CN104996016A - Self-propelled double-layer straw and surface soil mulching machine for orchard - Google Patents

Self-propelled double-layer straw and surface soil mulching machine for orchard Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104996016A
CN104996016A CN201510486957.6A CN201510486957A CN104996016A CN 104996016 A CN104996016 A CN 104996016A CN 201510486957 A CN201510486957 A CN 201510486957A CN 104996016 A CN104996016 A CN 104996016A
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stalk
roller
orchard
chain
earthing
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CN104996016B (en
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朱新华
郭文川
陈胤嗣
宋永超
王东阳
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Northwest A&F University
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Northwest A&F University
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/14Measures for saving energy, e.g. in green houses

Abstract

The invention discloses a self-propelled double-layer straw and surface soil mulching machine for an orchard, and relates to the field of orchard machinery. The mulching machine is characterized in that a straw material box is mounted on the frame of the mulching machine; the bottom of the straw material box adopts a V-shaped structure; a discharge roller is arranged at a position above the bottom opening of the V-shaped structure; the chute body of a straw discharge chute below the bottom opening is inclined forwards and downwards; a covering roller is arranged in front of the bottom of the mulching machine and connected to a position below one side of the outlet of the straw discharge chute; the covering roller is positioned below the straw discharge chute; the covering roller can go up and down under the action of a hydraulic hoist cylinder. According to the self-propelled double-layer straw and surface soil mulching machine for the orchard, provided by the invention, ground among tree lines of the orchard can be covered with straws, and the straw layer is then covered with thin soil in a pressing manner, so that the mulching machine is suitable for mechanized straw mulching of orchards or other agricultural lands, has effects of preserving soil moisture, saving water, suppressing weeds, increasing organic matter content in soil, preserving heat and preventing freeze, improving soil property and soil microenvironments and the like, is particularly suitable for dwarfing rootstock apple orchards, can further reduce the straw mulching cost, promote the scale utilization of straws and can realize agricultural income increase and efficiency growth.

Description

A kind of self-propelled orchard stalk and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil
Technical field
The present invention discloses a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil, belongs to agricultural mechanical field and straw resource utilization field, particularly relates to improving straw mulching machineryization field, orchard.
Background technology
The fast development of 30 years since reform and opening-up, China has become state of fruit sparetime university, the fast development of fruit industry scale, the cultivated area such as apple, pears, peach, grape, oranges and tangerines has reached the whole world the first all, current China fruit industry also stage of changing of from " quantity size " towards " quality and benifit " type.But compared with developed countries, the fruit industry product quality of China is low and industrial benefit is not high, wherein causes the main cause of this problem to be that comparatively hungry soil lack of water is serious for China's orchard soil.The content of organic matter in NORTHWEST CHINA drought plateau apple orchard is generally below 1.0%, and the apple orchard content of organic matter of American-European countries is generally more than 3.0%, and the Japanese apple orchard content of organic matter even reaches 6.8%; Arid, semiarid zone soil Seasonal Water-Deficit are also commonplace.Therefore, in northern China drought plateau and southwest, retaining and conserveing soil moisture in orchard, improves the most important thing that soil organic matter content has become orchard management.
Orchard management aspect, external orchard soil administrative skill is the cultivation of many orchard ground covers, orchard ground cover cultivation can improve soil physical and chemical property, strengthen guarantor, water-holding capacity and water use efficiency, increase soil organic matter content and micro organism quantity, improve orchard environment, improve fruit quality and output.Arid, semiarid zone and China orchard mostly distributes, the soil organic matter external content of comparing is lower, Sod culture should not be adopted, the phenomenon of grass contention Fruit Tree Moisture can be there is in drought-hit area Sod culture, not only consume annual precipitation infiltration capacity, but also constantly utilize deep soil live storage, cause deep soil water deficit, grass also can fight for nutrient with fruit tree, causes fruit quality decline output to reduce.And manage under China's orcharding and continue to use cultivated clearly for a long time, this soil management system has been disadvantageous by practice to growth and development of fruit tree.In recent years along with constantly practice and summary, China starts to adopt Orchard mulch technology.Current most area mainly adopts plastic mulching, but the volume increase of plastic mulching is to consume soil fertility for cost.Plastic mulching reduces the resolution ratio of organic materials in soil, and soil organic matter content is declined, and enzymic activity declines, and also has influence on the functional diversity of edaphon, thus affects soil fertility and function of soil ecosystem.
By research, to soil depletion, fertility is low, improving straw mulching technology is taked in the orchard being subject to weather and temperature impact, by common agricultural wastes, as maize straw, straw, bark, sawdust, pine needle, shell, the scraps of paper etc. cover soil surface exposed around fruit tree, cover one deck thin soil more above, not only can reduce the evaporation of soil moisture, to formation soil granular, fertilizer conservation preserves soil moisture, the soil organic matter and bioactive increase and improve fruit quality and have significant effect, and the thin soil layer covered prevents covering to be blown to four winds and the effect of fire preventing to play.Orchard improving straw mulching technology solves arid, semiarid zone because of the effective measures of rich water shortage restriction orchard upgrading volume increase, is also one of important production technology of developing ecology fruit industry, organic fruit industry.
The application of orchard improving straw mulching technology not only can improve soil quality, also well solves the recycling problem of orchard periphery agricultural wastes.According to United Nations Environment Programme, China's agricultural crop straw annual production is about 700,000,000 tons, first of the row world, amounts to standard coal amount 3.53 hundred million tons, accounts for about 30% of whole world stalk total amount.But China's straw from village resource is in the situation of high flow rate, high pollution, low output completely, minority stalk is only had to be used as natural pond processed, feed, fertilizer and the raw material of industry, considerable a part of agricultural crop straw is thrown aside or is burned, and does not obtain rational exploitation and utilization.Current China straw utilization rate is about 33%, and wherein major part does not add process, and what utilize after technical finesse only accounts for 2.6%.And the one of the main reasons causing stalk not to be used appropriately is, the distribution density of stalk resource is low, not easily collecting.Along with popularizing of improving straw mulching technology application, the waste straw of orchard periphery will be collected recycling.Effectively solve the problem of stalk resource waste.
At present, world fruit industry production technology is towards intensive, standardization, mechanization, modernization and low cost future development.In the world a lot of apple production big country a general section adopt the intensive efficiency cultivation technology for high of apple dwarf, during many countries short apple oneself account for more than 90%.The outstanding Heterosis of the intensive efficiency cultivation technology for high of apple dwarf is that Cold region apple abundance, efficiency are high, fruit high-quality, time saving and energy saving, its comprehensive production efficiency traditional arbor apple orchard of comparing increases significantly.Comparatively speaking, China's mainly tall anvil apple at present, account for 90%, and short anvil apple only accounts for about 10%.Therefore, following 10-20, China will welcome the high speed development upsurge of an Apple Culture technology upgrading replacement.In recent years, the apple cultivation such as Shaanxi, Shandong district was own starts scale introduction.Along with fruit dwarfing technology, particularly the advanced technology such as short anvil apple intensive culture technique is in the popularization of China, and orchard is spacious in the ranks, tree-like specification, will provide convenience for orchard operation machineryization.
At present, the laying of orchard stalk relies on manpower completely by stalk bedding in the ranks, and overwrite procedure takes time and effort.Along with the popularization on a large scale downgrading intensive efficiency cultivation technology for high, the continuous expansion of orchard area, the labour intensity of corresponding improving straw mulching increases, therefore, change the simple and crude method of orchard improving straw mulching in the past, research orchard improving straw mulching machineryization technology also develops orchard improving straw mulching work tool, it is the key playing orchard improving straw mulching technical benefits, also be the important channel realizing stalk resource efficiency utilization in the fruit industry of high added value, be improve orchard soil moisture, the content of organic matter, realize the important leverage of orchard high-yield and high-efficiency.
Yet there are no any relevant report in orchard improving straw mulching machineryization technical research and application aspect abroad at present.And the domestic patent CN204377363U that finds and CN204377459U orchard straw covering machine carry out operation by tractor-drawn trailer with stalk hopper, the advantage of this mulch-laying machine is that structure is simple, with low cost, engine versatility is good.But its shortcoming is obvious: structure is not compact, function is not single-minded, inefficiency, during work, radius of turn is excessive, very inconvenient under the intensive condition not abundant with space of turning around of plantation, one disclosed by the invention self-propelled orchard stalk and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil, the problem of the large and inconvenience of turning around of existing orchard straw covering machine radius of turn can be solved, improve the operating efficiency of mulch-laying machine, promote the application of improving straw mulching technology in orchard, improve the reuse ratio of waste straw, economize on resources, protection of the environment, improve orchard soil fertility and improve fruit quality, realize increasing peasant income, growth of agricultural efficiency.
Summary of the invention
Object of the present invention: disclose a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil, straw covering machine Problems existing in orchard in prior art can be improved, realize orchard improving straw mulching and top layer earthing lid presses mechanization of operation, standardization, this covering function promotes applying of orchard improving straw mulching technology, reduce orchard improving straw mulching operating cost, improve orchard soil situation, promote the extensive efficiency utilization of fruit district's periphery stalk, realize increasing peasant income, growth of agricultural efficiency.
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention: it is excessive with the inconvenient problem that turns around that the double-deck mulch-laying machine of described self-propelled orchard stalk and topsoil realizes solving existing orchard straw covering machine radius of turn with which kind of the Nomenclature Composition and Structure of Complexes.And orchard improving straw mulching can be completed, and on improving straw mulching layer, cover the thin scholar of one deck, and make straw substrate cladding thickness and thin soil lid press thickness evenly adjustable, thus optimize existing improving straw mulching machineryization scheme, improve the operating efficiency of mulch-laying machine, reduce orchard improving straw mulching operating cost, improve orchard soil situation, promote the extensive efficiency utilization of fruit district's periphery stalk.
Realize garden improving straw mulching machineryization, need to have come according to processing step below:
(1) stalk is in small, broken bits: agricultural crop straw is processed into broken section of stalk.
(2) orchard improving straw mulching substrate preparation: add appropriate soil nutrient or soil structure improved addictive material in broken section of the stalk described in step (1), and carry out suitable desinsection, sterilization treatment as required, forms orchard improving straw mulching matrix.
(3) orchard soil is ploughed whole: with agricultural machinery to orchard in the ranks soil carry out that pine is ploughed, hack and leveling operation.
(4) straw substrate covers: stalk (broken section) the matrix machinery described in step (1) or step (2) is covered the soil surface of orchard in the ranks or between strain, and cladding thickness as far as possible evenly.
(5) thin soil lid pressure: cover one deck hack with machinery above the straw substrate layer of step (4) described covering, by the straw substrate layer thin soil lid pressure covered, formation stalk and topsoil bilayer cover.
In order to solve the technical problem to be solved in the present invention, The present invention gives following technical scheme:
A kind of self-propelled orchard stalk and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil, it is characterized in that comprising two schemes, the engine of scheme one is arranged on stalk hopper rear, and the engine of scheme two is arranged on the front of stalk hopper, the back lower place of driver's cabin.
Mulch-laying machine vehicle frame being provided with stalk hopper, is " V " shape structure at the bottom of the case of stalk hopper, and " V " shape structural base opening connects with stalk blow tank, and be provided with a discharge roller above its bottom opening, the cell body of stalk blow tank is downward-sloping forward; At mulch-laying machine bottom front, mount an earthing roller, the position of earthing roller is in the side-lower of the outlet of stalk blow tank, earthing roller be axially installed with several earthing roller blade, form hollow roll structure, earthing roller blade is similar steel angle structure, and the angle in two faces of earthing roller blade, width of blade are according to how many customizations of earthing amount, and the setting angle of earthing roller blade has specific angle according to the number of earthing amount.During work, earthing roller is rotated in a clockwise direction under power drive, earthing roller blade bottom earthing roller buries, soil is scooped up, along with rotation, soil is promoted and is rotated through earthing roller peak, forwards to after about 225 ° of earthing roller minimum point, the soil taken up is under gravity along the landing of earthing roller blade, drop into the rear portion of earthing roller, the stalk layer landed above is covered, completes thin soil lid pressure.
In scheme one, described self-propelled orchard stalk and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil, by engine power output shaft outputting power, pass to gearbox through driving-chain I, chain wheel I, chain wheel II, driving-chain II, drive mulch-laying machine walking.The power of earthing roller is exported by engine power output shaft, passes to earthing roller through driving-chain I, chain wheel I, power transmission shaft, sprocket wheel V, driving-chain IV, sprocket wheel VI, drives the earthing roller blade rotary of earthing roller.The power of discharge roller is exported by engine power output shaft, passes to discharge roller through driving-chain I, chain wheel I, power transmission shaft, sprocket wheel III, driving-chain III, sprocket wheel IV, drives discharge roller to rotate, stirs the even blanking of straw substrate.
In scheme two, described self-propelled orchard stalk and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil, by engine power output shaft outputting power, pass to gearbox through driving-chain I, chain wheel I, chain wheel II, driving-chain II, drive mulch-laying machine walking.The power of earthing roller is exported by engine power output shaft, passes to earthing roller through driving-chain I, chain wheel I, power transmission shaft, sprocket wheel III, driving-chain III, sprocket wheel IV, sprocket wheel V, driving-chain IV, sprocket wheel VI, drives the earthing roller blade rotary of earthing roller.The power of discharge roller is exported by engine power output shaft, passes to discharge roller through driving-chain I, chain wheel I, power transmission shaft, sprocket wheel III, driving-chain III, sprocket wheel IV, drives discharge roller to rotate, stirs the even blanking of straw substrate.
Described discharge roller is arranged on stalk hopper inside " V " shape structural base overthe openings, and its axis direction is vertical with stalk hopper length direction; Discharge roller rotates under sprocket wheel IV drives, and makes straw substrate uniform discharge and controls load; The roll surface of discharge roller has spike-tooth or convex-concave, the arrangement of spike-tooth or convex-concave has certain directionality, forces straw substrate even drop down on stalk blow tank length direction to be discharged; Install speed adjusting gear additional and change discharge roller rotating speed, straw substrate load can be realized, i.e. the regulation and control of straw substrate overburden cover.
The rotating shaft two ends of described earthing roller are connected with lifting arm, and the upper end of lifting arm is suspended on bottom of frame, and the connecting rod of lifting arm is socketed a pair hydraulic lifting oil cylinder, the upper end thereof of hydraulic lifting oil cylinder is suspended on bottom of frame; When carrying out orchard improving straw mulching work, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder extends, and drive whole earthing roller to rotate around hitch point, earthing roller is declined, earthing roller blade buries; When without earthing, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder shortens, and drives whole earthing roller to rotate around hitch point, makes earthing roller increase.
The hack that described thin soil lid pressure needs is fetched earth by earthing roller scene in operation process.
The power delivery mode of the walking power of the double-deck mulch-laying machine of described self-propelled orchard stalk and topsoil, earthing roller and discharge roller can adopt V belt translation or Chain conveyer.
Described orchard improving straw mulching device is applicable to Arid&semi-arid area or seasonal drought area needs soil moisture conservation, the orchard of economizing on water or soil, or need to improve soil organic matter content, improve orchard or the soil of soil property and soil organisms microenvironment, or need the orchard or the soil that suppress orchard weed, or need the orchard to soil heat preservation or soil, or the orchard of comprehensive above-mentioned multiple needs or soil, be particularly suitable for the dwarfing orchard of intensive culture, as short anvil apple orchard.
A kind of self-propelled orchard stalk and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil, operation principle is as follows:
The double-deck mulch-laying machine of one of the present invention self-propelled orchard stalk and topsoil can complete that orchard soil is in small, broken bits and smooth, straw substrate covers and thin soil lid presses step, and for scheme one, detailed process and operation principle are expressed as follows:
Self-propelled orchard stalk and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil, by engine power output shaft outputting power, pass to gearbox through driving-chain I, chain wheel I, chain wheel II, driving-chain II, drive mulch-laying machine walking.
Carrying out in the improving straw mulching operation of orchard, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder extends, and drive whole earthing roller to rotate around hitch point, earthing roller is declined, earthing roller blade buries, mulch-laying machine in the ranks at the uniform velocity advances in orchard, engine outputs power, through driving-chain I, chain wheel I, power transmission shaft, sprocket wheel V, driving-chain IV, sprocket wheel VI passes to earthing roller, the earthing roller vane clockwise direction of earthing roller is driven to rotate, earthing roller blade bottom earthing roller buries, soil is scooped up, along with rotation, soil is promoted and is rotated through earthing roller peak, forward to after about 225 ° of earthing roller minimum point, the soil taken up is under gravity along the landing of earthing roller blade, drop into the rear portion of earthing roller, the stalk layer landed above is covered, complete thin soil lid pressure.
Engine power output shaft outputs power, and passes to discharge roller through driving-chain I, chain wheel I, power transmission shaft, sprocket wheel III, driving-chain III, sprocket wheel IV, drives discharge roller to rotate, stirs the even blanking of straw substrate.The roll surface of discharge roller has spike-tooth or convex-concave, the arrangement of spike-tooth or convex-concave has certain directionality, forces straw substrate even drop down on stalk blow tank length direction to be discharged.The position of earthing roller is in the side-lower of the outlet of stalk blow tank, keeps certain gap between the outlet of stalk blow tank and earthing roller blade outer rim.
Overburden cover adjusts: when advancing constant airspeed, changes the tectal thickness of size adjustable straw substrate of the rotating speed of discharge roller, surface structure and stalk blow tank; The width and the setting angle that change earthing roller blade can adjust the thickness that thin soil lid presses layer.
In non-covered duty, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder shrinks, and drives whole earthing roller to rotate around hitch point, makes earthing roller increase; Power transmission shaft Power output cuts off, and earthing roller and discharge roller stop the rotation, and stalk blow tank is blocked by discharge roller, stops discharging.
Advantageous Effects: technical scheme of the present invention can realize orchard improving straw mulching and top layer earthing lid presses mechanization of operation, standardization, promote applying of orchard improving straw mulching technology, reduce orchard improving straw mulching operating cost, improve orchard soil situation, substitute orchard ground cover technology, promote the extensive efficiency utilization of fruit district's periphery stalk, realize increasing peasant income, growth of agricultural efficiency.
Accompanying drawing illustrates:
1. driver's cabin 2. stalk hopper 3. engine 4. power take-off 5. driving-chain I 6. vehicle frame 7. chain wheel II 8. chain wheel I 9. driving-chain II 10. stalk blow tank 11. lifting arm 12. earthing roller 13. gearbox 14. engine radiator 15. hopper front support gusset 16. earthing roller blade 17. sprocket wheel IV 18. driving-chain III 19. sprocket wheel VI 20. hydraulic lifting oil cylinder 21. driving-chain IV 22. sprocket wheel III 23. hopper rear support gusset 24. sprocket wheel V 25. power transmission shaft 26. discharge roller
Fig. 1 is overall construction drawing on the left of the double-deck mulch-laying machine scheme one of a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk and topsoil
Fig. 2 is overall construction drawing on the right side of the double-deck mulch-laying machine scheme one of a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk and topsoil
Fig. 3 is a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk and topsoil double-deck mulch-laying machine scheme one vertical view
Fig. 4 is a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk and topsoil double-deck mulch-laying machine scheme one upward view
Fig. 5 is the structure chart of the earthing roller of the double-deck mulch-laying machine scheme one of a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk and topsoil
Fig. 6 is a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk and topsoil double-deck mulch-laying machine scheme one power transmission sketch
Fig. 7 is overall construction drawing on the left of the double-deck mulch-laying machine scheme two of a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk and topsoil
Fig. 8 is overall construction drawing on the right side of the double-deck mulch-laying machine scheme two of a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk and topsoil
Fig. 9 is a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk and topsoil double-deck mulch-laying machine scheme two power transmission sketch
Embodiment
The present embodiment is in short anvil apple orchard, carry out improving straw mulching machinery equalization.Short anvil apple orchard line space 3.5 meters ~ 4.5 meters, tree-like tree crown is neat.
In the short anvil apple orchard of intensive cultivating, carry out improving straw mulching, need to have come according to processing step below:
(1) stalk is in small, broken bits: agricultural crop straw is processed into broken section of stalk.
(2) orchard improving straw mulching substrate preparation: add appropriate soil nutrient or soil structure improved addictive material in broken section of the stalk described in step (1), and carry out suitable desinsection, sterilization treatment as required, forms orchard improving straw mulching matrix.
(3) orchard soil is ploughed whole: with agricultural machinery to orchard in the ranks soil carry out that pine is ploughed, hack and leveling operation.
(4) straw substrate covers: stalk (broken section) the matrix machinery described in step (1) or step (2) is covered the soil surface of orchard in the ranks or between strain, and cladding thickness as far as possible evenly.
(5) thin soil lid pressure: cover one deck hack with machinery above the straw substrate layer of step (4) described covering, by the straw substrate layer thin soil lid pressure covered, formation stalk and topsoil bilayer cover.
As shown in Fig. 6 and Fig. 9, described one self-propelled orchard stalk and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil, two schemes, by engine 3 power take-off 4 outputting power, passes to gearbox 13 through driving-chain I 5, chain wheel I 8, chain wheel II 7, driving-chain II 9, drives mulch-laying machine walking.
As shown in Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 7 and Figure 8, described one self-propelled orchard stalk and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil, in two schemes, mulch-laying machine vehicle frame 6 is provided with stalk hopper 2, it is " V " shape structure at the bottom of stalk hopper 2 casees, " V " shape structural base opening connects with stalk blow tank 10, and be provided with a discharge roller 26 above its bottom opening, the cell body of stalk blow tank 10 is downward-sloping forward, at vehicle frame 6 bottom front, mount an earthing roller 12, earthing roller 12 is positioned at the below of stalk hopper 2, earthing roller 12 be axially installed with several earthing roller blade 16, form hollow roll structure, during work, earthing roller 13 is rotated in a clockwise direction under power drive, earthing roller blade 16 bottom earthing roller 13 buries, soil is scooped up, along with rotation, soil is promoted and is rotated through earthing roller 13 peak, forward to after about 225 ° of earthing roller 13 minimum point, the soil taken up is under gravity along the landing of earthing roller blade 16, drop into the rear portion of earthing roller 13, the stalk layer landed above is covered, complete thin soil lid pressure.
As shown in Figure 6, the power of the earthing roller 12 described in scheme one is outputed power by engine 3 power take-off 4, pass to earthing roller 12 through driving-chain I 5, chain wheel I 8, power transmission shaft 25, sprocket wheel V 24, driving-chain IV 21, sprocket wheel VI 19, drive the earthing roller blade 16 of earthing roller to rotate.The power of described discharge roller 26 is outputed power by engine 3 power take-off 4, discharge roller 26 is passed to through driving-chain I 5, chain wheel I 8, power transmission shaft 25, sprocket wheel III 22, driving-chain III 18, sprocket wheel IV 17, drive discharge roller 26 to rotate, stir the even blanking of straw substrate.
As shown in Figure 9, the power of the earthing roller 12 described in scheme two is outputed power by engine 3 power take-off 4, pass to earthing roller 12 through driving-chain I 5, chain wheel I 8, power transmission shaft 25, sprocket wheel III 22, driving-chain III 18, sprocket wheel IV 17, sprocket wheel V 24, driving-chain IV 21, sprocket wheel VI 19, drive the earthing roller blade 16 of earthing roller to rotate.The power of described discharge roller 26 is outputed power by engine 3 power take-off 4, discharge roller 26 is passed to through driving-chain I 5, chain wheel I 8, power transmission shaft 25, sprocket wheel III 22, driving-chain III 18, sprocket wheel IV 17, drive discharge roller 26 to rotate, stir the even blanking of straw substrate.
As shown in Figure 3, in two kinds of designs, described discharge roller 26 is arranged on stalk hopper 2 inside " V " shape structural base overthe openings, and its axis direction is vertical with stalk hopper 2 length direction; Discharge roller 26 rotates under sprocket wheel IV 17 drives, and makes straw substrate uniform discharge; The roll surface of discharge roller 26 has spike-tooth or convex-concave, the arrangement of spike-tooth or convex-concave has certain directionality, forces straw substrate even drop down on stalk blow tank 10 length direction to be discharged; Speed adjusting gear can be installed additional and change discharge roller 26 rotating speed, to realize straw substrate load, i.e. the regulation and control of straw substrate overburden cover.
As shown in Fig. 1, Fig. 5 and Fig. 7, in two schemes, the rotating shaft two ends of described earthing roller 12 are connected with lifting arm 11, the upper end of lifting arm 11 is suspended on bottom vehicle frame 6, the connecting rod of lifting arm 11 is socketed a pair hydraulic lifting oil cylinder 20, the upper end thereof of hydraulic lifting oil cylinder 20 is suspended on bottom vehicle frame 6; When carrying out orchard improving straw mulching work, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder 20 extends, and drive whole earthing roller to rotate around hitch point, earthing roller 12 is declined, earthing roller blade 16 buries; When without earthing, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder contracts 20 short, drives whole earthing roller 12 to rotate around hitch point, makes earthing roller 12 increase.
The hack that described thin soil lid pressure needs is fetched earth by earthing roller scene in operation process.
In the present embodiment, the walking power of described a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil adopts V belt translation, and the power delivery mode of earthing roller 12, discharge roller 26 can adopt Chain conveyer, also can adopt V belt translation.
Described orchard improving straw mulching device is applicable to Arid&semi-arid area or seasonal drought area needs soil moisture conservation, the orchard of economizing on water or soil, or need to improve soil organic matter content, improve orchard or the soil of soil property and soil organisms microenvironment, or need the orchard or the soil that suppress orchard weed, or need the orchard to soil heat preservation or soil, or the orchard of comprehensive above-mentioned multiple needs or soil, be particularly suitable for the dwarfing orchard of intensive culture, as short anvil apple orchard.
Further illustrate the operation principle of a kind of self-propelled orchard stalk of the present invention and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil:
The double-deck mulch-laying machine of one of the present invention self-propelled orchard stalk and topsoil can complete that orchard soil is in small, broken bits and smooth, straw substrate covers and thin soil lid presses step, and for scheme one, detailed process and operation principle are expressed as follows:
As shown in Fig. 1, Fig. 5 and Fig. 6, carrying out in the improving straw mulching operation of orchard, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder 20 extends, and drive whole earthing roller 12 to rotate around hitch point, earthing roller 12 is declined, and earthing roller blade 16 buries, mulch-laying machine in the ranks at the uniform velocity advances in orchard, engine 3 power take-off 4 outputs power, through driving-chain I 5, chain wheel I 8, power transmission shaft 25, sprocket wheel V 24, driving-chain IV 21, sprocket wheel VI 19 passes to earthing roller 12, the earthing roller blade 16 of earthing roller is driven to rotate, earthing roller blade 16 bottom earthing roller 12 buries, soil is scooped up, along with rotation, soil is promoted and is rotated through earthing roller 12 peak, forward to after about 225 ° of earthing roller 12 minimum point, the soil taken up is under gravity along the landing of earthing roller blade 16, drop into the rear portion of earthing roller 12, the stalk layer landed above is covered, complete thin soil lid pressure.
As shown in Figure 6, the power of discharge roller 26 is outputed power by engine 3 power take-off 4, pass to discharge roller 26 through driving-chain I 5, chain wheel I 8, power transmission shaft 25, sprocket wheel III 22, driving-chain III 18, sprocket wheel IV 17, drive discharge roller 26 to rotate, stir the even blanking of straw substrate.The roll surface of discharge roller 26 has spike-tooth or convex-concave, the arrangement of spike-tooth or convex-concave has certain directionality, forces straw substrate even drop down on stalk blow tank 10 length direction to be discharged.
As shown in Figure 1 and Figure 5, the position of earthing roller 12 is in the side-lower of the outlet of stalk blow tank 10, keeps certain gap between the outlet of stalk blow tank 10 and earthing roller blade 16 outer rim.
Overburden cover adjusts: when advancing constant airspeed, changes the tectal thickness of size adjustable straw substrate of the rotating speed of discharge roller 26, surface structure and stalk blow tank 10; The width and the setting angle that change earthing roller blade 16 can adjust the thickness that thin soil lid presses layer.
In non-covered duty, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder 20 shrinks, and drives whole earthing roller 12 to rotate around hitch point, makes earthing roller 12 increase; Power transmission shaft 25 outputting power cuts off, and earthing roller 12 and discharge roller 26 stop the rotation, and stalk blow tank 10 is blocked by discharge roller 26, stops discharging.
3 needs special instructions below:
1. a kind of orchard of the present invention improving straw mulching device is except being specially adapted to short anvil apple orchard, also be applicable to need soil moisture conservation, other orchards of economizing on water or soil in Arid&semi-arid area or seasonal drought area, or need to improve soil organic matter content, improve other orchards or the soil of soil property and soil organisms microenvironment, or need other orchards or the soil that suppress orchard weed, or need other orchards to soil heat preservation or soil, or other orchards of comprehensive above-mentioned multiple needs or soil.
2. the earthing roller of the present invention not work tool such as rotary tillage of the prior art, rake, but there is the device throwing the multiple effect such as pacifically of soil, hack, its Main Function throws soil, and its power demand is less.Thus, before improving straw mulching operation, need first whole to ploughing with other agricultural machinery in the ranks.
3. specification of the present invention and accompanying drawing are in order to clearly demonstrate technical scheme, give some technical scheme details, the restriction of these details not to claims of the present invention.Any distortion of doing these details or amendment, all do not exceed the scope of the claims in the present invention protection.

Claims (8)

1. self-propelled orchard stalk and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil, it is characterized in that, described mulch-laying machine is self-propelling, provides locomotor activity for oneself; The vehicle frame (6) of mulch-laying machine is provided with stalk hopper (2), engine (3) is arranged on stalk hopper (2) rear, it is " V " shape structure at the bottom of the case of stalk hopper (2), " V " shape structural base opening connects with stalk blow tank (10), be provided with a discharge roller (26) above its bottom opening, the cell body of stalk blow tank (10) is downward-sloping forward; At vehicle frame (6) bottom front, mount an earthing roller (12), can oscilaltion, earthing roller (12) be axially installed with several earthing roller blade (16), form hollow roll structure, the position of earthing roller is in the side-lower of the outlet of stalk blow tank (10), keeps certain gap between the outlet of stalk blow tank (10) and earthing roller blade (16) outer rim;
The double-deck mulch-laying machine of described one self-propelled orchard stalk and topsoil, by straw substrate uniform fold in orchard in the ranks ground, form improving straw mulching layer, and cover one deck thin soil above improving straw mulching layer, form thin soil lid pressure layer.
2. one according to claim 1 self-propelled orchard stalk and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil, it is characterized in that, its walking power is by engine (3) power take-off (4) outputting power, pass to gearbox (13) through driving-chain I (5), chain wheel I (8), chain wheel II (7), driving-chain II (9), drive mulch-laying machine walking; The power of earthing roller (12) is outputed power by engine (3) power take-off (4), pass to earthing roller (12) through driving-chain I (5), chain wheel I (8), power transmission shaft (25), sprocket wheel V (24), driving-chain IV (21), sprocket wheel VI (19), drive the earthing roller blade (16) of earthing roller to rotate; The power of discharge roller (26) is outputed power by engine (3) power take-off (4), discharge roller (26) is passed to through driving-chain I (5), chain wheel I (8), power transmission shaft (25), sprocket wheel III (22), driving-chain III (18), sprocket wheel IV (17), drive discharge roller (26) to rotate, stir the even blanking of straw substrate.
3. one according to claim 1 self-propelled orchard stalk and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil, it is characterized in that, discharge roller (26) is arranged on stalk hopper (2) inner " V " shape structural base overthe openings, and its axis direction is vertical with stalk hopper (2) length direction; Discharge roller (26) rotates under sprocket wheel IV (17) drives, and makes straw substrate uniform discharge and controls load; The roll surface of discharge roller (26) has spike-tooth or convex-concave, and the arrangement of spike-tooth or convex-concave has certain directionality, forces straw substrate even drop down on stalk blow tank (10) length direction to be discharged; Install speed adjusting gear additional and change discharge roller (26) rotating speed, straw substrate load can be realized, i.e. the regulation and control of straw substrate overburden cover.
4. one according to claim 1 self-propelled orchard stalk and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil, it is characterized in that, the rotating shaft two ends of earthing roller (12) are connected with lifting arm (11), the upper end of lifting arm (11) is suspended on vehicle frame (6) bottom, the connecting rod of lifting arm (11) is socketed a pair hydraulic lifting oil cylinder (20), the upper end thereof of hydraulic lifting oil cylinder (20) is suspended on vehicle frame (6) bottom; When carrying out orchard improving straw mulching work, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder (20) extends, and drive whole earthing roller (12) to rotate around hitch point, earthing roller (12) is declined, and earthing roller blade (16) buries; When not needing earthing, hydraulic lifting oil cylinder (20) shortens, and drives whole earthing roller (12) to rotate around hitch point, makes earthing roller (12) increase.
5. one according to claim 1 self-propelled orchard stalk and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil, is characterized in that, the hack that described thin soil lid pressure needs is fetched earth by earthing roller (12) scene in operation process.
6. self-propelled orchard stalk and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil, it is characterized in that, described mulch-laying machine is self-propelling, provides locomotor activity for oneself; The engine (3) of mulch-laying machine is arranged on the back lower place of driver's cabin (1), vehicle frame (6) is provided with stalk hopper (2), it is " V " shape structure at the bottom of the case of stalk hopper (2), " V " shape structural base opening connects with stalk blow tank (10), be provided with a discharge roller (26) above its bottom opening, the cell body of stalk blow tank (10) is downward-sloping forward; At vehicle frame (6) bottom front, mount an earthing roller (12), can oscilaltion, earthing roller (12) be axially installed with several earthing roller blade (16), form hollow roll structure, the position of earthing roller is in the side-lower of the outlet of stalk blow tank (10), keeps certain gap between the outlet of stalk blow tank (10) and earthing roller blade (16) outer rim.
7. one according to claim 6 self-propelled orchard stalk and the double-deck mulch-laying machine of topsoil, it is characterized in that, its walking power is by engine (3) power take-off (4) outputting power, pass to gearbox (13) through driving-chain I (5), chain wheel I (8), chain wheel II (7), driving-chain II (9), drive mulch-laying machine walking; The power of earthing roller (12) is outputed power by engine (3) power take-off (4), pass to earthing roller (12) through driving-chain I (5), chain wheel I (8), power transmission shaft (25), sprocket wheel III (22), driving-chain III (18), sprocket wheel IV (17), sprocket wheel V (24), driving-chain IV (21), sprocket wheel VI (19), drive the earthing roller blade (16) of earthing roller to rotate; The power of discharge roller (26) is outputed power by engine (3) power take-off (4), discharge roller (26) is passed to through driving-chain I (5), chain wheel I (8), power transmission shaft (25), sprocket wheel III (22), driving-chain III (18), sprocket wheel IV (17), drive discharge roller (26) to rotate, stir the even blanking of straw substrate.
8. the double-deck mulch-laying machine of the self-propelled orchard stalk of the one according to claim 2 or 7 and topsoil, is characterized in that, the walking power of described mulch-laying machine, the power delivery mode throwing earthenware and discharge roller can adopt V belt translation or Chain conveyer.
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CN110140480A (en) * 2019-05-28 2019-08-20 薛秀菊 One kind is digged pit the covering device that applies fertilizer
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CN106258037A (en) * 2016-11-07 2017-01-04 西北农林科技大学 A kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine
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CN107347275A (en) * 2017-08-11 2017-11-17 芜湖扬宇机电技术开发有限公司 A kind of ridging covering device that is adjustably controlled of ridger
CN110140480A (en) * 2019-05-28 2019-08-20 薛秀菊 One kind is digged pit the covering device that applies fertilizer
CN110100516A (en) * 2019-06-04 2019-08-09 兰州石化职业技术学院 A kind of multifunctional stereo desert grass planter
CN110214484A (en) * 2019-07-11 2019-09-10 辽宁艾科农业科技有限公司 A kind of Multifunctional seeder
CN110896693A (en) * 2019-12-13 2020-03-24 陆军军 Traveling-interval continuous seeding equipment and working method thereof
CN110896693B (en) * 2019-12-13 2021-02-05 窦元 Traveling-interval continuous seeding equipment and working method thereof

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