CN104429384B - Orchard stalk and topsoil bilayer cover do mechanization operation method and the machine of covering - Google Patents

Orchard stalk and topsoil bilayer cover do mechanization operation method and the machine of covering Download PDF

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CN104429384B
CN104429384B CN201410811317.3A CN201410811317A CN104429384B CN 104429384 B CN104429384 B CN 104429384B CN 201410811317 A CN201410811317 A CN 201410811317A CN 104429384 B CN104429384 B CN 104429384B
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stalk
soil
orchard
straw
earthing roller
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CN104429384A (en
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朱新华
郭文川
陈胤嗣
杨中平
郭康权
朱瑞祥
杨培
张宗
何浩
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Northwest A&F University
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Northwest A&F University
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Abstract

Orchard stalk and topsoil bilayer cover do mechanization operation method and the machine of covering, relate to straw resource utilization field and agricultural mechanical field.Stalk is cut into broken section, adds appropriate additive and form covering matrix.Orchard is ploughed whole, improving straw mulching matrix machinery is covered in orchard in the ranks or between strain, on improving straw mulching layer, carries out thin soil lid pressure simultaneously.Covering machine includes two schemes, and the covering machine of scheme one at least includes that trailer, stalk hopper, straw substrate stone parts, soil plough integeral part, five mechanisms of earthing roller, it is possible to completes orchard soil and ploughs whole, straw substrate covering and thin soil lid pressure step;Scheme two is including at least trailer, stalk hopper, straw substrate stone parts, four mechanisms of earthing roller.Disclosed method and covering machine are suitable to orchard, drought-hit area, and the shortest anvil apple orchard Mechanized Straw covers, it is possible to substitute orchard ground cover technology, press down grass, soil moisture conservation water saving, improve the soil organism, regulation soil temperature, reduce production cost, improve fruit output and quality.

Description

Orchard stalk and topsoil bilayer cover do mechanization operation method and the machine of covering
Technical field
The present invention open a kind of orchard stalk covers do mechanization operation method and the machine of covering with topsoil bilayer, relates to straw Stalk utilization of resources field and agricultural mechanical field, particularly relate to improving straw mulching machinery field, orchard.
Background technology
In recent years, along with the adjustment of China's agricultural structure, really industry scale fast development, apple, pears, peach, grape, mandarin orange The cultivated areas such as tangerine have reached the whole world first the most, and China has become state of fruit sparetime university.But compared with developed countries, the fruit industry of China is also There is serious problem, cause product quality low and industrial benefit is the highest.One important problem is that orchard soil is barren, mistake Divide and rely on chemical fertilizer, cause soil compaction;The always restriction of the Soils In The Region lack of water of arid, semiarid zone and Seasonal Water-Deficit The really bottleneck problem of industry development.Particularly in northern China arplain and southwest, orchard soil moisture conservation water saving, the raising content of organic matter Become the most important thing of orchard management.According to surveying and determination, apple orchard, the NORTHWEST CHINA arplain content of organic matter generally below 1.0%, And the general piece of American-European countries's apple orchard content of organic matter is more than 3.0%, Japan's apple orchard content of organic matter is even up to 6.8%, So how dead soil, support high production and high-quality?
Orchard improving straw mulching technology be thin for orchard soil layer, fertility is low, moisture condition is poor, soil bareness area is big and adopts The soil management technology taken.Covering on soil exposed around fruit tree by appropriate crop material etc., it has soil moisture conservation, joint Water, improve soil organic matter content, press down grass, insulation, no-tillage, saving of labor and the multiple effect such as prevent soil loss, soil can be improved Ecological microenvironment, supports the strong tree of root, promotes that Growth status is grown, and then improve yield and improving quality.Orchard improving straw mulching technology It is to solve arid, semiarid zone because of the effective measures of rich water shortage restriction orchard upgrading volume increase, is also developing ecology fruit industry, has One of production technology that machine fruit industry is important.
In recent years, orchard stalk technology is widelyd popularize in China, but orchard worker's enthusiasm is low, and popularizing area is less, produces effects Little.Tracing it to its cause, the first existing orchard improving straw mulching technical matters is simple and crude, needs manual work, and time-consuming, they are two years old It is that orchard worker worries dry season orchard fire.
At present, the most general piece of American-European countries uses the intensive efficiency cultivation technology for high of apple dwarf, the short anvil apple of many countries Account for more than 90%.The advantage per mu yield height that the intensive efficiency cultivation technology for high of apple dwarf is prominent, percent rate of high quality fruit is high.Per mu yield reach 5 tons with On, percent rate of high quality fruit can reach 85%.Comparatively speaking, China is presently mainly tall anvil apple, accounts for 90%, and short anvil apple only accounts for 10% Left and right.Therefore, following 10~20 years, China will welcome the high speed development upsurge that an Apple Culture technology upgrading is regenerated.The most several Year, the apple cultivation district such as Shaanxi, Shandong has started to scale and introduces.Along with fruit dwarfing technology, the shortest anvil apple is intensive Changing the popularization in China of the advanced technologies such as cultivation technique, orchard is the most spacious, tree-like specification, will provide for orchard operation machineryization Facility.
American-European countries the general piece in short anvil orchard use Cover with weed technology, but research show, Cover with weed technology exist with Fruit tree strives water and strives the problem of fertilizer, and causes pest and disease damage to increase.Therefore, current Cover with weed technology is not suitable for China orchard, special It is not drought and water-scarce area.
Therefore, changing the simple and crude method of orchard improving straw mulching in the past, research orchard improving straw mulching machinery technology is also developed Go out orchard improving straw mulching work tool, be the key playing orchard improving straw mulching technical benefits, be also to realize stalk resource at height The important channel efficiently utilized in the fruit industry of added value, is to improve orchard soil moisture, the content of organic matter, it is achieved orchard high yield is high The important leverage of effect.
At present, yet there are no any relevant report in orchard improving straw mulching machinery technical research and application aspect both at home and abroad. Orchard disclosed by the invention stalk covers machine with topsoil bilayer, it is possible to solve the improving straw mulching technical method letter of existing orchard Plain, time-consuming problem, promote the application in orchard of the improving straw mulching technology, it is achieved orchard soil soil moisture conservation water saving, getting fat, press down Grass, insulation, reduce operating cost, improves operation quality, improves fruit industry yield and benefit;Solve surrounding area, orchard stalk resource Waste and burning pollution problem, it is achieved increasing peasant income, growth of agricultural efficiency.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the present invention: open a kind of orchard stalk covers do mechanization operation method and covering with topsoil bilayer Machine, it is possible to realize orchard improving straw mulching and top layer earthing lid pressure mechanization of operation, standardization, and disclose a kind of orchard stalk and table Layer soil bilayer covers machine, promotes the popularization and application of orchard improving straw mulching technology, reduces orchard improving straw mulching operating cost, improves Orchard soil situation, promotes that fruit district periphery stalk the most efficiently utilizes, it is achieved increasing peasant income, growth of agricultural efficiency.
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention: 1) how to process stalk and become suitable Orchard mulch matrix; 2) how to plough whole orchard soil and straw substrate covered orchard soil with mechanized manner and reaches suitable covering quality;3) How to make straw substrate layer fire-proof wind-proof;4) orchard stalk mechanization covering cycle determines;5) orchard straw covering machine disclosed in Tool realizes orchard stalk with which kind of the Nomenclature Composition and Structure of Complexes and covers with topsoil bilayer.
In order to solve above-mentioned technical problem, The present invention gives techniques below scheme:
Orchard stalk covers do mechanization operation method with topsoil bilayer, it is characterised in that described method is by agriculture Crop material particle, by improving straw mulching on orchard soil surface in the way of mechanization, and to stalk layer thin soil lid pressure, described Method comprises the following steps:
(1) stalk is in small, broken bits: agricultural crop straw or processing of farm products offal treatment become the straw of more than 1cm, below 30cm Broken section of stalk;
(2) orchard improving straw mulching substrate preparation: add appropriate soil nutrient thing in broken section of the stalk described in step (1) Matter, soil improvement material, and carry out suitable desinsection, sterilization treatment as required, form orchard improving straw mulching matrix;
(3) orchard soil is ploughed whole: with machinery, orchard soil is carried out farming, hack and leveling operation;
(4) straw substrate covers: cover stalk (broken section) the matrix machinery described in step (1) or step (2) fruit Garden soil surface in the ranks or between strain, cladding thickness scope is 3cm~25cm, and cladding thickness is the most uniformly;Tree dish 50cm scope Do not cover;
(5) thin soil lid pressure: cover one layer of hack above the straw substrate layer of step (4) described covering with machinery, will cover The straw substrate layer thin soil lid pressure of lid, forms stalk and covers with topsoil bilayer;
(6) deep ploughing is renovated: Machinery for orchard improving straw mulching can be carried out 1~2 time every year, needs to plough after covering 2~4 years continuously Make, turn over to bury and be once further continued for carrying out straw substrate covering, to prevent tree root from floating.If one time stalks mulching matrix is more, soil The earth deep ploughing cycle needs to shorten.
Orchard stalk covers do mechanization operation method with topsoil bilayer, and described agricultural crop straw includes various grain Crop material, tree deciduous leaf, bark or forest products processing waste, edible fungi substrate waste material or processing of farm products discarded object;Described Straw substrate before covering or in overwrite procedure according to orchard soil situation, straw substrate can add appropriate fertilizer, kill Microbial inoculum, insecticide, soil;Described step (2) can completely or partially be omitted according to fruit tree, orchard situation difference.
Orchard stalk and topsoil bilayer cover do mechanization operation method, soil used in described thin soil lid pressure operation Earth is to fetch earth on the spot in the stalk mechanization overwrite procedure of orchard;In described thin soil lid pressure step, straw substrate layer top covers Edaphic thickness uniform and thin, control can suppress weed growth and winter fire prevention, windproof, summer the waterproof straw that waft The limit of stalk.The soil horizon of described covering can substitute with covering with ground sheeting.
Orchard according to claim 1 stalk covers do mechanization operation method with topsoil bilayer, and its feature exists In, described orchard stalk mechanization covering method is applicable to Arid&semi-arid area or seasonal drought area needs to protect Moisture in the soil, the orchard of water saving and farmland, or need to improve soil organic matter content, improve soil property and the orchard of geobiont microenvironment And farmland, or need to suppress orchard and the farmland of orchard weed, or need the orchard to soil heat preservation and farmland, or combine Close and state orchard and the farmland of multiple needs.
Orchard stalk covers machine with topsoil bilayer, it is characterised in that comprise two kinds of designs, and scheme one is one Change scheme, ploughs integeral part, five mechanisms of earthing roller including at least trailer, stalk hopper, straw substrate stone parts, soil, power Profit requires that the enforcement of the step (3) described in 1~step (5) is covered machine by orchard of the present invention stalk with topsoil bilayer The covering of design one machine integrated complete;Scheme two is two step embodiments, the step (3) described in claim 1 Implement to need by rotary cultivator of the prior art or other facility complete independentlies, orchard of the present invention stalk and topsoil The covering machine of the scheme two of double-deck covering machine is only completed the step (4) described in claim 1 and the operation of step (5), at least wraps Containing trailer, stalk hopper, straw substrate stone parts, four mechanisms of earthing roller.
Described stalk hopper is arranged on trailer, and trailer has stalk hopper to tumble hydraulic cylinder, and stalk hopper can be made to be expert at Walk and suitably lean forward so that discharge on direction;Described straw substrate stone parts are arranged on the front lower in stalk hopper, Below straw substrate stone parts, stalk hopper bottom has stalk discharging opening, connects cloth tube, cloth below stalk discharging opening The lower port of pipe is stalk cloth mouth;The power of straw substrate stone parts takes from trailer wheels main shaft, through driving-chain I, transmission Chain II transmits power;Under not carrying out orchard improving straw mulching state, this power can disconnect.
In design one, described earthing roller is ploughed integeral part with soil and is linked into an integrated entity, and the most hinged is suspended on trailer Front lower, soil is ploughed integeral part and is arranged on the front of earthing roller;The power that earthing roller and soil plough integeral part is motor-driven by drawing Power output shaft provides, and tractor dynamic power first exports ploughs integeral part to soil, then drives earthing through earthing roller chain and driving-chain III Roller;Earthing roller and soil plough the suspension height of integeral part and embedded depth can be adjusted by hydraulic lifting oil cylinder and lifting arm; In design two, described earthing roller is hinged hangs on trailer front lower, and power is passed to by tractor motive power output shaft Earthing roller driving-chain, drives earthing roller;The suspension height of earthing roller and embedded depth can be adjusted by hydraulic lifting oil cylinder and lifting arm Whole.
In two kinds of described designs, described stalk cloth mouth is positioned at the top of earthing roller, can on fore-and-aft direction Adjust;Certain gap is kept between stalk cloth mouth and earthing roller blade outer rim.
When entering improving straw mulching duty, straw substrate stone parts power engages, and earthing roller is ploughed with soil simultaneously Integeral part rotates and lands and bury (in scheme two only earthing roller);Under non-covered duty, straw substrate stone parts move Power disconnects, and earthing roller and soil are ploughed integeral part and risen (in scheme two only earthing roller), power cut.
Described earthing roller is hollow roll structure, is parallel to roll shaft and is installed with multiple in its both sides end plate outer rim The earthing roller blade of lath-shaped;Earthing roller blade is similar steel angle structure, the angle in two faces of earthing roller blade, width of blade How many customizations according to earthing amount;How rare specific the setting angle of earthing roller blade according to the angle of earthing amount.
Described trailer is connected with tractor;The power transmission mode of described straw substrate stone parts can be that band passes Dynamic.
Orchard stalk covers machine with topsoil bilayer, and its operation principle is as follows:
Design one: scheme one is integrated programme, step (3) described in claim 1~the enforcement of step (5) by The covering of the scheme one that orchard of the present invention stalk covers machine with topsoil bilayer is machine integrated to be completed.
In the improving straw mulching operation of orchard, the straw substrate in stalk hopper is warp under the stirring of straw substrate stone parts Stalk discharging opening flows out, and falls the forward position, top of earthing roller through cloth tube and stalk cloth mouth, and from two adjacent covering Drop through earthing roller between soil roller blade to fall earthward, form straw substrate cover layer.
Owing to, under covering duty, whole described double-deck covering machine at the uniform velocity advances with tractor-drawn, by stalk Cloth mouth stalk out can fall backward along curve, and landing point is positioned at the latter half of of earthing roller.
The soil being arranged on earthing roller front ploughs integeral part first by whole for cultivated for orchard ground leveling, forms soil soft, in small, broken bits Earth.
It is arranged on soil to plough integeral part earthing roller below and be rotated in a clockwise direction under power drive, bottom earthing roller Earthing roller blade bury, scoop up ploughing the soft fine earth had suffered, along with rotation, soil is elevated and to be rotated through earthing roller the highest Point, forwards to after earthing roller minimum point about 225 °, and the soil taken up along earthing roller blade landing, drops into and covers under gravity The rear portion of soil roller, covers the stalk layer above landed, completes thin soil lid pressure.
Straw substrate stone parts are possible to prevent straw substrate to block, and can control discharging flow, and straw substrate covers thickness Degree just can regulate and control as required.The innovative design of earthing roll structure can realize the control of thickness of earth covering, and can be fallen by soil Suitably position, makes straw substrate cover layer farthest by soil uniform fold.Stalk hopper is installed on trailer tumble Hydraulic cylinder, can make stalk hopper suitably tilt on direction of travel so that discharge.Earthing roller is arranged on below stalk cloth mouth, The embedded depth of earthing roller blade can be adjusted by hydraulic lifting oil cylinder and lifting arm thus can also adjust overburden layer thickness.
Design two: scheme two is two step embodiments, the enforcement of the step (3) described in claim 1 needs by existing The rotary cultivator in technology or other facility complete independently in advance, orchard of the present invention stalk is had to cover with topsoil bilayer The covering machine of the scheme two of machine is only completed the step (4) described in claim 1 and the operation of step (5).
Its operation principle and previous designs scheme one broadly similar, difference is the reduction of soil and ploughs integeral part, right The enforcement requiring the step (3) described in 1 can be previously-completed by other facility.In scheme two, improving straw mulching and thin soil lid press operation Operation principle is identical with scheme one.
Description of reference numerals
1. tractor 2. soil ploughs integeral part 3. driving-chain III 4. earthing roller 5. lifting arm 6. hydraulic lifting oil cylinder 7. stalk hopper 8. stalk hopper is tumbled hydraulic cylinder 9. trailer 10. stalk cloth mouth 10a. cloth tube 11. straw substrate Stone parts 12. driving-chain I 13. stalk discharging opening 14. trailer wheels main shaft 15. driving-chain II 16. earthing roller blade 17. earthing roller chain 18. earthing roller driving-chains.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the schematic diagram that orchard stalk covers the scheme one of machine with topsoil bilayer;
Fig. 2 is that orchard stalk covers trailer top view in the scheme one of machine with topsoil bilayer;
Fig. 3 is Fig. 1 trailer partial bottom view
Fig. 4 is earthing roll structure schematic diagram
Fig. 5 is the schematic diagram that orchard stalk covers the scheme two of machine with topsoil bilayer.
Detailed description of the invention
Embodiment one: orchard stalk covers do mechanization operation method with topsoil bilayer
The present embodiment is to carry out stalk in short anvil apple orchard to cover do mechanization operation with topsoil bilayer.The short anvil in orchard Apple line space 3.5 meters~4.5 meters, tree-like tree crown is neat.
By broken for agricultural crop straw section, by improving straw mulching on orchard soil surface in the way of mechanization and thin to stalk layer Earth mulch pressure, described method comprises the following steps:
(1) agricultural crop straw or processing of farm products offal treatment are become broken section of the stalk of more than 1cm, below 30cm;? In the present embodiment, agricultural crop straw or processing of farm products discarded object are shredded or is ground into broken section of 3cm~10cm length, stalk Cane keeps tubular structure as far as possible rather than is broken into tile structure.
(2) in broken section of the stalk described in step (1), add appropriate soil nutrient, and carry out as required suitably Desinsection, sterilization treatment, form orchard improving straw mulching matrix.
(3) with agricultural machinery, orchard soil in the ranks is carried out farming, hack and leveling operation.In the present embodiment, use Rotary tillage machine carries out soil and ploughs whole, for the soil hardened, and rotary tillage again of can first turning over if desired.
(4) stalk (broken section) the matrix machinery described in step (1) or step (2) is covered in orchard in the ranks or between strain Soil surface, cladding thickness scope is 3cm~25cm, and cladding thickness is the most uniformly;Do not cover in the range of tree dish 50CM.In this reality Executing in example, covered in orchard in the ranks by stalk (broken section) matrix machinery, cladding thickness is 10cm.
(5) above the straw substrate layer of step (4) described covering, one layer of hack, the straw base that will cover are covered with machinery Matter layer thin soil lid pressure, forms stalk and covers with topsoil bilayer.
(6) Machinery for orchard improving straw mulching can be carried out 1~2 time every year, needs farming, turns over and bury one after covering 2~4 years continuously Secondary being further continued for carries out straw substrate covering, to prevent tree root from floating.If one time stalks mulching matrix is more, the soil deep ploughing cycle Need to shorten.
Orchard stalk covers do mechanization operation method with topsoil bilayer, and described agricultural crop straw includes various grain Crop material, tree deciduous leaf, bark or forest products processing waste, edible fungi substrate waste material or processing of farm products discarded object;Described Straw substrate before covering or in overwrite procedure according to orchard soil situation, straw substrate can add appropriate fertilizer, kill Microbial inoculum, insecticide, soil;Described step (2) can completely or partially be omitted according to fruit tree, orchard situation difference.
Orchard stalk and topsoil bilayer cover do mechanization operation method, soil used in described thin soil lid pressure operation Earth is to fetch earth on the spot in the stalk mechanization overwrite procedure of orchard;In described thin soil lid pressure step, straw substrate layer top covers Edaphic thickness uniform and thin, control can suppress weed growth and winter fire prevention, windproof, summer the waterproof straw that waft The limit of stalk.In the present embodiment, thickness of earth covering is 2cm~3cm.
Orchard stalk covers do mechanization operation method with topsoil bilayer, except being suitable to the short anvil apple described in the present embodiment Outside orchard, it is further adapted for other orchards spacious in the ranks.Described orchard stalk mechanization covering method is applicable to arid and semi-arid Area or seasonal drought area need soil moisture conservation, the orchard of water saving and farmland, or need to improve soil organic matter content, change It is apt to soil property and the orchard of geobiont microenvironment and farmland, or needs to suppress orchard and the farmland of orchard weed, or need Orchard and farmland to soil heat preservation, or the orchard of the multiple needs of summary and farmland.
Embodiment two: orchard stalk covers machine with topsoil bilayer
As shown in Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3 shows, orchard stalk covers machine with topsoil bilayer, comprises two kinds of designs, scheme One is integrated programme, ploughs integeral part 2, earthing including at least trailer 9, stalk hopper 7, straw substrate stone parts 11, soil 4 five mechanisms of roller, step (3) described in claim 1~the enforcement of step (5) are by orchard of the present invention stalk and top layer The covering of the design one that soil bilayer covers machine is machine integrated to be completed.
As it is shown in figure 5, scheme two is two step embodiments, the enforcement of the step (3) described in claim 1 needs by existing Rotary cultivator in technology or other facility complete independentlies, orchard of the present invention stalk covers the side of machine with topsoil bilayer The covering machine of case two is only completed the step (4) described in claim 1 and the operation of step (5), including at least trailer 9, stalk material Case 7, straw substrate stone parts 11,4 four mechanisms of earthing roller.
As in figure 2 it is shown, in the present embodiment, straw substrate stone parts 11 are roll structures, and there is spike-tooth or convex on its surface Recessed.
As shown in Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3 shows, described stalk hopper 7 is arranged on trailer 9, and trailer 9 has stalk hopper to tumble liquid Cylinder pressure 8, can make stalk hopper 7 suitably lean forward on direction of travel so that discharge;Described straw substrate stone parts 11 are pacified Being contained in the front lower in stalk hopper 7, below straw substrate stone parts 11, stalk hopper 7 bottom has stalk discharging Mouth 13, meets cloth tube 10a below stalk discharging opening 13, the lower port of cloth tube 10a is stalk cloth mouth 10;Straw substrate spreads The power of material parts 11 takes from trailer wheels main shaft 14, transmits power through driving-chain I 12, driving-chain II 15;Do not carrying out orchard straw Under stalk covering state, this power can disconnect.
As shown in Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3 shows, in design one, described earthing roller 4 is ploughed integeral part 2 with soil and is connected into one Body, the most hinged is suspended on trailer 9 front lower, and soil is ploughed integeral part 2 and is arranged on the front of earthing roller 4;Earthing roller 4 and soil The power ploughing integeral part 2 is provided by tractor 1 power output shaft, and tractor 1 power first exports ploughs integeral part 2, then warp to soil Driving-chain III 3 and earthing roller chain 17 drive earthing roller 4;Earthing roller 4 and soil plough suspension height and the embedded depth of integeral part 2 Can be adjusted by hydraulic lifting oil cylinder 6 and lifting arm 5;
As it is shown in figure 5, in design two, described earthing roller 4 is hinged hangs on trailer 9 front lower, and power is by dragging Machine drawing 1 power output shaft passes to earthing roller driving-chain 18, drives earthing roller 4;Suspension height and the embedded depth of earthing roller 4 can Adjusted by hydraulic lifting oil cylinder 6 and lifting arm 5.
As shown in Fig. 1~Fig. 5, in two kinds of described designs, described stalk cloth mouth 10 is positioned at earthing roller 4 Top, adjustable on its fore-and-aft direction;Certain gap is kept between stalk cloth mouth 10 and earthing roller blade 16 outer rim.
As shown in Fig. 1~Fig. 5, when entering improving straw mulching duty, straw substrate stone parts 11 power engages, with Time earthing roller 4 and soil plough integeral part 2 and rotate and land and bury (in scheme two only earthing roller 4);Under non-covered duty, Straw substrate stone parts 11 power disconnects, and earthing roller 4 and soil are ploughed integeral part 2 and risen (in scheme two only earthing roller 4), power Cut off.
As shown in Figure 4, described earthing roller 4 is hollow roll structure, is parallel to roll shaft solid in its both sides end plate outer rim Dingan County is equipped with the earthing roller blade 16 of multiple lath-shapeds;Earthing roller blade 16 is similar steel angle structure, the two of earthing roller blade 16 The angle in individual face, width of blade are according to how many customizations of earthing amount;The setting angle of earthing roller blade 16 is many according to earthing amount Rare specific angle.
Described trailer 9 is connected with tractor 1;The power transmission mode of described straw substrate stone parts can be band Transmission.
Orchard stalk covers machine with topsoil bilayer, and its course of work is as follows:
Illustrate as a example by design one:
Design one is integrated programme, and step (3) described in claim 1~the enforcement of step (5) are by the present invention The covering of the scheme one that described orchard stalk covers machine with topsoil bilayer is machine integrated to be completed.
As shown in Figure 1 to 4, in the improving straw mulching operation of orchard, the straw substrate in stalk hopper 7 spreads at straw substrate Flow out through stalk discharging opening 13 under the stirring of material parts 11, fall the top of earthing roller 4 through cloth tube 10a and stalk cloth mouth 10 Forward position, and between two adjacent earthing roller blades 16, drop through earthing roller 4 fall earthward, form straw substrate and cover Cap rock.
Owing to, under covering duty, whole described double-deck covering machine draws with tractor 1 and at the uniform velocity advances, by stalk Cloth mouth 10 stalk out can fall backward along curve, and landing point is positioned at the latter half of of earthing roller 4.
The soil being arranged on earthing roller 4 front ploughs integeral part 2 first by whole for cultivated for orchard ground leveling, is formed soft, in small, broken bits Soil.
It is arranged on soil to plough integeral part 2 earthing roller 4 below and be rotated in a clockwise direction under power drive, earthing roller 4 The earthing roller blade 16 of bottom buries, and scoops up ploughing the soft fine earth haveing suffered, and along with rotation, soil is elevated and is rotated through earthing Roller 4 peak, forwards to after earthing roller 4 minimum point about 225 °, and the soil taken up is sliding along earthing roller blade 16 under gravity Fall, drop into the rear portion of earthing roller 4, the stalk layer above landed is covered, completes thin soil lid pressure.
Straw substrate stone parts 11 are possible to prevent straw substrate to block, and can control discharging flow, and straw substrate covers Thickness just can regulate and control as required.The innovative design of earthing roller 4 structure can avoid stalk stream with soil stream aloft Intersect, and realize the control of thickness of earth covering, and soil can be fallen suitable position, make straw substrate cover layer farthest By soil uniform fold.Stalk hopper is installed on trailer 9 tumble hydraulic cylinder 8, can make stalk hopper 7 on direction of travel suitably Tilt so that discharge.Earthing roller 4 is arranged on below stalk cloth mouth 10, and the embedded depth of earthing roller blade 16 can be by hydraulic pressure liter Fall oil cylinder 6 and lifting arm 5 adjust thus can also adjust overburden layer thickness.
2 needs special instructions below:
Soil the most of the present invention is ploughed synchronizing and is suddenly referred to use before improving straw mulching or during improving straw mulching agricultural machinery Orchard soil is carried out farming, hack and leveling operation.The tools such as conventional rotary cultivator can be used to carry out soil and to plough whole, for hardening Soil, rotary tillage again of can first turning over if desired.It is less that heretofore described soil ploughs integeral part power demand, mainly at straw Stalk carries out hack, leveling operation to orchard soil during covering simultaneously, is suitable to soft soil, can be further to soil in small, broken bits Earth, ground grading, it is ensured that operation effectiveness.For the soil hardened, in the present invention before covering machine operation described in design two It is also required to first use normal machines that soil is ploughed whole.
2. description of the invention and accompanying drawing are in order to understand explanation technical scheme, give some technical scheme details, this The not restriction to claims of the present invention of a little details.Any deformation being made these details or amendment, all without departing from this Invention protective scope of the claims.

Claims (5)

1. orchard stalk covers do mechanization operation method with topsoil bilayer, it is characterised in that described method is by farming Thing crushed straw aggregate, covers on orchard soil surface in the way of mechanization, and to stalk layer thin soil lid pressure, described method includes Following steps:
(1) stalk is in small, broken bits: by broken for stalk that agricultural crop straw or processing of farm products offal treatment become more than 1cm, below 30cm Section;
(2) orchard improving straw mulching substrate preparation: add in broken section of the stalk described in step (1) appropriate soil nutrient, Soil improvement material, and carry out suitable desinsection, sterilization treatment as required, form orchard improving straw mulching matrix;
(3) orchard soil is ploughed whole: with machinery, orchard soil is carried out farming, hack and leveling operation;
(4) straw substrate covers: covered in orchard in the ranks or strain by the machinery of the straw substrate described in step (1) or step (2) Between soil surface, cladding thickness scope is 3cm~25cm, and cladding thickness is as far as possible uniformly;Do not cover in the range of tree dish 50cm;
(5) thin soil lid pressure: cover one layer of hack above the straw substrate layer of step (4) described covering with machinery, by cover Straw substrate layer thin soil lid pressure, forms stalk and covers with topsoil bilayer;
(6) deep ploughing is renovated: Machinery for orchard improving straw mulching can be carried out 1~2 time every year, after covering 2~4 years continuously, need pine to plough, Turn over to bury and be once further continued for carrying out straw substrate covering, to prevent tree root from floating;If one time stalks mulching matrix is more, soil is deep The cultivated cycle needs to shorten;
In described thin soil lid pressure step, soil used is to fetch earth on the spot in the stalk mechanization overwrite procedure of orchard;Described The edaphic thickness that in thin soil lid pressure step, straw substrate layer top covers is uniform and thin, controls to suppress weeds raw Long and fire prevention in winter, windproof, summer the waterproof stalk that wafts limit;The soil horizon of described covering can replace with covering with ground sheeting Generation.
Orchard the most according to claim 1 stalk covers do mechanization operation method with topsoil bilayer, it is characterised in that Described agricultural crop straw includes various cereal crops stalk, tree deciduous leaf, bark or forest products processing waste, edible fungi substrate Waste material or processing of farm products discarded object;Described straw substrate can be according to orchard soil situation, before covering or in overwrite procedure, Straw substrate adds appropriate fertilizer, bactericide, insecticide, soil;Described step (2) is according to fruit tree, orchard situation not With can completely or partially omit.
Orchard the most according to claim 1 stalk covers do mechanization operation method with topsoil bilayer, it is characterised in that Described orchard stalk mechanization covering method is applicable to Arid&semi-arid area or seasonal drought area needs soil moisture conservation, joint The orchard of water and farmland, or need to improve soil organic matter content, improve soil property and the orchard of geobiont microenvironment and agriculture Ground, or need to suppress the orchard of orchard weed and farmland, or need the orchard to soil heat preservation and farmland, or comprehensive on State orchard and the farmland of multiple needs.
4. orchard stalk covers machine with topsoil bilayer, it is characterised in that comprise two kinds of designs, and scheme one is integration Scheme, ploughs integeral part (2), earthing roller including at least trailer (9), stalk hopper (7), straw substrate stone parts (11), soil (4) five mechanisms, step (3)~the enforcement of step (5) described in claim 1 are double with topsoil by described orchard stalk The covering of the design one of layer covering machine is machine integrated to be completed;Scheme two is two step embodiments, the step described in claim 1 Suddenly the enforcement of (3) needs to be completed by ploughing machine of the prior art, and described orchard stalk covers machine with topsoil bilayer The covering machine of scheme two be only completed the step (4) described in claim 1 and the operation of step (5), including at least trailer (9), Stalk hopper (7), straw substrate stone parts (11), (4) four mechanisms of earthing roller;
Described stalk hopper (7) is arranged on trailer (9), and trailer (9) has stalk hopper to tumble hydraulic cylinder (8), can make stalk Hopper (7) suitably leans forward on direction of travel so that discharge;Described straw substrate stone parts (11) is arranged on stalk material Front lower in case (7), in straw substrate stone parts (11) lower section, stalk hopper (7) bottom has stalk discharging opening (13), stalk discharging opening (13) lower section connects cloth tube (10a), and the lower port of cloth tube (10a) is stalk cloth mouth (10);Straw The power of stalk matrix stone parts (11) takes from trailer wheels main shaft (14), moves through driving-chain I (12), driving-chain II (15) transmission Power;Under not carrying out orchard improving straw mulching state, this power can disconnect;
Described stalk hopper (7) is cuboid, flat;
Described straw substrate stone parts (11) is roll structure, and there are spike-tooth or convex-concave in its surface;
Described stalk discharging opening (13) is long and narrow strip mouth, its length and straw substrate stone component roller face length degree and hopper Width is equal;
In design one, described earthing roller (4) and soil are ploughed integeral part (2) and are linked into an integrated entity, and the most hinged being suspended on is dragged Car (9) front lower, soil is ploughed integeral part (2) and is arranged on the front of earthing roller (4);Earthing roller (4) and soil plough integeral part (2) Suspension height and embedded depth can be adjusted by hydraulic lifting oil cylinder (6) and lifting arm (5);In design two, described Hinged trailer (9) front lower that hangs on of earthing roller (4), the suspension height of earthing roller (4) and embedded depth can be by hydraulic pressure liters Fall oil cylinder (6) and lifting arm (5) adjust;
Earthing roller (4) and soil are ploughed the power of integeral part (2) and are provided by tractor (1) power output shaft;
In two kinds of described designs, described stalk cloth mouth (10) is positioned at the top of earthing roller (4), on fore-and-aft direction Adjustable;Certain gap is kept between stalk cloth mouth (10) and earthing roller blade (16) outer rim;
When entering improving straw mulching duty, straw substrate stone parts (11) power engages, earthing roller (4) and soil simultaneously Cultivated integeral part (2) rotates and lands and buries;Under non-covered duty, straw substrate stone parts (11) power disconnects, and covers Soil roller (4) and soil are ploughed integeral part (2) and are risen, power cut;
Described earthing roller (4) is hollow roll structure, is parallel to roll shaft and is installed with multiple in its both sides end plate outer rim Earthing roller blade (16) of lath-shaped;Earthing roller blade (16) is steel angle structure, the angle in two faces of earthing roller blade (16), Width of blade is according to how many customizations of earthing amount;The setting angle of earthing roller blade (16) according to earthing amount how rare specifically Angle;Described earthing roller (4) is rotated in a clockwise direction under power drive, and straw substrate is from forward position, earthing roller top Drop through between two adjacent earthing roller blades earthing roller fall earthward formation straw substrate cover layer, meanwhile, earthing roller The earthing roller blade of bottom buries, and scoops up ploughing the soft fine earth haveing suffered, and along with rotation, soil is elevated and is rotated through earthing roller Peak, forwards to after earthing roller minimum point about 225 °, and the soil taken up along earthing roller blade landing, falls under gravity To the rear portion of earthing roller, the stalk layer above landed is covered.
Orchard the most according to claim 4 stalk covers machine with topsoil bilayer, it is characterised in that described trailer (9) it is connected with tractor (1);The power transmission mode of described straw substrate stone parts (11) can be V belt translation.
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CN105052404B (en) * 2015-08-11 2017-05-17 西北农林科技大学 Self-propelled two-layer covering machine for straws of orchard
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CN202085502U (en) * 2011-04-28 2011-12-28 王克银 Novel straw returning deep-buried device
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