CN105028074A - Rice mechanical dry direct sowing culture method for yellow river delta saline-alkali soil - Google Patents

Rice mechanical dry direct sowing culture method for yellow river delta saline-alkali soil Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105028074A
CN105028074A CN201510388461.5A CN201510388461A CN105028074A CN 105028074 A CN105028074 A CN 105028074A CN 201510388461 A CN201510388461 A CN 201510388461A CN 105028074 A CN105028074 A CN 105028074A
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sowing
water
saline
rice
alkali
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吴修
刘奇华
信彩云
马加清
陈博聪
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SHANDONG RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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SHANDONG RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/20Cereals
    • A01G22/22Rice
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture

Abstract

The invention discloses a rice mechanical dry direct sowing culture method for yellow river delta saline-alkali soil. The method includes the steps of variety selection, land preparation, sowing, water management, fertilization, weed disaster prevention and treatment and pest control. A variety which is good in saline-alkali resistance, high in germination potential and resistant to lodging is selected; the sowing time is mid-to-late May, and the dry seed sowing amount ranges from 8 kg/mu to 9 kg/mu; watering is conducted in advance for salt leaching and alkali pressing according to the water management mode; in the step of weed disease prevention and treatment, phragmites australis is prevented before sowing; in the step of pest control, water earthworms need to be prevented. Based on an existing rice mechanical dry direct sowing culture method, all the aspects are improved, the corollary culture technology specially for rice mechanical dry direct sowing of the yellow river delta saline-alkali soil is formed, and therefore technical supports are provided for farmers in the region to plant rice. The method has the advantages of saving time, labor, water and cost, increasing the effect and the like, and has important significance in improving the saline-alkali soil, improving agricultural production efficiency and increasing the yield of grain crops.

Description

A kind of Saline-alkaline Soils of Yellow River Delta paddy machinery direct-sowing dry cultivation method
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of rice cultivating technique, be specifically related to a kind of paddy machinery direct-sowing dry cultivation method being suitable for Saline-alkaline Soils of Yellow River Delta, belong to agricultural technology field.
Background technology
Saline-alkaline Soils of Yellow River Delta area about 6,000,000 mu, near the new alluvial plain in direction, river mouth, after farming, very easily the accumulation of salt in the surface soil is degenerated, and is the main source of secondary salinization of land, about has 5% agricultural land to become heavy saline or saline-alkali wasteland because of the accumulation of salt in the surface soil every year.Agricultural production practice for many years proves, by rice cultivation, to wash salt pressure alkali, effectively can improve saline land, severe, moderate saline-alkali soil are improved as slight alkaline land, and crop yield improves year by year, and alkaline land improving is land with high stable yield the most at last.Therefore, paddy rice is the pioneer crop in improvement saline land.According to interrelated data display, current Saline-alkaline Soils of Yellow River Delta preferential species rice area reaches more than 100 ten thousand mu, and belongs to a last month of spring rice district, and therefore rice industry development potentiality is huge.
In recent years, the contradiction that the many people in ground, Delta Region of The Yellow River are few, rural laborer is seriously deficient, and rice transplantation by hand cost is high, and therefore paddy rice gently simplifies to produce becomes inevitable development trend.But still lack ripe corresponding cultivation techniques at present.
Direct sowing on dry paddy field culture technique refers to that field is in drought and water shortage situation, applies base manure through plow harrow, and dry kind is directly sown into land for growing field crops, then harrow mud and cover seed rice, utilize natural precipitation or irrigation to reach the moistening seed rice that makes in field to germinate, after emerging, by one of paddy rice Routine Management new culture technique.Cause early rice by the field of sowing in season, not take technique can sow by season in spring drought lack of water, once there be rainfall, after ground moistening, seed just can be emerged growth, both can catch up with season, can avoid again make morning and put famine.Direct sowing on dry paddy field culture technique has drought resisting, cold-resistant, water saving, saving of labor, laborsaving, volume increase, environmental protection, damage by disease and insect alleviates, ripening rate improves, advantage easy and simple to handle etc.
At present, direct sowing on dry paddy field culture technique is promoted the use of in non-saline and alkaline ground at present, but does not also use on saline land.The paddy machinery direct-sowing dry cultivation method in existing non-saline land comprises wholely, sowing, water management, fertilising, prevention and control of weeds, the extermination of disease and insect pest etc.The sowing time wherein sowed, the dry seeds amount of broadcasting was 11-12kg/ mu after June 17.Fertilization mode is: mu executes zinc fertilizer 1.5kg, nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer 30-35kg as base fertilizer.Before and after 3 leaf phases, mu executes tillering fertilizer urea about 7.5kg, executes tillering fertilizer urea about 12.5kg again, panicle spike primordium differentiation stage, impose urea about 10kg after 10 days.Crop smothering management comprises Seal treatment and the common weeds in dry land water rice field are prevented and kill off in cauline leaf process.Disease control Major Diseases comprises prevents and treats banded sclerotial blight and rice blast.Pest control comprises control snout moth's larva, rice fulgorid etc.Aforesaid way is not suitable for the paddy machinery direct-sowing dry cultivation in saline land.
Summary of the invention
Lack the problem of paddy rice corresponding cultivation techniques for Saline-alkaline Soils of Yellow River Delta, the invention provides a kind of Saline-alkaline Soils of Yellow River Delta paddy machinery direct-sowing dry cultivation method.The method have save time, saving of labor, water saving, abridged edition, the plurality of advantages such as synergy, for improvement saline land, improve agricultural production efficiency, increase cereal crops output and be significant.
Technical scheme of the present invention is: a kind of Saline-alkaline Soils of Yellow River Delta paddy machinery direct-sowing dry cultivation method, is characterized in that,
(1) Fruit variety
Select the rice varieties that Saline alkali tolerance is good, germination vigor is strong, resistant to lodging;
(2) wholely
Ploughed before winter, spring is rotary tillage 1-2 time again, requires land readjustment, and same plot difference of height is no more than 2cm;
(3) sow
Sowing requires that soil salt content should below 2 ‰; Sowing time is mid or late May; Drilling machine is adopted to carry out mechanical drilling, line-spacing 15-17cm, sowing depth 1-2cm, after planting automatic suppression of soil; Dry seeds seeding quantity is 8-9kg/ mu;
(4) water management
Before sowing, washing salinity by irrigation pressure alkali, makes soil salt content be down to less than 2 ‰; After planting pour water in time, pour water and will fill with; After planting to the 3 leaf phase kept ground moistening in the past, did not set up water layer; Before 3 leaf after dates to booting stage, take Surge Irrigation water law, front water does not see below water; Booting stage and blooming stage keep shoaling layer, and the pustulation period adopts Surge Irrigation water law, alternation of wetting and drying, and results are cut off the water the last week;
(5) apply fertilizer
A. base fertilizer: the fertilizer 1300-1500kg become thoroughly decomposed, nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer (N:P 2o 5: K 2o=15:15:15) 28-32kg;
B. tillering fertilizer: 3-4 leaf phase, mu executes urea 7.5-8.5kg, diammonium phosphate 4.5-5kg; After 10 days, mu executes urea 7.5-8.5kg, diammonium phosphate 4.5-5kg.
C. ear manuer: panicle spike primordium differentiation stage mu executes urea 10-12kg;
(6) prevention and control of weeds
A. control reed before sowing: use rotovator rotary tillage to remove reed;
B. cauline leaf process: paddy rice 3 leaf after date, prevents and treats the weeds such as barnyard grass, annual sedge weed with penoxsuam;
(7) extermination of disease and insect pest
Disease control: mainly prevent and treat banded sclerotial blight and rice blast;
Pest control: main control red line worm, snout moth's larva, rice fulgorid; Wherein the Control stage of red line worm is mid or late May, dispenser after sowing is poured water, and pesticide control is chlopyrifos or 5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,4.
Preferably, washing salinity by irrigation pressure alkali is specially: heavy salinizedly, the saline and alkaline 7-10 days of pressure of pouring water the first tenday period of a month in late April to May, desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching alkali at least 3 times; Planted in after 1-2 paddy rice, slight alkaline land, desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching alkali 1-2 time before sowing.
The present invention is on the basis of existing paddy machinery direct-sowing dry cultivation method, (select Saline alkali tolerance good to the selection of kind, germination vigor is strong, rice varieties resistant to lodging), sowing time (mid or late May), seeding quantity (8-9kg/ mu), water supply-demand equilibrium (alkali of washing salinity by irrigation pressure in advance), fertilization mode, prevention and control of weeds (before sowing control reed), the aspects such as the extermination of disease and insect pest (needing control red line worm) are improved, define a set of specially for the corresponding cultivation techniques of Saline-alkaline Soils of Yellow River Delta paddy machinery direct-sowing dry, thus provide technical support to the peasant planting paddy rice of this area.The method have save time, saving of labor, water saving, saving cost, the plurality of advantages such as synergy, for improvement saline land, improve agricultural production efficiency, increase cereal crops output and be significant.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1
1 Fruit variety
Kind for saline land direct-sowing dry need possess the feature that Saline alkali tolerance is good, germination vigor is strong, resistant to lodging.This example varieties of plant: holy rice 14.
2 wholely
Ploughed before winter, spring is rotary tillage 1-2 time again.Require land readjustment, same plot difference of height is no more than 2cm.
3 sowings
3.1 sowings require: soil salt content should below 2 ‰;
3.2 sowing time: Suitable Sowing Period is in mid or late May;
3.3 seeding methods: adopt drilling machine to carry out mechanical drilling, line-spacing 16cm, sowing depth 1-2cm, after planting automatic suppression of soil;
3.4 seeding quantitys: before sowing, adjust mechanical seeding quantity, and dry seeds seeding quantity is set as 8-9kg/ mu.
4 water managements
Heavy salinizedly, the saline and alkaline 7-10 days of pressure of pouring water the first tenday period of a month in late April to May, desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching alkali at least 3 times; Planted in after 1-2 paddy rice, slight alkaline land, desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching alkali 1-2 time before sowing; Soil salt content is made to be down to less than 2 ‰ before sowing.After planting pour water in time, pour water and will fill with, kept ground moistening before after planting to the 3 leaf phase, do not set up water layer; Take Surge Irrigation water law before 3 leaf after dates to booting stage, front water does not see below water; Booting stage and blooming stage keep shoaling layer, and the pustulation period adopts Surge Irrigation water law, alternation of wetting and drying, and results are cut off the water the last week.
5 fertilisings
5.1 base fertilizer: base fertilizer advocates application of organic fertilizers and straw-returning.The fertilizer 1500kg and nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer (N:P that become thoroughly decomposed is executed in conjunction with mu of raking the soil level 2o 5: K 2o=15:15:15) 30kg;
5.2 tillering fertilizers: 3-4 leaf phase, mu executes tillering fertilizer urea 8kg, diammonium phosphate 5kg; After 10 days, mu executes urea 7.5kg, diammonium phosphate 4.5kg;
5.3 ear manuer: panicle spike primordium differentiation stage mu executes urea 10-12kg;
6 prevention and control of weeds
Control reed before 6.1 sowings: use rotovator rotary tillage to remove reed before sowing;
6.2 cauline leaf process: paddy rice 3 leaf after date, with penoxsuam 25 grams per liter oil-suspending agent 40-80ml, every mu is watered 30-40 kilogram of even spraying; Prevent and treat barnyard grass, annual sedge weed etc.
7, the extermination of disease and insect pest
7.1 disease control
Major Diseases comprises banded sclerotial blight and rice blast, if when meeting unbroken rainy weather and low temperature, needs timely prevention and control.
Banded sclerotial blight: Control stage is late tillering state and booting stage, pesticide control is 5% jinggangmeisu aqua 200-250ml or 300 grams per liter benzene first propiconazole emulsifiable concentrate 20-30ml, and every mu is watered 30-40 kilogram of even spraying.
Rice blast: Control stage is cut phase and heading stage, pesticide control can with 20% tricyclazole wettable powder 75-100 gram or 40% Isoprothiolane missible oil 66.5-100ml, and every mu is watered 30-40 kilogram of even spraying.
7.2 pest control
Saline-alkaline Soils of Yellow River Delta primary pest comprises red line worm, snout moth's larva, rice fulgorid etc.Control number of times and dosage can a situation arises grasps flexibly according to actual.
Red line worm: Control stage is mid or late May, dispenser after sowing is poured water.Pesticide control is 40% chlorpyrifos ec 80-100ml or 350 grams per liter endosulfan ec 130-160ml, and every mu is watered 30-40 kilogram of even spraying;
Striped rice borer: Control stage is mid or late June, at the beginning of 8 months; Major pharmaceutical agent: 40% chlorantraniliprole and thiamethoxam water dispersible granules 8-10 gram or 20% A Wei Diazinone emulsion 80-100ml, every mu is watered 30-40 kilogram of even spraying;
Rice leaf roller: Control stage is moth peak after date 7-10 days or occurs small worm bud.Index for control be hundred strain ovum amounts more than 150 or hundred strain larvas more than 40.Main pesticide control is 200 grams per liter Rynaxypyr suspending agent 5-10ml or 1.8% abamectin emulsifiable concentrate 40-80ml etc., and every mu is watered 30-40 kilogram of even spraying.
Rice fulgorid: mainly prevent and treat brown planthopper.Control stage at the beginning of 8 months, early September.Can use 25% Diacloden water dispersible granules 2-4g, every mu is watered 30-40 kilogram of even spraying.
This culture technique is adopted to test in 2014 at Saline-alkaline Soils of Yellow River Delta, test area 10 mu.Paddy rice average index is as shown in table 1.
Table 1 adopts the paddy rice index of the method
As can be seen from Table 1: adopt cultivation method of the present invention, the number of productive ear, ripening rate, thousand kernel weight, output etc. of paddy rice are higher, confirm that cultivation method of the present invention is a kind of practicable method.

Claims (2)

1. a Saline-alkaline Soils of Yellow River Delta paddy machinery direct-sowing dry cultivation method, is characterized in that,
(1) Fruit variety
Select the rice varieties that Saline alkali tolerance is good, germination vigor is strong, resistant to lodging;
(2) wholely
Ploughed before winter, spring is rotary tillage 1-2 time again, requires land readjustment, and same plot difference of height is no more than 2cm;
(3) sow
Sowing requires that soil salt content should below 2 ‰; Sowing time is mid or late May; Drilling machine is adopted to carry out mechanical drilling, line-spacing 15-17cm, sowing depth 1-2cm, after planting automatic suppression of soil; Dry seeds seeding quantity is 8-9kg/ mu;
(4) water management
Before sowing, washing salinity by irrigation pressure alkali, makes soil salt content be down to less than 2 ‰; After planting pour water in time, pour water and will fill with; After planting to the 3 leaf phase kept ground moistening in the past, did not set up water layer; Before 3 leaf after dates to booting stage, take Surge Irrigation water law, front water does not see below water; Booting stage and blooming stage keep shoaling layer, and the pustulation period adopts Surge Irrigation water law, alternation of wetting and drying, and results are cut off the water the last week;
(5) apply fertilizer
A. base fertilizer: the fertilizer 1300-1500kg become thoroughly decomposed, nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer 28-32kg; The N:P of described nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer 2o 5: K 2o=15:15:15;
B. tillering fertilizer: 3-4 leaf phase, mu executes urea 7.5-8.5kg, diammonium phosphate 4.5-5kg; After 10 days, mu executes urea 7.5-8.5kg, diammonium phosphate 4.5-5kg.
C. ear manuer: panicle spike primordium differentiation stage mu executes urea 10-12kg;
(6) prevention and control of weeds
A. control reed before sowing: use rotovator rotary tillage to remove reed;
B. cauline leaf process: paddy rice 3 leaf after date, uses penoxsuam controlling weeds;
(7) extermination of disease and insect pest
Disease control: mainly prevent and treat banded sclerotial blight and rice blast;
Pest control: main control red line worm, snout moth's larva, rice fulgorid; Wherein the Control stage of red line worm is mid or late May, dispenser after sowing is poured water, and pesticide control is chlopyrifos or 5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,4.
2. a kind of Saline-alkaline Soils of Yellow River Delta paddy machinery direct-sowing dry cultivation method as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, described step (4) washing salinity by irrigation pressure alkali is specially: heavy salinizedly, the saline and alkaline 7-10 days of pressure of pouring water the first tenday period of a month in late April to May, desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching alkali at least 3 times; Planted in after 1-2 paddy rice, slight alkaline land, desalinization of soil by flooding or leaching alkali 1-2 time before sowing.
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CN105638016A (en) * 2016-01-11 2016-06-08 山东农业大学 Method for yellow river delta severe saline-alkali soil cotton salinity control and production increase
CN105660097A (en) * 2016-01-11 2016-06-15 山东农业大学 Method for summer corn salt-controlled yield increase in light and moderate saline-alkali soil of Yellow River Delta
CN105935035A (en) * 2016-06-23 2016-09-14 山东省水稻研究所 Mechanical water direct sowing culture method for rice in slight alkaline land in Yellow River Delta
CN106171110A (en) * 2016-07-15 2016-12-07 山东胜伟园林科技有限公司 A kind of planting lawn in saline-alkali soil modifying agent and modification method thereof
CN106376266A (en) * 2016-08-26 2017-02-08 山东胜伟园林科技有限公司 Improving method for saline-alkali soil
CN106538127A (en) * 2016-11-08 2017-03-29 青岛农业大学 A kind of fertilizing method for improving beach saline land nitrogen fertilizer for paddy rice utilization rate
CN108243875A (en) * 2017-12-30 2018-07-06 青岛袁米农业科技有限公司 Salt-soda soil keeps the implantation methods of the high-quality food flavor of japonica rice
CN109042175A (en) * 2018-09-17 2018-12-21 盐城师范学院 Three dry method planting patterns of strand silt strongly salined soil rice
CN109601096A (en) * 2019-01-28 2019-04-12 中国水稻研究所 A kind of fertilizing method of rice in saline-alkali field
CN110122229A (en) * 2019-06-11 2019-08-16 江苏省沿海开发(东台)有限公司 A kind of direct sowing of rice field planting method suitable for strand shallow lake slurry type aleuritic texture salt-soda soil

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* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105638016A (en) * 2016-01-11 2016-06-08 山东农业大学 Method for yellow river delta severe saline-alkali soil cotton salinity control and production increase
CN105660097A (en) * 2016-01-11 2016-06-15 山东农业大学 Method for summer corn salt-controlled yield increase in light and moderate saline-alkali soil of Yellow River Delta
CN105660097B (en) * 2016-01-11 2018-06-05 山东农业大学 A kind of light moderate saline-alkali soil summer corn control salt method for increasing in the Huanghe delta
CN105935035A (en) * 2016-06-23 2016-09-14 山东省水稻研究所 Mechanical water direct sowing culture method for rice in slight alkaline land in Yellow River Delta
CN105935035B (en) * 2016-06-23 2018-12-28 山东省水稻研究所 A kind of Huanghe delta mild or moderate rice in saline-alkali field mechanized direct sowing cultural method
CN106171110A (en) * 2016-07-15 2016-12-07 山东胜伟园林科技有限公司 A kind of planting lawn in saline-alkali soil modifying agent and modification method thereof
CN106376266A (en) * 2016-08-26 2017-02-08 山东胜伟园林科技有限公司 Improving method for saline-alkali soil
CN106538127A (en) * 2016-11-08 2017-03-29 青岛农业大学 A kind of fertilizing method for improving beach saline land nitrogen fertilizer for paddy rice utilization rate
CN108243875A (en) * 2017-12-30 2018-07-06 青岛袁米农业科技有限公司 Salt-soda soil keeps the implantation methods of the high-quality food flavor of japonica rice
CN109042175A (en) * 2018-09-17 2018-12-21 盐城师范学院 Three dry method planting patterns of strand silt strongly salined soil rice
CN109601096A (en) * 2019-01-28 2019-04-12 中国水稻研究所 A kind of fertilizing method of rice in saline-alkali field
CN110122229A (en) * 2019-06-11 2019-08-16 江苏省沿海开发(东台)有限公司 A kind of direct sowing of rice field planting method suitable for strand shallow lake slurry type aleuritic texture salt-soda soil

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Application publication date: 20151111