CN103798026A - Method for planting tomatoes - Google Patents

Method for planting tomatoes Download PDF

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Publication number
CN103798026A
CN103798026A CN201410030315.0A CN201410030315A CN103798026A CN 103798026 A CN103798026 A CN 103798026A CN 201410030315 A CN201410030315 A CN 201410030315A CN 103798026 A CN103798026 A CN 103798026A
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water
planting
seedling
kilogram
tomato
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CN201410030315.0A
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CN103798026B (en
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杜晓芸
吕从广
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和县常久农业发展有限公司
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A50/00TECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE in human health protection, e.g. against extreme weather
    • Y02A50/30Against vector-borne diseases, e.g. mosquito-borne, fly-borne, tick-borne or waterborne diseases whose impact is exacerbated by climate change
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for planting tomatoes. The method includes the steps of variety selection, strong seedling breeding, land preparation, fertilization, field planting, field management, harvesting and the like. The method for planting the tomatoes has the advantages that operation is easy and convenient to conduct, management is convenient to conduct, cost is low, benefits are good, the method is easy to popularize, the disease incidence is low in the planting process, using of chemical pesticide can be reduced or avoided, the yield of the tomatoes is increased, the quality of the tomatoes is improved, the tomatoes planted through the method are safe and free of pollution, edible safety of customers is guaranteed, and environmental pollution is reduced.

Description

The implantation methods of a kind of tomato

Technical field

The present invention relates to the implantation methods of a kind of tomato, belong to agriculture cultivation technology field.

Background method

Tomato has another name called tomato, tomato, kind persimmon etc., for high dietary vegetable, main edible ripening fruit, the moisture about 95g of every 100g fresh fruit, carbohydrate 2.5-3.8g, protein 0.8-1.2g, vitamin C 15-25mg, carotin 0.25-0.35mg and multiple mineral element, except vegetables and fruit as eating raw, also can be made into the can of the forced for vitamins C such as sauce, juice, sauce and dried meat, the processed goods such as dry.The polyphenoils that abundant vitamin C and carotenoid belong to non-enzyme system is moisturized, is contained in tomato spleen benefiting and stimulating the appetite, relieving restlessness, is the scavenger of free radical, has anticancer especially lung cancer and reduces the effect of cardiovascular morbidity.If can eat for each person every day 0.2-0.4kg fresh tomato, just can meet the demand of human body to vitamin C, vitamin A, Cobastab and mineral salt.Therefore, tomato is more and more subject to liking of people, and requirement grows with each passing day, and tomato all has a large amount of cultivations in various places, each province of China.But the generation of traditional tomato planting method damage by disease and insect is serious, causes tomato yield greatly to reduce, and simultaneously for prevention and elimination of disease and pests sprays a large amount of agricultural chemicals, causes the residual a large amount of farm chemical ingredients of tomato, affects quality and the edible safety of tomato; Also there is complex steps, production efficiency is low, cost is high, the feature such as of poor benefits, cannot meet the demand in market.

Summary of the invention

The object of the present invention is to provide the implantation methods of a kind of tomato, reduce the disease incidence of tomato, reduce or avoid the use of chemical pesticide, improve output and the quality of tomato, to meet the demand in market.

For achieving the above object, the method scheme that the present invention adopts is as follows:

An implantation methods for tomato, comprises the following steps:

(1) selection of kind

Select strong, the not early ageing of growing way, extra-high-speed product, resistance to high light, high temperature resistance, humidity, high resistance to bacterial wilt, kind that quality is fabulous;

(2) cultivate strong sprout

1. bask seeds, seed soaking, vernalization

Seed is shone under the sun to 2-3 days breaking dormancies; Then put into the warm water of 50-55 ℃, constantly be stirred to 20-25 ℃, soak seed and pull out for 10-15 minute, then put into 1% liquor potassic permanganate and soak 15-20 minute, with the filtration of gauze pocket, tie sack, put into water and clean to water and become clear, then put into the 20-25 ℃ of water 3-4 hour that soaks seed, pull out and drain, vernalization to the rate of showing money or valuables one carries unintentionally reaches more than 60%, waits to broadcast;

2. sowing

Select sowing in late January-February in early spring, with small bamboo spike, the soil in the middle of seedling-growing container is loosening, the then each seedling-growing container program request vernalization seed 1-2 of central authorities grain, the covering native thick 1-1.5 centimetre that grows seedlings, covers mulch film, in the time of 1 leaf 1 heart, thinning is in time filled the gaps with seedlings, and guarantees that each seedling-growing container has a young plant;

3. seedling management

Within after planting 3-5 days, can emerge, seedling management is mainly the control of temperature and illumination;

A, sow to the seedbed management between the seeding stage

Bed temperature is controlled at temperature 25-28 ℃ in daytime, night temperature 15-18 ℃; Before emerging, do not take off film, window and leak informaton, young shoot starts to push up soil while emerging, if because earthing is excessively thin, finds top shell phenomenon, should be immediately earthing 1 time again;

B, the seedbed management of emerging to point seedling

After two cotyledons of seedling fully launch, suitably reduce bed temperature, can be controlled in 20-25 ℃ daytime, night 10-15 ℃, in case excessive growth; Dividing seedling front 4-6 days, is to adapt to point lower temperature in seedbed, improves the survival rate after transplanting, the slow seedling of promotion, and bed temperature can reduce 2-3 ℃ again;

Index of The Healthy Seedlings is 6-7 sheet leaf, seedling age 60-70 days, and 20-25 centimetre is high, 60%-70% flowering flower bud.

(3) wholely, fertilising, field planting

The place that should select previous crops paddy rice, green onion garlic, beans and gourd vegetables tomato planting or not plant the crops such as Qie Ke ﹑ Hua Sheng ﹑ great Dou ﹑ Zhi Ma ﹑ radish, after previous crops results, will plough deeply winter icepro suns the earth which has been ploughed up, rake spring and do furrow, high bedding cultivation, the wide 1.4-1.8m of furrow, wherein furrow width 0.3-0.5m, ditch depth 0.2-0.3m; Before field planting, use sufficient base manure, mu is executed 2000-3000 kilogram of high-quality decomposed dung, ash 200-250 kilogram, superphosphate 50-80 kilogram, slowly-releasing desinsection particle 14-18 kilogram, mix the rear furrow face that is evenly sprinkling upon, and fully mix with soil, then hug flatly, in high furrow both sides field planting ditch, execute 200-300 kilogram of high-quality well-rotted farmyard manure or NPK composite fertilizer 20-25 kilogram; Two row are planted, seeding row spacing 40-50 cm x 25-35 centimetre, and mu is planted 1500-2000 strain; Select cloudy day field planting in afternoon, drench sufficient normal root water;

(4) field management

1. topdress

After field planting growing situation is recovered, after field planting, in 1 week, start to topdress, every 8-10 days, every mu of the amount of urea of at every turn topdressing before result does not exceed 5 kilograms; After the 1st fringe fruit is expanded, Mu Shi NPK composite fertilizer 50-80 kilogram or the high-quality fecaluria 400-500 kilogram that becomes thoroughly decomposed, pours with water; While expanding to the 2nd ﹑ 3 fringe fruits, Mu Shi NPK composite fertilizer 15-20 kilogram, the needs of manuring late to guarantee that the 4th ﹑ 5 ﹑ 6 fringe fruits are constantly grown up;

2. water management

While watering, should, to water by strain as well, adopt less full field to pour water; If pour water, should carry out between the lights, and be advisable with horse race water, in furrow ditch, stop after 1-2 hour and drain, keep ground moistening; Very easily cause bacterial wilt propagation owing to pouring water, therefore should adopt less;

3. ridging and weeding

Earth up 2-3 time, and carry out in conjunction with fertilizing and weeding; Weeds can cover with ridging, to reduce the root of hindering that uprooting weed causes;

4. built with tie up climing

When tomato grows to 30-40 centimetre high, make support with bamboo pole, every strain 1 pole, every raw 2-3 sheet leaf use plastic ties climing bondage on bamboo pole;

5. training is pinched and flower and fruit thinning

Go alone training and only stay a trunk, other side shoots that grow are all removed; Two dry trainings are except retaining trunk, then retain the side shoot that under the 1st inflorescence, the 1st axil is extracted out, and other side shoots all remove;

Tomato is because result is many, if term of office growth there will be fruit size inhomogeneous, sub-quality products is many, therefore should carry out flower and fruit thinning, each branch can stay 5-7 fruit.

(5) gather

In the time that more than 1/3 reddening, can pluck fruit; While gathering, should gently pluck and put down gently, while plucking, preferably not be with base of fruit, in case fruit is wounded by stabbing mutually in shipment.

The described native preparation method that grows seedlings is as follows: a, take the raw material of following weight portion: a, peat soil 20-30, the native 10-15 of red jade, deer natural pond soil 8-12, ooze 5-10, chicken manure 15-20, plant straw powder 10-15, bagasse 8-12, wood sawdust 5-10, rice chaff ash 4-8, coconut shell flour 3-5, cinder 2-4, vermiculite 18-24, haydites of book structure 14-18, urea 2-3, superphosphate 1.5-2.5; B, getting vermiculite, perlite, to add concentration be in the hydrochloric acid solution of 10-15%, and heating water bath is to 60-70 ℃, and insulation 1-2 hour, takes out and be washed to neutrality, dries, and 840-880 ℃ of calcining 1-2 hour, is cooled to room temperature, stand-by; C, get chicken manure, plant straw powder, wood sawdust, rice chaff ash, coconut shell flour, bagasse, cinder and mix, pile up in heaps, then urea and superphosphate are mixed, convert 80-100 times of water gaging and make solution, be sprinkling upon equably on heap, naturally place after 24-36h, add the 3-5% of compound amount to add 100-150 times of EM probio dilution, stir, windrow water content is controlled at 60-70%, through fermentation in 5-10 days, when reaching 55-60 ℃, temperature stirs once, and accumulative total can complete fermentation 2-3 time; D, the fermentation product of above-mentioned gained is mixed to the soil of must growing seedlings with remaining raw material.

The homemade soil of growing seedlings of the present invention has stronger moisture capacity, water penetration and air capacity of soils, and balanced in nutrition comprehensive, contain the nutritive elements such as abundant nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic matter, meet the required various nutrients of seed sprouting completely, can significantly improve planting percent, reduce seedling stage diseases and pests, save manually, growing-seedling period is short.

The preparation method of described slowly-releasing desinsection particle is as follows: a, take the raw material of following weight portion: medical stone 25-35, sepiolite 15-20, diatomite 10-15, sodium phosphate trimer 4-8, chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium 2-3, phoenix tree leaf 1.5-2.5, citrus seeds 1-2, tuber of stemona 3-4, kuh-seng 2-3, pieris 1-2, Chinese wingnut leaf 2.5-3.5, luffa vine 1-2, azedarach 2-3, wartwort 1-2, ash 8-12, polyvinyl alcohol 5-10, carboxymethyl cellulose 4-6, sodium alginate 3-5; B, get medical stone and sepiolite mixes, 720-760 ℃ of calcining 2-3 hour, being cooled to and putting into concentration after room temperature is that the hydrogen peroxide solution of 15-20% soaks 1-2 hour, taking-up is washed to neutrality, dries 910-940 ℃ of calcining 1-2 hour, be cooled to room temperature, pulverize, cross 100-150 mesh sieve, stand-by; C, get chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium, phoenix tree leaf, citrus seeds, the tuber of stemona, kuh-seng, pieris, Chinese wingnut leaf, luffa vine, azedarach, wartwort and mix, add the water that 5-10 doubly measures, decoct and extract 50-60 minute, filter, filter residue adds the water that 4-8 doubly measures again, decoct and extract 30-40 minute, filter, merge decoction liquor, concentrated, freeze drying powdered, stand-by; D, the powder that step b is made mix with the powder that step c makes, and add diatomite and sodium phosphate trimer, stir 10-15 minute, wet granulation, and particle diameter is 1-2mm, dries, stand-by; E, get polyvinyl alcohol, carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium alginate and mix, add 2-4 times of water gaging, heating water bath is to 70-80 ℃ and under agitation add ash, stirs the rear particle surface that steps d makes that is evenly sprayed on, and dries, and gets product.

When whole ground of the present invention basal dressing, be added with slowly-releasing desinsection particle, have slowly-releasing insecticidal action, broad spectrum activity is strong, and resistance of rainwater washing against can effectively prevent the generation of soil-borne disease, reduces or avoid the use of chemical pesticide, thereby improves the quality and yield of tomato.

Beneficial effect of the present invention:

Implantation methods of the present invention is easy and simple to handle, wide profit is convenient, cost is low, profitable, is easy to promote, in planting process, disease incidence is very low, can reduce or avoid the use of chemical pesticide, improve the yield and quality of tomato, the tomato safety nuisance free that plantation is obtained, ensure consumer's edible safety, reduced environmental pollution simultaneously.

Embodiment

An implantation methods for tomato, comprises the following steps:

(1) selection of kind

Select strong, the not early ageing of growing way, extra-high-speed product, resistance to high light, high temperature resistance, humidity, high resistance to bacterial wilt, kind that quality is fabulous;

(2) cultivate strong sprout

1. bask seeds, seed soaking, vernalization

Seed is shone under the sun to 3 days breaking dormancies; Then put into the warm water of 55 ℃, constantly be stirred to 25 ℃, soak seed and pull out for 15 minutes, then put into 1% liquor potassic permanganate and soak 20 minutes, with the filtration of gauze pocket, tie sack, put into water and clean to water and become clear, then put into 25 ℃ of water and soak seed 3 hours, pull out and drain, vernalization to the rate of showing money or valuables one carries unintentionally reaches more than 60%, waits to broadcast;

2. sowing

Select sowing in late January-February in early spring, with small bamboo spike, the soil in the middle of seedling-growing container is loosening, then 2, the central program request vernalization of each seedling-growing container seed, covering is grown seedlings native thick 1.5 centimetres, covers mulch film, in the time of 1 leaf 1 heart, thinning is in time filled the gaps with seedlings, and guarantees that each seedling-growing container has a young plant;

3. seedling management

Within after planting 4 days, can emerge, seedling management is mainly the control of temperature and illumination;

B, sow to the seedbed management between the seeding stage

Bed temperature is controlled at 26 ℃ of temperature in daytime, night 18 ℃ of temperature; Before emerging, do not take off film, window and leak informaton, young shoot starts to push up soil while emerging, if because earthing is excessively thin, finds top shell phenomenon, should be immediately earthing 1 time again;

B, the seedbed management of emerging to point seedling

After two cotyledons of seedling fully launch, suitably reduce bed temperature, can be controlled in 22 ℃ daytime, 12 ℃ of nights, in case excessive growth; Dividing seedling first 5 days, is to adapt to point lower temperature in seedbed, improves the survival rate after transplanting, the slow seedling of promotion, and bed temperature can reduce by 2 ℃ again;

Index of The Healthy Seedlings is 7 leaves, seedling age 65 days, and 25 centimetres are high, 65% flowering flower bud.

(3) wholely, fertilising, field planting

The place that should select previous crops paddy rice, green onion garlic, beans and gourd vegetables tomato planting or not plant the crops such as Qie Ke ﹑ Hua Sheng ﹑ great Dou ﹑ Zhi Ma ﹑ radish, will plough deeply winter icepro and sun the earth which has been ploughed up after previous crops results, rake spring and do furrow, high bedding cultivation, the wide 1.6m of furrow, wherein furrow width 0.4m, ditch depth 0.25m; Before field planting, use sufficient base manure, mu is executed 2500 kilograms of high-quality decomposed dungs, 200 kilograms of ash, 60 kilograms of superphosphate, 16 kilograms of slowly-releasing desinsection particles, mix the rear furrow face that is evenly sprinkling upon, and fully mix with soil, then hug flatly, in high furrow both sides field planting ditch, execute 20 kilograms of 250 kilograms of high-quality well-rotted farmyard manures or NPK composite fertilizers; Two row are planted, 30 centimetres of seeding row spacing 50 cm x, and mu is planted 2000 strains; Select cloudy day field planting in afternoon, drench sufficient normal root water;

(4) field management

1. topdress

After field planting growing situation is recovered, after field planting, in 1 week, start to topdress, every 10 days, every mu of the amount of urea of at every turn topdressing before result did not exceed 5 kilograms; After the 1st fringe fruit is expanded, become thoroughly decomposed 450 kilograms of fecalurias of 60 kilograms of Mu Shi NPK composite fertilizers or high-quality, pour with water; While expanding to the 2nd ﹑ 3 fringe fruits, 20 kilograms of Mu Shi NPK composite fertilizers, the needs of manuring late to guarantee that the 4th ﹑ 5 ﹑ 6 fringe fruits are constantly grown up;

2. water management

While watering, should, to water by strain as well, adopt less full field to pour water; If pour water, should carry out between the lights, and be advisable with horse race water, in furrow ditch, stop after 2 hours and drain, keep ground moistening; Very easily cause bacterial wilt propagation owing to pouring water, therefore should adopt less;

3. ridging and weeding

Earth up 3 times, and carry out in conjunction with fertilizing and weeding; Weeds can cover with ridging, to reduce the root of hindering that uprooting weed causes;

4. built with tie up climing

When tomato grows to 35 centimetres high, make support with bamboo pole, every strain 1 pole, 2 leaves of every life use plastic ties climing bondage on bamboo pole;

5. training is pinched and flower and fruit thinning

Go alone training and only stay a trunk, other side shoots that grow are all removed; Two dry trainings are except retaining trunk, then retain the side shoot that under the 1st inflorescence, the 1st axil is extracted out, and other side shoots all remove;

Tomato is because result is many, if term of office growth there will be fruit size inhomogeneous, sub-quality products is many, therefore should carry out flower and fruit thinning, each branch can stay 6 fruits.

(5) gather

In the time that more than 1/3 reddening, can pluck fruit; While gathering, should gently pluck and put down gently, while plucking, preferably not be with base of fruit, in case fruit is wounded by stabbing mutually in shipment.

The above-mentioned native preparation method that grows seedlings is as follows: a, take following weight (kilogram) raw material: a, peat soil 24, red beautiful soil 12, deer natural pond soil 10, ooze 8, chicken manure 18, plant straw powder 10, bagasse 12, wood sawdust 8, rice chaff ash 6, coconut shell flour 4, cinder 3, vermiculite 20, haydites of book structure 16, urea 3, superphosphate 2; B, getting vermiculite, perlite, to add concentration be that in 10% hydrochloric acid solution, heating water bath to 70 ℃, is incubated 2 hours, takes out and is washed to neutrality, dries, and 850 ℃ of calcinings 2 hours, are cooled to room temperature, stand-by; C, get chicken manure, plant straw powder, wood sawdust, rice chaff ash, coconut shell flour, bagasse, cinder and mix, pile up in heapsly, then urea and superphosphate are mixed, convert 100 times of water gagings and make solution, be sprinkling upon equably on heap, naturally place after 36h, add 5% of compound amount to add 120 times of EM probio dilutions, stir, the control of windrow water content is 60%, through fermentation in 8 days, when reaching 60 ℃, temperature stirs once, and accumulative total can complete fermentation 2 times; D, the fermentation product of above-mentioned gained is mixed to the soil of must growing seedlings with remaining raw material.

The preparation method of above-mentioned slowly-releasing desinsection particle is as follows: a, take following weight (kilogram) raw material: medical stone 30, sepiolite 18, diatomite 12, sodium phosphate trimer 6, chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium 3, phoenix tree leaf 2, citrus seeds 1.5, the tuber of stemona 3, kuh-seng 2, pieris 1.5, Chinese wingnut leaf 3, luffa vine 1.5, azedarach 2, wartwort 2, ash 10, polyvinyl alcohol 8, carboxymethyl cellulose 5, sodium alginate 4; B, get medical stone and sepiolite mixes, 740 ℃ of calcinings 2 hours, being cooled to and putting into concentration after room temperature is that 20% hydrogen peroxide solution soaks 1 hour, takes out and is washed to neutrality, dries, 930 ℃ of calcinings 1 hour, are cooled to room temperature, pulverize, and cross 100 mesh sieves, stand-by; C, get chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium, phoenix tree leaf, citrus seeds, the tuber of stemona, kuh-seng, pieris, Chinese wingnut leaf, luffa vine, azedarach, wartwort and mix, add the water of 8 times of amounts, decoct and extract 55 minutes, filter, filter residue adds the water of 6 times of amounts again, decoct and extract 35 minutes, filter, merge decoction liquor, concentrated, freeze drying powdered, stand-by; D, the powder that step b is made mix with the powder that step c makes, and add diatomite and sodium phosphate trimer, stir 15 minutes, and wet granulation, particle diameter is 1.5mm, dries, stand-by; E, get polyvinyl alcohol, carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium alginate and mix, add 3 times of water gagings, heating water bath to 75 ℃ also under agitation adds ash, stirs the rear particle surface that steps d makes that is evenly sprayed on, and dries, and gets product.

Adopt compared with the tomato that tomato that above-mentioned implantation methods plants out plants out with conventional method, have the following advantages:

As seen from the above table, compare with traditional cultivation method, implantation methods tomato per mu yield of the present invention has improved 42.1%, and damage by disease and insect incidence has reduced by 88.1%, and plantation Tomato Quality is out good, safety nuisance free, low input, high production, profitable, can greatly improve income and the enthusiasm for production at plantation family, be applicable to large-scale promotion.

Claims (3)

1. an implantation methods for tomato, is characterized in that comprising the following steps:
(1) selection of kind
Select strong, the not early ageing of growing way, extra-high-speed product, resistance to high light, high temperature resistance, humidity, high resistance to bacterial wilt, kind that quality is fabulous;
(2) cultivate strong sprout
1. bask seeds, seed soaking, vernalization
Seed is shone under the sun to 2-3 days breaking dormancies; Then put into the warm water of 50-55 ℃, constantly be stirred to 20-25 ℃, soak seed and pull out for 10-15 minute, then put into 1% liquor potassic permanganate and soak 15-20 minute, with the filtration of gauze pocket, tie sack, put into water and clean to water and become clear, then put into the 20-25 ℃ of water 3-4 hour that soaks seed, pull out and drain, vernalization to the rate of showing money or valuables one carries unintentionally reaches more than 60%, waits to broadcast;
2. sowing
Select sowing in late January-February in early spring, with small bamboo spike, the soil in the middle of seedling-growing container is loosening, the then each seedling-growing container program request vernalization seed 1-2 of central authorities grain, the covering native thick 1-1.5 centimetre that grows seedlings, covers mulch film, in the time of 1 leaf 1 heart, thinning is in time filled the gaps with seedlings, and guarantees that each seedling-growing container has a young plant;
3. seedling management
Within after planting 3-5 days, can emerge, seedling management is mainly the control of temperature and illumination;
Sow to the seedbed management between the seeding stage
Bed temperature is controlled at temperature 25-28 ℃ in daytime, night temperature 15-18 ℃; Before emerging, do not take off film, window and leak informaton, young shoot starts to push up soil while emerging, if because earthing is excessively thin, finds top shell phenomenon, should be immediately earthing 1 time again;
B, the seedbed management of emerging to point seedling
After two cotyledons of seedling fully launch, suitably reduce bed temperature, can be controlled in 20-25 ℃ daytime, night 10-15 ℃, in case excessive growth; Dividing seedling front 4-6 days, is to adapt to point lower temperature in seedbed, improves the survival rate after transplanting, the slow seedling of promotion, and bed temperature can reduce 2-3 ℃ again;
Index of The Healthy Seedlings is 6-7 sheet leaf, seedling age 60-70 days, and 20-25 centimetre is high, 60%-70% flowering flower bud;
(3) wholely, fertilising, field planting
The place that should select previous crops paddy rice, green onion garlic, beans and gourd vegetables tomato planting or not plant the crops such as Qie Ke ﹑ Hua Sheng ﹑ great Dou ﹑ Zhi Ma ﹑ radish, after previous crops results, will plough deeply winter icepro suns the earth which has been ploughed up, rake spring and do furrow, high bedding cultivation, the wide 1.4-1.8m of furrow, wherein furrow width 0.3-0.5m, ditch depth 0.2-0.3m; Before field planting, use sufficient base manure, mu is executed 2000-3000 kilogram of high-quality decomposed dung, ash 200-250 kilogram, superphosphate 50-80 kilogram, slowly-releasing desinsection particle 14-18 kilogram, mix the rear furrow face that is evenly sprinkling upon, and fully mix with soil, then hug flatly, in high furrow both sides field planting ditch, execute 200-300 kilogram of high-quality well-rotted farmyard manure or NPK composite fertilizer 20-25 kilogram; Two row are planted, seeding row spacing 40-50 cm x 25-35 centimetre, and mu is planted 1500-2000 strain; Select cloudy day field planting in afternoon, drench sufficient normal root water;
(4) field management
1. topdress
After field planting growing situation is recovered, after field planting, in 1 week, start to topdress, every 8-10 days, every mu of the amount of urea of at every turn topdressing before result does not exceed 5 kilograms; After the 1st fringe fruit is expanded, Mu Shi NPK composite fertilizer 50-80 kilogram or the high-quality fecaluria 400-500 kilogram that becomes thoroughly decomposed, pours with water; While expanding to the 2nd ﹑ 3 fringe fruits, Mu Shi NPK composite fertilizer 15-20 kilogram, the needs of manuring late to guarantee that the 4th ﹑ 5 ﹑ 6 fringe fruits are constantly grown up;
2. water management
While watering, should, to water by strain as well, adopt less full field to pour water; If pour water, should carry out between the lights, and be advisable with horse race water, in furrow ditch, stop after 1-2 hour and drain, keep ground moistening; Very easily cause bacterial wilt propagation owing to pouring water, therefore should adopt less;
3. ridging and weeding
Earth up 2-3 time, and carry out in conjunction with fertilizing and weeding; Weeds can cover with ridging, to reduce the root of hindering that uprooting weed causes; 4. built with tie up climing
When tomato grows to 30-40 centimetre high, make support with bamboo pole, every strain 1 pole, every raw 2-3 sheet leaf use plastic ties climing bondage on bamboo pole;
5. training is pinched and flower and fruit thinning
Go alone training and only stay a trunk, other side shoots that grow are all removed; Two dry trainings are except retaining trunk, then retain the side shoot that under the 1st inflorescence, the 1st axil is extracted out, and other side shoots all remove;
Tomato is because result is many, if term of office growth there will be fruit size inhomogeneous, sub-quality products is many, therefore should carry out flower and fruit thinning, each branch can stay 5-7 fruit;
(5) gather
In the time that more than 1/3 reddening, can pluck fruit; While gathering, should gently pluck and put down gently, while plucking, preferably not be with base of fruit, in case fruit is wounded by stabbing mutually in shipment.
2. the implantation methods of a kind of tomato according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, described in the native preparation method that grows seedlings as follows: a, take the raw material of following weight portion: a, peat soil 20-30, the native 10-15 of red jade, deer natural pond soil 8-12, ooze 5-10, chicken manure 15-20, plant straw powder 10-15, bagasse 8-12, wood sawdust 5-10, rice chaff ash 4-8, coconut shell flour 3-5, cinder 2-4, vermiculite 18-24, haydites of book structure 14-18, urea 2-3, superphosphate 1.5-2.5; B, getting vermiculite, perlite, to add concentration be in the hydrochloric acid solution of 10-15%, and heating water bath is to 60-70 ℃, and insulation 1-2 hour, takes out and be washed to neutrality, dries, and 840-880 ℃ of calcining 1-2 hour, is cooled to room temperature, stand-by; C, get chicken manure, plant straw powder, wood sawdust, rice chaff ash, coconut shell flour, bagasse, cinder and mix, pile up in heaps, then urea and superphosphate are mixed, convert 80-100 times of water gaging and make solution, be sprinkling upon equably on heap, naturally place after 24-36h, add the 3-5% of compound amount to add 100-150 times of EM probio dilution, stir, windrow water content is controlled at 60-70%, through fermentation in 5-10 days, when reaching 55-60 ℃, temperature stirs once, and accumulative total can complete fermentation 2-3 time; D, the fermentation product of above-mentioned gained is mixed to the soil of must growing seedlings with remaining raw material.
3. the implantation methods of a kind of tomato according to claim 1, it is characterized in that, the preparation method of described slowly-releasing desinsection particle is as follows: a, take the raw material of following weight portion: medical stone 25-35, sepiolite 15-20, diatomite 10-15, sodium phosphate trimer 4-8, chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium 2-3, phoenix tree leaf 1.5-2.5, citrus seeds 1-2, tuber of stemona 3-4, kuh-seng 2-3, pieris 1-2, Chinese wingnut leaf 2.5-3.5, luffa vine 1-2, azedarach 2-3, wartwort 1-2, ash 8-12, polyvinyl alcohol 5-10, carboxymethyl cellulose 4-6, sodium alginate 3-5; B, get medical stone and sepiolite mixes, 720-760 ℃ of calcining 2-3 hour, being cooled to and putting into concentration after room temperature is that the hydrogen peroxide solution of 15-20% soaks 1-2 hour, taking-up is washed to neutrality, dries 910-940 ℃ of calcining 1-2 hour, be cooled to room temperature, pulverize, cross 100-150 mesh sieve, stand-by; C, get chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium, phoenix tree leaf, citrus seeds, the tuber of stemona, kuh-seng, pieris, Chinese wingnut leaf, luffa vine, azedarach, wartwort and mix, add the water that 5-10 doubly measures, decoct and extract 50-60 minute, filter, filter residue adds the water that 4-8 doubly measures again, decoct and extract 30-40 minute, filter, merge decoction liquor, concentrated, freeze drying powdered, stand-by; D, the powder that step b is made mix with the powder that step c makes, and add diatomite and sodium phosphate trimer, stir 10-15 minute, wet granulation, and particle diameter is 1-2mm, dries, stand-by; E, get polyvinyl alcohol, carboxymethyl cellulose, sodium alginate and mix, add 2-4 times of water gaging, heating water bath is to 70-80 ℃ and under agitation add ash, stirs the rear particle surface that steps d makes that is evenly sprayed on, and dries, and gets product.
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