CN106258037A - A kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine - Google Patents

A kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine Download PDF

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Publication number
CN106258037A
CN106258037A CN201610975733.6A CN201610975733A CN106258037A CN 106258037 A CN106258037 A CN 106258037A CN 201610975733 A CN201610975733 A CN 201610975733A CN 106258037 A CN106258037 A CN 106258037A
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China
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soil
straw
orchard
hopper
covering machine
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CN201610975733.6A
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CN106258037B (en
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朱新华
郭文川
王东阳
陈胤嗣
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Northwest A&F University
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Northwest A&F University
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B49/00Combined machines
    • A01B49/04Combinations of soil-working tools with non-soil-working tools, e.g. planting tools

Abstract

The present invention open a kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine, belongs to Machinery for orchard equipment field.The straw hopper of a self-unloading, straw hopper bottom-rear is had to have a discharge roller on creeper truck;Creeper truck passes behind parallel-ordinal shift and steel wire rope is provided with casing mechanism.Casing mechanism front is soil taking shovel, and both sides, soil taking shovel rear are respectively arranged with one and carry soil device, and carrying soil device rear is even soil device, has an even soil spiral in carrying the collection soil case of soil device;Straw hopper can be tumbled around hinge under the effect of hydraulic pressure dump cylinder backward, uniform stone under material blanking roller effect;Casing mechanism can be pulled through steel wire rope by hoist cylinder and lift;The power of material blanking roller and covering device is provided by hydraulic motor.This machine can by stalk material or fertilizer uniform fold in orchard in the ranks, and by cover layer thin soil lid pressure;It is applicable to orchard, drought-hit area, is particularly suitable for the dwarfing orchard of intensive culture;It is also applied for farmland, desert, sandy beach, barren soil soil improvement, culture fertility.

Description

A kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine
Technical field
The present invention open a kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine, belongs to field of agricultural equipment and stalk resource recycles Field, falls particularly to Machinery for orchard equipment field.
Background technology
In recent years, along with the adjustment of China's agricultural structure, really industry scale fast development, Fructus Mali pumilae, pears, Fructus Persicae, Fructus Vitis viniferae, Citrus chachiensis Hort. The cultivated areas such as Fructus Citri tangerinae have reached the whole world first the most, and China has become state of fruit sparetime university.But China's fruit industry product quality and Industrial Efficiency The most all there is bigger gap.One important problem is that orchard soil is barren, excessively uses chemical fertilizer, causes soil Earth hardens seriously.Soil moisture is not only the key factor of soil, plant, atmosphere Continuum, or soil system Nutrient Cycling With the important carrier of flowing, the change to characteristic, the growth of plant, distribution and the ecosystem miniclimate of soil has important Impact, the bottleneck problem of the Soils In The Region hydropenia of arid, semiarid zone and Seasonal Water-Deficit always restriction fruit industry development. Particularly in northern China arplain and southwest, orchard soil moisture conservation water-retention, improves soil organic matter content and has become as orchard pipe The most important thing of reason.American-European countries's orchard soil content of organic matter is generally more than 3.0%, and Japan's orchard soil organic matter is the highest Up to 6.8%, and NORTHWEST CHINA arplain soil organic matter of apple orchards content is generally below 1.0%, and orchard soil is barren to be become China's apple production and a key factor of quality.
Orchard improving straw mulching technology be thin for orchard soil layer, fertility is low, moisture condition is poor, soil bareness area is big and adopts The soil management technology taken.Covering on soil exposed around fruit tree by appropriate crop material etc., it has soil moisture conservation, joint Water, improve soil organic matter content, press down grass, insulation, no-tillage, saving of labor and the multiple effect such as prevent soil loss, soil can be improved Ecological microenvironment, supports the strong tree of root, promotes that Growth status is grown, and then improve yield and improving quality.Orchard improving straw mulching technology It is to solve arid, semiarid zone because of the effective measures of rich water shortage restriction orchard upgrading volume increase, is also developing ecology fruit industry, has One of production technology that machine fruit industry is important.
In recent years, orchard straw technology is widelyd popularize in China, but due to existing orchard improving straw mulching technical staff Skill is simple and crude, needs manual work, time-consuming, and additionally orchard worker worries dry season orchard fire, causes orchard worker's enthusiasm low, pushes away Wide area is less, produces little effect.
Apple Dwarf Stocks intensive culture pattern is the major reform of Apple Culture system, is the main development of world's Apple Culture Direction.At present, the most general piece of American-European countries uses the intensive efficiency cultivation technology for high of apple dwarf, the short anvil Fructus Mali pumilae of many countries to account for To more than 90%.Per mu yield is high, and percent rate of high quality fruit height is the advantage that the intensive efficiency cultivation technology for high of apple dwarf is prominent.The phase per mu yield of abounding with reaches 5 More than Dun, percent rate of high quality fruit can reach 85%.Comparatively speaking, China is presently mainly tall anvil Fructus Mali pumilae, accounts for 90%, and short anvil Fructus Mali pumilae only accounts for About 10%.Therefore, following 10~20 years, China will welcome the high speed development upsurge that an Apple Culture technology upgrading is regenerated. In recent years, the apple cultivation such as Shaanxi, Shandong district had started to scale introduction.Along with fruit dwarfing technology, the shortest anvil Fructus Mali pumilae The advanced technologies such as intensive culture technique are in the popularization of China, and orchard is the most spacious, tree-like specification, will be for orchard operation machinery Provide convenience.
American-European countries the general piece in short anvil orchard use Cover with weed technology, but research show, Cover with weed technology exist with Fruit tree strives water and strives the problem of fertilizer, and causes pest and disease damage to increase.Therefore, current Cover with weed technology is not suitable for China orchard, special It is not drought and water-scarce area.
Therefore, changing the simple and crude method of orchard improving straw mulching in the past, research orchard improving straw mulching machinery technology is also developed Go out orchard improving straw mulching work tool, be the key playing orchard improving straw mulching technical benefits, be also to realize stalk resource at height The important channel efficiently utilized in the fruit industry of added value, is to improve orchard soil moisture, the content of organic matter, it is achieved orchard high yield is high The important leverage of effect.
At present, fewer in the relevant report of orchard improving straw mulching machinery technical research and application aspect both at home and abroad.Existing The patents such as technology such as CN104429384A, CN104429385A, CN204377459U, CN204377363 are had to can solve the problem that existing Simple and crude, the time-consuming problem of orchard improving straw mulching technical method, promote the application in orchard of the improving straw mulching technology, one Determine to achieve in degree orchard soil soil moisture conservation water saving, weight gaining, press down the effect of grass, heat-preserving anti-freezing, reduce operating cost, improve Really industry yield and benefit;Solve the stalk resource waste of surrounding area, orchard and burn pollution problem.But above technology is also deposited In place of some shortcomings, its main working parts i.e. throws the native front portion being arranged in complete machine with cutting agency, and being arranged so as to will necessarily Cause trailer wheel that cover layer is rolled, form rut, destroy the integrity of cover layer, make the soil moisture conservation water-retention of cover layer and press down The effect of weeds processed is had a greatly reduced quality;Patent CN205213458U solves forward type wheel and rolls the problem destroying cover layer, makes The soil moisture conservation water-retention of cover layer and the effect of suppression weeds give full play to, and improve operation quality, but it throws soil and cutting agency Position determine the straw of soil and the discharge thrown and can form intersection-type collision in space, have impact on the uniformity of covering and double The layered effect that layer covers.Although the straw covering machine integrated design of the self-propelled orchard such as CN201520598228.5, but earthing The earthing quality of mechanism is wayward, straw hopper finite volume, affects working performance, and overall operation quality also haves much room for improvement.
The present invention open a kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine, it is possible to comprehensively solve the problems referred to above, improve working performance And quality, promote the application in orchard of the improving straw mulching technology, it is achieved orchard soil soil moisture conservation water saving, weight gaining, press down grass, insulation, drop Low operating cost, improves operation quality, improves fruit industry yield and benefit;Solve the stalk resource waste of surrounding area, orchard and burn Pollution problem, it is achieved increasing peasant income, growth of agricultural efficiency.This covering machine can also be used for the farmland outside orchard, desert, sandy beach, barren Soil soil improvement, culture fertility.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the present invention: open a kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine, it is possible to realize orchard improving straw mulching and top layer Soil lid pressure mechanization of operation, standardization, this covering function promotes the popularization and application of orchard improving straw mulching technology, reduces orchard straw Stalk overwrite job cost, improves orchard soil situation, promotes that fruit district periphery straw the most efficiently utilizes, it is achieved increasing peasant income, Growth of agricultural efficiency.
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention: how to improve orchard straw covering machine working performance and operation quality.
Garden to be realized improving straw mulching machinery, needs to complete according to following processing step:
(1) straw processes: agricultural crop straw is processed into broken section of straw;
(2) orchard improving straw mulching substrate preparation: add in broken section of the straw described in step (1) appropriate soil nutrient or Soil structure improved addictive material, and carry out suitable parasite killing, sterilization treatment as required, form orchard improving straw mulching substrate.
(3) orchard soil is ploughed whole: with agricultural machinery orchard soil in the ranks carried out pine plough, hack and leveling operation.
(4) improving straw mulching: straw (broken section) substrate described in step (1) or step (2) is covered in orchard with covering machine Soil surface in the ranks, cladding thickness is the most uniformly.
(5) thin soil lid pressure: while improving straw mulching, covering machine fetches earth on the spot, on the stalk layer of step (4) described covering Side covers one layer of hack, the stalk layer thin soil lid pressure that will cover, and forms straw and topsoil layered coverage.Step (5) can root Select to use according to needs.
In order to solve the technical problem to be solved in the present invention, The present invention gives techniques below scheme:
A kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine, it is characterised in that crawler body 29 is fixedly arranged above vehicle frame 27, and vehicle frame 27 is gone forward Side is provided with driver's cabin 1, electromotor 30, change speed gear box 28 and hydraulic pump 32, and vehicle frame 27 upper back is provided with straw hopper 2, straw Bottom the rear end of stalk hopper 2 hinged with vehicle frame 27;At least one hydraulic pressure dump cylinder 26 is installed, under it on the crossbeam of vehicle frame 27 Hold hinged with vehicle frame 27, hinged bottom its upper end and straw hopper 2;Straw hopper 2 can be under the effect of hydraulic pressure dump cylinder 26 Rear dumping material.
The bicycle basket of described straw hopper 2 have a two-layer, both sides, rear portion upper strata bicycle basket plate hinged with lower floor, detachably, Turning suspension.
The internal posterior angle of described straw hopper 2 is transversely mounted a material blanking roller 34, bottom material blanking roller 34 and straw hopper 2 Gap adjustable;Material blanking roller 34 is wrapped up by a curved baffle 5 by straw hopper (2) rear outside;The bottom of curved baffle 5 is opened Being straw discharging opening 36 at Kou, the lower section of straw discharging opening 36 is provided with a blanking groove 7 the most downward.
Described crawler body 29 and the rear of straw hopper 2 are casing mechanisms 12.
Described casing mechanism 12 include soil taking shovel 21, carry soil device 13, even soil device 11, soil taking shovel lowering or hoisting gear 19, Frame 8, land wheel 15, parallel four-bar linkage 22, steel wire rope 3, hoist cylinder 25.
Described soil taking shovel 21 is an isosceles triangular structure, is symmetrically mounted on the rear of crawler body 29;Etc. waist edge Being shovel face 37, the bar steel plate equal by two length is welded, and the junction of the waist edge such as two is spear 38, soil taking shovel 21 Both sides, rear end are hinged in frame 8, and the embedded depth of spear 38 can be adjusted by soil taking shovel lowering or hoisting gear 19.
The extended spot of the both sides, rear end, shovel face 37 of described soil taking shovel 21 connects with carrying soil device 13, carries soil device 13 symmetrical Being fixed on the both sides of frame 8, its anterior rear portion, shovel face 37 extension with soil taking shovel 21 connects, and its rear portion is risen, with even soil device The two ends of the collection soil case 9 of 11 are connected the most up and down.
The described soil device 13 that carries can use drag conveyor or conveying worm;Soil box is led in the front end carrying soil device 13 18, leading soil box 18 is "eight" shape, front wide and rear narrow, and its front end connects with rear end, shovel face 37 extension of soil taking shovel 21, is shoveled by soil Rise, gather, import and carry soil device 13 inside.
Described even soil device 11 is fixedly mounted on the rear portion of frame 8, and the collection soil case 9 of even soil device 11 is a U-type groove Structure, lateral symmetry layout, have bottom it strip soil-discharging port 42, its internally installed have one even soil spiral 10, even soil The helical blade of the right and left of spiral 10 is oppositely oriented.
The lower edge of described blanking groove 7 is in the top of frame 8, the rear of soil taking shovel 21, collects the front of soil case 9, and Just at the neutral gear between frame 8 crossbeam.
The articulated pair of parallel quadric chain 22 in both sides of described vehicle frame 27 rear end, after parallel four-bar linkage 22 Hold the front end cross beam of articulated frame 8;There are two steel wire ropes 3 both sides, rear portion of frame 8 respectively around being fixed on straw hopper 2 Fixed pulley 6 from both sides tractive, the other end of steel wire rope 3 is crossed oil cylinder pulley 24 and is connected with hoist cylinder 25;In the both sides of frame, It is separately installed with land wheel 15.
Described casing mechanism 12 can drop to when orchard improving straw mulching operation on the ground, and in orchard, straw covering machine falls Head or road driving can rise;Described casing mechanism 12 can also rise when orchard improving straw mulching operation and not work, I.e. in the case of need not thin soil lid pressure, do not work;When need not thin soil lid pressure for a long time, casing mechanism 12 can be laid down.
Described electromotor 30 exports power and drives the walking of covering machine and hydraulic pump 32 after change speed gear box 28 speed change respectively;Liquid The output oil pipe of press pump 32 respectively with the hydraulic motor I 17 being fixed in frame 8 and the hydraulic motor II 23 being fixed on vehicle frame It is connected;Hydraulic motor I 17 output power drives even soil spiral 10 through chain I 16, and carries soil device 13 through chain II 14 driving;Liquid Pressure motor II 23 output power drives material blanking roller 34 through chain III 20;Hydraulic pump 32 output oil pipe is connected with hydraulic motor I 17 A flow speed control valve it is provided with in the middle of oil pipe.
The two ends of described material blanking roller 34 are fixed on the corner column 4 at straw hopper 2 rear portion by bearing block 33, bearing Seat 33 positions on corner column 4 can adjust up and down, and then adjusts the gap bottom 34 times edges of material blanking roller and straw hopper 2.
Described hydraulic motor I 17 and and the output speed of hydraulic motor II adjustable.
Described material blanking roller 34 is discaling roll shape structure, is fixed with multiple rows of spike-tooth 35 on round roller surface, the staggered row of every nail tooth Row;Spike-tooth is rake tooth or conical tooth.
Described soil taking shovel lowering or hoisting gear 19 is arranged on the triangle waist crossbeam of soil taking shovel 21, is rotated by handle 39 Leading screw 40 lifts roller 41, and then drives soil taking shovel 21 along the hinging rotary of its both sides, rear portion, adjusts entering of spear 38 with this The soil degree of depth.
Described straw hopper 2 at least can carry the covering doses covering 1 mu of orchard;Described collection soil case 9 is carrying soil In the case of device 13 not feed, at least can carry covering machine and travel the earthing amount of 1m.
Described a kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine, it is characterised in that described orchard straw covering machine can be by Straw or straw substrate or fertilizer uniform fold in orchard in the ranks, and by cover layer thin soil lid pressure;It is applicable to arid and semi-arid Area or orchard, seasonal drought area, be particularly suitable for the dwarfing orchard of intensive culture, such as short anvil apple orchard;It is also applied for agriculture Field, desert, barren soil soil improvement, culture fertility.
Compared with prior art, one crawler type orchard of the present invention straw covering machine uses square spade soil before soil taking shovel, carries soil Device both sides carry, the technical scheme of collection soil case rear earthing, are different from the technology of existing patent, solve soil and exist with straw Space forms intersection-type collision, the problem making the uniformity of covering and the layered effect of double-deck covering have a greatly reduced quality, and makes improving straw mulching Layer and thin soil lid laminate layer uniform ground ground are laid, be applicable to Arid&semi-arid area or seasonal drought area need soil moisture conservation, The orchard of water saving or soil, be particularly suitable for the dwarfing orchard of intensive culture, such as short anvil apple orchard.
A kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine, its operation principle is as follows:
A kind of crawler type orchard of the present invention straw covering machine can complete orchard improving straw mulching and thin soil lid pressure, concrete mistake Journey and operation principle are expressed as follows:
When carrying out orchard improving straw mulching operation, covering machine the most at the uniform velocity advances in orchard.Straw hopper is tumbled backward, in blanking Under the effect of roller, flow out through blanking groove, the materials such as straw are covered on ground.Meanwhile, the soil taking shovel in casing mechanism is by soil Allocating the both sides in the ranks to orchard, soil is gathered by the soil box of leading at rear, soil taking shovel both sides, scoops up, and imports to carry in soil device, Boosted, transport, soil drops into the two ends in the collection soil case of even soil device.Even soil spiral by the soil at two ends to collection soil case in Between push.During propelling movement, the soil soil-discharging port from collection soil bottom portion falls, and uniform spreading is sprinkling upon on straw material cover layer.
Advantageous Effects: a kind of crawler type orchard disclosed by the invention straw covering machine, uses crawler type walking mechanism, improves By performance and hillside fields adaptability;Increase straw hopper, add effective operation time, improve working performance;Use Square spade soil before soil taking shovel, puies forward the conveying of soil device both sides, the technical scheme of collection soil case rear earthing, solves soil with straw at sky Between formed intersect, the collision impact on covering quality;The structure of straw material blanking roller and and straw hopper between gap adjustable, Make straw mulching quantity adjustable, cover uniformly;Casing mechanism is rearmounted, it is to avoid rut;Soil taking shovel height adjustable, improves and fetches earth Stability and the motility of thickness of earth covering;Even soil device improves stability and the thickness evenness of earthing operation.
Reference
1. driver's cabin 2. straw hopper 3. steel wire rope 4. corner column 5. curved baffle 6. fixed pulley 7. blanking groove 8. machine Frame 9. collects soil case 10. even soil spiral 11. even soil device 12. casing mechanism 13. and carries soil device 14. chain II 15. ground Take turns 16. chain I 17. hydraulic motors I 18. and lead soil box 19. soil taking shovel lowering or hoisting gear 20. chain III 21. soil taking shovel 22. Parallel four-bar linkage 23. hydraulic motor II 24. oil cylinder pulley 25. hoist cylinder 26. hydraulic pressure dump cylinder 27. vehicle frame 28. change speed gear box 29. crawler body 30. electromotor 31. hydraulic oil container 32. hydraulic pump 33. bearing block 34. material blanking rollers 35. Spike-tooth 36. straw discharging opening 37. shovels face 38. spear 39. handle 40. leading screw 41. roller 42. soil-discharging port.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is a kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine population structure left side view
Fig. 2 is a kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine population structure right side view
Fig. 3 is the creeper truck left back face upwarding assumption diagram of a kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine
Fig. 4 is the covering device structure left front view of a kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine
Fig. 5 is the covering device structure anterior view of a kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine
Fig. 6 is the covering device structure upward view of a kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine
Fig. 7 is the soil taking shovel structure chart of a kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine
Fig. 8 is the material blanking roller structure chart of a kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine
Embodiment
The present embodiment is to carry out improving straw mulching machinery equalization in short anvil apple orchard.Short anvil apple orchard line space 3.5 meters~4.5 Rice, tree-like tree crown is neat.
In the short anvil apple orchard of intensive cultivating, carry out improving straw mulching, need to complete according to following processing step:
1 straw is in small, broken bits: agricultural crop straw is processed into broken section of straw;
2 orchard improving straw mulching substrate preparations: add appropriate soil nutrient or soil in broken section of the straw described in step 1 Structural improvement material, and carry out suitable parasite killing, sterilization treatment as required, form orchard improving straw mulching substrate.
3 orchard soils are ploughed whole: with agricultural machinery orchard soil in the ranks carried out pine plough, hack and leveling operation.
4 improving straw mulching: broken for the straw described in step 1 or step 2 section of substrate machinery is covered in orchard in the ranks or between strain Soil surface, cladding thickness is as far as possible uniformly.
5 thin soil lid pressures: cover one layer of hack, the straw that will cover above the stalk layer covered described in step 4 with machinery Layer thin soil lid pressure, forms straw and covers with topsoil bilayer.
As depicted in figs. 1 and 2, a kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine, its crawler body 29 is fixedly arranged above vehicle frame 27, Front, vehicle frame 27 top is provided with driver's cabin 1, electromotor 30, change speed gear box 28 and hydraulic pump 32, and vehicle frame 27 upper back is provided with Straw hopper 2, the rear end of straw hopper 2 is hinged with vehicle frame 27;2 hydraulic pressure dump cylinders 26 are installed on the crossbeam of vehicle frame 27, Its lower end is hinged with vehicle frame 27, hinged bottom its upper end and straw hopper 2;Straw hopper 2 can be at the work of hydraulic pressure dump cylinder 26 With lower rear dumping material.
As depicted in figs. 1 and 2, the bicycle basket of described straw hopper 2 have a two-layer, both sides, rear portion upper strata bicycle basket plate with Lower floor is hinged, detachably, and turning suspension.
As it is shown on figure 3, the internal posterior angle of described straw hopper 2 is transversely mounted a material blanking roller 34, material blanking roller 34 and straw Gap bottom stalk hopper 2 is adjustable;The outside of material blanking roller 34 is wrapped up by a curved baffle 5;At the bottom opening of curved baffle 5 Being straw discharging opening 36, the lower section of straw discharging opening 36 is provided with a blanking groove 7 the most downward.
As depicted in figs. 1 and 2, described crawler body 29 and the rear of straw hopper 2 are casing mechanisms 12.
As shown in Figure 1 and Figure 4, described casing mechanism 12 include soil taking shovel 21, carry soil device 13, even soil device 11, take Mamoty lowering or hoisting gear 19, frame 8, land wheel 15, parallel four-bar linkage 22, steel wire rope 3, hoist cylinder 25.
As shown in Figure 1 and Figure 7, described soil taking shovel 21 is an isosceles triangular structure, is symmetrically mounted on crawler body The rear of 29;Being shovel face 37 etc. waist edge, the bar steel plate equal by two length is welded, and the junction of the waist edge such as two is shovel Point 38, the both sides, rear end of soil taking shovel 21 are hinged in frame 8, and the embedded depth of spear can be adjusted by soil taking shovel lowering or hoisting gear 19.
As shown in Figure 1 and Figure 4, the extended spot of the shovel surface rear end both sides of described soil taking shovel 21 connects with carrying soil device 13, Putting forward soil device 13 symmetry and be fixed on the both sides of frame 8, its anterior rear portion, shovel face extension with soil taking shovel 21 connects, its rear portion liter Rise, be connected up and down with the two ends of the collection soil case 9 of even soil device 11.
As shown in Figure 4, Figure 5 and Figure 6, the described soil device 13 that carries can use drag conveyor or conveying worm, this reality Execute example and use drag conveyor;Soil box 18 is led in the front end carrying soil device 13, and leading soil box 18 is "eight" shape, front wide and rear narrow, its Front end connects with the shovel surface rear end extension of soil taking shovel 21, is scooped up by soil, gathers, and imports and carries soil device 13 inside.
As shown in figures 1 to 6, described even soil device 11 is fixedly mounted on the rear portion of frame 8, the collection soil of even soil device 11 Case 9 is a U-type groove structure, lateral symmetry layout, have bottom it strip soil-discharging port 42, its internally installed have one even Soil spiral 10, the helical blade of the right and left of even soil spiral 10 is oppositely oriented.
As it is shown in figure 1, the lower edge of described blanking groove 7 is in the top of frame 8, the rear of soil taking shovel 21, collect soil case 9 Front, and just at neutral gear between frame 8 crossbeam.
As depicted in figs. 1 and 2, the articulated pair of parallel quadric chain 22 in both sides of described vehicle frame 27 rear end, parallel The front end cross beam of the articulated frame in rear end 8 of quadric chain 22;The both sides, rear portion of frame 8 have respectively two steel wire ropes 3 around The fixed pulley 6 being fixed on straw hopper 2 is from both sides tractive, and the other end of steel wire rope 3 crosses oil cylinder pulley 24 and hoist cylinder 25 It is connected;In the both sides of frame, it is separately installed with land wheel 15.
As it is shown in figure 1, described casing mechanism 12 can drop on the ground when orchard improving straw mulching operation, at orchard straw Stalk covers machine and turns around or can rise in road driving;Described casing mechanism 12 can also rise when orchard improving straw mulching operation Rise and do not work, i.e. in the case of need not thin soil lid pressure, do not work;When need not thin soil lid pressure for a long time, can be by drag links Structure 12 is laid down.
As in figure 2 it is shown, described electromotor 30 export power drive respectively after change speed gear box 28 speed change covering machine walking and Hydraulic pump 32;The output oil pipe of hydraulic pump 32 respectively with the hydraulic motor I 17 being fixed in frame 8 and the liquid being fixed on vehicle frame Pressure motor II 23 is connected;Hydraulic motor I 17 output power drives even soil spiral 10 through chain I 16, and carries through chain II 14 driving Soil device 13;Hydraulic motor II 23 output power drives material blanking roller 34 through chain III 20;Hydraulic pump 32 output oil pipe and hydraulic pressure horse Reach and be provided with a flow speed control valve in the middle of I 17 oil pipes being connected.
As shown in Figure 1, Figure 2 and Figure 3, after the two ends of described material blanking roller 34 are fixed on straw hopper 2 by bearing block 33 On the corner column 4 in portion, the bearing block 33 position on corner column 4 can adjust up and down, so adjust 34 times edges of material blanking roller with Gap bottom straw hopper 2.
As shown in Figure 4, the output speed of described hydraulic motor I 17 is adjustable.
As shown in Figure 8, described material blanking roller 34 is discaling roll shape structure, is fixed with multiple rows of spike-tooth 35 on round roller surface, often arranges Spike-tooth is staggered;Spike-tooth is rake tooth or conical tooth.
As shown in figs. 4 and 7, described soil taking shovel lowering or hoisting gear 19 is arranged on the triangle waist crossbeam of soil taking shovel 21 On, lift roller 41 by handle 39 rotational lead screw 40, and then drive soil taking shovel 21 along the hinging rotary of its both sides, rear portion, with This adjusts the embedded depth of spear.
As it is shown in figure 1, described straw hopper 2 at least can carry the straw amount covering 1 mu of orchard;Described collection soil case 9 In the case of carrying soil device 13 not feed, at least can carry covering machine and travel the earthing amount of 1m.
Described a kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine, it is characterised in that described orchard straw covering machine can be by Straw or straw substrate or fertilizer uniform fold in orchard in the ranks, and by cover layer thin soil lid pressure;It is applicable to arid and semi-arid Area or orchard, seasonal drought area, be particularly suitable for the dwarfing orchard of intensive culture, such as short anvil apple orchard;It is also applied for agriculture Field, desert, barren soil soil improvement, culture fertility.
In the present embodiment, described hydraulic motor II 23 is to material blanking roller 34, hydraulic motor I 17 to even soil spiral 10 and even Soil spiral 10 to carry soil device 13 power delivery mode be Chain conveyer, it is possible to employing V belt translation.
Further illustrate the operation principle of a kind of crawler type orchard of the present invention straw covering machine:
A kind of crawler type orchard of the present invention straw covering machine can complete orchard improving straw mulching and thin soil lid pressure step, tool Body process and operation principle are expressed as follows:
A kind of crawler type orchard of the present invention straw covering machine can complete orchard improving straw mulching and thin soil lid pressure, concrete mistake Journey and operation principle are expressed as follows:
When carrying out orchard improving straw mulching operation, covering machine the most at the uniform velocity advances in orchard.Straw hopper is tumbled backward, in blanking Under the effect of roller, flow out through blanking groove, the materials such as straw are covered on ground.Meanwhile, the soil taking shovel in casing mechanism is by soil Allocating the both sides in the ranks to orchard, soil is gathered by the soil box of leading at rear, soil taking shovel both sides, scoops up, and imports to carry in soil device, Boosted, transport, soil drops into the two ends in the collection soil case of even soil device.Even soil spiral by the soil at two ends to collection soil case in Between push.During propelling movement, the soil soil-discharging port from collection soil bottom portion falls, and uniform spreading is sprinkling upon on straw material cover layer.
3 needs special instructions below:
One crawler type orchard the most of the present invention straw covering machine uses square spade soil before soil taking shovel, carries the conveying of soil device both sides, collection soil The technical scheme of case rear earthing, be different from the technology of existing patent, it is to avoid soil and straw form intersection-type collision in space, The uniformity and the double-deck layered effect covered that cover promote substantially, make improving straw mulching layer and thin soil lid laminate layer uniform ground.
One crawler type orchard the most of the present invention straw covering machine, in addition to being particularly well-suited to short anvil apple orchard, applies also in dry Drought semiarid zone or seasonal drought area need soil moisture conservation, other orchards of water saving or soil, or need to improve soil The content of organic matter, improves other orchards or the soil of soil property and geobiont microenvironment, or needs to suppress orchard weed its His orchard or soil, or need other orchards to soil heat preservation or soil, or other fruits of the multiple needs of summary Garden or soil.
3. description of the invention and accompanying drawing are in order to understand explanation technical scheme, give some technical scheme details, this The not restriction to claims of the present invention of a little details.Any deformation being made these details or amendment, all without departing from this Invention protective scope of the claims.

Claims (8)

1. a crawler type orchard straw covering machine, it is characterised in that crawler body (29) is fixedly arranged above vehicle frame (27), vehicle frame (27) upper front is provided with driver's cabin (1), electromotor (30), change speed gear box (28) and hydraulic pump (32), vehicle frame (27) upper back Straw hopper (2) is installed, hinged with vehicle frame (27) bottom the rear end of straw hopper (2);It is provided with on the crossbeam of vehicle frame (27) At least one hydraulic pressure dump cylinder (26), its lower end is hinged with vehicle frame (27), and its upper end is hinged with straw hopper (2) bottom;Straw Stalk hopper (2) can under the effect of hydraulic pressure dump cylinder (26) after dumping material;
The bicycle basket of straw hopper (2) have a two-layer, both sides, rear portion upper strata bicycle basket plate hinged with lower floor, detachably, turning outstanding Hang;
The internal posterior angle of straw hopper (2) is transversely mounted a material blanking roller (34), material blanking roller (34) and straw hopper (2) bottom Gap is adjustable;Material blanking roller (34) is wrapped up by a curved baffle (5) by straw hopper (2) rear outside;The end of curved baffle (5) Portion's opening part is straw discharging opening (36), and the lower section of straw discharging opening (36) is provided with a most downward blanking groove (7);
The rear of crawler body (29) and straw hopper (2) is casing mechanism (12);
Casing mechanism (12) include soil taking shovel (21), carry soil device (13), even soil device (11), soil taking shovel lowering or hoisting gear (19), Frame (8), land wheel (15), parallel four-bar linkage (22), steel wire rope (3), hoist cylinder (25);
Soil taking shovel (21) is an isosceles triangular structure, is symmetrically mounted on the rear of crawler body (29);It is shovel face etc. waist edge (37), the bar steel plate equal by two length is welded, and the junction of the waist edge such as two is spear (38), soil taking shovel (21) Both sides, rear end are hinged in frame (8), and the embedded depth of spear (38) can be adjusted by soil taking shovel lowering or hoisting gear (19);
The extended spot of shovel face (37) both sides, rear end of soil taking shovel (21) connects with carrying soil device (13), carries soil device (13) symmetrical solid Being scheduled on the both sides of frame (8), its anterior shovel face (37) rear portion extension with soil taking shovel (21) connects, and its rear portion is risen, with even soil The two ends of collection soil case (9) of device (11) are connected the most up and down;
Carry soil device (13) and drag conveyor or conveying worm can be used;Soil box (18) is led in the front end carrying soil device (13), Leading soil box (18) is "eight" shape, front wide and rear narrow, and its front end connects, by soil with shovel face (37) the rear end extension of soil taking shovel (21) Scoop up, gather, import and carry soil device (13) inside;
Even soil device (11) is fixedly mounted on the rear portion of frame (8), and collection soil case (9) of even soil device (11) is a U-type groove knot Structure, lateral symmetry layout, have bottom it strip soil-discharging port (42), its internally installed have one even soil spiral (10), even The helical blade of the right and left of soil spiral (10) is oppositely oriented;
The lower edge of blanking groove (7) is in the top of frame (8), the rear of soil taking shovel (21), the front of collection soil case (9), and just Fortunately at the neutral gear between frame (8) crossbeam;
The articulated pair of parallel quadric chain in the both sides (22) of vehicle frame (27) rear end, the rear end hinge of parallel four-bar linkage (22) Then the front end cross beam of frame (8);There are two steel wire ropes (3) both sides, rear portion of frame (8) respectively around being fixed on straw hopper (2) fixed pulley (6) on is from both sides tractive, and the other end of steel wire rope (3) is crossed oil cylinder pulley (24) and is connected with hoist cylinder (25); In the both sides of frame, it is separately installed with land wheel (15);
Described casing mechanism (12) can drop to when orchard improving straw mulching operation on the ground, and in orchard, straw covering machine turns around Or road driving can rise;Described casing mechanism (12) can also rise when orchard improving straw mulching operation and not work, I.e. in the case of need not thin soil lid pressure, do not work;When need not thin soil lid pressure for a long time, casing mechanism (12) can be unloaded Fall.
A kind of crawler type orchard the most according to claim 1 straw covering machine, it is characterised in that described electromotor (30) Output power drives the walking of covering machine and hydraulic pump (32) after change speed gear box (28) speed change respectively;The output oil pipe of hydraulic pump (32) It is connected with the hydraulic motor I (17) being fixed in frame (8) and the hydraulic motor II (23) being fixed on vehicle frame respectively;Hydraulic pressure horse Reach I (17) output power and drive even soil spiral (10) through chain I (16), and carry soil device (13) through chain II (14) driving;Liquid Pressure motor II (23) output power drives material blanking roller (34) through chain III (20);Hydraulic pump (32) output oil pipe and hydraulic motor I (17) it is provided with a flow speed control valve in the middle of the oil pipe being connected.
A kind of crawler type orchard the most according to claim 1 straw covering machine, it is characterised in that described material blanking roller (34) Two ends be fixed on the corner column (4) at straw hopper (2) rear portion by bearing block (33), bearing block (33) is at corner column (4) position on can adjust up and down, and then adjusts under material blanking roller (34) along the gap with straw hopper (2) bottom.
A kind of crawler type orchard the most according to claim 1 straw covering machine, it is characterised in that described hydraulic motor I (17) output speed is adjustable.
A kind of crawler type orchard the most according to claim 1 straw covering machine, it is characterised in that described material blanking roller (34) Being discaling roll shape structure, be fixed with multiple rows of spike-tooth (35) on round roller surface, every nail tooth is staggered;Spike-tooth is rake tooth or taper Tooth.
A kind of crawler type orchard the most according to claim 1 straw covering machine, it is characterised in that described soil taking shovel lifting Device (19) is arranged on the triangle waist crossbeam of soil taking shovel (21), lifts roller by handle (39) rotational lead screw (40) (41), and then drive soil taking shovel (21) along the hinging rotary of its both sides, rear portion, adjust the embedded depth of spear (38) with this.
A kind of crawler type orchard the most according to claim 1 straw covering machine, it is characterised in that described straw hopper (2) the covering doses in 1 mu of orchard of covering can at least be carried;Described collection soil case (9) is putting forward the feelings of soil device (13) not feed Under condition, at least can carry covering machine and travel the earthing amount of 1m.
A kind of crawler type orchard the most according to claim 1 straw covering machine, it is characterised in that described orchard straw covers Lid machine can by straw or straw substrate or fertilizer uniform fold in orchard in the ranks, and by cover layer thin soil lid pressure;It is applicable to Arid&semi-arid area or orchard, seasonal drought area, be particularly suitable for the dwarfing orchard of intensive culture, such as short anvil apple orchard; It is also applied for farmland, desert, barren soil soil improvement, culture fertility.
CN201610975733.6A 2016-11-07 2016-11-07 A kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine Active CN106258037B (en)

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107018686A (en) * 2017-04-17 2017-08-08 中国农业大学 A kind of crop material shallow-layer burying machine
CN111587618A (en) * 2020-06-08 2020-08-28 农业农村部南京农业机械化研究所 Live operation device of agricultural live broadcast machine
CN112930857A (en) * 2021-02-23 2021-06-11 盐城工业职业技术学院 Intelligent agricultural machine corn stalk treatment integrated harvester

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CN104996016A (en) * 2015-08-11 2015-10-28 西北农林科技大学 Self-propelled double-layer straw and surface soil mulching machine for orchard
CN105052405A (en) * 2015-08-11 2015-11-18 西北农林科技大学 Orchard straw and surface soil layered covering machine
CN105247994A (en) * 2015-10-26 2016-01-20 中国农业大学 Sowing, soil and straw separating and soil covering device for wheat no-tillage broadcast sower
CN206260221U (en) * 2016-11-07 2017-06-20 西北农林科技大学 A kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN104429385A (en) * 2014-12-24 2015-03-25 西北农林科技大学 Double-layer straw mulch-laying machine for orchard
CN104996016A (en) * 2015-08-11 2015-10-28 西北农林科技大学 Self-propelled double-layer straw and surface soil mulching machine for orchard
CN105052405A (en) * 2015-08-11 2015-11-18 西北农林科技大学 Orchard straw and surface soil layered covering machine
CN105247994A (en) * 2015-10-26 2016-01-20 中国农业大学 Sowing, soil and straw separating and soil covering device for wheat no-tillage broadcast sower
CN206260221U (en) * 2016-11-07 2017-06-20 西北农林科技大学 A kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN107018686A (en) * 2017-04-17 2017-08-08 中国农业大学 A kind of crop material shallow-layer burying machine
CN111587618A (en) * 2020-06-08 2020-08-28 农业农村部南京农业机械化研究所 Live operation device of agricultural live broadcast machine
CN112930857A (en) * 2021-02-23 2021-06-11 盐城工业职业技术学院 Intelligent agricultural machine corn stalk treatment integrated harvester
CN112930857B (en) * 2021-02-23 2021-08-31 盐城工业职业技术学院 Intelligent agricultural machine corn stalk treatment integrated harvester

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