CN103798019A - Method for growing watermelons - Google Patents

Method for growing watermelons Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103798019A
CN103798019A CN201410028748.2A CN201410028748A CN103798019A CN 103798019 A CN103798019 A CN 103798019A CN 201410028748 A CN201410028748 A CN 201410028748A CN 103798019 A CN103798019 A CN 103798019A
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China
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melon
water
watermelon
kilogram
fruit
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CN201410028748.2A
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Chinese (zh)
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杜晓芸
吕从广
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和县常久农业发展有限公司
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Priority to CN201410028748.2A priority Critical patent/CN103798019A/en
Publication of CN103798019A publication Critical patent/CN103798019A/en

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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A50/00TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE in human health protection, e.g. against extreme weather
    • Y02A50/30Against vector-borne diseases, e.g. mosquito-borne, fly-borne, tick-borne or waterborne diseases whose impact is exacerbated by climate change

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for growing watermelons. The method includes the steps of processing seeds and accelerating germination, sowing and raising seedlings, applying base fertilizer on the whole land, transplanting the seedlings, performing field management, harvesting and the like. The method for growing watermelons is easy to operate, convenient to manage, good in growth vigor of watermelons, high in disease resistance, uniform in result nature and high in yield, the yield per mu can reach 4000 kg to 5000 kg, the watermelons are large, good in quality, high in sugar content, bright in flesh color, delicate in flesh and high in water content and commodity value, and therefore the method has great significance for increasing income of melon farmers.

Description

A kind of implantation methods of watermelon

Technical field

The present invention relates to a kind of implantation methods of watermelon, belong to agriculture cultivation technology field.

Background technology

Watermelon, belongs to Curcurbitaceae, originates in Africa.Watermelon is a kind of dicotyledonous flowering plant, and branches and leaves shape is as tendril, and leaf is featheriness.The fruit that it is born is Peponidium, is the melon peculiar a kind of succulent fruit of Curcurbitaceae, is that the inferior ovary that has a parietal placenta by 3 carpels grows the pseudocarp forming.The main edible part of watermelon is flourishing placenta.Watermelon is cold in nature, and taste is sweet, the thoughts of returning home, stomach, urinary bladder channel; There is clearing away summerheat, promote the production of body fluid to quench thirst, effect of diuresis relieving restlessness; Cure mainly chest diaphragm gas and stop up, full vexed not easypro, difficult urination, the raw sore of mouth and nose, hot summer weather, heatstroke, the diseases such as relieving alcoholism.Watermelon can be rated as " king in midsummer ", clearly quench one's thirst, taste sugariness succulence, it is good fruit in midsummer, watermelon is except not fatty and cholesterol, containing the materials such as a large amount of glucose, malic acid, fructose, Argine Monohydrochloride, tomatin and abundant vitamin C, is a kind of rich very high nutrition, pure, edible safety food.Watermelon all has cultivation in China various places.But the per mu yield of existing watermelon is not high, per mu yield is generally at 2500-3000 kilogram, and watermelon stature is little, and poor quality cannot be met the need of market.

Summary of the invention

The object of the invention is to for the deficiencies in the prior art, a kind of implantation methods of watermelon of high yield and high quality is provided.

For achieving the above object, the method scheme that the present invention adopts is as follows:

An implantation methods for watermelon, comprises the following steps:

(1) seed treatment and vernalization

1-2 days basks seeds seed under sunny weather, then use the hot water seed soaking 15-20 minute of 60-70 ℃, then adding a small amount of cold water makes water temperature be down to 25-30 ℃, Deng the naturally cooling immersion of water 2-3 hour, pull out and put into 1% liquor potassic permanganate immersion 10-15 minute, put into again emerge in worm water 2-3 hour with 50-55 ℃, warm water, pull out and seed is wrapped and rubbed the mucous membrane going on seed with the hands with towel or coarse cloth afterwards, then the seed having soaked is lain on wet towel, above seed, cover again one deck wet towel, be placed on vernalization under the constant temperature of 30-35 ℃, rate to be showed money or valuables one carries unintentionally reaches more than 70% and can sow,

(2) seeding and seedling raising

Select mid or late March to sow, in the each macropore of seedling-cultivating tray, complete the soil of growing seedlings, then make a call to a vesicle that 0.6-0.8 centimetre is dark, every bunch planting kind 1-2 grain, covers the native thick 2-3 centimetre that grows seedlings, and covers with white mulch film, the seed rate of being unearthed reaches 70-80%, throw off mulch film, day temperature is controlled at 18-25 ℃, and nocturnal temperature is controlled at 16-18 ℃; As seedling age 30-35 days, melon seedling three leaves wholeheartedly, when outside air temperature is stabilized in again 15 ℃, just can be transplanted land for growing field crops in time;

(3) whole ground basal dressing

Select that loosing soil, soil layer are deep, fertile soil, draining is good, illumination is sufficient, when plot with a western exposure; The unsuitable continuous cropping of melonry, 4-5 crop rotation once; Previous crops is take the gramineous crop such as paddy rice, corn as best, and previous crops is gourd vegetables kind watermelon disease weight, should not select;

Must deep plough in melon patch, preferably plough winter, deep ploughing or having in the basic plot of deep ploughing, the surrounding ditch that begins to rehearse, according to the line-spacing 2.4-3.0 rice bag ditch of cultivation, furrow width 0.4-0.6 rice is opened railway carriage or compartment, at furrow face one side trench digging basal dressing, mu is executed farmyard manure 2500-3000 kilogram of becoming thoroughly decomposed, MAP 15-20 kilogram, 45% composite fertilizer 20-25 kilogram, 10-15 kilogram of slowly-releasing desinsection particle, borax 2-3 kilogram, zinc sulphate 1-2 kilogram, build base manure ditch, and be made into the last covering with plastic film in melon ridge, wait for and transplanting;

(4) transplant

Select mid or late April to transplant, line-spacing 110-120 centimetre, spacing in the rows 45-50 centimetre, mu is planted 450-500 strain, waters normal root water after transplanting;

(5) field management

1. intertillage

Intertillage is also after seedling, to start at the neat seedling of sowing or field planting, and thinning, the triplicity of loosening the soil, earth up are carried out, and intertill 2-3 time;

2. pour water

Watermelon belongs to drought resistance crop, and waterlogging is afraid of in drought resisting, but is not not need to pour water, but wants, to pour water in right amount in good time;

A, urge a water: enter group's phase at watermelon, in conjunction with topdressing and water for the first time, the water yield is moderate, only waters sowing furrow, object is to promote seedling tiller, expands leaf area, then intertillage soil moisture conservation, promotion root growth;

B, swollen melon water: Watermelon Fruit enters Fruit and contains the phase after plucking, water requirement increases, and now temperature raises, evaporation discharge strengthens, for promoting Fruit, prevent superfluous seedling, should water in conjunction with topdressing for the second time swollen melon water, the water yield will suitably strengthen, water permeablely, then water according to soil property and rainfall situation, will water swollen melon water several times by plucking surely, and accomplish balanced water supply, prevent dehiscent fruit phenomenon;

3. topdress

The basic principle of topdressing in melon patch is: gently execute seed manure, first urge to control afterwards, skilful ferities grow fertilizer, sits heavy dressing swelling melon fertilizer after young fruit;

A, short seed manure: short seed manure should impose in one week after melon transplantation of seedlings, and urea 8-12 gram or sulphur ammonium 15-20 gram, earthing after ditching-fertilizing are executed in every strain;

B, urge climing fertilizer: carry out stretching climing front and back, in the time that melon seedling grows to 40-60 centimetre, mu is executed urea 10-15 kilogram, superphosphate 5-10 kilogram, potassium sulfate 10-15 kilogram, apply at trench digging in the middle of 25-30 centimetre of melon root or two strains, ditch depth 10-15 centimetre, execute rear earthing and water, promote the absorption of fertilizer;

C, swelling melon fertilizer: the swollen melon phase is the period of fertilizer requirement maximum in watermelon all one's life, water and execute in water mixing after 45% Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 8-10 kilogram of every mu of use of the melon foundation 30-45 of portion centimetre enclosure, urea 4-6 kilogram, potassium sulfate 3-5 kilogram dissolving; Later stage is carried out spray leaf fertilizer, and the potassium dihydrogen phosphate of employing 0.4% sprayed once every 7-10 days, sprayed 2-3 time altogether;

4. prune, beat sweet-smelling grass

Training work wants gradation to carry out, and mainly carries out at nourish and grow early stage and result initial stage, and training for the first time should be bloomed at main climing 2-3 female flower, while forming again the more prosperous side shoot of some growths before and after female flower joint position, should wipe out in time side shoot, in the time that main climing setting has egg large, training just should stop;

Beating sweet-smelling grass is all should carry out from result plays whole field watermelon results, and the unnecessary sweet-smelling grass of erasing, reduces tender leaf and leaflet, retains the strong leaf of great Ye, concentrates nutrient, impels fruit development;

5. whole climing, keep down the vines of a creeping plant

In the time of climing long 30-35 centimetre, should carry out whole climingly, straight climing reason, it is evenly distributed, and keep down the vines of a creeping plant with soil block on joint, impelling generation adventive root, fixing leaf is climing, prevent mutual shading and damaged leaf by the disconnected root of hindering of wind, press once every 5-6 joint, until cissoid covers with furrow face later;

6. artificial supplementary pollination

Melon seedling starts pollination while outputing second female flower, select to lead well-developed female flower on climing and lateral bine, and its bud handle is thick, ovary is loose, profile is normal, the light green and glossiness flower of color; At every morning 8:00-11:00, with the fresh male flower of open and positive loose powder on the same day, petal is pinched with hand to anthocaulus direction, then the stamen of male flower is aimed to the column cap of female flower, be stained with gently several lower;

7. select melon, stay melon

The climing above melon of second and third female bow structure of the master that selects and remain, every strain stays 1-2 melon to be advisable;

(6) timely collecting

Differentiate Watermelon Maturity, the firstth, calculate and sit melon number of days according to varietal character; Second sees fruit appearance, and ripe watermelon melon skin is hard, and decorative pattern is clear, the inside systolic depression of umbilical region and the base of a fruit, and on melon handle, the large portion of fine hair comes off, and the last joint tendril in joint position of bearing fruit is withered; The 3rd tin of fruit sound, with finger attack fruit listening, sending " bang, bang " low and hoarse muddy sound person is ripe melon, the vexed mute or bright ripe mistake of buzz multilist of sound, sending " thump, thump " clear and melodious sound is unripe watermelon; The 4th with feel, a hand rest melon, and melon is patted in another have gentle hands, if holder melon feel has vibration person for ripe melon to micro-; Also can be gently by handle shake in the time plucking melon, melon handle can easily not taken person and is generally ripe melon from melon is climing, according to above method synthesis judgement, timely collecting.

The described native preparation method that grows seedlings is as follows: a, take the raw material of following weight portion: a, peat soil 20-30, the native 10-15 of red jade, deer natural pond soil 8-12, ooze 5-10, chicken manure 15-20, plant straw powder 10-15, bagasse 8-12, wood sawdust 5-10, rice chaff ash 4-8, coconut shell flour 3-5, cinder 2-4, vermiculite 18-24, haydites of book structure 14-18, urea 2-3, superphosphate 1.5-2.5; B, getting vermiculite, perlite, to add concentration be in the hydrochloric acid solution of 10-15%, and heating water bath is to 60-70 ℃, and insulation 1-2 hour, takes out and be washed to neutrality, dries, and 840-880 ℃ of calcining 1-2 hour, is cooled to room temperature, stand-by; C, get chicken manure, plant straw powder, wood sawdust, rice chaff ash, coconut shell flour, bagasse, cinder and mix, pile up in heaps, then urea and superphosphate are mixed, convert 80-100 times of water gaging and make solution, be sprinkling upon equably on heap, naturally place after 24-36h, add the 3-5% of compound amount to add 100-150 times of EM probio dilution, stir, windrow water content is controlled at 60-70%, through fermentation in 5-10 days, when reaching 55-60 ℃, temperature stirs once, and accumulative total can complete fermentation 2-3 time; D, the fermentation product of above-mentioned gained is mixed to the soil of must growing seedlings with remaining raw material.

The homemade soil of growing seedlings of the present invention has stronger moisture capacity, water penetration and air capacity of soils, and balanced in nutrition comprehensive, contain the nutritive elements such as abundant nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matter, meet the required various nutrients of seed sprouting completely, can significantly improve planting percent, reduce seedling stage diseases and pests, save manually, growing-seedling period is short.

The preparation method of described slowly-releasing desinsection particle is as follows: a, take the raw material of following weight portion: medical stone 25-35, sepiolite 15-20, diatomite 10-15, sodium phosphate trimer 4-8, chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium 2-3, phoenix tree leaf 1.5-2.5, citrus seeds 1-2, tuber of stemona 3-4, kuh-seng 2-3, pieris 1-2, Chinese wingnut leaf 2.5-3.5, luffa vine 1-2, azedarach 2-3, wartwort 1-2, ash 8-12, polyvinyl alcohol 5-10, carboxymethyl cellulose 4-6, sodium alginate 3-5; B, get medical stone and sepiolite mixes, 720-760 ℃ of calcining 2-3 hour, being cooled to and putting into concentration after room temperature is that the hydrogen peroxide solution of 15-20% soaks 1-2 hour, taking-up is washed to neutrality, dries 910-940 ℃ of calcining 1-2 hour, be cooled to room temperature, pulverize, cross 100-150 mesh sieve, stand-by; C, get chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium, phoenix tree leaf, citrus seeds, the tuber of stemona, kuh-seng, pieris, Chinese wingnut leaf, luffa vine, azedarach, wartwort and mix, add the water that 5-10 doubly measures, decoct and extract 50-60 minute, filter, filter residue adds the water that 4-8 doubly measures again, decoct and extract 30-40 minute, filter, merge decoction liquor, concentrated, freeze drying powdered, stand-by; D, the powder that step b is made mix with the powder that step c makes, and add diatomite and sodium phosphate trimer, stir 10-15 minute, wet granulation, and particle diameter is 1-2mm, dries, stand-by; E, get polyvinyl alcohol, carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium alginate and mix, add 2-4 times of water gaging, heating water bath is to 70-80 ℃ and under agitation add ash, stirs the rear particle surface that steps d makes that is evenly sprayed on, and dries, and gets product.

When whole ground of the present invention basal dressing, be added with slowly-releasing desinsection particle, have slowly-releasing insecticidal action, broad spectrum activity is strong, and resistance of rainwater washing against can effectively prevent the generation of soil-borne disease, reduces or avoid the use of chemical pesticide, thereby improves the quality and yield of watermelon.

Beneficial effect of the present invention:

The implantation methods of watermelon of the present invention is simple to operate, convenient management, and watermelon growing way is good, disease resistance is strong, and fruit property is neat, and output is high, per mu yield can reach 4000-5000 kilogram, and watermelon stature is large, best in quality, containing rich in sugar, flesh look bright-coloured, meat delicacy, washiness, commodity value is high, therefore the income increase that realizes melon grower is had great importance.

Embodiment

An implantation methods for watermelon, comprises the following steps:

(1) seed treatment and vernalization

Seed is basked seeds 1 day under sunny weather, then soak seed 15 minutes with the hot water of 70 ℃, then adding a small amount of cold water makes water temperature be down to 30 ℃, Deng the naturally cooling immersion of water 2 hours, pull out and put into 1% liquor potassic permanganate immersion 15 minutes, put into again with the emerge in worm water of 55 ℃, warm water 2 hours, pull out and seed is wrapped and rubbed the mucous membrane going on seed with the hands with towel or coarse cloth afterwards, then the seed having soaked is lain on wet towel, above seed, cover again one deck wet towel, be placed on vernalization under the constant temperature of 32 ℃, rate to be showed money or valuables one carries unintentionally reaches more than 70% and can sow;

(2) seeding and seedling raising

Select mid or late March to sow, in the each macropore of seedling-cultivating tray, complete the soil of growing seedlings, then make a call to 0.8 centimeter of dark vesicle, 1 of every bunch planting kind, covers and grows seedlings native thick 2.5 centimetres, covers with white mulch film, the seed rate of being unearthed reaches 80%, throw off mulch film, day temperature is controlled at 22 ℃, and nocturnal temperature is controlled at 18 ℃; As seedling age 30-35 days, melon seedling three leaves wholeheartedly, when outside air temperature is stabilized in again 15 ℃, just can be transplanted land for growing field crops in time;

(3) whole ground basal dressing

Select that loosing soil, soil layer are deep, fertile soil, draining is good, illumination is sufficient, when plot with a western exposure; The unsuitable continuous cropping of melonry, 4-5 crop rotation once; Previous crops is take the gramineous crop such as paddy rice, corn as best, and previous crops is gourd vegetables kind watermelon disease weight, should not select;

Must deep plough in melon patch, preferably plough winter, deep ploughing or having in the basic plot of deep ploughing, the surrounding ditch that begins to rehearse, according to 2.6 meters of bag ditches of line-spacing of cultivation, 0.5 meter of furrow width is opened railway carriage or compartment, at furrow face one side trench digging basal dressing, mu is executed 20 kilograms of 3000 kilograms of farmyard manures, the MAPs, 25 kilograms of 45% composite fertilizers, 10 kilograms of slowly-releasing desinsection particles, 2 kilograms of boraxs, 1 kilogram, the zinc sulphate that become thoroughly decomposed, builds base manure ditch, and be made into the last covering with plastic film in melon ridge, wait for and transplanting;

(4) transplant

Select mid or late April to transplant, 120 centimetres of line-spacings, 50 centimetres of spacing in the rows, mu is planted 500 strains, waters normal root water after transplanting;

(5) field management

1. intertillage

Intertillage is also after seedling, to start at the neat seedling of sowing or field planting, and thinning, the triplicity of loosening the soil, earth up are carried out, and intertill 3 times;

2. pour water

Watermelon belongs to drought resistance crop, and waterlogging is afraid of in drought resisting, but is not not need to pour water, but wants, to pour water in right amount in good time;

A, urge a water: enter group's phase at watermelon, in conjunction with topdressing and water for the first time, the water yield is moderate, only waters sowing furrow, object is to promote seedling tiller, expands leaf area, then intertillage soil moisture conservation, promotion root growth;

B, swollen melon water: Watermelon Fruit enters Fruit and contains the phase after plucking, water requirement increases, and now temperature raises, evaporation discharge strengthens, for promoting Fruit, prevent superfluous seedling, should water in conjunction with topdressing for the second time swollen melon water, the water yield will suitably strengthen, water permeablely, then water according to soil property and rainfall situation, will water swollen melon water several times by plucking surely, and accomplish balanced water supply, prevent dehiscent fruit phenomenon;

3. topdress

The basic principle of topdressing in melon patch is: gently execute seed manure, first urge to control afterwards, skilful ferities grow fertilizer, sits heavy dressing swelling melon fertilizer after young fruit;

A, short seed manure: short seed manure should impose in one week after melon transplantation of seedlings, 15 grams of 10 grams, urea or sulphur ammoniums, earthing after ditching-fertilizing are executed in every strain;

B, urge climing fertilizer: carry out stretching climing front and back, in the time that melon seedling grows to 50 centimetres, mu is executed 12 kilograms, urea, 8 kilograms of superphosphate, 10 kilograms of potassium sulfates, apply at trench digging in the middle of 25 centimetres of melon roots or two strains, 12 centimetres of ditch depths, execute rear earthing and water, and promote the absorption of fertilizer;

C, swelling melon fertilizer: the swollen melon phase is the period of watermelon fertilizer requirement maximum in all one's life, waters and executes in water mixing after 8 kilograms of every mu of use of 40 centimetres of enclosures of melon foundation portion 45% Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium, 5 kilograms, urea, 4 kilograms of dissolvings of potassium sulfate; Later stage is carried out spray leaf fertilizer, and the potassium dihydrogen phosphate of employing 0.4% sprayed once every 8 days, sprayed altogether 3 times;

4. prune, beat sweet-smelling grass

Training work wants gradation to carry out, and mainly carries out at nourish and grow early stage and result initial stage, and training for the first time should be bloomed at main climing the 2nd female flower, while forming again the more prosperous side shoot of some growths before and after female flower joint position, should wipe out in time side shoot, in the time that main climing setting has egg large, training just should stop;

Beating sweet-smelling grass is all should carry out from result plays whole field watermelon results, and the unnecessary sweet-smelling grass of erasing, reduces tender leaf and leaflet, retains the strong leaf of great Ye, concentrates nutrient, impels fruit development;

5. whole climing, keep down the vines of a creeping plant

In the time of 32 centimetres of climing length, should carry out whole climingly, straight climing reason, it is evenly distributed, and keep down the vines of a creeping plant with soil block on joint, impelling generation adventive root, fixing leaf is climing, prevent mutual shading and damaged leaf by the disconnected root of hindering of wind, press once every 5 joints, until cissoid covers with furrow face later;

6. artificial supplementary pollination

Melon seedling starts pollination while outputing second female flower, select to lead well-developed female flower on climing and lateral bine, and its bud handle is thick, ovary is loose, profile is normal, the light green and glossiness flower of color; At every morning 8:00-11:00, with the fresh male flower of open and positive loose powder on the same day, petal is pinched with hand to anthocaulus direction, then the stamen of male flower is aimed to the column cap of female flower, be stained with gently several lower;

7. select melon, stay melon

The climing above melon of second and third female bow structure of the master that selects and remain, every strain stays 1 melon to be advisable;

(6) timely collecting

Differentiate Watermelon Maturity, the firstth, calculate and sit melon number of days according to varietal character; Second sees fruit appearance, and ripe watermelon melon skin is hard, and decorative pattern is clear, the inside systolic depression of umbilical region and the base of a fruit, and on melon handle, the large portion of fine hair comes off, and the last joint tendril in joint position of bearing fruit is withered; The 3rd tin of fruit sound, with finger attack fruit listening, sending " bang, bang " low and hoarse muddy sound person is ripe melon, the vexed mute or bright ripe mistake of buzz multilist of sound, sending " thump, thump " clear and melodious sound is unripe watermelon; The 4th with feel, a hand rest melon, and melon is patted in another have gentle hands, if holder melon feel has vibration person for ripe melon to micro-; Also can be gently by handle shake in the time plucking melon, melon handle can easily not taken person and is generally ripe melon from melon is climing, according to above method synthesis judgement, timely collecting.

The above-mentioned native preparation method that grows seedlings is as follows: a, take following weight (kilogram) raw material: a, peat soil 26, red beautiful soil 12, deer natural pond soil 10, ooze 6, chicken manure 16, plant straw powder 12, bagasse 10, wood sawdust 8, rice chaff ash 6, coconut shell flour 4, cinder 3, vermiculite 22, haydites of book structure 16, urea 2, superphosphate 2; B, getting vermiculite, perlite, to add concentration be that in 15% hydrochloric acid solution, heating water bath to 65 ℃, is incubated 2 hours, takes out and is washed to neutrality, dries, and 870 ℃ of calcinings 1 hour, are cooled to room temperature, stand-by; C, get chicken manure, plant straw powder, wood sawdust, rice chaff ash, coconut shell flour, bagasse, cinder and mix, pile up in heapsly, then urea and superphosphate are mixed, convert 100 times of water gagings and make solution, be sprinkling upon equably on heap, naturally place after 24h, add 4% of compound amount to add 120 times of EM probio dilutions, stir, windrow water content is controlled at 65%, through fermentation in 8 days, when reaching 60 ℃, temperature stirs once, and accumulative total can complete fermentation 2 times; D, the fermentation product of above-mentioned gained is mixed to the soil of must growing seedlings with remaining raw material.

The preparation method of above-mentioned slowly-releasing desinsection particle is as follows: a, take following weight (kilogram) raw material: medical stone 30, sepiolite 18, diatomite 12, sodium phosphate trimer 6, chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium 2, phoenix tree leaf 1.5, citrus seeds 2, the tuber of stemona 4, kuh-seng 3, pieris 1.5, Chinese wingnut leaf 3, luffa vine 1.5, azedarach 2, wartwort 1.5, ash 8, polyvinyl alcohol 8, carboxymethyl cellulose 5, sodium alginate 4; B, get medical stone and sepiolite mixes, 760 ℃ of calcinings 2 hours, being cooled to and putting into concentration after room temperature is that 20% hydrogen peroxide solution soaks 1 hour, takes out and is washed to neutrality, dries, 940 ℃ of calcinings 1 hour, are cooled to room temperature, pulverize, and cross 100 mesh sieves, stand-by; C, get chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium, phoenix tree leaf, citrus seeds, the tuber of stemona, kuh-seng, pieris, Chinese wingnut leaf, luffa vine, azedarach, wartwort and mix, add the water of 8 times of amounts, decoct and extract 55 minutes, filter, filter residue adds the water of 5 times of amounts again, decoct and extract 30 minutes, filter, merge decoction liquor, concentrated, freeze drying powdered, stand-by; D, the powder that step b is made mix with the powder that step c makes, and add diatomite and sodium phosphate trimer, stir 10 minutes, and wet granulation, particle diameter is 1.5mm, dries, stand-by; E, get polyvinyl alcohol, carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium alginate and mix, add 2 times of water gagings, heating water bath to 70 ℃ also under agitation adds ash, stirs the rear particle surface that steps d makes that is evenly sprayed on, and dries, and gets product.

Adopt compared with the watermelon that watermelon that above-mentioned implantation methods plants out plants out with conventional method, have the following advantages:

As seen from the above table, compare with traditional cultivation method, implantation methods watermelon per mu yield of the present invention has improved 55.7%, and damage by disease and insect incidence has reduced by 83.9%, and plantation quality of watermelon is out good, safety nuisance free, low input, high production, profitable, can greatly improve income and the enthusiasm for production at plantation family, be applicable to large-scale promotion.

Claims (3)

1. an implantation methods for watermelon, is characterized in that comprising the following steps:
(1) seed treatment and vernalization
1-2 days basks seeds seed under sunny weather, then use the hot water seed soaking 15-20 minute of 60-70 ℃, then adding a small amount of cold water makes water temperature be down to 25-30 ℃, Deng the naturally cooling immersion of water 2-3 hour, pull out and put into 1% liquor potassic permanganate immersion 10-15 minute, put into again emerge in worm water 2-3 hour with 50-55 ℃, warm water, pull out and seed is wrapped and rubbed the mucous membrane going on seed with the hands with towel or coarse cloth afterwards, then the seed having soaked is lain on wet towel, above seed, cover again one deck wet towel, be placed on vernalization under the constant temperature of 30-35 ℃, rate to be showed money or valuables one carries unintentionally reaches more than 70% and can sow,
(2) seeding and seedling raising
Select mid or late March to sow, in the each macropore of seedling-cultivating tray, complete the soil of growing seedlings, then make a call to a vesicle that 0.6-0.8 centimetre is dark, every bunch planting kind 1-2 grain, covers the native thick 2-3 centimetre that grows seedlings, and covers with white mulch film, the seed rate of being unearthed reaches 70-80%, throw off mulch film, day temperature is controlled at 18-25 ℃, and nocturnal temperature is controlled at 16-18 ℃; As seedling age 30-35 days, melon seedling three leaves wholeheartedly, when outside air temperature is stabilized in again 15 ℃, just can be transplanted land for growing field crops in time;
(3) whole ground basal dressing
Select that loosing soil, soil layer are deep, fertile soil, draining is good, illumination is sufficient, when plot with a western exposure; The unsuitable continuous cropping of melonry, 4-5 crop rotation once; Previous crops is take the gramineous crop such as paddy rice, corn as best, and previous crops is gourd vegetables kind watermelon disease weight, should not select;
Must deep plough in melon patch, preferably plough winter, deep ploughing or having in the basic plot of deep ploughing, the surrounding ditch that begins to rehearse, according to the line-spacing 2.4-3.0 rice bag ditch of cultivation, furrow width 0.4-0.6 rice is opened railway carriage or compartment, at furrow face one side trench digging basal dressing, mu is executed farmyard manure 2500-3000 kilogram of becoming thoroughly decomposed, MAP 15-20 kilogram, 45% composite fertilizer 20-25 kilogram, 10-15 kilogram of slowly-releasing desinsection particle, borax 2-3 kilogram, zinc sulphate 1-2 kilogram, build base manure ditch, and be made into the last covering with plastic film in melon ridge, wait for and transplanting;
(4) transplant
Select mid or late April to transplant, line-spacing 110-120 centimetre, spacing in the rows 45-50 centimetre, mu is planted 450-500 strain, waters normal root water after transplanting;
(5) field management
1. intertillage
Intertillage is also after seedling, to start at the neat seedling of sowing or field planting, and thinning, the triplicity of loosening the soil, earth up are carried out, and intertill 2-3 time;
2. pour water
Watermelon belongs to drought resistance crop, and waterlogging is afraid of in drought resisting, but is not not need to pour water, but wants, to pour water in right amount in good time;
A, urge a water: enter group's phase at watermelon, in conjunction with topdressing and water for the first time, the water yield is moderate, only waters sowing furrow, object is to promote seedling tiller, expands leaf area, then intertillage soil moisture conservation, promotion root growth;
B, swollen melon water: Watermelon Fruit enters Fruit and contains the phase after plucking, water requirement increases, and now temperature raises, evaporation discharge strengthens, for promoting Fruit, prevent superfluous seedling, should water in conjunction with topdressing for the second time swollen melon water, the water yield will suitably strengthen, water permeablely, then water according to soil property and rainfall situation, will water swollen melon water several times by plucking surely, and accomplish balanced water supply, prevent dehiscent fruit phenomenon;
3. topdress
The basic principle of topdressing in melon patch is: gently execute seed manure, first urge to control afterwards, skilful ferities grow fertilizer, sits heavy dressing swelling melon fertilizer after young fruit;
A, short seed manure: short seed manure should impose in one week after melon transplantation of seedlings, and urea 8-12 gram or sulphur ammonium 15-20 gram, earthing after ditching-fertilizing are executed in every strain;
B, urge climing fertilizer: carry out stretching climing front and back, in the time that melon seedling grows to 40-60 centimetre, mu is executed urea 10-15 kilogram, superphosphate 5-10 kilogram, potassium sulfate 10-15 kilogram, apply at trench digging in the middle of 25-30 centimetre of melon root or two strains, ditch depth 10-15 centimetre, execute rear earthing and water, promote the absorption of fertilizer;
C, swelling melon fertilizer: the swollen melon phase is the period of fertilizer requirement maximum in watermelon all one's life, water and execute in water mixing after 45% Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 8-10 kilogram of every mu of use of the melon foundation 30-45 of portion centimetre enclosure, urea 4-6 kilogram, potassium sulfate 3-5 kilogram dissolving; Later stage is carried out spray leaf fertilizer, and the potassium dihydrogen phosphate of employing 0.4% sprayed once every 7-10 days, sprayed 2-3 time altogether;
4. prune, beat sweet-smelling grass
Training work wants gradation to carry out, and mainly carries out at nourish and grow early stage and result initial stage, and training for the first time should be bloomed at main climing 2-3 female flower, while forming again the more prosperous side shoot of some growths before and after female flower joint position, should wipe out in time side shoot, in the time that main climing setting has egg large, training just should stop;
Beating sweet-smelling grass is all should carry out from result plays whole field watermelon results, and the unnecessary sweet-smelling grass of erasing, reduces tender leaf and leaflet, retains the strong leaf of great Ye, concentrates nutrient, impels fruit development;
5. whole climing, keep down the vines of a creeping plant
In the time of climing long 30-35 centimetre, should carry out whole climingly, straight climing reason, it is evenly distributed, and keep down the vines of a creeping plant with soil block on joint, impelling generation adventive root, fixing leaf is climing, prevent mutual shading and damaged leaf by the disconnected root of hindering of wind, press once every 5-6 joint, until cissoid covers with furrow face later;
6. artificial supplementary pollination
Melon seedling starts pollination while outputing second female flower, select to lead well-developed female flower on climing and lateral bine, and its bud handle is thick, ovary is loose, profile is normal, the light green and glossiness flower of color; At every morning 8:00-11:00, with the fresh male flower of open and positive loose powder on the same day, petal is pinched with hand to anthocaulus direction, then the stamen of male flower is aimed to the column cap of female flower, be stained with gently several lower;
7. select melon, stay melon
The climing above melon of second and third female bow structure of the master that selects and remain, every strain stays 1-2 melon to be advisable;
(6) timely collecting
Differentiate Watermelon Maturity, the firstth, calculate and sit melon number of days according to varietal character; Second sees fruit appearance, and ripe watermelon melon skin is hard, and decorative pattern is clear, the inside systolic depression of umbilical region and the base of a fruit, and on melon handle, the large portion of fine hair comes off, and the last joint tendril in joint position of bearing fruit is withered; The 3rd tin of fruit sound, with finger attack fruit listening, sending " bang, bang " low and hoarse muddy sound person is ripe melon, the vexed mute or bright ripe mistake of buzz multilist of sound, sending " thump, thump " clear and melodious sound is unripe watermelon; The 4th with feel, a hand rest melon, and melon is patted in another have gentle hands, if holder melon feel has vibration person for ripe melon to micro-; Also can be gently by handle shake in the time plucking melon, melon handle can easily not taken person and is generally ripe melon from melon is climing, according to above method synthesis judgement, timely collecting.
2. the implantation methods of a kind of watermelon according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described in the native preparation method that grows seedlings as follows: a, take the raw material of following weight portion: a, peat soil 20-30, the native 10-15 of red jade, deer natural pond soil 8-12, ooze 5-10, chicken manure 15-20, plant straw powder 10-15, bagasse 8-12, wood sawdust 5-10, rice chaff ash 4-8, coconut shell flour 3-5, cinder 2-4, vermiculite 18-24, haydites of book structure 14-18, urea 2-3, superphosphate 1.5-2.5; B, getting vermiculite, perlite, to add concentration be in the hydrochloric acid solution of 10-15%, and heating water bath is to 60-70 ℃, and insulation 1-2 hour, takes out and be washed to neutrality, dries, and 840-880 ℃ of calcining 1-2 hour, is cooled to room temperature, stand-by; C, get chicken manure, plant straw powder, wood sawdust, rice chaff ash, coconut shell flour, bagasse, cinder and mix, pile up in heaps, then urea and superphosphate are mixed, convert 80-100 times of water gaging and make solution, be sprinkling upon equably on heap, naturally place after 24-36h, add the 3-5% of compound amount to add 100-150 times of EM probio dilution, stir, windrow water content is controlled at 60-70%, through fermentation in 5-10 days, when reaching 55-60 ℃, temperature stirs once, and accumulative total can complete fermentation 2-3 time; D, the fermentation product of above-mentioned gained is mixed to the soil of must growing seedlings with remaining raw material.
3. the implantation methods of a kind of watermelon according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, the preparation method of described slowly-releasing desinsection particle is as follows: a, take the raw material of following weight portion: medical stone 25-35, sepiolite 15-20, diatomite 10-15, sodium phosphate trimer 4-8, chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium 2-3, phoenix tree leaf 1.5-2.5, citrus seeds 1-2, tuber of stemona 3-4, kuh-seng 2-3, pieris 1-2, Chinese wingnut leaf 2.5-3.5, luffa vine 1-2, azedarach 2-3, wartwort 1-2, ash 8-12, polyvinyl alcohol 5-10, carboxymethyl cellulose 4-6, sodium alginate 3-5; B, get medical stone and sepiolite mixes, 720-760 ℃ of calcining 2-3 hour, being cooled to and putting into concentration after room temperature is that the hydrogen peroxide solution of 15-20% soaks 1-2 hour, taking-up is washed to neutrality, dries 910-940 ℃ of calcining 1-2 hour, be cooled to room temperature, pulverize, cross 100-150 mesh sieve, stand-by; C, get chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium, phoenix tree leaf, citrus seeds, the tuber of stemona, kuh-seng, pieris, Chinese wingnut leaf, luffa vine, azedarach, wartwort and mix, add the water that 5-10 doubly measures, decoct and extract 50-60 minute, filter, filter residue adds the water that 4-8 doubly measures again, decoct and extract 30-40 minute, filter, merge decoction liquor, concentrated, freeze drying powdered, stand-by; D, the powder that step b is made mix with the powder that step c makes, and add diatomite and sodium phosphate trimer, stir 10-15 minute, wet granulation, and particle diameter is 1-2mm, dries, stand-by; E, get polyvinyl alcohol, carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium alginate and mix, add 2-4 times of water gaging, heating water bath is to 70-80 ℃ and under agitation add ash, stirs the rear particle surface that steps d makes that is evenly sprayed on, and dries, and gets product.
CN201410028748.2A 2014-01-21 2014-01-21 Method for growing watermelons CN103798019A (en)

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Application publication date: 20140521