CN104982216A - Method for cultivating watermelons with mulch film - Google Patents

Method for cultivating watermelons with mulch film Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104982216A
CN104982216A CN201510478634.2A CN201510478634A CN104982216A CN 104982216 A CN104982216 A CN 104982216A CN 201510478634 A CN201510478634 A CN 201510478634A CN 104982216 A CN104982216 A CN 104982216A
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watermelon
pollination
grafting
days
melon
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蔡鹏�
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/30Grafting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G13/00Protecting plants
    • A01G13/02Protective coverings for plants; Coverings for the ground; Devices for laying-out or removing coverings
    • A01G13/0256Ground coverings
    • A01G13/0268Mats or sheets, e.g. nets or fabrics
    • A01G13/0275Films
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G9/00Cultivation in receptacles, forcing-frames or greenhouses; Edging for beds, lawn or the like
    • A01G9/14Greenhouses
    • A01G9/1438Covering materials therefor; Materials for protective coverings used for soil and plants, e.g. films, canopies, tunnels or cloches
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/28Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture specially adapted for farming

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Soil Sciences (AREA)
  • Botany (AREA)
  • Health & Medical Sciences (AREA)
  • General Health & Medical Sciences (AREA)
  • Toxicology (AREA)
  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Engineering & Computer Science (AREA)
  • Materials Engineering (AREA)
  • Developmental Biology & Embryology (AREA)
  • Cultivation Of Plants (AREA)

Abstract

The present invention relates to a method for cultivating watermelons with a mulch film. The cultivation method comprises specific steps of: seed treatment-grafting seedling, grafting-root finishing-transplanting into fields-topdressing, and irrigation-field management-harvesting. In the process of cultivation, the pollination date and process are very critical and need to be determined according to the results after pollination at different time and under different weather, so that the quality of mature watermelons can be guaranteed. The cultivation method provided by the present invention is a complete method concluded by technicians after many years of practice. The watermelons cultivated by using the cultivation method are sweet in taste, and have the functions of clearing summerheat, relieving heat and thirst, diuresis and anti-inflammatory, hypotensive effect, increasing skin elasticity, making people look younger and reducing wrinkles.

Description

Melonry film mulching and planting method
Technical field
The invention belongs to plant planting field, particularly a kind of melonry film mulching and planting method.
Background technology
Citrullus Curcurbitaceae, be a kind of dicotyledonous flowering plant, shape is as tendril, and leaf is featheriness.The fruit that it is born is Peponidium, and being the melon specific a kind of succulent fruit of Curcurbitaceae, is the pseudocarp that the inferior ovary having parietal placenta by 3 carpels grows.The main edible part of watermelon is flourishing placenta.Fruit rinds is smooth, has decorative pattern in green or yellow, and fruit flesh succulence is red or yellow, rare white.In summer, watermelon is the favorite foods that quench one's thirst of people, direct-edible, also can break into juice and drink.In a word, watermelon is requisite relieving summer-heat food in people's summer, and therefore its demand is very large.But people will find in edible, and some watermelons are nice especially, and some watermelons are tasted very flat, and this has very large relation with the planting technology of watermelon.
Summary of the invention
The object of this invention is to provide the melonry film mulching and planting method of the high but also quality better of a kind of not only output.
A kind of melonry film mulching and planting method, the concrete steps of this cultivation method are:
(1), seed treatment
First-selected selection kind, again the seed chosen is basked seeds, shine 1 ~ 2 day, then soak seed, warm water seed being put into 55 degree constantly stirs 15 minutes, naturally soak seed half an hour after cooling, the sky that flood goes out to float on the surface is not plump, then uses cold water soak 1 evening, within second day, washes seed with a small amount of washing powder, make the sensation that it is not slided, cleaned seed is carried out vernalization; If without seed melon, need to break by the teeth gently kind sharp 1/3rd, the temperature of vernalization should keep 25 ~ 28 degree; If employing grafting, stock kind bottle gourd, shifts to an earlier date sowing in 5 days than watermelon, and the vernalization thermophilic of stock kind is 20 ~ 22 degree;
(2) nursery, grafting, is connect
First prepare Nutrition Soil, the farmyard manure become thoroughly decomposed is mixed with broken thin earth, ratio is that 6:4 can add a small amount of composite fertilizer and fully mixes thoroughly, the Nutrition Soil prepared loads in nutritive cube stand-by, also nutrition ball can be made, nutritive cube, seed after vernalization is lain in nutritive cube, can not stand up or be inverted seed, again nutritive cube is fitly placed on seedbed, space is filled up with very thin earth, favourable water conservation, insulation, again with in film cover, should water in seedbed as far as possible less, controlled humidity, when rudiment was to Kai Maoye 10 days, carry out artificial grafting, pass through grafting and root-changing, the generation of fusarium wilt can be avoided,
(3), neatly, railway carriage or compartment is opened
First remove remaining stalk, stone class foreign material before whole ground, in order to avoid scratch mulch film, hack of raking after plowing, requires without bulk, uses sufficient base fertilizer, then opens railway carriage or compartment by the line-spacing of plantation; Wide 6 ~ 7 chis in railway carriage or compartment, furrow width 1 chi, high 0.5 chi in railway carriage or compartment, can plant 580 ~ 600 strains for every mu, a watt antiform is made in face, railway carriage or compartment, and centre is slightly high, and both sides are that gentle slope reduces, and such railway carriage or compartment cover mulch film is easily tightened, not easily ponding, the growth of favourable;
(4) field-transplanting
5 ~ 7 days first hardenings before field planting, first spray seedbed with Hymexazol-matulaxyl during lifting and once carry out sterilization, and transplanting time is that height above sea level less than 600 meters late March are to early April; Height above sea level is advisable to late April more than 600 meters mid-Aprils, first carries out soil disinfection with fenaminosulf during transplanting, and every mu of ground need with 0.5 kilogram, and the field planting degree of depth is that the suitable for reading of trophosome flushes with ground, and cotyledon is apart from 1 ~ 2 centimetre, ground; During field planting, earth backing is tight, but can not tension, and drench sufficient normal root water, noticing that energy loss is not completely cured is, rapid epiphragma is tight with grave around mulch film; If it is too low to meet temperature, at seedling place, bamboo chip adds Small plastic shed, need not opening immediately, and after 5 ~ 7 days, just opening puts seedling by the time, and at film openings place, earth is sturdy; If temperature reach more than 15 degree also can directly when transplanting by film openings, and compress opening part with earth;
(5) topdress, pour water
1., heavy dressing base manure (1) to topdress principle:: based on farmyard manure, every mu reaches 3000 kilograms as well; 2., seedling stage, thin fertile duty was executed: clear liquid dung as well, now can not use urea; 3., fall rattan in the past with composite fertilizer, oil cake is main, 50 kilograms every mu, the 60 centimeters ditchings fertilisings preferably plant when executing; 4., heavy dressing knot melon is fertile: during watermelon 0.5 kilogram weight, in the middle of plant, execute 2 quick action fertilizers, first time can execute urea, second time sealing fertilizer;
(2) pour water: when female flower occurs and fruit expanding period need a large amount of water;
(6), field management
(1) intertill and clean tillage, training is stayed climing: as long as carry out an intertill and clean tillage, when 7 leaves, stay 1 major branch, 2 side shoots, and the flowers are in blossom before, branch is determined in training, and the side shoot of Post flowering all removes, and after starting to bear fruit, layer overlay wheat straw is wanted in watermelon garden entirely;
(2) artificial pollination: watermelon is entomophilous flower crop, main by insect pollination such as honeybees, as few in low temperature insect activity and rainy weather, seat melon difficulty, so must carry out artificial pollination, especially aspermous watermelon must carry out artificial pollination:
1., seat melon selects: early-maturing variety stays melon as well at main climing every 12 ~ 15 joints, namely stays the second female flower, aspermous watermelon generally main climing with 20 ~ 25 joint the 3rd female flower settings as well;
2., male flower selects: select the same day open, bright-colored, and the larger male flower of corolla diameter as well;
3., female flower is selected: select the female flower setting that ovary is large, fine hair is many, melon handle is long and thick;
4., pollination Best Times: at 8 ~ 10 in fine day morning is Best Times, has awarded powder as well in 7 days;
5., pollinating method: select the male flower that the same day is open, take together with anthocaulus, then petal is turned up, expose stamen, then hold up female flower anthocaulus gently, it is made to expose column cap, smeared gently on the column cap of female flower by pollen, pollen is scattering on column cap equably, a male flower awards two female flowers, every day ticks with the line of different colours after pollination, is convenient to the maturing stage determining watermelon;
(7), gather
(1), calculate the fruit maturation time, the time of infertility of general watermelon is 90 ~ 110 days, and kind is different, and breeding time, length was also different;
(2), field indetification; Pericarp is hard smooth and glossy, and fruit face decorative pattern is clear, presents the aging color of the leather that kind is intrinsic, and fruit bottom colors turns yellow and coarse;
(3), with thrum melon; If sound is " voiced sound " be shown to be ripe melon; Sound is that " crisp sound " is shown to be unripe watermelon;
(4), after watermelon pollination 30 ~ 35 days then ripe, tick with line as during pollination, check that wherein to have a melon ripe, what all the other were pollinated on the same day is also mature on the whole;
(5), field fruit with joint or front 1 ~ 2 tendril withered and yellow, the bright bristle of melon is sparse, areola sink shows maturation.
Described grafting method is that tip cutting connects, this method needs two people to coordinate, one people holds special bamboo let and is responsible for grafting, wide, thick suitable with watermelon bar thickness, first remove stock hair leaf and growing point, bamboo let is inserted in stock from top gently, another people holds blade and is responsible for cutting scion, with blade, watermelon spacing cotyledon 8 ~ 10 millimeters of places are obliquely amputated stem exactly and also take out rapidly bamboo let in watermelon seedling insertion stock, press from both sides above with Grafting clip.
Described grafting method is that tongue is abutted against, and by rootstock seedling tiltedly partial application downwards gently, becomes miter angle ligule, about 0.5 centimetre, then becomes miter angle ligule about 0.5 centimetre in the upward partial application in the middle part of watermelon seedling, then two seedlings are embedded mutually, clamp with Grafting clip.Grafting is placed on healing in plastics Small plastic shed, and require that temperature remains on 25 ~ 30 degree, humidity should be 95 ~ 99% in initial 2 ~ 3 days, will shelter from heat or light simultaneously, and ventilate gradually later and see light, can heal after 7 days, watermelon starts growth; Cut off by watermelon root after 15 days, cotyledon, the hair leaf of stock remove together, and remove lower Grafting clip.
Described grafting method is cut for splitting, with blade, the growing point of stock and Mao Ye are pruned, in the downward rip cutting in cane side about 1.5 centimeter length, immediately 1.5 ~ 2 centimeters under clean watermelon young plant leaf are upwards pruned, and make both sides bevel be oblique triangle, then insert in rootstock opening-cleaving, clamp with Grafting clip.
Described pollinating method is: (1) if watermelon duration of flowering rainy weather is many, carry the previous day by Male and female flowers band paper cap or small plastic bag rainproof, take off paper cap during pollination and carry out, pollination after female flower still wear paper cap protection, take off paper cap after 3 days; (2) fine day pollination latter 3 hours in without rain, then can normally pollinate, rainy in 3 hours, then need benefit to award once; (3) the next afternoon after pollination, if the bright bending sagging growth of female pickled cucumbers, ovary front end starts to contact to earth, and shows to pollinate successfully; Still upwards or still extend straight forward if female pickled cucumbers is bright, be the performance of not awarding powder, should again pollinate.
The method of the cultivation method of the present invention complete set that to be technical staff go out through practice summary for many years, the watermelon mouthfeel adopting this cultivation method kind to obtain is very sweet, both can clearing away summerheat, relieving restlessness is quenched the thirst, there is again the effect of diuresis anti-inflammatory, also have hypotensive, increase skin elasticity, what people was become is younger, reduces the function of wrinkle simultaneously.
Embodiment
Containing a large amount of moisture in watermelon, be a kind of F&B can growing body complement, be suitable for heatstroke heating, how thirsty people eats sweat.Thirsty, sweat is many, irritated time, eat lastblock watermelon, symptom can be improved at once.The material such as sugar, salt, acid simultaneously contained in watermelon, has treatment ephritis and hypotensive effect.This is because there is appropriate sugar energy diuresis; Have appropriate sylvite can eliminate the inflammation of kidney, enzyme wherein can be converted into soluble protein insoluble protein, to increase the nutrition of nephritis victim; Glycocide in melon then has the effect reduced blood pressure.So the food that people like firmly got by watermelon.But because watermelon is along with different geographical, the difference of different culture technique, the mouthfeel of gained watermelon is completely different.
Professional of agriculture, according to the experience of planting watermelon for many years, sums up a kind of melonry film mulching and planting method.Melonry film mulching and planting, to heating, water conservation, fertilizer conservation, promotion vine growth and development, ahead of time listing, improve sugar content, increase yield, saving labour etc. and there is significant benefit.Watermelon film-mulching cultivation is also a kind of protectiveness mode of production, in order to effectively play the effect of this technology, obtain expection benefit, must carry out following some:
One, seed treatment
First-selected select kind, the kind being applicable to cultivation has: No. nine, western agriculture, poly-precious No. 1, newly clear, especially big Qinghongbao etc.Bask seeds again, shine 1 ~ 2 day, then soak seed, warm water seed being put into 55 degree constantly stirs 15 minutes, naturally soak seed half an hour after cooling, the sky that flood goes out to float on the surface is not plump, use cold water soak 1 evening again, within second day, wash seed with a small amount of washing powder, make the sensation that it is not slided, cleaned seed is carried out vernalization, note if without seed melon, because of seed coat, spy is thick, is not easy broken shell and sprouts, so must break by the teeth gently kind sharp 1/3rd, the temperature of vernalization should keep 25 ~ 28 degree best.If employing grafting, stock kind bottle gourd, shifts to an earlier date sowing in 5 days than watermelon.The vernalization thermophilic of attention stock kind is 20 ~ 22 degree.
Two, nursery, grafting is connect
First prepare Nutrition Soil, the farmyard manure become thoroughly decomposed is mixed with broken thin earth, ratio is that 6:4 can add a small amount of composite fertilizer and fully mixes thoroughly, the Nutrition Soil prepared loads in nutritive cube stand-by, also nutrition ball can be made, nutritive cube, seed after vernalization is lain in nutritive cube, must not stand up or be inverted seed, again nutritive cube is fitly placed on seedbed, space is filled up with very thin earth, favourable like this water conservation, insulation, again with in film cover, should water in seedbed as far as possible less, controlled humidity, rudiment was to Kai Maoyeyue 10 days, now just artificial grafting can be carried out, pass through grafting and root-changing, the generation of fusarium wilt can be avoided, quality can also be improved by increase yield.Conventional grafting side has following of the same race:
(1) tip cutting connects: this method best two people coordinate, one people holds special bamboo let (wide, thick suitable with watermelon bar thickness) and is responsible for grafting, first stock hair leaf and growing point is removed, bamboo let is inserted in stock from top gently, another people holds blade and is responsible for cutting scion, with blade watermelon spacing cotyledon 8 ~ 10 millimeters of places being obliquely amputated stem (best disposable cut-out) exactly and taking out rapidly bamboo let inserts watermelon seedling in stock, upper with Grafting clip folder.
(2) tongue is abutted against: by rootstock seedling tiltedly partial application downwards gently, become miter angle ligule, about 0.5 centimetre, then become miter angle ligule about 0.5 centimetre in the upward partial application in the middle part of watermelon seedling, then two seedlings are embedded mutually, clamp with Grafting clip.Grafting is placed on healing in plastics Small plastic shed, and require that temperature remains on 25 ~ 30 degree, humidity should be 95 ~ 99% in initial 2 ~ 3 days, will shelter from heat or light simultaneously, and ventilate gradually later and see light, can heal after 7 days, watermelon starts growth.Cut off by watermelon root after 15 days, cotyledon, the hair leaf of stock remove together, and remove lower Grafting clip.
(3) split and cut: with blade, the growing point of stock and Mao Ye are pruned, in the downward rip cutting in cane side about 1.5 centimeter length, immediately 1.5 ~ 2 centimeters under clean watermelon young plant leaf are upwards pruned, and make both sides bevel be oblique triangle, then insert in rootstock opening-cleaving, clamp with Grafting clip.
Three, neatly, railway carriage or compartment is opened
Be the basis of plastic film mulching cultivation wholely, first remove remaining stalk, the foreign material such as stone before whole ground, in order to avoid scratch mulch film, hack of raking after plowing, requires without bulk, uses sufficient base fertilizer, then opens railway carriage or compartment by the line-spacing of plantation.Wide general 6 ~ 7 chis in railway carriage or compartment, about furrow width 1 chi, high 0.5 chi in railway carriage or compartment, every mu can plant 580 ~ 600 strains about, a watt antiform is made in face, railway carriage or compartment, and centre is slightly high, both sides be gentle slope reduce, such railway carriage or compartment cover mulch film is easily tightened, not easily ponding, the growth of favourable.
Four, field-transplanting
Before field planting 5 ~ 7 days should first hardening, first spray seedbed with Hymexazol-matulaxyl during lifting and once carry out sterilization, transplanting time is that height above sea level less than 600 meters late March are to early April; Height above sea level is advisable to late April more than 600 meters mid-Aprils, first carries out soil disinfection with fenaminosulf during transplanting, and every mu of ground need with 0.5 kilogram, and the field planting degree of depth is that the suitable for reading of trophosome flushes (general cotyledon is apart from 1 ~ 2 centimetre, ground) with ground.During field planting, earth backing is tight, but can not tension, and drench sufficient normal root water, noticing that energy loss is not completely cured is, rapid epiphragma is tight with grave around mulch film.If it is too low to meet temperature, at seedling place, bamboo chip adds Small plastic shed, need not opening immediately, and after 5 ~ 7 days, just opening puts seedling by the time, and at film openings place, earth is sturdy.If temperature reach more than 15 degree also can directly when transplanting by film openings, and compress opening part with earth.
Five, topdress, pour water
(1) to topdress principle: 1, heavy dressing base manure: based on farmyard manure, every mu reaches 3000 kilograms as well; 2, seedling stage, thin fertile duty was executed: clear liquid dung as well, now can not use urea; 3, fall rattan in the past with composite fertilizer, oil cake is main, 50 kilograms every mu, the 60 centimeters ditchings fertilisings preferably plant when executing.4, heavy dressing knot melon is fertile: during watermelon 0.5 kilogram weight, in the middle of plant, execute 2 quick action fertilizers, and first time can execute urea, second time sealing fertilizer.
(2) pour water: when female flower occurs and fruit expanding period need a large amount of water.
Six, field management
(1) intertill and clean tillage, training is stayed climing: as long as carry out an intertill and clean tillage, when 7 leaves, stay 1 major branch, 2 side shoots, and the flowers are in blossom before, branch is determined in training, and the side shoot of Post flowering all removes, and after starting to bear fruit, layer overlay wheat straw is wanted in watermelon garden entirely.
(2) artificial pollination: watermelon is entomophilous flower crop, main by insect pollination such as honeybees, as few in low temperature insect activity and rainy weather, seat melon difficulty, so must carry out artificial pollination, especially aspermous watermelon must carry out artificial pollination:
1, seat melon is selected: early-maturing variety stays melon as well at main climing every 12 ~ 15 joints, namely stays the second female flower, aspermous watermelon generally main climing with 20 ~ 25 joint the 3rd female flower settings as well.
2, male flower is selected: to select the same day open, bright-colored, and the larger male flower of corolla diameter as well.
3, female flower is selected: select the female flower setting that ovary is large, fine hair is many, melon handle is long and thick.
4, to pollinate Best Times: at 8 ~ 10 in fine day morning is Best Times, has awarded powder as well in 7 days.
5, pollinating method: select the male flower that the same day is open, take together with anthocaulus, then petal is turned up, expose stamen, then hold up female flower anthocaulus gently, it is made to expose column cap, smeared gently on the column cap of female flower by pollen, pollen is scattering on column cap equably, a male flower awards two female flowers, every day ticks with the line of different colours after pollination, is convenient to the maturing stage determining watermelon.
6, note some: (1), if watermelon duration of flowering rainy weather is many, is carried the previous day by rainproof for Male and female flowers band paper cap (or small plastic bag), is taken off paper cap and carry out during pollination, pollination after female flower still wear paper cap protection, take off paper cap after 3 days.(2) fine day pollination latter 3 hours in without rain, then can normally pollinate, rainy in 3 hours, then need benefit to award once, (3) pollination after the next afternoon, if female pickled cucumbers bright bend sagging growth, ovary front end starts to contact to earth, and shows to pollinate successfully.Still upwards or still extend straight forward if female pickled cucumbers is bright, be the performance of not awarding powder, should again pollinate.
Seven, gather
1, calculate the fruit maturation time, the time of infertility of general watermelon is 90 ~ 110 days, and kind is different, and breeding time, length was also different.
2, field indetification; Pericarp is hard smooth and glossy, and fruit face decorative pattern is clear, presents the aging color of the leather that kind is intrinsic, and fruit bottom colors turns yellow and coarse.
3, with thrum melon; If sound is " voiced sound " be shown to be ripe melon; Sound is that " crisp sound " is shown to be unripe watermelon.
4, after watermelon pollination 30 ~ 35 days then ripe, tick with line as during pollination, check that wherein to have a melon ripe, what all the other were pollinated on the same day is also mature on the whole.
5, field fruit with joint or front 1 ~ 2 tendril withered and yellow, the bright bristle of melon is sparse, areola sink shows maturation.
Adopt the watermelon mouthfeel of cultivation method gained of the present invention pleasant, how sweet juice is, not only quenched one's thirst but also relieving summer-heat.Then without also having following health care:
(1) aphthae.Burnt with watermelon peel, ground into powder, and put into mouth and include and hold in the mouth or the eyes.
(2) pain in the back is frustrated in.Dry in the shade with watermelon rascal, grind as end, salt wine is taken after mixing with liquid 15 grams.
(3) eat melon too much, people feels uncomfortable.Drink with melon skin decoction soup.
(4) melon vine relieves the effect of alcohol.

Claims (5)

1. a melonry film mulching and planting method, is characterized in that: the concrete steps of this cultivation method are:
(1), seed treatment
First-selected selection kind, again the seed chosen is basked seeds, shine 1 ~ 2 day, then soak seed, warm water seed being put into 55 degree constantly stirs 15 minutes, naturally soak seed half an hour after cooling, the sky that flood goes out to float on the surface is not plump, then uses cold water soak 1 evening, within second day, washes seed with a small amount of washing powder, make the sensation that it is not slided, cleaned seed is carried out vernalization; If without seed melon, need to break by the teeth gently kind sharp 1/3rd, the temperature of vernalization should keep 25 ~ 28 degree; If employing grafting, stock kind bottle gourd, shifts to an earlier date sowing in 5 days than watermelon, and the vernalization thermophilic of stock kind is 20 ~ 22 degree;
(2) nursery, grafting, is connect
First prepare Nutrition Soil, the farmyard manure become thoroughly decomposed is mixed with broken thin earth, ratio is that 6:4 can add a small amount of composite fertilizer and fully mixes thoroughly, the Nutrition Soil prepared loads in nutritive cube stand-by, also nutrition ball can be made, nutritive cube, seed after vernalization is lain in nutritive cube, can not stand up or be inverted seed, again nutritive cube is fitly placed on seedbed, space is filled up with very thin earth, favourable water conservation, insulation, again with in film cover, should water in seedbed as far as possible less, controlled humidity, when rudiment was to Kai Maoye 10 days, carry out artificial grafting, pass through grafting and root-changing, the generation of fusarium wilt can be avoided,
(3), neatly, railway carriage or compartment is opened
First remove remaining stalk, stone class foreign material before whole ground, in order to avoid scratch mulch film, hack of raking after plowing, requires without bulk, uses sufficient base fertilizer, then opens railway carriage or compartment by the line-spacing of plantation; Wide 6 ~ 7 chis in railway carriage or compartment, furrow width 1 chi, high 0.5 chi in railway carriage or compartment, can plant 580 ~ 600 strains for every mu, a watt antiform is made in face, railway carriage or compartment, and centre is slightly high, and both sides are that gentle slope reduces, and such railway carriage or compartment cover mulch film is easily tightened, not easily ponding, the growth of favourable;
(4) field-transplanting
5 ~ 7 days first hardenings before field planting, first spray seedbed with Hymexazol-matulaxyl during lifting and once carry out sterilization, and transplanting time is that height above sea level less than 600 meters late March are to early April; Height above sea level is advisable to late April more than 600 meters mid-Aprils, first carries out soil disinfection with fenaminosulf during transplanting, and every mu of ground need with 0.5 kilogram, and the field planting degree of depth is that the suitable for reading of trophosome flushes with ground, and cotyledon is apart from 1 ~ 2 centimetre, ground; During field planting, earth backing is tight, but can not tension, and drench sufficient normal root water, noticing that energy loss is not completely cured is, rapid epiphragma is tight with grave around mulch film; If it is too low to meet temperature, at seedling place, bamboo chip adds Small plastic shed, need not opening immediately, and after 5 ~ 7 days, just opening puts seedling by the time, and at film openings place, earth is sturdy; If temperature reach more than 15 degree also can directly when transplanting by film openings, and compress opening part with earth;
(5) topdress, pour water
1., heavy dressing base manure (1) to topdress principle:: based on farmyard manure, every mu reaches 3000 kilograms as well; 2., seedling stage, thin fertile duty was executed: clear liquid dung as well, now can not use urea; 3., fall rattan in the past with composite fertilizer, oil cake is main, 50 kilograms every mu, the 60 centimeters ditchings fertilisings preferably plant when executing; 4., heavy dressing knot melon is fertile: during watermelon 0.5 kilogram weight, in the middle of plant, execute 2 quick action fertilizers, first time can execute urea, second time sealing fertilizer;
(2) pour water: when female flower occurs and fruit expanding period need a large amount of water;
(6), field management
(1) intertill and clean tillage, training is stayed climing: as long as carry out an intertill and clean tillage, when 7 leaves, stay 1 major branch, 2 side shoots, and the flowers are in blossom before, branch is determined in training, and the side shoot of Post flowering all removes, and after starting to bear fruit, layer overlay wheat straw is wanted in watermelon garden entirely;
(2) artificial pollination: watermelon is entomophilous flower crop, main by insect pollination such as honeybees, as few in low temperature insect activity and rainy weather, seat melon difficulty, so must carry out artificial pollination, especially aspermous watermelon must carry out artificial pollination:
1., seat melon selects: early-maturing variety stays melon as well at main climing every 12 ~ 15 joints, namely stays the second female flower, aspermous watermelon generally main climing with 20 ~ 25 joint the 3rd female flower settings as well;
2., male flower selects: select the same day open, bright-colored, and the larger male flower of corolla diameter as well;
3., female flower is selected: select the female flower setting that ovary is large, fine hair is many, melon handle is long and thick;
4., pollination Best Times: at 8 ~ 10 in fine day morning is Best Times, has awarded powder as well in 7 days;
5., pollinating method: select the male flower that the same day is open, take together with anthocaulus, then petal is turned up, expose stamen, then hold up female flower anthocaulus gently, it is made to expose column cap, smeared gently on the column cap of female flower by pollen, pollen is scattering on column cap equably, a male flower awards two female flowers, every day ticks with the line of different colours after pollination, is convenient to the maturing stage determining watermelon;
(7), gather
(1), calculate the fruit maturation time, the time of infertility of general watermelon is 90 ~ 110 days, and kind is different, and breeding time, length was also different;
(2), field indetification; Pericarp is hard smooth and glossy, and fruit face decorative pattern is clear, presents the aging color of the leather that kind is intrinsic, and fruit bottom colors turns yellow and coarse;
(3), with thrum melon; If sound is " voiced sound " be shown to be ripe melon; Sound is that " crisp sound " is shown to be unripe watermelon;
(4), after watermelon pollination 30 ~ 35 days then ripe, tick with line as during pollination, check that wherein to have a melon ripe, what all the other were pollinated on the same day is also mature on the whole;
(5), field fruit with joint or front 1 ~ 2 tendril withered and yellow, the bright bristle of melon is sparse, areola sink shows maturation.
2. melonry film mulching and planting method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described grafting method is that tip cutting connects, this method needs two people to coordinate, one people holds special bamboo let and is responsible for grafting, wide, thick suitable with watermelon bar thickness, first stock hair leaf and growing point is removed, bamboo let is inserted in stock from top gently, another people holds blade and is responsible for cutting scion, with blade, watermelon spacing cotyledon 8 ~ 10 millimeters of places are obliquely amputated stem exactly and also take out rapidly bamboo let in watermelon seedling insertion stock, press from both sides above with Grafting clip.
3. melonry film mulching and planting method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described grafting method is that tongue is abutted against, by rootstock seedling tiltedly partial application downwards gently, become miter angle ligule, about 0.5 centimetre, become miter angle ligule about 0.5 centimetre in the upward partial application in the middle part of watermelon seedling again, then two seedlings are embedded mutually, clamp with Grafting clip;
Grafting is placed on healing in plastics Small plastic shed, and require that temperature remains on 25 ~ 30 degree, humidity should be 95 ~ 99% in initial 2 ~ 3 days, will shelter from heat or light simultaneously, and ventilate gradually later and see light, can heal after 7 days, watermelon starts growth; Cut off by watermelon root after 15 days, cotyledon, the hair leaf of stock remove together, and remove lower Grafting clip.
4. melonry film mulching and planting method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described grafting method is cut for splitting, with blade, the growing point of stock and Mao Ye are pruned, in the downward rip cutting in cane side about 1.5 centimeter length, immediately 1.5 ~ 2 centimeters under clean watermelon young plant leaf are upwards pruned, and make both sides bevel be oblique triangle, then insert in rootstock opening-cleaving, clamp with Grafting clip.
5. melonry film mulching and planting method according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: described pollinating method is: (1) is if watermelon duration of flowering rainy weather is many, carry the previous day by Male and female flowers band paper cap or small plastic bag rainproof, take off paper cap during pollination to carry out, after pollination, female flower still wears the protection of paper cap, takes off paper cap after 3 days; (2) fine day pollination latter 3 hours in without rain, then can normally pollinate, rainy in 3 hours, then need benefit to award once; (3) the next afternoon after pollination, if the bright bending sagging growth of female pickled cucumbers, ovary front end starts to contact to earth, and shows to pollinate successfully; Still upwards or still extend straight forward if female pickled cucumbers is bright, be the performance of not awarding powder, should again pollinate.
CN201510478634.2A 2015-08-07 2015-08-07 Method for cultivating watermelons with mulch film Pending CN104982216A (en)

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CN105493875A (en) * 2016-01-18 2016-04-20 王春雷 Growing method for organic watermelons
CN105638255A (en) * 2016-03-21 2016-06-08 淮南市亚丰酥瓜研究所 High survival rate grafting method of melons
CN105917929A (en) * 2016-05-10 2016-09-07 无锡市黄土塘西瓜专业合作社 Greenhouse planting method for watermelons
CN105993453A (en) * 2016-05-20 2016-10-12 孙建英 Planting method for high-quality watermelon in late autumn
CN106416712A (en) * 2016-10-09 2017-02-22 湖南生物机电职业技术学院 Method for promoting watermelon fruit setting
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CN105359816A (en) * 2015-12-17 2016-03-02 贵州平坝宝地农业科技产业有限公司 Planting method of early-maturing watermelons
CN105493875A (en) * 2016-01-18 2016-04-20 王春雷 Growing method for organic watermelons
CN105638255A (en) * 2016-03-21 2016-06-08 淮南市亚丰酥瓜研究所 High survival rate grafting method of melons
CN105917929A (en) * 2016-05-10 2016-09-07 无锡市黄土塘西瓜专业合作社 Greenhouse planting method for watermelons
CN105993453A (en) * 2016-05-20 2016-10-12 孙建英 Planting method for high-quality watermelon in late autumn
CN106416712A (en) * 2016-10-09 2017-02-22 湖南生物机电职业技术学院 Method for promoting watermelon fruit setting
CN106804271A (en) * 2017-01-18 2017-06-09 甘肃省农业科学院 Ditch broadcasts cultural method on a kind of nonirrigated farmland watermelon full-film covering ridge
CN107148847A (en) * 2017-04-26 2017-09-12 蚌埠市宝煦家庭农场 A kind of Pluvial growth of watermelon means to save the situation
CN107493926A (en) * 2017-09-27 2017-12-22 界首市菜盟家庭农场 A kind of high yield high-quality implantation methods of watermelon
CN109548504A (en) * 2018-12-26 2019-04-02 安徽省舒城县舒丰现代农业科技开发有限责任公司 A kind of engrafting method of watermelon
CN110692308A (en) * 2019-10-14 2020-01-17 中国农业科学院郑州果树研究所 Seedless watermelon shell-breaking-free germination accelerating method

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