求中的至少一个。
[0022] 在其他特征方面,监视装置被定位成紧密靠近HVAC系统的空气处理器单元。第二 监视装置被定位成紧密靠近HVAC系统的第二外壳,其中第二外壳包含压缩机和热泵热交换 器中的至少一个。第二监视装置(i)测量被提供给第二外壳的多个部件的总电流,并且(ii) 向服务器传送基于所测量的总电流的电流数据。第二监视装置经由所述监视装置向服务器 传送电流数据。
[0023] 在另外的特征方面,监视装置包括选择性地中断到HVAC系统的压缩机的启用信号 的开关。监视装置响应于以下中至少之一来中断启用信号:(i)来自水传感器的值,(ii)压 缩机的锁定转子条件,以及(iii)来自服务器的命令。服务器(i)响应于确定第一部件或第 二部件出现故障来生成警报,并且(ii)将该警报发送至住宅的房主和安装承包方中的至少 一个。
[0024] 在另外的特征方面,服务器(i)基于所接收到的电流数据来选择性地预测第一部 件的即将发生的故障,(ii)基于所接收到的电流数据来选择性地预测第二部件的即将发生 的故障,并且(iii)响应于对即将发生的故障的预测来生成警报。HVAC系统的多个部件包括 至少两个部件,所述至少两个部件选自:火焰传感器、螺线管操作的气阀、热表面点火器、循 环鼓风机马达、导风轮鼓风机马达、压缩机、压力开关、电容器、空气过滤器、冷凝盘管、蒸发 盘管、以及接触器。
[0025] 一种监视住宅的供暖、通风和空调(HVAC)系统的方法包括:使用安装在住宅处的 监视装置;测量被提供给HVAC系统的多个部件的总电流;以及向远离住宅被定位的服务器 传送基于所测量的总电流的电流数据。该方法包括:在服务器处接收所传送的电流数据;以 及基于接收到的电流来评定在HVAC系统的多个部件中的第一部件中是否已经发生故障。该 方法还包括:基于接收到的电流来评定在HVAC系统的多个部件中的第二部件中是否已经发 生故障。
[0026] 在其他特征方面,该方法包括:对一时段的总电流进行采样;对该时段的样本执行 频域分析;以及向服务器传送频域数据。该方法包括:识别电流数据中的转变点并分析在所 识别的转变点周围的频域数据。该方法还包括:通过将频域数据与基线数据进行比较来确 定在第一部件中是否已经发生故障;以及基于HVAC系统的正常操作来调节(adapt)基线数 据。
[0027]在另外的特征方面,该方法包括:针对该时段确定单个电流值,并且向服务器传达 单个电流值,而不是向服务器传送样本。单个电流值是均方根电流、平均电流和峰值电流之 一。该方法包括:测量一系列连续时段的总电流并且针对每个时间段向服务器传送信息帧。 [0028]在另外的特征方面,该方法包括:针对所述时段中的第一时段传送第一帧,该第厂 帧包括(i)第一时段期间的总电流的单个值以及(ii)第一间段期间的总电流的频域表示。 第一帧不包括总电流的各个样本。第一帧包括在第一时段期间的到达HVAC系统的电力的电 压测量、温度测量、以及HVAC控制线的状态的表示。
[0029]在另外的特征方面,该方法包括:记录来自恒温器的控制信号并且向服务器传送 基于控制信号的信息。该控制信号包括供暖命令、通风命令和制冷命令中的至少一个。监视 装置被定位成紧密靠近HVAC系统的空气处理器单元,并且该方法还包括:测量被提供给 HVAC系统的第二外壳的多个部件的总电流。第二外壳包含压缩机和热栗热交换器中的至少 一个,并且该方法包括:向服务器传送基于所测量的总电流的电流数据。
[0030]在另外的特征方面,该方法包括:经由监视装置向服务器传送来自第二监视装置 的电流数据;以及使用电力线通信与监视装置通信。该方法包括:响应于以下中至少之一来 选择性地中断到HVAC系统的压缩机的启用信号:(i)来自水传感器的值,(ii)压缩机的锁定 转子条件,以及(iii)来自服务器的命令。该方法包括:响应于确定第一部件或第二部件出 现故障来发送警报,其中该警报被发送至住宅的房主和安装承包方中的至少一个。
[0031] 在另外的特征方面,该方法包括:基于所接收到的电流数据来选择性地预测第一 部件的即将发生的故障;基于所接收到的电流数据来选择性地预测第二部件的即将发生的 故障;以及响应于对即将发生的故障的预测来生成警报。HVAC系统的多个部件包括至少两 个部件,所述至少两个部件选自:火焰传感器、螺线管操作的气阀、热表面点火器、循环器鼓 风机马达、导风轮鼓风机马达、压缩机、压力开关、电容器、空气过滤器、冷凝盘管、蒸发盘 管、以及接触器。该方法包括:将电流数据以无线形式传送至网关,其中该网关通过因特网 将电流数据转播至服务器。
附图说明
[0032] 根据具体实施方式和附图,将会变得更充分地理解本公开内容,在附图中:
[0033] 图1是根据现有技术的示例性HVAC系统的框图;
[0034] 图2是示出了单个住宅的HVAC系统的示例性系统的功能框图;
[0035] 图3A至图3C是与空气处理器监视模块的控制信号交互的功能框图;
[0036] 图4A是空气处理器监视模块的示例性实现方式的功能框图;
[0037] 图4B是压缩机监视模块的示例性实现方式的功能框图;
[0038] 图5A至图51是空气处理器监视模块的示例性实现方式的框图;
[0039] 图5J是根据本公开内容的原理的监视模块的数据流图;
[0040] 图6是描绘了在改型应用中示例性模块安装的简要概况的流程图;
[0041] 图7是捕获数据帧中的示例性操作的流程图;
[0042] 图8是示例性HVAC部件的示例性功能示意图;
[0043] 图9是热循环开始的总电流的示例性时域迹线;
[0044] 图10A至图10C是与热表面点火器相关的总电流的示例性时域表示;
[0045] 图11A至图11B分别示出了对应于图10A和图10C的示例性频率白莖;
[0046] 图11C示出了图11A和图11B的频域比较。 _ 、 _
[0047] 图12A至图12B分别是描绘了正常运行和故障运行的螺线管操作的气体阀的不例 性时域曲线;
[0048] 图12C是图12A和图12B的频域比较;
[0049] 图13A至图13B是马达的电流和电压的时域迹线;
[0050] 图13C是图13A和图13B的时域相减;
[0051] 图14A至图14B分别是图13A和图13B的频域分析;
[0052] 图14C是图14A和图14B的频域比较;
[0053] 图15A至图15G描绘了所捕获的数据的云处理的示例性实现方式;以及 _
[0054] 图16A和图16B分别呈现了除了在各种实现方式中用于执行检测和/或预测的示例 数据之外的、室内单元和室外单元的可以检测和/或预测的示例性故障和特征。
具体实施方式
[0055] 根据本公开内容,可以将感测/监视模块与住宅HVAC (供暖、通风和空调)系统集 成。如本申请所使用的,术语HVAC涵盖住宅或商业场所中的所有环境舒适系统(包括供暖、 制冷、加湿和除湿),并且覆盖诸如炉、热泵、加湿器、除湿器以及空调器的装置。术语HVAC是 广义术语,在于根据本申请的HVAC系统不一定包括供暖和空调两者,而是可以仅具有一个 或另一个。
[0056]在具有空气处理器单元(通常,置于室内)和压缩机单元(通常,置于室外)的分立 式HVAC系统中,可以分别使用空气处理器监视模块和压缩机监视模块。空气处理器监视模 块和压缩机监视模块可以由HVAC系统的制造商来集成,可以在安装HVAC系统时被添加,和/ 或可以改装到现有系统。
[0057]空气处理器监视模块和压缩机监视模块监视HVAC系统的相关部件的工作参数。例 如,工作参数可以包括电源电流、电源电压、工作温度和环境温度、故障信号、以及控制信 号。空气处理器监视模块和压缩机监视模块可以在彼此之间传送数据,同时空气处理器监 视模块和压缩机监视模块中的一个或两者将数据上载到远程位置。可以经由包括因特网的 任何合适网络来访问远程位置。
[0058]远程位置包括一个或更多个计算机,所述一个或更多个计算机将被称为服务器。 服务器代表监视公司来执行监视系统。监视系统从安装有这种系统的房主的空气处理器监 视模块和压缩机监视模块接收数据并处理数据。监视系统可以向房主和/或第三方例如指 定的HVAC承包方提供性能信息、诊断警报和差错消息。
[0059]空气处理器监视模块和压缩机监视模块均可以针对各个单元感测总电流,而无需 测量各个部件的各个电流。可以使用频域分析、统计分析和状态机分析来处理总电流数据, 以便基于总电流数据来确定各个部件的操作。可以在房主的住宅之外、在服务器环境中部 分地或完全地进行该处理。
[0060]基于来自空气处理器监视模块和压缩机监视模块的测量,监视公司可以确定HVAC 部件是否正以它们的峰值性能工作,并且可以在性能降低时告知房主和承包方。对作为整 体的系统而言,可以例如根据效率来测量该性能降低,和/或对于一个或更多个单个部件而 言,可以监视该性能降低。
[0061]另外,监视系统可以检测和/或预测系统的一个或更多个部件的故障。当检测到故 障时,可以通知房主,并且可以立即采取可能的补救步骤。例如,可以关闭HVAC系统的部件 以使对HVAC部件的损坏最小和/或防止水破坏。也可以通知承包方将需要服务请求。根据房 主和承包方之间的合同关系,承包方可以立即向住宅安排服务请求。
[0062]监视系统可以向承包方提供具体信息,包括房主的HVAC系统的识别信息(包括制 造号和型号)、以及看起来有故障的特定部件号的指示。基于该信息,承包方可以分派在具 体HVAC系统和/或部件方面有经验的合适的修理人员。另外,服务技术员能够带来替换零 件,从而避免诊断之后的回程。
[0063]根据故障的严重性,可以告知房主和/或承包方在确定是修理HVAC系统还是替换 HVAC系统的某些或所有部件方面的相关因素。仅作为示例,这些因素可以包括修理与替换 的相对成本,并且可以包括关于替换设备的优点的定量或定性信息。例如,可以提供在使用 新设备情况下的效率和/或舒适性的预期增加。基于历史使用数据和/或电价或其他商品价 格,该比较还可以估计由效率提高所产生的全年节省。
[0064]如上所述,监视系统还可以预测即将发生的故障。这允许在实际故障发生之前进 行预防性维护和修理。关于检测到的或即将发生的故障的警报减少了 HVAC系统不运转的时 间,并且对房主和承包方两者而言,允许更灵活的调度安排。如果房主出门,则在房主没有 出现以检测HVAC系统的故障时,这些警报可以防止损坏发生。例如,冬季供暖故障可能导致 管道冻结和爆裂。
[0065]关于潜在的或即将发生的故障的警报可以在故障被预料之前指定统计时帧。仅作 为示例,如果传感器间歇性地提供差的数据,则在传感器由于差的数据的传播而很可能有 效地停止工作之前,监视系统可以指定预计时间量。此外,监视系统可以以定量或定性关系 来解释电流操作(current operation)和/或潜在故障将如何影响HVAC系统的操作。这使得 房主能够按优先序排列修理费并为修理费做预算。
[0066] 对于监视服务,监视公司可以收取定期费用,例如按月收费。该费用可以直接向房 主收取和/或可以向承包方收取。承包方可以把这些费用传递给房主和/或可以做出其他安 排,例如通过在安装时要求预先付款和/或将附加费应用于修理和服务访问。
[0067] 对于空气处理器监视模块和压缩机监视模块,监视公司或承包方可以在安装时向 房主收取包括安装成本的设备成本,和/或可以将这些成本作为月费的一部分来扣除。替选 地,对于空气处理器监视模块和压缩机监视模块,可以收取租赁费,一旦监视服务停止,则 可以归还空气处理器监视模块和压缩机监视模块。
[0068] 监视服务可以允许房主和/或承包方远程监视和/或控制HVAC部件,例如设置温 度、启用或禁用供暖和/或制冷等。另外,房主能够跟踪HVAC系统的能源使用情况、循环时 间、和/或历史数据。可以将房主的HVAC系统的效率和/或操作成本与其住宅经受相同的环 境条件的邻居的HVAC系统进行比较。因为环境变量例如温度和风被控制,所以这允许HVAC 系统与整体住宅效率的直接比较。
[0069] 在安装期间和安装之后以及在修理期间和修理之后,承包方可以使用监视系统来 检验空气处理器监视模块和压缩机监视模块的操作以及检验HVAC系统的部件的恰当安装。 另外,房主可以查看监视系统中的该数据,以保证承包方恰当地安装并配置HVAC系统。除了 被上载到云之外,所监视的数据可以被传送至住宅中的本地装置。例如,智能手机、笔记本 电脑或专有便携式装置可以接收监视信息以诊断问题,并且接收实时性能数据。替选地,数 据可以被上载到云,然后例如从交互网站经由因特网被下载到本地计算装置。
[0070]由监视系统收集的历史数据可以允许承包方适当地指定新的HVAC部件并更好地 调整配置,包括HVAC系统的节气阀(damper)和设置点。所收集的信息可以有益于产品开发 和评定故障模式。该信息可以与保修问题相关,例如确定特定问题是否在保修范围内。此 夕卜,该信息可以有助于识别可能导致失效保修范围的条件,例如未被授权的系统修改。
[0071]原始设备制造商可以部分或全部地补贴监视系统和空气处理器监视模块和压缩 机监视模块的成本,以换取对该信息的访问。安装和服务承包方也可以补贴这些成本的一 些或全部,以换取对该信息的访问以及例如作为被监视系统推荐的交换。基于历史服务数 据和房主反馈,监视系统可以向房主提供承包方推荐。
[0072] 现在参照图2,呈现了示出单个房主住宅300的示例性系统的功能框图。仅作为示 例,房主住宅300包括:具有空气处理器单元304和压缩机/冷凝器单元308的分立式系统。压 缩机/冷凝器单元308包括:压缩机、冷凝器、冷凝器风扇、以及相关电子装置。在许多系统 中,空气处理器单元304被定位在房主住宅300内,而压缩机/冷凝器单元308被定位在房主 住宅300外,例如在室外外壳312中。
[0073] 本公开内容不限于并适用于如下的其他系统:仅作为示例,所述系统包括将空气 处理器单元304和压缩机/冷凝器单元308的部件彼此紧密靠近进行定位或者甚至定位在单 个外壳中的系统。单个外壳可以被定位在房主住宅300的内部或外部。在各种实现方式中, 空气处理器单元304可以位于地下室、车库或阁楼中。在与地面进行热交换的地源系统中, 可以将空气处理器单元304和压缩机/冷凝器单元308靠近地面进行定位,例如定位在地下 室、爬行空间(crawlspace)、车库中,或者例如当第一楼层与地面仅被混凝土板所隔离时, 可以定位在第一楼层上。
[0074]根据本公开内容的原理,压缩机监视模块316与压缩机/冷凝器单元308相互连接, 并且压缩机监视模块316可以被定位在室外外壳312内或者紧密靠近室外外壳312。压缩机 监视模块316监视压缩机/冷凝器单元308的参数,包括电流、电压以及温度。
[0075] 在一个实现方式中,所测量的电流是来自配电盘318的、表示整个室外外壳312的 总电流消耗的单个电源电流。电流传感器320测量被提供给压缩机/冷凝器单元308的电流 并且将所测量的数据提供给压缩机监视模块316。仅作为示例,压缩机/冷凝器单元308可以 接收约240伏的AC线电压。电流传感器320可以感测240伏电源的引线之一的电流。电压传感 器(未示出)可以感测AC电压源的引线之一或两者的电压。电流传感器320可以包括电流互 感器、电流分流器、和/或霍尔效应装置。在各种实现方式中,除了电流传感器320之外或者 代替电流传感器320,还可以使用功率传感器。基于所测量的功率可以计算电流,或者可以 使用功率本身的分布来评估压缩机/冷凝器单元308的部件的操作。
[0076] 空气处理器监视模块322监视空气处理器单元304。例如,空气处理器监视模块似2 可以监视电流、电压和各个温度。在一个实现方式中,空气处理器监视模块322监视整个空 气处理器单元304消耗的总电流、以及当空气处理器单元304向HVAC控制模块360提供电力 时HVAC控制模块360消耗的电流。电流传感器324测量由配电盘318传递给空气处理器单元 304的电流。电流传感器324可以类似于电流传感器320。电压传感器(未示出)可以靠近电流 传感器324和320被定位。电压传感器向空气处理器单元304和压缩机/冷凝器单元308提供 电压数据。
[0077] 空气处理器单元304和压缩机/冷凝器单元308可以评估电压以确定各种参数。例 如,可以基于所测量的电压来计算频率、幅值、RMS电压和DC偏移量。在使用三相电的情况 下,可以确定相的顺序。可以使用关于电压何时与零相交的信息,以便基于对预定时段内零 相交的数量进行计数来使各种测量同步并确定频率。
[0078]空气处理器单元304包括鼓风机、燃烧器、以及蒸发器。在各种实现方式中,代替燃 烧器或者除了燃烧器之外,空气处理器单元304还包括电加热装置。电加热装置可以提供辅 助热或二次热。压缩机监视模块316和空气处理器监视模块322彼此共享所收集的数据。当 所测量的电流是总电流消耗时,在空气处理器监视模块322中或者在压缩机监视模块316 中,电流分布由每个部件贡献。因此,可能难以在时域中容易地确定所测量的电流如何对应 于各个部件。然而,当另外的处理可用时,例如在可以包括服务器和其他计算资源的监视系 统中,可以执行另外的分析,例如频域分析。
[0079] 频域分析可以允许确定HVAC系统部件的各个贡献。使用总电流测量的一些优点可 以包括:减少将会需要监视各个HVAC系统部件的电流传感器的数量。这会降低材料成本和 安装成本的账单并减少可能的安装问题。此外,提供单个时域电流的流可以降低上载电流 数据所需要的带宽的量。然而,本公开内容还可以与另外的电流传感器一起使用。
[0080]此外,尽管未在图中示出,但是可以包括另外的传感器例如压力传感器,并且可以 将该另外的传感器连接至空气处理器监视模块322和/或压缩机监视模块316。压力传感器 可以与回风压力或送风压力相关联,和/或与在制冷回路内的各位置处的压力相关联。气流 传感器可以测量送风(supply air)和/或回风(return air)的总气流。湿度传感器可以测 量送风和/或回风的相对湿度,并且还可以测量房主住宅300的内部或外部的环境湿度。 [0081]在各种实现方式中,本公开内容的原理可以应用于监视其他系统,例如热水加热 器、炉加热系统、冰箱、冷藏箱、水池加热器、水池栗/过滤器等。作为示例,热水加热器可以 包括点火器、气阀(其可以通过螺线管进行操作)、点火器、导风轮鼓风机(inducer blower)、以及栗。可以通过监视公司来分析总电流读数,以评定热水加热器的各个部件的 操作。总负载例如热水加热器或空气处理器单元304可以经由智能插座、智能插头或高安培 负载控制开关连接至AC电源,其中智能插座、智能插头或高安培负载控制开关中的每一个 可以在所连接的装置被激活时提供指示。
[0082]在图2中所示的一个实现方式中,压缩机监视模块316向空气处理器监视模块322 提供数据,并且空气处理器监视模块幻2将来自空气处理器监视模块322和压缩机监视模块 316两者的数据提供给远程监视系统330。监视系统330可以经由分布式网络例如因特网334 而获得。替选地,可以使用任何其他合适的网络,例如无线网状网络或专有网络。
[0083]在各种其他实现方式中,压缩机监视模块316可以将来自空气处理器监视模块322 和压缩机监视模块3ie的数据传送至外部无线接收器。外部无线接收器可以是用于房主住 宅300所处的小区(neighborhood)的专有接收器,或者可以是基础设施接收器,例如城域网 (例如WiMAX)、WiFi接入点、或手机基站。
[0084]在图2的实现方式中,空气处理器监视模块322在压缩机监视模块316与监视系统 330之间转播数据。例如,空气处理器监视模块322可以使用房主的路由器338来访问因特网 334。已经存在房主路由器338以提供对房主住宅300内的其他装置(例如房主计算机342) 和/或具有因特网连通性的各种其他装置(例如DVR (数字录像机)或视频游戏系统)的因特 网访问。
[0085]空气处理器监视模块322可以经由网关346与房主路由器338通信。网关346将从空 气处理器监视模块322接收的信息转换成TCP/IP (传输控制协议/互联网协议)数据包,并且 反之亦然。网关346然后将这些数据包转发至房主路由器338。网关346可以使用有线连接或 无线连接而连接至房主路由器338。空气处理器监视模块322可以使用有线连接或无线连接 而与网关346通信。例如,网关346与房主路由器338之间的接口可以是以太网(IEEE 802.3) 或WiFi (IEEE 802.11)。
[0086]空气处理器监视模块322与网关346之间的接口可以包括无线协议,例如蓝牙、 ZigBee (IEEE 802.15.4)、900兆赫、2.4千兆赫、WiFi (IEEE802.il)、以及专有协议。空气处 理器监视模块322可以使用有线协议或无线协议与压缩机监视模块316通信。仅作为示例, 空气处理器监视模块322和压缩机监视模块316可以使用电力线通信或专用通信线来通信, 其中可以通过电力线通信发送线电压(例如240伏)或递降电压(stepped-down voltage) (例如24伏)。
[0087]空气处理器监视模块322和压缩机监视模块316可以传送符合ClimateTalk™(气候 对话™)标准的帧内的数据,Cl imateTalk™标准可以包括2011年6月23日发布的气候对话联 盟HVAC应用配置文件Vl.l、2011年6月23日发布的气候对话联盟通用应用配置文件vl.l、以 及2011年6月23日发布的气候对话联盟应用规范vl.l,其全部公开内容通过引用合并到本 文中。在各种实现方式中,网关346可以将ClimateTalk™帧封装成IP数据包,该IP数据包被 传送至监视系统330。监视系统330然后提取ClimateTalk™帧并解析ClimateTalk™帧内所 包含的数据。监视系统330可以使用ClimateTalk™来发送包括监视控制信号和/或HVAC控制 信号的返回信息。
[0088] HVAC控制模块360控制空气处理器单元304和压缩机/冷凝器单元308的操作。HVAC 控制模块360可以基于来自恒温器364的控制信号进行操作。恒温器364可以向HVAC控制模 块360传送用于通风、供暖和制冷的请求。空气处理器监视模块322可以截获一个或更多个 控制信号。以下在图3A至图3C中示出了控制信号与空气处理器监视模块322之间的交互的 各实现方式。
[0089] 在各HVAC系统中可以存在另外的控制信号。仅作为示例,热杲可以包括另外的控 制信号,例如用于换向阀的控制信号。恒温器364和/或HVAC控制模块360可以包括用于二次 供暖和/或二次制冷的控制信号,其可以在初级供暖或初级制冷不充足时被激活。在双燃料 系统中,例如在根据电或天然气进行操作的系统中,可以监视与选择燃料相关的控制信号。 此外,可以监视另外的状态信号和差错信号,例如在压缩机被关闭并且除霜加热器进行操 作以熔化来自蒸发器的霜时可以表明除霜状态信号的除霜状态信号。
[0090] 在各种实现方式中,恒温器364可以使用网关346来与因特网334通信。在一个实现 方式中,恒温器364不与空气处理器监视模块322或压缩机监视模块316直接通信。反而,恒 温器364与监视系统330通信,监视系统330可以基于来自恒温器364的信息来向空气处理器 监视模块322和/或压缩机监视模块316提供信息或控制信号。使用监视系统33〇,房主或承 包方可以向恒温器364发送信号,以使得能够手动地供暖或制冷(与当前温度设置无关)或 改变设置点,例如期望的即时温度和温度调度表。另外,可以观察来自恒温器364的信息,例 如当前温度趋势和历史温度趋势。
[0091] 监视系统330可以向房主计算机342和/或房主的任何其他电子装置提供关于例如 检测到或预测到的故障的情况的警报。例如,监视系统330可以向房主的移动装置368例如 移动电话或平板提供警报。在图2中使用虚线示出了警报,虚线表示该警报可不直接行进到 房主计算机342或移动装置368,而是可经过例如因特网334和/或移动供应商网络(未示 出)。该警报可以采取任何合适的形式,包括文本消息、电子邮件、社交网络消息、语音邮件、 电话呼叫等。
[0092] 监视系统330还可与承包方计算机372交互。承包方计算机372于是可以与各个承 包方携带的移动装置交互。替选地,监视系统330可以直接向承包方的预定的移动装置提供 警报。在即将发生的或检测到的故障的情况下,监视系统330可以提供关于房主的识别、 HVAC系统的识别、与故障相关的一个或多个部件、和/或进行维护所需要的技能的信息。 [0093] 在各种实现方式中,监视系统330可以向承包方计算机372传送房主或住宅的唯一 标识符。承包方计算机372可以包括由唯一标识符索引的数据库,该数据库存储关于房主的 信息(包括房主的地址)、合同信息(例如服务协议)、以及关于所安装的HVAC设备的详细信 眉、。
[0094] 空气处理器监视模块322和压缩机监视模块316可以接收各个传感器信号,例如水 传感器信号。例如,空气处理器监视模块322可以从浮控开关376、冷凝物传感器380和传导 传感器384接收信号。冷凝物传感器380可以包括如在2011年6月17日提交的标题为 “Condensate Liquid Level Sensor and Drain Fitting”的共同转让专利申请第13/162, 798号中所描述的装置,其全部公开内容通过引用合并到本文中。
[0095] 在空气处理器单元304进行空气调节的情况下,发生冷凝并且被捕获在冷凝液盘 中。冷凝液盘通常经由软管排入地漏或冷凝液栗,冷凝液泵将冷凝液抽吸到合适的排出管。 冷凝液传感器380检测排出软管是否已经被堵塞,将最终导致冷凝液盘溢出的情况,可能导 致对HVAC系统和房主住宅300的周围部分造成破坏。
[0096] 空气处理器单元304可以被定位在集物盘(catch pan)上,尤其是在空气处理器单 元304被定位在房主住宅300的生活空间上方的情况下。集物盘可以包括浮控开关376。当在 集物盘中积聚了充足的液体时,浮控开关376向空气处理器监视模块322提供过水平信号。
[0097] 传导传感器384可以被定位在空气处理器单元3〇4所位于的地面上或其他表面上。 传导传感器384可以感测由于一种原因或其他原因未被浮控开关376或冷凝液传感器380检 测到的水泄漏,包括来自其他系统例如热水加热器的泄漏。
[0098] 现在参照图3A,呈现了与空气处理器监视模块322的控制信号交互的示例。在本示 例中,空气处理器监视模块322接入通风请求信号和供暖请求信号。仅作为示例,HVAC控制 模块360可以包括接收通风信号和供暖信号的接线盒(terminal block)。这些接线盒可以 包括另外的连接,其中可以在这些另外的连接与空气处理器监视模块322之间附接引线。
[0099] 替选地,来自空气处理器监视模块322的引线可以例如通过在信号螺钉头下面放 置多个平接线片而附接至与通风信号和供暖信号相同的位置。来自恒温器364的制冷信号 可以与HVAC控制模块360断开,而附接至空气处理器监视模块322。空气处理器监视模块322 然后向HVAC控制模块360提供经切换的制冷信号。这允许空气处理器监视模块322中断空调 系统的操作,例如在通过水传感器之一检测水时。空气处理器监视模块322还可以基于来自 压缩机监视模块316的信息来中断空调系统的操作,例如对压缩机中锁定转子条件的检测。 [0100]现在参照图3B,通风信号、供暖信号和制冷信号连接至空气处理器监视模块322, 而不是HVAC控制模块360。空气处理器监视模块322然后向HVAC控制模块360提供通风信号、 供暖信号和经切换的制冷信号。在各种其他实现方式中,空气处理器监视模块322还可以切 换通风信号和/或供暖信号。
[0101] 现在参照图3C,恒温器400可以使用专有或数字形式的通信,而不是如恒温器364 使用的那样的离散请求线路。尤其是在已经安装了 HVAC控制模块360之后添加恒温器400的 安装中,适配器404可以将专有信号转换成单个的通风请求信号、供暖请求信号和制冷请求 信号。空气处理器监视模块322然后可以类似于图3A (如示出的)或图3B进行连接。
[0102] 现在参照图4A,呈现了空气处理器监视模块322的示例性实现方式的功能框图。控 制线监视模块504接收通风请求信号、供暖请求信号和制冷请求信号。压缩机中断模块508 也接收制冷请求信号。基于禁用信号,压缩机中断模块508使经切换的制冷信号去激活。否 贝IJ,压缩机中断模块508可以使制冷信号通过,作为经切换的制冷信号。
[0103] 根据应用,控制线监视模块504还可以接收另外的控制信号,包括第二级供暖、第 二级制冷、换向阀方向、除霜状态信号、以及双燃料选择。
[0104] 无线收发器512使用天线516与诸如网关346、移动电话基站或WiFi (IEEE 802.11) 或WiMax (IEEE 802.16)基站的无线主机通信。格式化模块520形成包括空气处理器监视模 块322所获取的数据的数据帧,例如ClimateTalk™!]!贞。格式化模块520经由开关模块524将数 据帧提供给无线收发器512。
[0105]开关模块524经由无线收发器512从监视系统330接收数据帧。另外地或替选地,数 据帧可以包括控制信号。开关模块524将从无线收发器512接收到的数据帧提供给格式化模 块520。然而,如果数据帧被指定用于压缩机监视模块316,则开关模块524可以替代地将这 些帧传送至电力线通信模块528,以传送至压缩机监视模块316。
[0106]电源532向空气处理器监视模块322的一些或所有部件提供电力。电源532可以连 接至线电压,该线电压可以是单相120伏AC电力。替选地,电源532可以连接至阶梯下降电压 (stepped down voltage),例如已经存在于HVAC系统中的24伏电源。当电源532接收到的电 力还被提供至压缩机监视模块316时,电力线通信模块528可以经由电源532与压缩机监视 模块316通信。在其他实现方式中,电源532可以不同于电力线通信模块528。电力线通信模 块528可以替代地使用另外的连接与压缩机监视模块316通信,所述另外的连接例如为被提 供至压缩机监视模块316的经切换的制冷信号(其可以是经切换的24伏线),另外的控制线、 专用通信线等。
[0107]在各种实现方式中,到空气处理器监视模块322的一些部件的电力可以由来自恒 温器364的24伏电力来提供。仅作为示例,来自恒温器364的制冷请求可以向压缩机中断模 块508提供电力。这在以下情况是可以的:除非提出制冷请求,否则压缩机中断模块508不需 要进行操作(并且因此不需要被供电),从而向压缩机中断模块508供电。
[0108]来自压缩机监视模块316的数据帧被提供给开关模块524,该开关模块将这些帧转 发至无线收发器512,以传送至网关346。在各种实现方式中,除了将帧转发至网关346之外, 来自压缩机监视模块316的数据帧未受空气处理器监视模块322处理。在其他实现方式中, 空气处理器监视模块322可以将由空气处理器监视模块322收集的数据与由压缩机监视模 块3ie收集的数据组合,并且传送所组合的数据帧。
[0109]另外,空气处理器监视模块322可以基于来自压缩机监视模块316的信息来执行数 据收集或补救操作。仅作为示例,压缩机监视模块316可以向空气处理器监视模块322传送 数据帧,指示空气处理器监视模块322应当监视各输入。仅作为示例,压缩机监视模块316可 以以信号告知压缩机将要启动运行或者已经启动运行。空气处理器监视模块322然后可以 监视相关信息。
[011°]因此,格式化模块520可以将来自压缩机监视模块316的这样的监视指示提供给触 发模块536。触发模块536确定何时捕获数据,或者是否连续地捕获数据、哪些数据要存储、 处理、和/或转发数据。触发模块536还可以接收来自差错模块540的信号。差错模块540可以 监视输入电流,并且当电流在过长时间内处于过高水平时生成差错信号。 压缩机监视模块316可以类似于空气处理器监视模块322进行配置。在压缩机监视 模块3ie中,相应的差错模块可以确定:高电流水平指示压缩机的锁定转子条件。仅作为示 例,可以存储基线运行电流、以及通过将基线运行电流乘以预定因数所算出的电流阈值。当 电流的测量超过电流阈值时,则可以确定锁定转子条件。该处理可以在本地发生,因为锁定 转子的快速响应时间是有益的。
[0112]差错模块540可以命令触发模块536捕获信息以帮助诊断该差错和/或可以向压缩 机中断模块508发送信号以使压缩机禁用。当差错模块540或格式化模块520指示需要中断 时,压缩机中断模块508接收到的禁用信号可以导致压缩机中断模块508的禁用。利用或 (0R)门542示出了该逻辑运算。
[0113]格式化模块520可以基于来自监视系统330和/或压缩机监视模块316的指示来使 压缩机禁用。例如,基于公用事业公司的请求,监视系统330可以指示格式化模块520使压缩 机禁用。例如,在高峰负荷时间期间,公用事业公司可以请求关闭空调以换取电价的折扣。 该关闭可以经由监视系统330来实现。
[0114]水监视模块544可以监视传导传感器384、浮控开关376、以及冷凝液传感器380。例 如,当传导传感器384的电阻率降低到特定值以下(这在有水的情况下将会发生)时,水监视 模块544可以以信号告知差错模块540有水存在。
[0115] 水监视模块544还可以检测浮控开关376何时检测到过量的水,这可以通过浮控开 关376的闭合或断开来指示。水监视模块544还可以检测冷凝液传感器380的电阻率何时改 变。在各实现方式中,例如在空气处理器监视模块322被供电时,可以不提供对冷凝液传感 器380的检测,直到形成基线电流读数为止。一旦提供冷凝液传感器380,则电流的变化可以 解释为已经发生堵塞的指示。基于这些水信号中的任一个,水监视模块544可以以信号告知 差错模块540压缩机应当被禁用。
[0116]温度跟踪模块548跟踪一个或更多个HVAC部件的温度。例如,温度跟踪模块548可 以监视送风的温度和回风的温度。温度跟踪検块548可以向格式化模块520提供平均温度 值。仅作为不例,该平均值可以是运行平均值(running average)。运行平均值的滤波器系 数可以是预定的并且可以由监视系统330修改。
[0117]温度跟踪模块548可以监视与空调系统相关的一个或更多个温度。例如,液体线路 从压缩机/冷凝器单元3〇8的冷凝器将制冷剂提供给空气处理器单元3〇4的膨胀阀。可以沿 着在膨胀阀之前和/或在膨胀阀之后的制冷剂线路测量温度。该膨胀阀可以例如包括恒温 膨胀阀、毛细管、或自动膨胀阀。
[0118]另外地或替选地,温度跟踪模块548可以监视空气处理器单元304的蒸发器盘管的 一个或更多个温度。可以沿着制冷剂线路在蒸发器盘管的开始处或附近、在蒸发器盘管的 末端处或附近、或在一个或更多个中点处测量温度。在各实现方式中,可以通过蒸发器盘管 的物理可接近性来规定温度传感器的放置。可以向温度跟踪模块548告知温度传感器的位 置。替选地,关于温度位置的数据可以被存储作为安装数据的一部分,该数据可以用于格式 化模块520和/或监视系统,格式化模块520和/或监视系统可以使用该信息准确地解释所接 收到的温度数据。
[0119] 功率计算模块552监视电压和电流。在一个实现方式中,这些是总电源电压和总电 源电流,总电源电流代表空气处理器单元304的所有部件消耗的总电流。功率计算模块552 可以通过将电压与电流相乘来执行逐点功率计算。逐点功率值和/或逐点功率的平均值被 提供给格式化模块520。
[0120]电流记录模块556记录一个时段内的总电流值。可以通过安装在空气处理器单元 304内或者沿着向空气处理器单元304提供电力的电缆的电流传感器(参见图2中的电流传 感器324)来感测总电流。仅作为示例,电流传感器可以被定位在主开关处,该主开关选择性 地将输入电力提供给空气处理器单元304。替选地,电流传感器可以靠近配电盘而定位或被 定位在配电盘内。电流传感器可以与将来自配电盘的电流馈送至空气处理器单元304的一 个或更多个电线一致地被安装。
[0121]总电流包括空气处理器单元304的所有耗能部件的电流消耗。仅作为示例,耗能部 件可以包括气阀螺线管、点火器、循环器鼓风机马达、导风轮鼓风机马达、二次热源、膨胀阀 控制器、炉控制盘、冷凝水泵、以及可以向恒温器提供电力的变压器。耗能部件还可以包括 空气处理器监视模块322本身和压缩机监视模块316。
[0122]可能难以隔离任何单个耗能部件消耗的电流。此外,可能难以量化或消除例如可 由输入的AC电力的电压电平的波动引起的总电流失真。结果,对该电流应用处理,仅作为示 例,该处理包括过滤、统计处理、以及频域处理。
[0123]在图4A的实现方式中,来自电流记录模块556的时域电流序列被提供给快速傅里 叶变换(FFT)模块560,该FFT模块560根据时域电流值生成频谱。FFT模块560使用的时间长 度和频点(frequency bin)可以由监视系统330配置。FFT模块560可以包括数字信号处理器 (DSP),或者由DSP来实现。在各种实现方式中,FFT模块560可以执行离散傅里叶变换(DFT)。 电流记录模块556还可以向格式化模块520提供原始电流值、平均电流值(例如电流的绝对 值的平均)、或RMS电流值。
[0124] 时钟564允许格式化模块520对生成的每个数据帧应用时间戳。另外,时钟564可以 允许触发模块536周期性地生成触发信号。触发信号可以发起对接收到的数据的收集和/或 存储和处理。触发信号的周期性生成可以允许监视系统330从空气处理器监视模块322非常 频繁地接收数据,以识别出空气处理器监视模块322仍然正在运行。
[0125]电压跟踪模块568测量AC线电压,并且可以向格式化模块520提供原始电压值或平 均电压值(例如电压的绝对值的平均)。除了平均值之外,可以计算其他统计参数,例如RMS (均方根)或均方。
[0126] 基于触发信号,可以生成并发送一系列帧。仅作为示例,可以在105秒内连续地并 且然后每15秒间歇地生成所述帧,直到经过15分钟为止。每个帧可以包括时间戳、RMS电压、 RMS电流、有功功率、平均温度、状态信号的状况、液体传感器的状态、FFT电流数据、以及表 示触发信号的源的标志。这些值中的每个值均可以对应于预定的时间窗口或帧长度。
[0127] 可以通过模-数转换器以特定速率例如每秒1920个样本对电压信号和电流信号进 行采样。可以根据样本来计量帧长度。当帧长度为256个样本时,以每秒1920个样本的采样 率,存在每秒7.5个帧(或每帧0.1333秒)。以下在图7中更详细地描述触发信号的生成。 1920Hz的采样率具有96〇Hz的乃奎斯特(Nyquist)频率,并且因此允许FFT带宽高达约 960Hz。可以针对每个帧通过FFT模块560来计算受限于单个帧的时间跨度的FFT。
[0128] 格式化模块520可以从监视系统330接收单个帧请求。格式化模块520因此响应于 该请求提供单个帧。仅作为示例,监视系统33〇可以每3〇秒或某一其他周期间隔请求一帧, 并且可以向承包方提供相应数据以实时监视HVAC系统。
[0129] 现在参照图4B,示出了压缩机监视模块316的示例性实现方式。压缩机监视模块 316的部件可以类似于图4A的空气处理器监视模块322的部件。仅作为示例,压缩机监视模 块316可以包括与空气处理器监视模块322相同的硬件部件,其中,未使用的部件例如无线 收发器512只是被禁用或去激活。在各个其他实现方式中,可以在空气处理器监视模块322 与压缩机监视模块316之间共享电路板布局,其中,印刷电路板上的的各位置(对应于在空 气处理器监视模块322中存在的但未在压缩机监视模块3 16中实现的部件)减少 (depopulate)〇
[0130] 图4B的电流记录模块556接收(例如来自图2的电流传感器320的)表示到压缩机/ 冷凝器单元308的多个耗能部件的电流的总电流值。耗能部件可以包括启动绕组、运行绕 组、电容器、以及用于冷凝器风扇马达和压缩机马达的接触器/继电器。耗能部件还可以包 括换向阀螺线管、控制板、以及在一些实现方式中压缩机监视模块316本身。
[0131] 在压缩机监视模块3ie中,温度跟踪模块548可以跟踪环境温度。当压缩机监视模 块316位于室外时,环境温度表示外部温度。如上所述,提供环境温度的温度传感器可以被 定位在容置压缩机或冷凝器的外壳的外部。替选地,温度传感器可以位于外壳内,但是暴露 于循环空气。在各实现方式中,温度传感器可以避免阳光直射,并且可以暴露于不受阳光直 接加热的空气腔。
[0132] 温度跟踪模块548可以在各个点处和/或沿着冷凝器盘管的一个或更多个点监视 制冷剂线路的温度,所述各个点诸如在压缩机之前(被称为吸入线路温度),在压缩机之后 (被称为压缩机排放温度)、在冷凝器之后(被称为液体线路外温度)。温度传感器的位置可 以由冷凝器盘管的物理布置来规定。在安装期间,可以记录温度传感器的位置。
[0133] 另外地或替选地,可获得指定何处放置温度传感器的数据库。该数据库可以被安 装者参考并且可以允许温度数据的精确云处理。该数据库可以用于空气处理器传感器和压 缩机/冷凝器传感器两者。该数据库可以由监视公司预置入,或者由受托的安装者开发,然 后与其他安装承包方共享。温度跟踪模块548和/或云处理功能可以确定接近的温度,该接 近的温度是冷凝器已经能够使得液体线路外温度与环境空气温度的接近程度的测量。
[0134] 现在参照图5A至图51,示出了空气处理器监视模块322的示例性实现方式的框图。 尽管图4A中所描绘的功能可以由图5A至图51的各种电路块执行,但是在图4A的功能块与图 5A至图51中的任一个的电路块之间可能不存在一一对应。
[0135] 现在参照图5A,信号缩放块572-1、572-2和572-3 (统称信号缩放块57¾接收温度。 仅作为示例,信号缩放块572可以包括电阻分压器和/或放大器,以适当地缩放输入信号并 将经缩放的信号分别提供给模-数(A/D)转换器574-1、574-2和574-3 (统称A/D转换器574)。 微处理器576可以包括A/D转换器574。微处理器执行来自存储器578的代码。信号缩放块 572-4和572-5分别缩放电压和电流。
[0136]电源580向空气处理器监视模块322的部件提供电力。通信模块582包括通信控制 器584、用于无线通信的无线电586、以及用于电力线通信的电力线通信模块5SS。功率监视 芯片590可以监视经缩放的电压和电流,并且向微处理器576提供电流信息和电压信息、以 及功率信息和相位信息。
[0137] 现在参照图5B,信号缩放块572-6和572-7分别接收电压和电流,并且将这些值提 供给微处理器592。仅作为示例,微处理器592可以包括比较器,以便响应于来自信号缩放块 572-6和572-7的模拟信号来确定电压和/或电流的零交叉事件。A/D转换器574-4和574-5分 别将经缩放的电压信号和电流信号转换成提供给微处理器592的数字值。在图5B所示的实 现方式中,A/D转换器574-1、574-2和574-3没有与微处理器592集成,而是单独的。
[0138] 尽管示出了 10位和12位A/D转换器,但是可以选择具有更高或更低分辨率的A/D转 换器。在各种实现方式中,如图5B中所示,对于例如期望较高精度并且源模拟信号本身具有 较高精度的电流和电压的值,可以使用较高分辨率的A/D转换器。
[0139] 现在参照图5C,示出了类似于图5B的实现方式。在图5C中,A/D转换器574-1、574-2 和574-3被集成在微处理器594中。
[0140] 现在参照图5D,可编程增益模块596-1和596-2允许将可编程增益应用于电压和电 流。这可以允许例如自动增益控制的特征。微处理器596使用公共值或使用单个值来控制可 编程增益模块596-1和596-2。在图5D中,A/D转换器574-4和5745被集成在微处理器596中。 在各种实现方式中,微处理器596可以仅提供特定分辨率例如10位的A/D转换器,在这种情 况下,A/D转换器574-4和574-5可以具有10位分辨率,而不是12位分辨率。
[0141] 现在参照图5E,微处理器598与通信控制器584形成一体。
[0142] 现在参照图5F,微处理器600还与A/D转换器574-4和574-5形成一体,并且在这种 情况下微处理器600保持12位分辨率。
[0143] 现在参照图5G,微处理器602与芯片上的存储器578形成一体。可以提供与芯片分 离的另外的存储器(未示出)。
[0144] 现在参照图5H,定制集成电路604可以与以上描述的包括电源580、电力线通信模 块588、无线电586、以及存储器578的许多功能形成一体。定制集成电路604包括复用器608, 该复用器通过复用总线将感测数据提供给微处理器606。微处理器606还可以实现通信控制 器584。为了提供与定制集成电路604兼容的电压,在进入定制集成电路604的电压信号之前 安置有分压器616。
[0145] 现在参照图51,定制集成电路630可以实现图5H的定制集成电路604的模块,而且 可以通过使用微处理器芯640与微处理器606形成一体。
[0146]现在参照图5J,示出了关于监视模块例如空气处理器监视模块322的数据流图。电 力线65〇向电源6M提供电力。电力线650的电压由信号调节块654调节并且然后被提供给电 压记录656和功率计算器658。电压的零交叉由零交叉块660监视并被传送至相位计算模块 662。相位计算模块662基于来自零交叉块660和电流零交叉块664的零交叉信息来确定电压 与电流之间的相位差。
[0147]电流零交叉块664从电流传感器666接收电流,电流传感器666还将电流值提供给 例如通过应用滤波器来调节电流值的信号调节块668,并将它们提供给电流监视器670和功 率计算块658。功率计算块基于电流和电压来确定功率并将结果提供给功率记录674。
[0148] 电流记录672、功率记录674、相位记录676和电压记录656向信息打包块678提供信 息。信息打包块678将信息打包以通过传送块680来传送。信息打包块678可以提供识别信 息,例如模块ID号682。温度记录684接收一个或更多个温度信号686,而压力记录688接收一 个或更多个压力690。
[0149] 密钥识别块692监视来自各种源的输入,所述各种源可以包括功率计算块658、相 位计算块662、电压记录656、温度记录684、压力记录688、以及状态输入694,例如供暖要求 控制线和制冷要求控制线。密钥识别块692可以识别每个记录的哪些部分由传送块680传 送。
[0150] 密钥识别块692识别特定事件的发生,例如供暖要求或制冷要求的开始。另外,密 钥识别块692可以识别出诸如过电压、过电流、或者温度或压力超出范围的异常情况何时已 经发生。响应于密钥识别块692对事件的识别,记录控制块694可以控制信息打包块678丢弃 低优先级信息或仅在本地存储低优先级信息,延迟传送中优先级信息,以及更迅速地或甚 至立刻传送高优先级信息。
[0151]现在参照图6,呈现了示例性监视系统安装例如改型应用的简要概况。尽管利用表 示具体操作顺序的箭头绘制了图6和图7,但是本公开内容不限于该具体顺序。在704处,到 空气处理器的主电源被断开。如果到压缩机/冷凝器单元的主电源在外部未断开,则到压缩 机/冷凝器单元的主电源在该点处也应当断开。在708处,将制冷线路与HVAC控制模块断开 并将制冷线路与空气处理器监视模块连接。在712处,经切换的制冷线路从空气处理器监视 模块连接至HVAC控制模块,其中制冷线路已经预先被连接。
[0152]在716处,通风线路、供暖线路和公共线路从空气处理器监视模块连接至HVAC控制 模块上的端子。在各种实现方式中,最初到HVAC控制模块的通风线路、供暖线路和公共线路 可以被断开并连接至空气处理器监视模块。这可以针对HVAC控制模块完成,其中另外的线 路不能与最初的通风线路、供暖线路和公共线路并联连接。
[0153] 在720处,电流传感器例如卡扣环绕(snap-around)电流互感器连接至到HVAC系统 的主电源。在724处,电力引线和公共引线连接至HVAC变压器,HVAC变压器可以向空气处理 器监视模块提供24伏电力。在各种实现方式中,依靠在716处所描述的公共引线,公共引线 可以被省去。接着在728处,温度传感器被放置在送风管道工件中并且连接至空气处理器监 视模块。在732处,温度传感器被放置在回风管道工件中并且连接至空气处理器监视模块。 在734处,温度传感器被放置在蒸发器盘管的预定位置例如中间回路中。在736处,水传感器 被安装并连接至空气处理器监视模块。
[0154]在740处,到压缩机/冷凝器单元的主电源被断开。在744处,压缩机监视模块的电 源连接至压缩机/冷凝器单元的输入电源。例如,压缩机监视模块可以包括使线电压递降成 压缩机监视模块可使用的电压的变压器。在748处,电流传感器被附接在压缩机/冷凝器单 元的电源输入周围。在752处,电压传感器连接至压缩机/冷凝器单元的电源输入。
[0155] 在"756处,温度传感器被安装在液体线路上,例如安装在到冷凝器的输入或输出 处。可以利用隔热层包裹温度传感器,以用热的方式将温度传感器耦接至液体线路中的液 体并用热的方式将温度传感器与该环境隔离。在760处,温度传感器被安置在冷凝器盘管的 预定位置中并被隔热。在764处,安置温度传感器以测量环境空气。温度传感器可以被定位 在室外外壳312的外部或室外外壳312的在其中有外部空气循环的空间中。在768处,将到空 气处理器和压缩机/冷凝器单元的主电源恢复。
[0156] 现在参照图7,流程图描绘了捕获数据帧的示例性操作。在800处,控制开始于空气 处理器监视模块的启动,其中有效(alive)定时器被重置。有效定时器保证信号被周期性地 发送至监视系统,使得监视系统知道空气处理器监视模块仍然有效并运行。在不存在该信 号的情况下,监视系统330将推断出空气处理器监视模块发生故障或者在空气处理器监视 模块与监视系统之间存在连通性问题。
[0157] 控制在804处继续,其中,控制确定是否己经从监视系统接收到帧请求。如果己经 接收到这样的请求,则控制转移至808;否则,控制转移至812。在808处,记录包括测量电压、 电流、温度、控制线和水传感器信号的帧。执行包括平均、乘方(power)、RMS、以及FFT的计 算。在各种实现方式中,对一个或更多个控制信号的监视可以是连续的。因此,当接收到远 程帧请求时,使用最近的数据来进行计算的目的。
[0158] 然后,控制返回至8〇0。现在参照812,控制确定控制线之一是否已经开启。如果控 制线之一已经开启,则控制转移至816;否则,控制转移至820。尽管812指的是控制线开启, 但是在各种其他实现方式中,当控制线的状态改变时,即当控制线开启或关闭时,控制可以 转移至816。状态的这种改变可以伴随有对监视系统感兴趣的信号。响应于空气处理器单元 或压缩机/冷凝器单元的总电流,控制还可以转移至816。
[0159] 在820处,控制确定是否已经接收到远程窗口请求。如果已经接收到远程窗口请 求,则控制转移至816;否则,控制转移至824。该窗口请求用于例如以下所描述的一系列帧。 在824处,控制确定电流是否处于阈值以上,并且如果电流处于阈值以上,则控制转移至 816;否则,控制转移至828。在828处,控制确定有效定时器是否处于阈值例如60分钟以上。 如果有效定时器处于阈值以上,则控制转移至808;否则,控制返回至804。
[0160] 在8ie处,窗口定时器被重置。帧的窗口是如本文更详细描述的一系列帧。在832 处,控制开始连续地记录帧。在836处,控制确定窗口定时器是否已经超过第一阈值,例如 105秒。如果窗口定时器已经超过第一阈值,则控制在840处继续;否则,控制保持在836处, 连续地记录帧。在840处,控制切换到周期性地记录帧,例如每隔15秒。
[0161]控制在844处继续,其中,控制确定HVAC系统是否仍然运行。如果HVAC系统仍然运 行,则控制在848处继续;否则,控制转移至852。当空气处理器单元和/或压缩机单元的总电 流超过预定阈值时,控制可以确定HVAC系统正在运行。替选地,控制可以监视空气处理器单 元和/或压缩机单元的控制线,以确定供暖要求或制冷要求何时已经结束。在848处,控制确 定窗口定时器现在是否超过第二阈值,例如15分钟。如果窗口定时器现在超过第二阈值,则 控制转移至852;否则,控制返回至844,同时控制继续周期性地记录帧。
[0162] 在852处,控制停止周期性地记录帧并且执行诸如乘方、平均、RMS、以及FFT的计 算。控制在856处继续,其中,所述帧被传送。控制然后返回至800。尽管示出了以帧捕获结 束,但是852和856可以在贯穿帧记录的各个时间被执行,而不是在结束时。仅作为示例,一 旦达到第一阈值,连续记录直到第一阈值为止的帧就可以被发送。直到达到第二阈值为止 的剩余帧可以在其被捕获时均被发送出去。
[0163] 在各种实现方式中,第二阈值可以被设置为高的值(例如超出范围那样高),这实 际上意味着决不会达到第二阈值。在这样的实现方式中,只要HVAC系统保持运行,就周期性 地记录桢。
[0164] 监视系统的服务器包括处理器和存储器,其中,存储器存储对从空气处理器监视 模块和压缩机监视模块接收到的数据进行处理的应用程序代码,并且确定如以下更详细描 述的现有故障和/或即将发生的故障。处理器执行该应用程序代码,并且将接收到的数据存 储在存储器中或其他形式的存储装置中,所述其他形式的存储装置包括磁存储装置、光存 储装置、闪存存储装置等。虽然在本申请中使用术语“服务器”,但是本申请不限于单个服务 器。
[0165] 服务器的集合可以一起进行操作,以接收和处理来自多个住宅的空气处理器监视 模块和压缩机监视模块的数据。可以在服务器之间使用负载平衡算法以分配处理和存储。 本申请不限于监视公司所拥有、维护和收纳的服务器。尽管本公开内容描述了在监视系统 330中出现的诊断、处理和警报,但是这些功能中的一些或全部功能可以使用所安装的设备 和/或房主资源例如房主计算机来在本地执行。
[0166] 服务器可以存储关于住宅的HVAC系统的频率数据的基线。该基线可以被用于检测 表示即将发生的故障或现有故障的变化。仅作为示例,可以对不同部件的故障的频率标签 (frequency signature)进行预编程,并且可以基于来自承包方的观测证据来更新所述频 率标签。例如,一旦己经诊断出发生故障的HVAC系统,监视系统就可以记录导致故障的频率 数据并将频率标签与诊断出的故障原因相关联。仅作为示例,可以使用计算机学习系统例 如神经网络算法或遗传算法来精化频率标签。频率标签对于不同类型的HVAC系统可以是唯 一的,和/或可以共享公共特性。基于受监视的特定类型的HVAC系统,可以调节这些公共特 性。
[0167] 监视系统还可以接收每帧中的电流数据。例如,当每秒接收到7.5帧时,可获得具 有7.5Hz分辨率的电流数据。可以分析电流和/或该电流的导数(derivative),以检测即将 发生的故障或现有故障。另外,可以使用电流和/或导数来确定何时监视特定数据或者在哪 些点处分析所获得的数据。例如,可以发现在特定当前事件周围在预定窗口处所获得的频 率数据对应于特定的HVAC系统部件,例如热表面点火的激活。
[0168] 本公开内容的部件可以连接至计量系统,例如公用设施(包括气和电)计量系统。 可以使用包括通过电话线进行通信的任何合适方法来将数据上载到监视系统330。这些通 信可以采取数字用户线(DSL)的形式,或者可以使用至少部分地在声音频率内进行操作的 调制解调器。上载到监视系统330可以被限制在一天的特定时间,例如在夜间或由承包方或 房主指定的时间。此外,可以分批上载,使得可以较少打开和关闭连接。此外,在各种实现方 式中,可以仅在己经检测到故障或其他异常时发生上载。
[0169] 通知的方法不限于以上所公开的这些方法。例如,HVAC问题的通知可以对应用程 序采取推送或拉取更新的形式,该应用程序可以在智能电话或其他移动装置上或在标准计 算机上来执行。还可以使用网页应用程序、或在本地显示装置例如恒温器364或贯穿住宅定 位的其他显示装置上、或在空气处理器监视模块322或压缩机监视模块316上来查看通知。 [0170] 现在参照图8,示出了示例性HVAC部件的功能示意图。空调单元控制器902从第一 电力线904、第二电力线906、以及中性线908 (也称为中心抽头CT)接收电力。电流传感器91〇 测量到达第一电力线904和第二电力线906的电流。冷凝器风扇912由开关914控制。根据本 公开内容的原理,监视至冷凝器风扇的电流的电流传感器910可以被去除。
[0171] 压缩机马达則8包括启动绕组920和运行绕组922,并且由开关924控制。运行电容 器926可以连接在压缩机马达918的端子间。根据本公开内容的原理,测量被提供给压缩机 马达918的电流的电流传感器928、930和931可以被去除。中等容量螺线管932可以由开关 934致动。中等容量螺线管932可以改变压缩机马达918的容量,例如从高容量改变到中等容 量。
[0172] 换向阀936可以由开关938和/或开关940控制。处理器942控制开关914、924、934、 938和940。处理器942可以例如在屏幕上或经由闪烁的多色发光二极管944提供可视的操作 指示器。处理器942可以通过网络线950经由网络端口 948与炉控制处理器946通信。处理器 942可以响应于高侧制冷处理器952和低侧制冷处理器954进行操作。处理器942还可以响应 于外部环境温度传感器956和冷凝器盘管温度传感器958进行操作。
[0173] 鼓风机马达控制器960使用网络线950通过网络来通信。鼓风机马达控制器960可 以包括鼓风机控制处理器962和逆变器驱动器964。逆变器驱动器964驱动循环器鼓风机马 达966。循环器鼓风机控制器968使用网络线950通过网络来控制鼓风机马达控制器960。循 环器鼓风机控制器包括继电器970和循环器控制处理器972。
[0174] 炉控制器974包括炉控制处理器946和开关976、978和980。炉控制器974从线904或 线906和中性线908之一接收电力。炉控制处理器974从恒温器982接收控制信号,并且根据 响应来致动开关976、978和980。开关976可以是继电器,并且控制用于调节到炉的燃烧燃料 的气阀984。开关978控制用于排出燃烧气体的导风轮马达986。开关980控制对燃料点火的 点火器988。炉控制器974和恒温器982由变压器990来供电。
[0175] 现在参照图9,总电流水平在非零电流1004处开始,该非零电流表示至少一个耗能 部件正在耗能。电流1008的尖峰可以表示另外的部件正在开启。上升电流1012可以对应于 导风轮鼓风机的操作。这之后紧接着是尖峰1016,该尖峰可以表示热表面点火器的操作开 始。在打开螺线管操作的气阀之后,热表面点火器可以关闭,这使得在1018处电流返回至对 应于导风轮鼓风机的水平。电流可以保持大致平坦1020直到电流斜坡1024开始为止,该电 流斜坡表示循环器鼓风机操作开始。尖峰1028可以表示从循环器鼓风机的启动到运行的转 变。
[0176] 现在参照图10A,另外的示例性电流迹线在1050处开始。在1054处的尖峰表示诸如 热表面点火器的部件的操作。在1058和1062处的转变可以表示其他耗能部件的操作或热表 面点火器的操作改变。尖峰1066可以表示另外的耗能部件例如循环器鼓风机的操作开始。
[0177] 现在参照图10B,图10A中所示的转变可以被离析以允许仔细检查在这些转变处的 数据,因为在这些时间处的数据会具有较大的诊断值。为了识别转变例如1054、1058、1062 和1066,将可以包括平均和求导的数学算法应用于图10A的电流迹线,以产生相应的尖峰 1080、1084、1088和1092。
[0178] 现在参照图10C,示出了另外的示例性电流迹线。虽然图10C的电流迹线在视觉上 不同于图10A的电流迹线,但是可能难以量化该差异。尤其是可能难以获得用于区分图i〇C 的电流迹线与图10A的电流迹线的通用模式。图10C的电流迹线可以表示操作的改变,例如 热表面点火器的退化。为了更加清楚地区分图10C与图10A,可以使用频域分析。
[0179] 现在参照图11A,柱状图1100描绘了通过图10A的频域分析获得的33个频点中的每 个频点中的相对频率含量。仅作为示例,在图10A的时域迹线的指定时段内执行FFT。仅作为 示例,可以对图10B中所识别的转变之一调整(key)指定时间。
[0180] 现在参照图11B,柱状图1104描绘了对应于图10C的时域迹线的频率含量。现在参 照图11C,示出了图11A的频域数据与图11B的频域数据之间的比较。在各种实现方式中,该 差异可以通过从图11A的值逐个频点地减去图11B的值来简单地计算。所得到的频域数据 1108可以表示点火器有故障。仅作为示例,当差频谱1108中的特定频点超过特定阈值时,监 视系统可以确定点火器己经发生故障或正发生故障。
[0181 ] 现在参照图12A,示例性电流迹线具有近似恒定的水平1140,直到尖峰1144表示热 表面点火器的操作为止。第二尖峰1148表示螺旋线操作的气阀的致动。现在参照图12B,另 外的示例性电流迹线示出了热表面点火器的操作,看起来缺失了螺旋线操作的气阀的操 作。现在参照图12C,对图12A和图12B两者执行频域分析,并且在图12C中示出了这两个频域 谱之间的差频谱。该频域差异可以向监视系统表明螺线管操作的气阀已经发生故障。
[0182] 现在参照图13A,示出了正常操作的马达的电压和电流,其中,电压迹线呈正弦曲 线状而电流迹线呈锯齿状。在图13B中,示出了具有故障运行电容器的压缩机马达的电压迹 线和电流迹线。在视觉上,难以确定图13A和图13B中的时域表示之间的任何差异。图13C示 出了图13A和图13B的电流迹线的时域相减。该差异只是呈现为噪声,并且在时域中,可能无 法区分正常运行的马达与具有故障运行电容器的马达。
[0183] 现在参照图14A,示出了图13A的正常运行的马达的电流的频域含量。沿着一个轴 示出了频点,而在纵轴上示出了频点的相对大小。每个片1180可以对应于不同时间窗口。换 言之,图14A显示了在许多时间窗口上执行的一系列FFT,所述时间窗口可以是连续时间窗 口。同时,图14B显示了与图13B的故障马达的电流对应的频域含量1184。在图14C中,示出了 图14A和图14B的频域数据之间的差异1188。当在特定频率处的差异超过阈值时,可以诊断 出马达的故障操作。基于哪些频点呈现最大差异,可以提出问题的来源。仅作为示例,差频 谱1188可以表示故障运行电容器。
[0184]现在参照图15A,数据流图把空气处理器监视模块和压缩机监视模块表示为触发 数据记录器1200,该触发数据记录器将所记录的数据提供给云处理器1204。尽管在本申请 中被称为云处理器,但是所描述的由云处理器1204执行的一个或更多个处理可替代地由触 发数据记录器12〇0在本地执行。例如,该处理可以由触发数据记录器1200来执行,以降低需 要上载到云处理器1024的数据量。
[0185]云处理器1204接收所记录的数据并且在数据中识别关键点1208,例如运行模式之 间的转变。这些转变可以由例如图10B中所描绘的电流尖峰来识别。装置标识符1212指定受 监视的HVAC系统的特征,该特征可以用于解释所接收到的数据。记录器模式形式1216可以 建立设备特定运行特征,操作模式U20从该设备特定运行特征中被选择。
[0186]基本情况模式记录1224可以学习所讨论装置的正常操作,并且由此建立基线。模 式比较1228接收对应于关键点的数据,并且将具有基本情况的所述数据与所选择的操作模 式进行比较。大于预定量的偏差可以导致故障通知I232。此外,可能不足以触发故障的异常 可以影响性能1236。性能1236可以监视甚至适当运行的设备,以确定经过正常磨损或者通 过住宅本身的问题例如低绝缘值,性能是否已经下降。信息通道1M0将关于所识别的故障 和性能(例如性能下降的警报)的信息提供给在1244处表示的承包方或房主。
[0187] 现在参照图15B,在频域中使用FFT 126〇来分析HVAC操作。这可以允许识别在时域 中很难或不可能可靠地识别的问题。
[0188] 现在参照图15C,监视公司和/或安装承包方可以置入全局知识库1280,以识别所 安装的系统的适当操作。全局知识库1280还可以被更新具有通过持续监视所确定的基本情 况。全局知识库1280可以因此由给定的HVAC系统配置的所有的监视安装系统来通知。
[0189] 现在参照图15D,FFT处理1300被示出为在本地在触发数据记录器处执行。可以在 本地执行FFT处理1300,以降低被上载到云处理器1204的数据量。仅作为示例,可以通过FFT 1300将在时间窗口内的粒状时域电流数据转换成频域数据。触发数据记录器1200然后可以 仅将在该时间窗口内的电流的平均值而不是所有的粒状电流域数据上载到云处理器1204。 另外,在本地执行FFT 1300可以允许一些故障的本地检测和诊断。这可以允许触发数据记 录器12〇〇更好地把上载数据区分优先顺序,例如通过即时地上载看起来与即将发生的或现 有故障相关的数据。
[0190] 现在参照图15E,FFT解释132〇在关键点识别1208对其操作之前在云处理器1204中 被执行。
[0191] 现在参照图15F,在云处理器1204中将图15C的全局知识库1280与图15E的FFT解释 1320相结合。
[0192]现在参照图15G,示出了云处理的另外的示例性表示,其中,处理模块1400接收帧 形式的事件数据。处理模块1400使用用于故障的检测和预测的各种输入数据。所识别的故 障被发送到差错通信系统1404。可以在从空气处理器监视模块和压缩机监视模块接收时存 储事件数据1402。
[0193]利用来自事件数据1402的有关数据,处理模块1400然后可以执行各种预测或检测 任务。在各种实现方式中,某些处理操作为多于一个检测或预测操作所共有。该数据可以因 此被缓存并重新使用。处理模块1400接收关于设备配置1410例如控制信号映射的信息。 [0194]规则和限制1414确定传感器值是否超出可以表示传感器故障的范围。另外,规则 和限制1414可以表明:当诸如电流和电压的参数超出预定限制时,传感器值不能被信任。仅 作为示例,如果例如在限电期间AC电压下降,则在所述时间期间所获得的数据会由于不可 靠而被丢弃。
[0195]去抖动和计数器保持器1418可以存储异常检测的计数。仅作为示例,单个螺线管 操作的气阀故障的检测可以使计数器增加,但是不会触发故障。仅当检测到多个螺线管操 作的气阀故障时,才发送差错信号。这可以排除误报。仅作为示例,耗能部件的单一故障可 以导致相应的计数器加1,而适当操作的检测可以导致相应的计数器减丨。以此方式,如果故 障操作普遍,则计数将最终增加至发送差误信号的点。记录和参考文件1422可以存储用于 检测和预测的频域和时域数据建立基线。
[0196]可以基于电流和/或功率通过比较控制线状态与操作状态来确定基本故障-功能 故障。可以通过温度来验证基本故障,并且不当操作可以贡献于计数器增加。该分析可以依 赖回风温度、送风温度、液体线路内温度、电压、电流、有功功率、控制线状态、压缩机排放温 度、液体线路外温度、以及环境温度。
[0197]可以通过检查异常操作的传感器值来检测传感器差错故障,例如可能发生开路故 障或短路故障。可以在规则和限制1414中找到用于这些确定的值。该分析可以依赖回风温 度、送风温度、液体线路内温度(其可以对应于空气处理器中在膨胀阀之前或之后的制冷剂 线路的温度)、控制线状态、压缩机排放温度、液体线路外温度、以及环境温度。
[0198]当HVAC系统处于关闭状态时,传感器差误故障也可以被诊断。例如,基于表示HVAC 系统已经关闭了一个小时的控制线,处理模块1400可以检查压缩机排放温度、液体线路外 温度以及环境温度是否近似相等。另外,处理模块1400还可以检查回风温度、送风温度以及 液体线路内温度是否近似相等。
[0199]处理模块1400可以对温度读数和电压与预定限制进行比较,以确定电压故障和温 度故障。这些故障可以导致处理模块1400忽略在电压或温度超出预定限制时可能出现的各 种故障。
[0200]处理模块1400可以检查离散传感器的状态,以确定是否存在特定检测到的故障条 件。仅作为示例,检查冷凝液、浮控开关和地面传感器水传感器的状态。相对HVAC系统的操 作状态,水传感器可以被交叉检查。仅作为示例,如果空调系统没有运行,则将不期望冷凝 液托盘将会充满水。相反,这可以表示水传感器之一发生故障。这样的确定可以发起修理传 感器的服务请求,使得当出现实际水问题时其可以被适当地识别。
[0201]处理模块1400可以确定炉启动的合适序列是否发生。这可以依赖事件和日常积累 文件1426。处理模块1400可以例如通过查看图10B中所示的转变和期望这些转变的期望时 间来执行状态序列解码。将所检测的炉序列与参考情况进行比较,并且基于异常生成错误。 可以利用温度读数例如观察当燃烧器开启时送风温度相对于回风温度是否增加来验证炉 序列。处理模块1400还可以使用FFT处理来确定电火花器或点火器操作和螺线管操作的气 阀操作是适当的。
[0202]处理模块1400可以确定火焰探针或火焰传感器是否精确地检测火焰。状态序列解 码可以在确定是否执行一系列炉启动之后。如果这样,这可表明火焰探针不检测火焰并且 燃烧器因此被关闭。当火焰探针不当操作时,重试的频率随时间增加。
[0203]处理模块1400可以通过对热性能与功耗和单元历史进行比较来评估热杲性能。这 可以依赖设备配置数据1410,当可获得时,该设备配置数据包括压缩机映射图。
[0204] 处理模块1400可以确定空调系统的制冷剂水平。例如,处理模块1400可以分析压 缩机电流的频率含量,并且在电力线频率的第三、第五和第七谐频处提取频率。基于环境温 度,可以将该数据与来自当已知空调系统被完全装料(charge)时的历史数据进行比较。通 常,当装料损失时,振荡频率(surge frequency)可能会降低。可以使用诸如送风温度、回风 温度、液体线路内温度、电压、有功功率、控制线状态、压缩机排放温度、以及液体线路外温 度的额外数据来加强低制冷剂水平确定。
[0205]替选地,处理模块1400可以确定低制冷剂装载(charge),这是通过监视由保护器 开关对压缩机马达去激活而实现的,其可以表明低制冷剂装载条件。为了防止误报,处理模 块1400可以忽略在压缩机马达启动之后先于预定延迟发生的压缩机马达去激活,因为这可 以替代地表明另外的问题,例如转子卡住。 L0206] 处理模块1400可以确定空气处理器单元中的电容器(例如用于循环器鼓风机的运 行电容器)的性能。基于回风温度、送风温度、电压、电流、有功功率、控制线状态、以及FFT数 据,处理模块1400确定开始电流的时间和幅值,并相对于参考来检查开始电流曲线。另外, 可以随时间变化比较稳态电流,以查看增加是否导致回风温度与送风温度之间的差的相应 增加。
[0207] 类似地,处理模块1400确定在压缩机/冷凝器单元中的电容器是否正常运行。基于 压缩机排放温度、液体线路外温度、环境温度、电压、电流、有功功率、控制线状态、以及FFT 电流数据,控制确定开始电流的时间和幅值。在时域和/或频域中,相对于参考检查该开始 电流。处理模块1400可以补偿环境温度的改变和液体线路内温度的改变。处理模块1400还 可以验证稳态电流的增加导致压缩机排放温度与液体线路内温度之间的差的相应增加。 [0208]处理模块可以随时间变化来计算和累计能耗数据。处理模块还可以周期性地且以 供暖循环和制冷循环为终点来存储温度。另外,处理模块1400可以记录运行时间的长度。可 以使用运行时间的累计值来确定磨损零件的寿命,磨损零件可以从服务中受益,例如加润 滑油或优先替换。
[0209]处理模块1400还可以将房主的设备分级。处理模块1400将由HVAC设备产生的热通 量相对于能耗进行比较。热通量可以由回风温度和/或例如来自恒温器的室内温度来表示。 处理模块1400可以计算住宅的包络以确定净通量。处理模块1400可以将针对住宅包络调节 时的设备的性能相对于其他相似系统进行比较。显著的偏差可能导致要表示的错误。
[0210]处理模块1400使用电流或功率的变化和循环器鼓风机马达的类型来确定负载的 变化。负载的变化可以被用于确定过滤器是否变脏。处理模块1400还可以使用功率因数,其 中可以基于电压和电流之间的相位差来计算该功率因数。可以使用温度来验证减少的流量 并且排除循环器鼓风机马达中的所观察的电流变化或功率变化的其他可能原因。处理模块 1400还可以确定何时蒸发器盘管被关闭。处理模块1400使用加载数据和热数据的结合,以 识别正冻结或已经冻结的盘管的标签。即使在没有对盘管本身直接进行温度测量时,也可 以执行此操作。
[0211] FFT分析可以表示来自高液体部分的经改变的压缩机负载。通常,冻结的盘管由风 扇故障引起,但是风扇故障本身可以单独地检测出来。处理模块1400可以使用来自空气处 理器单元和压缩机冷凝器单元的回风温度、送风温度、液体线路内温度、电压、电流、有功功 率、以及FFT数据。另外,处理模块1400可以监视控制线状态、开关状态、压缩机排放温度、液 体线路外温度、以及环境温度。当发生可能指示过滤器堵塞的加载变化而该变化突然发生 时,可能归结于不同原因。
[0212] 处理模块1400通过检查作为液体线路外温度与环境温度之间的差的接近温度来 识别冷凝器堵塞。当制冷剂没有从冷凝器排放温度(至冷凝器的输入)被充分制冷到基于环 境温度调节的液体线路外温度(冷凝器的输出)时,冷凝器可能被堵塞。可以使用其他数据 来排除该问题的其他可能原因。其他数据可以包括空气处理器单元和压缩机冷凝器单元两 者的送风温度、回风温度、电压、电流、有功功率、FFT数据、以及控制线状态。
[0213] 处理模块1400确定所安装的设备对于住宅而言是否过大。基于事件和日常积累文 件,处理模块评估在供暖和/或制冷走向的末端处的温度斜率。使用运行时间、占空比、温度 斜率、环境温度、以及设备热通量对住宅通量,可以确定设备尺寸的适当性。当设备过大时, 对舒适度有影响。例如,在空调中,短期运行不能充分地循环空气,因此从空气中抽不出湿 度。此外,空调系统可以决不在短周期期间达到峰值工作效率。
[0214]处理模块1400基于来自空气处理器单元的电压、电流、有功功率、控制线状态和 FFT数据来评估点火器正温度系数。数据处理模块比较预热期间的电流水平和斜率,以寻找 增加的电阻。此外,处理模块可以使用关于预热的FFT数据,以检测曲线形状和内部电弧的 变化。
[0215]处理模块还可以基于来自空气处理器单元的电压、电流、有功功率、控制线状态和 FFT数据来评估点火器负温度系数。处理模块1400比较预热(warm-up)期间的电流水平和斜 率,以寻找增加的电阻。处理模块1400检查初始预热电流和波谷电流。此外,处理模块14〇〇 可以使用对应于预热的FFT数据,以检测曲线形状和内部电弧的变化。
[0216]处理模块1400还可以基于来自空气处理器单元的电压、电流、有功功率、控制线状 态和FFT数据来评估氮化物点火器的正温度系数。处理模块1400比较预热期间的电压水平 和电流斜率,以寻找增加的电阻。另外,处理模块1400使用对应于预热的FFT数据,以检测曲 线形状、驱动电压模式和内部电弧的变化。驱动电压的变化可以表明点火器老化,因此这些 调节应当区别于变化,以补偿气体含量和其他炉分量。
[0217]现在参照图16A,表描绘了关于空气处理器单元的可以检测和/或预测的示例性故 障和特征。每一行对应于可以检测或预测的故障或特征,而位于每一列中的星号用于进行 检测或预测。对于检测和预测两者而言,一些数据可以用作原始数据用于进行确定,而其他 数据被用于补偿。温度和电压被用于对在相应列中具有星号的这些行执行补偿。
[0218]原始列包括:事件被检测到时的定时、时域电流信息、温度(包括由恒温器测量的 住宅温度)、压力(例如制冷系统压力和/或空气压力)、FFT数据、以及直接检测。在状态或控 制线直接指示故障或特征时,例如当水传感器指示冷凝液托盘过满时,会发生直接检测。 [0219]现在参照图16B,表描绘了关于压缩机/冷凝器单元的可以检测和/或预测的示例 性故障和特征。在图16B中,可以使用外部环境温度和电压来补偿原始数据。
[0220]前面的描述实际上仅是说明性的并且决不意在限制本公开内容、其应用或使用。 本公开内容的广义教示可以以各种形式来实现。因此,虽然本公开内容包括特定的示例,但 是因为在研究附图、说明书和所附权利要求时其他修改将会变得明显,所以本公开内容的 真实范围不应当限于此。出于清楚的目的,在附图中将使用相同附图标记来识别类似元件。 如本文中使用的,短语“A、B和C中的至少一个”应当被理解为表示使用非排他性逻辑“或 (OR)”的逻辑(A或B或〇。应当理解的是,在不改变本公开内容的原理的情况下,可以以不同 顺序(或同时)来执行方法内的一个或更多个步骤。
[0221 ]如本文中使用的,术语“模块”可以指代以下中的一部分或者包括:专用集成电路 (ASIC)集成电路;电子电路;组合逻辑电路;现场可编程门阵列(FPGA);执行代码的(共用、 专用或成组的)处理器;提供所述功能的其他合适硬件部件;或以上的一些或全部的组合, 例如在片上系统中。术语“模块”可以包括存储由处理器执行的代码的(共用、专用或成组 的)存储器。仅作为不例,处理器可以是由Michrochip Technology公司制造的16位 PIC24MCU微处理器。
[0222]如上所使用的术语“代码”可以包括软件、固件、和/或微码,并且可以指代程序、例 程、功能、类别、和/或对象。如上所使用的术语“共用的”表示,可以使用单个供用的)处理 器来执行来自多个模块的一些或所有代码。另外,可以由单个(共用的)存储器来存储来自 多个模块的一些或所有代码。如上所使用的术语“组”表示,可以使用一组处理器来执行来 自单个模块的一些或所有代码。另外,可以使用一组存储器来存储来自单个模块的一些或 所有代码。 _
[0223] 本文中所描述的设备和方法可以通过由一个或更多个处理器执行的一个或更多 个计算机程序来实现。计算机程序包括:存储在非暂时性有形计算机可读介质上的处理器 可执行指令。计算机程序还可以包括所存储的数据。非暂时性有形计算机可读介质的非限 制性示例是非易失性存储器、磁存储装置和光存储装置。
[0224] 根据上述描述可知,本发明的实施例涵盖但不限于以下技术方案。
[0225] 方案1.一种用于住宅的供暖、通风和空调(HVAC)系统的监视系统,所述监视系统 包括:
[0226] 安装在所述住宅处的监视装置,其中,所述监视装置(i)测量被提供给所述HVAC系 统的多个部件的总电流并且a i)传送基于所测量的总电流的电流数据;以及
[0227] 远离所述住宅被定位的服务器,所述服务器接收所传送的电流数据,并且基于所 接收到的电流数据来评定在所述HVAC系统的多个部件中的第一部件中是否己经发生故障, 以及评定在所述HVAC系统的多个部件中的第二部件中是否已经发生故障。
[0228] 方案2.根据方案1所述的监视系统,其中,所述监视装置对一时段的所述总电流进 行采样,对所述时段的样本执行频域分析,并且向所述服务器传送频域数据。
[0229] 方案3.根据方案2所述的监视系统,其中,所述服务器识别所述电流数据中的转变 点并且分析在所识别的转变点周围的频域数据。
[0230] 方案4.根据方案2所述的监视系统,其中,所述服务器通过将所述频域数据与基线 数据进行比较来确定在所述第一部件中是否已经发生故障。
[0231] 方案5.根据方案4所述的监视系统,其中,所述服务器基于所述HVAC系统的正常操 作来调节所述基线数据。
[0232] 方案6.根据方案2所述的监视系统,其中,所述监视装置针对所述时段确定单个电 流值,并且向所述服务器传送所述单个电流值,而不是向所述服务器传送所述样本。
[0233] 方案7.根据方案6所述的监视系统,其中,所述单个电流值是均方根电流、平均电 流和峰值电流之一。
[0234] 方案8.根据方案1所述的监视系统,其中,所述监视装置测量一系列连续时段的总 电流并且针对每个所述时段向所述服务器传送信息帧。
[0235] 方案9.根据方案8所述的监视系统,其中,针对所述时段中的第一时段,所述监视 装置传送第一帧,所述第一帧包括(i)所述第一时段期间的所述总电流的单个值以及(ii) 所述第一时段期间的所述总电流的频域表示。
[0236] 方案10.根据方案9所述的监视系统,其中,所述第一帧不包括所述总电流的各个 样本。
[0237]方案11.根据方案9所述的监视系统,其中,所述第一帧包括在所述第一时段期间 的到达所述HVAC系统的电力的电压测量、温度测量、以及HVAC控制线的状态的表示。
[0238] 方案12.根据方案1所述的监视系统,其中,所述监视装置记录来自恒温器的控制 信号并且向所述服务器传送基于所述控制信号的信息。
[0239] 方案13.根据方案12所述的监视系统,其中,所述控制信号包括供暖要求、通风要 求和制冷要求中的至少一个。
[0240] 方案14.根据方案1所述的监视系统,其中,所述监视装置被定位成紧浩、罪近所述 HVAC系统的空气处理器单元。
[0241] 方案15.根据方案14所述的监视系统,还包括:被定位成紧密靠近所述HVAC系统的 第二外壳的第二监视装置,其中所述第二外壳包含压缩机和热泵热交换器中的至少一个。
[0242] 方案16.根据方案15所述的监视系统,其中,所述第二监视装置(i)测量被提供给 所述第二外壳的多个部件的总电流并且(ii)向所述服务器传送基于所测量的总电流的电 流数据。
[0243] 方案17.根据方案16所述的监视系统,其中,所述第二监视装置经由所述监视装置 向所述服务器传送所述电流数据。
[0244] 方案18.根据方案1所述的监视系统,其中,所述监视装置包括选择性地中断到所 述HVAC系统的压缩机的启用信号的开关。
[0245] 方案19.根据方案18所述的监视系统,其中,所述监视装置响应于以下中至少之一 来中断所述启用信号:(i)来自水传感器的值,(ii)所述压缩机的锁定转子条件,以及(Ui) 来自所述服务器的命令。
[0246] 方案20.根据方案1所述的监视系统,其中,所述服务器(i)响应于确定所述第一部 件或所述第二部件出现故障来生成警报,并且(ii)将所述警报发送至所述住宅的房主和安 装承包方中的至少一个。
[0247] 方案21 •根据方案1所述的监视系统,其中,所述服务器(i)基于所接收到的电流数 据来选择性地预测所述第一部件的即将发生的故障,(ii)基于所接收到的电流数据来选择 性地预测所述第二部件的即将发生的故障,并且(11 i)响应于对即将发生的故障的预测来 生成#报。
[0248] 方案22 •根据方案1所述的监视系统,其中,所述HVAC系统的所述多个部件包括至 少两个部件,所述至少两个部件选自:火焰传感器、螺线管操作的气阀、热表面点火器、循环 器鼓风机马达、导风轮鼓风机马达、压缩机、压力开关、电容器、空气过滤器、冷凝盘管、蒸发 盘管、以及接触器。

Claims (21)

1. 一种用于建筑物的供暖、通风和空调HVAC系统的监视系统,所述监视系统包括: 安装在所述建筑物处的监视装置,所述监视装置被配置成: 测量被提供给所述HVAC系统的多个部件的总电流,以及 传送基于所测量的总电流的电流数据;以及 远离所述建筑物被定位的服务器,所述服务器被配置成: 接收所传送的电流数据, 、、 识别所接收到的电流数据中的至少一个转变点,其中所述至少一个转变点对应于所述 HVAC系统的启动序列中所述多个部件的操作改变, 、/_ ^ 关于所述至少一个转变点中的第一转变点,通过将频域数据与基线数据进行比较来确 定在所述多个部件中的第一部件中是否已经发生故障,其中所述第一转变点对应于所述第 一部件的操作改变,其中所述频域数据基于所接收到的电流数据的窗口部分的变换,并且 其中所述窗口部分在时间上对应于所述第一转变点,以及 、 、、 响应于确定在所述第一部件中发生故障,生成警报并且将所述警报发送至所述建筑物 的房主和安装承包方中的至少一个。
2. 根据权利要求1所述的监视系统,其中,所述第一部件包括下述项中的至少一个:火 焰传感器、螺线管操作的气阀、热表面点火器、循环器鼓风机马达、导风轮鼓风机马达、压缩 机、压力开关、电容器、空气过滤器、冷凝盘管、蒸发盘管、以及接触器。
3. 根据权利要求1所述的监视系统,其中,所述服务器被配置成: 、 基于所述频域数据与所述基线数据的比较来选择性地预测所述第一部件的即将发生 的故障;以及 响应于对即将发生的故障的预测来生成警报。
4. 根据权利要求1所述的监视系统,其中,所述监视装置被配置成: 在第一时段上对所测量的总电流进行采样;以及 对所述第一时段上的样本执行频域分析, 其中所传送的电流数据包括电流值和频域数据, 其中所述电流值基于所述样本,并且 其中所述频域数据基于所述频域分析。 u
5. 根据权利要求4所述的监视系统,其中,所述监视装置被配置成向所述服务器传送所 述电流值,而不是向所述服务器传送所述样本。 、、
6. 根据权利要求5所述的监视系统,其中,所述电流值是所述样本的均方根电流、所述 样本的平均电流和所述样本的峰值电流之一。
7. 根据权利要求1所述的监视系统,其中,所述监视装置被配置成: 关于所述至少一个转变点中的每个转变点,通过将频域数据与基线数据进行比较来确 定在所述多个部件中的相应部件中是否已经发生故障, 其中所述转变点对应于所述相应部件的操作改变, 其中所述频域数据基于所接收到的电流数据的窗口部分的变换,并且 其中所述窗口部分在时间上对应于所述转变点。
8. 根据权利要求1所述的监视系统,其中,所述服务器被配置成基于所述统的正 常操作来调节所述基线数据。
9. 根据权利要求1所述的监视系统,其中,所述监视装置被配置成: 记录来自控制所述HVAC系统的恒温器的控制信号;以及 向所述服务器传送基于所述控制信号的信息。
10. 根据权利要求1所述的监视系统,其中, _ 所述监视装置被定位成紧密靠近所述HVAC系统的空气处理器单元;并且 所述监视系统还包括被定位成紧密靠近所述HVAC系统的第二外壳的第二监视装置,其 中所述第二外壳包含压缩机和热泵热交换器中的至少一个,并且其中,所述第二监视装置 被配置成(i)测量被提供给所述第二外壳的多个部件的总电流,以及(ii)向所述服务器传 送基于所测量的被提供给所述第二外壳的所述多个部件的总电流的电流数据。
11. 根据权利要求1〇所述的监视系统,其中,所述第二监视装置被配置成经由所述监视 装置向所述服务器传送所述电流数据。
12. —种操作用于建筑物的供暖、通风和空调HVAC系统的监视系统的方法,所述方法包 括: 利用安装在所述建筑物处的监视装置,测量被提供给所述HVAC系统的多个部件的总电 流,以及向远离所述建筑物被定位的服务器传送基于所测量的总电流的电流数据; 在所述服务器处,识别所传送的电流数据中的至少一个转变点,其中所述至少一个转 变点对应于所述HVAC系统的启动序列中所述多个部件的操作改变; 对于所述至少一个转变点中的第一转变点,将所接收到的电流数据的窗口部分变换成 频域数据,其中所述窗口部分在时间上对应于所述第一转变点,并且其中所述第一转变点 对应于所述多个部件中的第一部件的操作改变; 通过将所述频域数据与基线数据进行比较来确定在所述第一部件中是否己经发生故 障;以及 响应于确定在所述第一部件中发生故障,生成警报并且将所述警报发送至所述建筑物 的房主和安装承包方中的至少一个。
13. 根据权利要求12所述的方法,其中,所述第一部件包括下述项中的至少一个:火焰 传感器、螺线管操作的气阀、热表面点火器、循环器鼓风机马达、导风轮鼓风机马达、压缩 机、压力开关、电容器、空气过滤器、冷凝盘管、蒸发盘管、以及接触器。
14. 根据权利要求12所述的方法,还包括: 基于所述频域数据与所述基线数据的比较来选择性地预测所述第一部件的即将发生 的故障;以及 响应于对即将发生的故障的预测来生成警报。
15. 根据权利要求12所述的方法,还包括: 在第一时段上对所测量的总电流进行采样;以及 对所述第一时段上的样本执行频域分析, 其中所传送的电流数据包括电流值和频域数据, 其中所述电流值基于所述样本,并且 其中所述频域数据基于所述频域分析。 .....
16. 根据权利要求15所述的方法,还包括:从所述监视装置向所述服务器传送所述电流 值,而不是向所述服务器传送所述样本。
17. 根据权利要求ie所述的方法,其中,所述电流值是所述样本w功力很电侃、w 本的平均电流和所述样本的峰值电流之一。
18. 根据权利要求12所述的方法,还包括: … ^ _ 关于所述至少-个转变点巾的每个转变点,腿将娜賴域麵讎彳7比较来确 定在所述多个部件中的相应部件中是否已经发生故障, 其中所述转变点对应于所述相应部件的操作改变, 其中所述频域数据基于所传送的电流数据的窗口部分的变换,并且 其中所述窗口部分在时间上对应于所述转变点。
19. 根据权利要求12所述的方法,还包括:基于所述HVAC系统的正常操作来调节所述基 线数据。
20. 根据权利要求12所述的方法,还包括: 记录来自控制所述HVAC系统的恒温器的控制信号;以及 从所述监视装置向所述服务器传送基于所述控制信号的信息。
21. 根据权利要求12所述的方法,其中, 所述监视装置被定位成紧密靠近所述HVAC系统的空气处理器单元;并且 所述方法还包括使用第二监视装置测量被提供给第二外壳的多个部件的总电流,其中 所述第二外壳包含压缩机和热泵热交换器中的至少一个;以及 所述方法还包括从所述第二监视装置向所述服务器传送电流数据,其中所述电流数据 基于所测量的被提供给所述第二外壳的所述多个部件的总电流。
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