CN104429385A - Double-layer straw mulch-laying machine for orchard - Google Patents

Double-layer straw mulch-laying machine for orchard Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104429385A
CN104429385A CN201410814199.1A CN201410814199A CN104429385A CN 104429385 A CN104429385 A CN 104429385A CN 201410814199 A CN201410814199 A CN 201410814199A CN 104429385 A CN104429385 A CN 104429385A
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China
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orchard
stalk
soil
straw
throwing
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CN201410814199.1A
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CN104429385B (en
Inventor
朱新华
郭文川
陈胤嗣
杨中平
郭康权
杨培
何浩
张宗
宋永超
孙涛
查峥
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Northwest A&F University
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Northwest A&F University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a double-layer straw mulch-laying machine for an orchard and relates to the field of orchard machines. A trailer provided with a straw box is pulled by a tractor, a discharging roller is arranged on the bottom of the front portion of the interior of the straw box, a straw discharging outlet under the straw box is connected with a straw distributing pipe, a soil throwing device is hinged to the tractor and located below the straw distributing pipe, a soil throwing port of the soil throwing device inclines upwards and backwards and located below an outlet of the straw distributing pipe, the direction of the soil throwing port intersects with the direction of the outlet of the straw distributing pipe, the soil throwing device can rise and fall under the action of a lifting oil cylinder, and the straw box can tip forwards under the action of a dump oil cylinder. The machine can mulch the ground between the lines of the orchard with straw and cover the straw layer with thin soil, is suitable for conducting mechanical straw mulching in the orchard or other farmland areas, can achieve soil moisture retention, water saving, weed suppression, soil organic matter increasing, heat preservation, freezing prevention, soil texture improvement and soil microenvironment improvement, and is especially suitable for dwarf-stock orchards. By the adoption of the machine, straw mulching cost can be reduced, scale utilization of straw can be promoted, agriculture income increase is achieved, and efficiency is improved.

Description

The double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of orchard stalk
Technical field
The present invention discloses the double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of orchard stalk, belongs to agricultural mechanical field and straw resource utilization field, particularly relates to Machinery for orchard field.
Background technology
In recent years, along with the adjustment of China's agricultural structure, the fast development of fruit industry scale, the cultivated area such as apple, pears, peach, grape, oranges and tangerines has reached the whole world the first all, and China has become state of fruit sparetime university.But compared with developed countries, the fruit industry of China also exists serious problem, cause that product quality is low and industrial benefit is not high.An important problem is that orchard soil is barren, too relies on chemical fertilizer, causes soil compaction; The Soils In The Region lack of water of arid, semiarid zone and Seasonal Water-Deficit is the bottleneck problem of restriction fruit industry development always.Particularly in northern China arplain and southwest, orchard soil moisture conservation water saving, the raising content of organic matter have become the most important thing of orchard management.According to surveying and determination, apple orchard, the NORTHWEST CHINA arplain content of organic matter is generally below 1.0%, and the general section of American-European countries's apple orchard content of organic matter is more than 3.0%, and the Japanese apple orchard content of organic matter even reaches 6.8%, how dead soil like this, support high production and high-quality?
Orchard improving straw mulching technology is thin for orchard soil layer, that fertility is low, moisture condition is poor, soil bareness area is taked greatly soil management technology.Appropriate crops straw etc. is covered on soil exposed around fruit tree, it has soil moisture conservation, water saving, improve soil organic matter content, press down grass, insulation, no-tillage, saving of labor and the multiple effect such as to prevent soil loss, soil ecology microenvironment can be improved, support the strong tree of root, promote that Growth status is grown, and then improve output and oil recovery enhancement.Orchard improving straw mulching technology solves arid, semiarid zone because of the effective measures of rich water shortage restriction orchard upgrading volume increase, is also one of important production technology of developing ecology fruit industry, organic fruit industry.
In recent years, orchard stalk technology is widelyd popularize in China, but orchard worker's enthusiasm is low, and popularizing area is less, produces little effect.Trace it to its cause, the first existing orchard improving straw mulching technical matters is simple and crude, needs manual work, time-consuming, and it two is that orchard worker worries dry season orchard fire.
At present, an American-European countries general section adopts the intensive efficiency cultivation technology for high of apple dwarf, and the short anvil apple of many countries accounts for more than 90%.The advantage per mu yield that the intensive efficiency cultivation technology for high of apple dwarf is given prominence to is high, and percent rate of high quality fruit is high.Per mu yield reaches more than 5 tons, and percent rate of high quality fruit can reach 85%.Comparatively speaking, China's mainly tall anvil apple at present, account for 90%, and short anvil apple only accounts for about 10%.Therefore, following 10 ~ 20 years, China will welcome the high speed development upsurge of an Apple Culture technology upgrading replacement.In recent years, the apple cultivation such as Shaanxi, Shandong district had started scale introduction.Along with fruit dwarfing technology, particularly the advanced technology such as short anvil apple intensive culture technique is in the popularization of China, and orchard is spacious in the ranks, tree-like specification, will provide convenience for orchard operation machineryization.
In short anvil orchard, a general section adopts Cover with weed technology in American-European countries, but research shows, Cover with weed technology exists strives with fruit tree the problem that water strives fertilizer, and causes damage by disease and insect to increase.Therefore, current Cover with weed technology is not suitable for China orchard, particularly drought and water-scarce area.
Therefore, change the simple and crude method of orchard improving straw mulching in the past, research orchard improving straw mulching machineryization technology also develops orchard improving straw mulching work tool, it is the key playing orchard improving straw mulching technical benefits, also be the important channel realizing stalk resource efficiency utilization in the fruit industry of high added value, be improve orchard soil moisture, the content of organic matter, realize the important leverage of orchard high-yield and high-efficiency.
At present, yet there are no any relevant report in orchard improving straw mulching machineryization technical research and application aspect both at home and abroad.The double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of orchard disclosed by the invention stalk, the problem that existing orchard improving straw mulching technical method is simple and crude, time-consuming can be solved, promote the application of improving straw mulching technology in orchard, realize orchard soil soil moisture conservation water saving, getting fat, press down grass, heat-preserving anti-freezing, reduce operating cost, improve operation quality, improve fruit industry output and benefit; Solve the stalk resource waste of surrounding area, orchard and burn pollution problem, realizing increasing peasant income, growth of agricultural efficiency.
Summary of the invention
Object of the present invention: disclose the double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of orchard stalk, orchard improving straw mulching can be realized and top layer earthing lid presses mechanization of operation, standardization, this covering function promotes applying of orchard improving straw mulching technology, reduce orchard improving straw mulching operating cost, improve orchard soil situation, promote the extensive efficiency utilization of fruit district's periphery stalk, realize increasing peasant income, growth of agricultural efficiency.
The technical problem to be solved in the present invention: the double-deck mulch-laying machine of described orchard stalk realizes orchard improving straw mulching with which kind of the Nomenclature Composition and Structure of Complexes, and one deck thin soil is covered on improving straw mulching layer, and make straw substrate cladding thickness and thin soil lid press thickness evenly adjustable, thus realize garden improving straw mulching machineryization, reduce orchard improving straw mulching operating cost, improve orchard soil situation, promote the extensive efficiency utilization of fruit district's periphery stalk.
Realize garden improving straw mulching machineryization, need to have come according to processing step below:
(1) stalk is in small, broken bits: agricultural crop straw is processed into broken section of stalk;
(2) orchard improving straw mulching substrate preparation: add appropriate soil nutrient or soil structure improved addictive material in broken section of the stalk described in step (1), and carry out suitable desinsection, sterilization treatment as required, forms orchard improving straw mulching matrix.
(3) orchard soil is ploughed whole: with agricultural machinery to orchard in the ranks soil carry out that pine is ploughed, hack and leveling operation.
(4) straw substrate covers: stalk (broken section) the matrix machinery described in step (1) or step (2) is covered the soil surface of orchard in the ranks or between strain, and cladding thickness as far as possible evenly.
(5) thin soil lid pressure: cover one deck hack with machinery above the straw substrate layer of step (4) described covering, by the straw substrate layer thin soil lid pressure covered, formation stalk and topsoil bilayer cover.
In order to solve the technical problem to be solved in the present invention, The present invention gives following technical scheme:
The double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of orchard stalk, tractor-drawn trailer, trailer is provided with stalk hopper, the inner front lower of stalk hopper has a stalk discharging opening, a discharge roller is installed above stalk discharging opening, connect stalk cloth tube below stalk discharging opening, stalk cloth tube is downward-sloping backward; At trailer bottom front, the lower position of stalk discharging opening mounts one and throws earthenware, and that throws earthenware is axially installed with the native blade of several throwing, forms roll structure, throws the throwing soil blade rotary on earthenware, taken up by hack during work; Throw earthenware shell rear portion and throw Tu Kou to having one rearwardly and upwardly along throwing native blade tangent line, the position of throwing Tu Kou is in the below of the outlet of stalk cloth tube, throw the Way out of Tu Kou for tilting upward backward, this direction and the outlet with described stalk cloth tube towards at space intersection; The double-deck mulch-laying machine of described a kind of orchard stalk, by straw substrate uniform fold in orchard in the ranks ground, form improving straw mulching layer, and cover one deck thin soil above improving straw mulching layer, form thin soil lid pressure layer.
Described stalk hopper is arranged on the chassis of trailer, the chassis of its front end and trailer is hinged, pair of angled oil cylinder is installed in its both sides, rear portion and trailer is hinged and connected, stalk hopper can in stalk hopper length direction surface thereof under the effect of dump ram, make stalk hopper rear portion rises, thus make stalk flow forward to the discharge roller of stalk hopper front portion.
The power of described throwing earthenware is exported by tractor motive power output shaft, passes to throwing earthenware through universal joint, line shaft, drives the throwing soil blade rotary throwing earthenware; Power is passed to discharge roller through driving-chain II, sprocket wheel IV, sprocket wheel III, driving-chain I, chain wheel I by the chain wheel II of throwing the spindle end of earthenware, drives discharge roller to rotate.
Described discharge roller is arranged on the front lower of stalk hopper inside, and its axis direction is vertical with stalk hopper length direction; Discharge roller rotates under chain wheel I drives, and makes straw substrate uniform discharge; The roll surface of discharge roller has spike-tooth or convex-concave, the arrangement of spike-tooth or convex-concave has certain directionality, forces straw substrate even drop down on stalk discharging opening length direction to be discharged; Speed adjusting gear can be installed additional and change discharge roller rotating speed, to realize straw substrate load, i.e. the regulation and control of straw substrate overburden cover.
The described shell upper of throwing earthenware and the hypomere of connecting rod are fixedly linked, the upper end of connecting rod and the chassis of trailer are hinged and connected at pin joint place, throw hinged a pair hoist cylinder in front at earthenware cover top portion two ends, the upper end thereof of hoist cylinder is suspended on the chassis of trailer; When carrying out orchard improving straw mulching work, hoist cylinder extends, and drives whole throwing earthenware to rotate around pin joint, throwing earthenware is declined, throw native blade and bury; Throw earthenware throw soil amount number, namely thin soil lid pressure layer thickness regulate and control by hoist cylinder; When being in walking states, hoist cylinder shortens, and drives whole throwing earthenware to rotate around pin joint, makes throwing earthenware increase.
The hack that described thin soil lid pressure needs fetches earth by throwing earthenware scene in operation process.
Described also can adopt V belt translation from throwing the power delivery mode of earthenware to discharge roller.
The double-deck mulch-laying machine of described orchard stalk is applicable to Arid&semi-arid area or seasonal drought area needs soil moisture conservation, the orchard of economizing on water or soil, or need to improve soil organic matter content, improve orchard or the soil of soil property and soil organisms microenvironment, or need the orchard or the soil that suppress orchard weed, or need the orchard to soil heat preservation or soil, or the orchard of comprehensive above-mentioned multiple needs or soil, be particularly suitable for the dwarfing orchard of intensive culture, as short anvil apple orchard.
the double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of orchard stalk, its operation principle is as follows:
Stalk double-deck mulch-laying machine in a kind of orchard of the present invention can complete that orchard soil is in small, broken bits and smooth, straw substrate covers and thin soil lid presses step, and detailed process and operation principle are expressed as follows:
Carrying out in the improving straw mulching operation of orchard, hoist cylinder extends, and drives whole throwing earthenware to rotate around pin joint, throwing earthenware is declined, throw native blade and bury; Tractor-drawn trailer in the ranks at the uniform velocity advances in orchard, tractor outputs power, throwing earthenware is passed to through universal joint, line shaft, drive the throwing soil blade rotary throwing earthenware, to orchard in the ranks soil carry out in small, broken bits and smooth, and grogs in small, broken bits is tangentially thrown, dish out backward obliquely from the throwing Tu Kou throwing earthenware.Throw earthenware and have in small, broken bits, smooth effect to soil.
Power is passed to discharge roller through driving-chain II, sprocket wheel IV, sprocket wheel III, driving-chain I, chain wheel I by the chain wheel II of throwing the spindle end of earthenware, drives discharge roller to rotate, stirs the even blanking of straw substrate.The roll surface of discharge roller has spike-tooth or convex-concave, the arrangement of spike-tooth or convex-concave has certain directionality, forces straw substrate even drop down on stalk discharging opening length direction to be discharged.Throwing the below that the position of Tu Kou is in the outlet of stalk cloth tube, throwing the Way out of Tu Kou for tilting upward backward, this direction and the outlet with described stalk cloth tube towards at space intersection, thus, straw substrate stream is crossing aloft with soil stream.But because the air dynamic behaviour of straw substrate stream and soil stream differs greatly, and the proportion of soil stream, speed, kinetic energy are more much bigger than straw substrate stream, thus the change of straw substrate stream to soil stream trajectory of projection is negligible.
The impact of soil stream on the track of straw substrate stream is mainly drifted about obliquely backward, namely grogs has the effect of clashing into backward obliquely to the crushed straw aggregate met, but due to crushed straw aggregate light specific gravity, front face area is large, its flight coefficient is comparatively large, and air is comparatively large to the resistance of stalk, and crushed straw aggregate is very little by drift distance after grogs effect, thus, soil stream is also less to the change of straw substrate material flow track.
Because soil stream landing point is after straw substrate stream, so soil stream can drop on straw substrate cover layer, lid pressure is formed to improving straw mulching layer.
Overburden cover adjusts: when advancing constant airspeed, changes the tectal thickness of size adjustable straw substrate of the rotating speed of discharge roller, surface structure and stalk discharging opening; Change the thickness that the rotating speed throwing native blade, the size of throwing Tu Kou and angle can adjust thin soil lid pressure layer.The flexible of dump ram can make stalk hopper tumble forward, impels straw substrate to flow to discharge roller.
In non-covered duty, hoist cylinder shrinks, and drives whole throwing earthenware to rotate around pin joint 14, makes throwing earthenware increase; Tractor dynamic power exports and cuts off, and throwing earthenware and discharge roller stop the rotation, and stalk discharging opening is blocked by discharge roller, stops discharging; Dump ram shrinks, and stalk hopper recovers level.
Advantageous Effects: technical scheme of the present invention can realize orchard improving straw mulching and top layer earthing lid presses mechanization of operation, standardization, promote applying of orchard improving straw mulching technology, reduce orchard improving straw mulching operating cost, improve orchard soil situation, substitute orchard ground cover technology, promote the extensive efficiency utilization of fruit district's periphery stalk, realize increasing peasant income, growth of agricultural efficiency.
Reference numeral
1. tractor 2. line shaft 3. hoist cylinder 4. chain wheel I 5. driving-chain I 6. stalk cloth tube 7. chain wheel II 8. driving-chain II 9. throwing earthenware 10. is thrown native mouth 11. sprocket wheel III 12. sprocket wheel IV 13. connecting rod 14. pin joint 15. dump ram 16. trailer 17. stalk hopper 18. stalk discharging opening 19. discharge roller 20. and is thrown native blade 21. straw substrate stream 22. soil stream.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the double-deck mulch-laying machine overall construction drawing of a kind of orchard stalk
Fig. 2 is trailer and the stalk bin structure figure of the double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of orchard stalk
Fig. 3 is the structure chart of the throwing earthenware of the double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of orchard stalk
Fig. 4 is the structure chart of the discharge roller of the double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of orchard stalk
Fig. 5 is the operation principle schematic diagram of the double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of orchard stalk.
Embodiment
The present embodiment is in short anvil apple orchard, carry out improving straw mulching machinery equalization.Short anvil apple orchard line space 3.5 meters ~ 4.5 meters, tree-like tree crown is neat.
In the short anvil apple orchard of intensive cultivating, carry out improving straw mulching, need to have come according to processing step below:
(1) stalk is in small, broken bits: agricultural crop straw is processed into broken section of stalk;
(2) orchard improving straw mulching substrate preparation: add appropriate soil nutrient or soil structure improved addictive material in broken section of the stalk described in step (1), and carry out suitable desinsection, sterilization treatment as required, forms orchard improving straw mulching matrix.
(3) orchard soil is ploughed whole: with agricultural machinery to orchard in the ranks soil carry out that pine is ploughed, hack and leveling operation.
(4) straw substrate covers: stalk (broken section) the matrix machinery described in step (1) or step (2) is covered the soil surface of orchard in the ranks or between strain, and cladding thickness as far as possible evenly.
(5) thin soil lid pressure: cover one deck hack with machinery above the straw substrate layer of step (4) described covering, by the straw substrate layer thin soil lid pressure covered, formation stalk and topsoil bilayer cover.
As depicted in figs. 1 and 2, the double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of orchard stalk, tractor 1 draws a trailer 16, trailer 16 is provided with stalk hopper 17, the inner front lower of stalk hopper 17 has a stalk discharging opening 18, be provided with a discharge roller 19 above stalk discharging opening 18, connect stalk cloth tube 6 below stalk discharging opening 18, stalk cloth tube 6 is downward-sloping backward; At trailer 16 bottom front, the lower position of stalk discharging opening 18 mounts one and throws earthenware 9, and that throws earthenware 9 is axially installed with the native blade 20 of several throwing, forms roll structure, and the throwing soil blade 20 thrown during work on earthenware 9 rotates, and is taken up by hack; Throw earthenware 9 shell rear portion and throw native mouth 10 to having one rearwardly and upwardly along throwing native blade 20 tangent line, the position of throwing native mouth 10 is in the below of the outlet of stalk cloth tube 6, throw the Way out of native mouth 10 for tilting upward backward, this direction with the outlet of described stalk cloth tube 6 towards at space intersection; The double-deck mulch-laying machine of described a kind of orchard stalk, by straw substrate uniform fold in orchard in the ranks ground, form improving straw mulching layer, and cover one deck thin soil above improving straw mulching layer, form thin soil lid pressure layer.
As shown in Figure 1, described stalk hopper 17 is arranged on the chassis of trailer 16, the chassis of its front end and trailer 16 is hinged, its both sides, rear portion are installed pair of angled oil cylinder 15 and are hinged and connected with trailer 16, stalk hopper 17 can in the long 17 degree of direction surface thereof of stalk hopper under the effect of dump ram 15, make stalk hopper 17 rear portion rises, thus make stalk flow forward to the discharge roller 19 of stalk hopper 17 front portion.
As shown in figures 1 and 3, the power of described throwing earthenware 9 is exported by tractor 1 power take-off, passes to throw earthenware 9 through universal joint, line shaft 2, drives the throwing soil blade 20 throwing earthenware 9 to rotate; Power is passed to discharge roller 19 through driving-chain II 8, sprocket wheel IV 12, sprocket wheel III 11, driving-chain I 5, chain wheel I 4 by the chain wheel II 7 of throwing the spindle end of earthenware 9, drives discharge roller 19 to rotate.
As shown in Figure 1, Figure 2 and Figure 4, described discharge roller 19 is arranged on the front lower of stalk hopper 17 inside, and its axis direction is vertical with stalk hopper 17 length direction; Discharge roller 19 rotates under chain wheel I 4 drives, and makes straw substrate uniform discharge; The roll surface of discharge roller 19 has spike-tooth or convex-concave, the arrangement of spike-tooth or convex-concave has certain directionality, forces straw substrate even drop down on stalk discharging opening 18 length direction to be discharged; Speed adjusting gear can be installed additional and change discharge roller 19 rotating speed, to realize straw substrate load, i.e. the regulation and control of straw substrate overburden cover.
As shown in Figure 1, the shell upper of described throwing earthenware 9 and the hypomere of connecting rod 13 are fixedly linked, the upper end of connecting rod 13 and the chassis of trailer are hinged and connected at pin joint 14 place, throw hinged a pair hoist cylinder 3 in front at earthenware 9 cover top portion two ends, the upper end thereof of hoist cylinder 3 is suspended on the chassis of trailer 16; When carrying out orchard improving straw mulching work, hoist cylinder 3 extends, and drives whole throwing earthenware 9 to rotate around pin joint 14, throwing earthenware 9 is declined, and throws native blade 20 and buries; Throw earthenware 9 throw soil amount number, namely thin soil lid pressure layer thickness regulate and control by hoist cylinder 3; When being in walking states, hoist cylinder 3 shortens, and drives whole throwing earthenware 9 to rotate around pin joint 14, makes throwing earthenware 9 increase.
The hack that described thin soil lid pressure needs fetches earth by throwing earthenware scene in operation process.
In the present embodiment, the described power delivery mode from throwing earthenware 9 to discharge roller 19 is Chain conveyer, also can adopt V belt translation.
The double-deck mulch-laying machine of described orchard stalk is applicable to Arid&semi-arid area or seasonal drought area needs soil moisture conservation, the orchard of economizing on water or soil, or need to improve soil organic matter content, improve orchard or the soil of soil property and soil organisms microenvironment, or need the orchard or the soil that suppress orchard weed, or need the orchard to soil heat preservation or soil, or the orchard of comprehensive above-mentioned multiple needs or soil, be particularly suitable for the dwarfing orchard of intensive culture, as short anvil apple orchard.
further illustrate the operation principle of the double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of orchard of the present invention stalk:
Stalk double-deck mulch-laying machine in a kind of orchard of the present invention can complete that orchard soil is in small, broken bits and smooth, straw substrate covers and thin soil lid presses step, and detailed process and operation principle are expressed as follows:
As shown in Figure 1, carrying out in the improving straw mulching operation of orchard, hoist cylinder 3 extends, and drives whole throwing earthenware 9 to rotate around pin joint, throwing earthenware 9 is declined, throws native blade 20 and bury; Tractor 1 breakdown trailer 16 in the ranks at the uniform velocity advances in orchard, tractor 1 outputs power, pass to throw earthenware 9 through universal joint, line shaft 2, the throwing soil blade 20 throwing earthenware 9 is driven to rotate, to orchard in the ranks soil carry out in small, broken bits and smooth, and grogs in small, broken bits is tangentially thrown, dish out backward obliquely from the throwing soil mouth 10 throwing earthenware 9.Throw earthenware 9 pairs of soil and have in small, broken bits, smooth effect.
As shown in Figure 1, power is passed to discharge roller 19 through driving-chain II 8, sprocket wheel IV 12, sprocket wheel III 11, driving-chain I 5, chain wheel I 4 by the chain wheel II 7 of throwing the spindle end of earthenware 9, drives discharge roller 19 to rotate, stirs the even blanking of straw substrate.The roll surface of discharge roller 19 has spike-tooth or convex-concave, the arrangement of spike-tooth or convex-concave has certain directionality, forces straw substrate even drop down on stalk discharging opening 18 length direction to be discharged.
As shown in Figure 1 and Figure 5, the position of throwing native mouth 10 is in the below of the outlet of stalk cloth tube 6, throw the Way out of native mouth 10 for tilting upward backward, this direction with the outlet of described stalk cloth tube 6 towards at space intersection, thus, straw substrate stream 21 is crossing aloft with soil stream 22.But because the air dynamic behaviour of straw substrate stream 21 with soil stream 22 differs greatly, and the proportion of soil stream 22, speed, kinetic energy are more much bigger than straw substrate stream 21, thus the change of straw substrate stream 21 pairs of soil stream 22 trajectory of projection is negligible.
As shown in Figure 5, the impact of soil stream 22 on the track of straw substrate stream 21 is mainly drifted about obliquely backward, namely grogs has the effect of clashing into backward obliquely to the crushed straw aggregate met, but due to crushed straw aggregate light specific gravity, front face area is large, its flight coefficient is larger, the resistance of air to stalk is larger, crushed straw aggregate is very little by drift distance after grogs effect, and thus, the change of soil stream 22 pairs of straw substrate stream 21 tracks is also less.
Because soil stream 22 landing point is after straw substrate stream 21, so soil stream 22 can drop on straw substrate cover layer, lid pressure is formed to improving straw mulching layer.
Overburden cover adjusts: as shown in Figure 1, when advancing constant airspeed, changes the tectal thickness of size adjustable straw substrate of the rotating speed of discharge roller 19, surface structure and stalk discharging opening 18; Change the thickness that the rotating speed throwing native blade 20, the size of throwing native mouth 10 and angle can adjust thin soil lid pressure layer.The flexible of dump ram 15 can make stalk hopper 17 tumble forward, impels straw substrate to flow to discharge roller 19.
In non-covered duty, hoist cylinder 3 shrinks, and drives whole throwing earthenware 9 to rotate around pin joint 14, makes throwing earthenware 9 increase; Tractor 1 Power output cuts off, and throwing earthenware 9 and discharge roller 19 stop the rotation, and stalk discharging opening 18 is blocked by discharge roller 19, stops discharging; Dump ram 15 shrinks, and stalk hopper 17 recovers level.
3 needs special instructions below:
1. stalk double-deck mulch-laying machine in a kind of orchard of the present invention is except being specially adapted to short anvil apple orchard, also be applicable to need soil moisture conservation, other orchards of economizing on water or soil in Arid&semi-arid area or seasonal drought area, or need to improve soil organic matter content, improve other orchards or the soil of soil property and soil organisms microenvironment, or need other orchards or the soil that suppress orchard weed, or need other orchards to soil heat preservation or soil, or other orchards of comprehensive above-mentioned multiple needs or soil.
2. the throwing earthenware of the present invention not work tool such as rotary tillage of the prior art, rake, but there is the device throwing the multiple effect such as pacifically of soil, hack, its Main Function throws soil, and its power demand is less.Thus, before improving straw mulching operation, need first whole to ploughing with other agricultural machinery in the ranks.
3. specification of the present invention and accompanying drawing are in order to clearly demonstrate technical scheme, give some technical scheme details, the restriction of these details not to claims of the present invention.Any distortion of doing these details or amendment, all do not exceed the scope of the claims in the present invention protection.

Claims (8)

1. the double-deck mulch-laying machine of orchard stalk, it is characterized in that, tractor (1) traction trailer (16), trailer (16) is provided with stalk hopper (17), stalk hopper (17) inner front lower has a stalk discharging opening (18), stalk discharging opening (18) top is provided with a discharge roller (19), and stalk discharging opening (18) below connects stalk cloth tube (6), and stalk cloth tube (6) is downward-sloping backward; At trailer (16) bottom front, the lower position of stalk discharging opening (18) mounts one and throws earthenware (9), and that throws earthenware (9) is axially installed with the native blade of several throwing (20), forms roll structure, throwing soil blade (20) of throwing during work on earthenware (9) rotates, and is taken up by hack; Throw earthenware (9) shell rear portion and throw Tu Kou (10) to having one rearwardly and upwardly along throwing native blade (20) tangent line, the position of throwing Tu Kou (10) is in the below of the outlet of stalk cloth tube (6), throw the Way out of Tu Kou (10) for tilting upward backward, this direction with the outlet of described stalk cloth tube (6) towards at space intersection; The double-deck mulch-laying machine of described a kind of orchard stalk, by straw substrate uniform fold in orchard in the ranks ground, form improving straw mulching layer, and cover one deck thin soil above improving straw mulching layer, form thin soil lid pressure layer.
2. the double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of orchard according to claim 1 stalk, it is characterized in that, described stalk hopper (17) is arranged on the chassis of trailer (16), the chassis of its front end and trailer (16) is hinged, its both sides, rear portion are installed pair of angled oil cylinder (15) and are hinged and connected with trailer (16), stalk hopper (17) can in stalk hopper (17) length direction surface thereof under the effect of dump ram (15), make stalk hopper (17) rear portion rises, thus make stalk flow forward to the discharge roller (19) of stalk hopper (17) front portion.
3. the double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of orchard according to claim 1 stalk, it is characterized in that, the power of described throwing earthenware (9) is exported by tractor (1) power take-off, pass to throw earthenware (9) through universal joint, line shaft (2), drive throwing soil blade (20) of throwing earthenware (9) to rotate; Power is passed to discharge roller (19) through driving-chain II (8), sprocket wheel IV (12), sprocket wheel III (11), driving-chain I (5), chain wheel I (4) by the chain wheel II (7) of throwing the spindle end of earthenware (9), drives discharge roller (19) to rotate.
4. the double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of orchard according to claim 1 stalk, is characterized in that, described discharge roller (19) is arranged on the inner front lower of stalk hopper (17), and its axis direction is vertical with stalk hopper (17) length direction; Discharge roller (19) rotates under chain wheel I (4) drives, and makes straw substrate uniform discharge; The roll surface of discharge roller (19) has spike-tooth or convex-concave, and the arrangement of spike-tooth or convex-concave has certain directionality, forces straw substrate even drop down on stalk discharging opening (18) length direction to be discharged; Speed adjusting gear can be installed additional and change discharge roller (19) rotating speed, to realize straw substrate load, i.e. the regulation and control of straw substrate overburden cover.
5. the double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of orchard according to claim 1 stalk, it is characterized in that, the shell upper of described throwing earthenware (9) and the hypomere of connecting rod (13) are fixedly linked, the upper end of connecting rod (13) and the chassis of trailer (16) are hinged and connected at pin joint (14) place, throw hinged a pair hoist cylinder (3) in front at earthenware (9) cover top portion two ends, the upper end thereof of hoist cylinder (3) is suspended on the chassis of trailer (16); When carrying out orchard improving straw mulching work, hoist cylinder (3) extends, and drives whole throwing earthenware (9) to rotate around pin joint (14), throwing earthenware (9) is declined, throws native blade (20) and bury; Throw earthenware (9) throw soil amount number, namely thin soil lid pressure layer thickness regulate and control by hoist cylinder (3); When being in walking states, hoist cylinder (3) shortens, and drives whole throwing earthenware (9) to rotate around pin joint (14), makes throwing earthenware (9) increase.
6. the double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of orchard according to claim 1 stalk, is characterized in that, the hack that described thin soil lid pressure needs fetches earth by throwing earthenware (9) scene in operation process.
7. the double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of orchard according to claim 1 stalk, is characterized in that, described also can adopt V belt translation from throwing the power delivery mode of earthenware (9) to discharge roller (19).
8. the double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of orchard according to claim 1 stalk, it is characterized in that, the double-deck mulch-laying machine of described orchard stalk is applicable to Arid&semi-arid area or seasonal drought area needs soil moisture conservation, the orchard of water saving or soil, or need to improve soil organic matter content, improve orchard or the soil of soil property and soil organisms microenvironment, or need the orchard or the soil that suppress orchard weed, or need the orchard to soil heat preservation or soil, or the orchard of comprehensive above-mentioned multiple needs or soil, be particularly suitable for the dwarfing orchard of intensive culture, as short anvil apple orchard.
CN201410814199.1A 2014-12-24 2014-12-24 The double-deck mulch-laying machine of a kind of orchard stalk Active CN104429385B (en)

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CN106258037B (en) * 2016-11-07 2018-10-02 西北农林科技大学 A kind of crawler type orchard straw covering machine

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