CN104686170B - A kind of new method for selenium-enriched tea leaf plantation - Google Patents

A kind of new method for selenium-enriched tea leaf plantation Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104686170B
CN104686170B CN201510107538.7A CN201510107538A CN104686170B CN 104686170 B CN104686170 B CN 104686170B CN 201510107538 A CN201510107538 A CN 201510107538A CN 104686170 B CN104686170 B CN 104686170B
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China
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selenium
fertilizer
ditch
planting site
common vetch
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CN104686170A (en
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王寿南
胡刘满
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Dexing Guan Shan Tea Industry Co., Ltd.
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Dexing Guan Shan Tea Industry Co Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01BSOIL WORKING IN AGRICULTURE OR FORESTRY; PARTS, DETAILS, OR ACCESSORIES OF AGRICULTURAL MACHINES OR IMPLEMENTS, IN GENERAL
    • A01B79/00Methods for working soil
    • A01B79/02Methods for working soil combined with other agricultural processing, e.g. fertilising, planting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05DINORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C; FERTILISERS PRODUCING CARBON DIOXIDE
    • C05D1/00Fertilisers containing potassium
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05DINORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C; FERTILISERS PRODUCING CARBON DIOXIDE
    • C05D3/00Calcareous fertilisers
    • C05D3/02Calcareous fertilisers from limestone, calcium carbonate, calcium hydrate, slaked lime, calcium oxide, waste calcium products
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F9/00Fertilisers from household or town refuse
    • C05F9/04Biological compost
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G3/00Mixtures of one or more fertilisers with additives not having a specially fertilising activity

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of new methods for selenium-enriched tea leaf plantation, refer in hillside interplanting in woodland common vetch dish, tealeaves, the method for piercing China fir, it specifically includes using transformation of the improvement soil to hillside forest land containing Organic Selenium, the plant of tealeaves, the operations such as interplanting thorn Chinese fir, Chinese milk vetch fertile using selenium-rich.It pierces Chinese fir and forms a hedge column in the outside in ditch, larger tea seedling is planted on the inside of it, tea tree happiness is cloudy, can be good at growing, and more crop interplantings improve entire economic benefit.

Description

A kind of new method for selenium-enriched tea leaf plantation
Technical field
The present invention relates to agricultural productions, and in particular to a kind of new method for selenium-enriched tea leaf plantation.
Background technology
Common vetch dish, scientific name purple dustpan, belongs to perennial pteridophyte, has extensive presence in Dabie Mountain mountain area.Containing rich in common vetch dish Various trace elements, the common vetch dishes such as rich protein, vitamin and potassium, calcium, squama not only can be made into delicious dish, with more anti- Cancer, heat-clearing, removing toxic substances, weight-reducing, beauty and other effects, while there is apparent inhibitory action to the virus such as influenza, encephalitis B, it is long Phase outlet, be in great demand overseas vegetables, is particularly exported to Japan.
At present, common vetch dish is field acquisition mostly, although also there is place experiment artificial growth, its low output, acquisition Common vetch dish stem is thin, poor quality, and common vetch dish will withered or no longer bract bud after picking one, two year.
The content of the invention
It is an object of the invention to provide a kind of new methods for selenium-enriched tea leaf plantation, can effectively solve above-mentioned ask Topic, the yield of common vetch dish is high, and common vetch dish is sturdy, and quality is good, can pick for a long time, will not the underproduction.
To achieve the above object, present invention employs following technical schemes:
It is a kind of for selenium-enriched tea leaf plantation new method, refer to hillside interplanting in woodland common vetch dish, tealeaves, pierce China fir method, Specifically include following operating procedure:
S1:By hillside forest land site preparation into staged, each planting site after site preparation opens up respectively along the contour on hillside, adjacent It is built a dam the ridge using stone heap on the outside of slope surface between planting site, each planting site middle part offers ditch, length of the ditch along planting site Degree direction opens up and is arranged at intervals compartment in ditch along its length, and ditch is separated into each sink by compartment, and the two of each sink It holds and first and second flowing water mouth is set respectively on compartment, the 3rd flowing water mouth is opened up on the cell wall on the outside of sink, the 3rd flows on same sink The height at the mouth of a river and height of the smaller flowing water mouth of height is consistent in first and second flowing water mouth, the compartment on adjacent ditch and 3rd flowing water mouth arranges that the top ditch in hillside forest land is connected with water supply installation, the top of Ba Geng in interleaved shape respectively Outside is provided with the sparge pipe of horizontal shape arrangement, and Bidirectional spray head, a water outlet of Bidirectional spray head are arranged at intervals on the pipe shaft of sparge pipe The oblique side wall for being directed toward Ba Geng in direction, another water outlet direction of Bidirectional spray head are directed toward the one side away from Ba Geng obliquely, and ditch will Planting site is divided into the first planting site on the inside of ditch and the second planting site on the outside of ditch, and the first planting site uses Improvement soil fill out it is whole form, improvement soil for dry land soil, peat soil, selenium-rich batch mixing and fire loam according to 1:1:0.4:0.2~ 1.2:1:0.8:0.4 weight ratio mixed preparing obtains, dry land soil by the paddy soils that are taken after 3~June of rice terrace draining dry field, Crop is not sowed during dry field and is digged 2~3 times, the fire ash that fiery loam is stalk, tree branches and leaves, weeds burn till and forest land soil according to 1:2~3 weight ratio mixed preparing obtains;Selenium-rich batch mixing is 4kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry mucks, 0.5kg cakes Fertilizer and 5~10g sodium selenites are obtained through compost maturity;
S2:Spring plants 4~5 years raw thorn Chinese fir seedlings of interval plant on the ground at second kind then, and thorn China fir seedling will thorn after surviving The trunk of Chinese fir seedling is clipped and carries out preservative treatment to truncated position, pierces tufted at the tree stump of China fir and grows thorn China fir seedling, in the same year Artificial propagation/wild common vetch dish seedling at first kind is planted and transplanted on the ground close to interval at Ba Geng bottoms by autumn, and in ditch It inside pours water, the water surface elevation in ditch is less than 12~17cm of ground level of the first planting site, stops irrigating after the Frost's Descent and the One layer of leaf of earth's surface bedding of one planting site;
S3:Second year starts to irrigate after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term), and 4~May, common vetch dish started bract bud, and daily night opening is double after common vetch dish bract bud The spray painting of 3~5min is carried out to nozzle, bract bud First Year is not picked common vetch dish, and thorn Chinese fir is trimmed, retains one Major branch, remaining thorn China fir seedling, which carries out plucking top, makes its height between 1.4~1.6m, and second year autumn plants at first kind broadcasts sowing on the ground Chinese milk vetch, cut after Chinese milk vetch maturation receipts and leaf together bedding the first planting site earth's surface, during September part, at second The planting hole for digging 50cm depths on the ground is planted, 2.0kg green manure is put into the bottom of planting hole, then with 1.5kg poultry mucks, 2.0kg Cake fertilizer is compacted, and covering mulch progress is decomposed, and the decomposed liftoff film of recession stir spreading, November to the fertilizer in planting hole When plant 3~4 years raw tea seedlings, tea tree be located at thorn Chinese fir inside and with thorn Chinese fir it is interval-staggered, after the Frost's Descent stop filling It irrigates;It is planted since second year, before Chinese milk vetch and leaf bedding at first kind and spreads fertilizer over the fields selenium-rich clay fertilizer, the amount of spreading fertilizer over the fields of selenium-rich clay fertilizer on the ground Spread fertilizer over the fields 120~150kg for the first planting site per acre, selenium-rich clay fertilizer is 6kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry mucks, 3.5kg cake fertilizer and 3~5g sodium selenites are obtained through compost maturity;
S4:Since the 3rd year, repeat to operate as follows every year:Start to irrigate after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term) and apply Tea Industry punching fertilising to tealeaves And poultry muck, the applied amount of poultry muck is 160~170kg/ mus, once helps bud fertile the application of common vetch dish in 3, April, tealeaves Germination and common vetch dish bract bud after daily night open Bidirectional spray head carry out 3~5min spray painting, 4~May to common vetch dish picking 3~ 4 times, the 3rd year tealeaves is only trimmed without picking, and the 4th year starts to pick tealeaves, to piercing the dwarf branch item of Chinese fir It is trimmed, its height is made to be no more than 1.5m, autumn broadcasts sowing Chinese milk vetch in the first planting site, and second kind is planted three leaves of sowing on the ground Grass, receipts and leaf are cut after Chinese milk vetch maturation, and bedding in the earth's surface of the first planting site, is turned over after clover maturation and buried together Stop irrigating in the soil of the second planting site, after the Frost's Descent, bud fertilizer is helped to be obtained for fiery loam and people's retention of urine liquid/urea mixed preparing It arrives;
Poultry muck obtains with the following method:According to 6:3:Sorghum, wheat, soybean are pulverized and mixed by 1 mass ratio matches somebody with somebody Fermentation substrate is made, according to 1:Yeast selenium and fermentation substrate mixing are added water fermentation process 70 days at 28 DEG C by 5 mass ratio, The product of fermentation and feed are carried out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
The plantation of common vetch dish, most important is exactly the control of liquid manure, and the happiness of common vetch dish happiness water is cloudy, but also flood afraid of water, and to life Long soil is extremely harsh.The irrigation system that the present invention is made up of the transformation in above-mentioned hillside forest land, ditch, enables to current equal The entire hillside forest land of even irrigation, at the same the water level control in ditch less than first planting site 12~17cm of earth's surface, ensure common vetch The happiness water of dish irrigates and is not in waterlogging, and common vetch dish is planted close to Ba Geng bottoms, to be got well more than level land planting effect, common vetch Dish is influenced by Ba Geng so that new cauline leaf is grown to away from Ba Geng one sides so that the plant hormone in it stimulates root to sprout More gemma are sent, improve yield, while the setting of Ba Geng, the first can be caused to plant current above ground and do not planted from first kind The earth's surface on ground is trickled and is penetrated into from its underpart in ditch, prevents common vetch dish waterlogging, in addition, the Ba Geng that stone heap is built, it can be in forest land The initial stage of transformation plays fixation, and landslide causes hillside forest land to be ruined when preventing rainy season;Bidirectional spray head sprays in short-term at night, Simulated rainwater day so that rainwater sparse spray in part promotes the growth of common vetch dish bud so that the more overstriking of common vetch dish bud on common vetch dish bud It is strong;The improvement soil of above-mentioned preparation simultaneously matches so that common vetch dish in the optimal demand that acidity and fertilizer are supported more with the growth of common vetch dish More sturdy, in addition Chinese milk vetch can vegetate in the soil property of the first planting site, and the Chinese milk vetch of harvesting, leaf are covered Lid so that common vetch dish can be preferably overwintering, ensure the common vetch dish coming year germination spore, Chinese milk vetch, leaf rot and help bud fertilizer apply Add the fertility that can be good at supplementing the first planting site and adjust acidity so that common vetch dish can be picked every year.Pierce Chinese fir The cost of breeding is low, survival rate is high, growth is fast, after cutting down its major branch, can go out substantial amounts of new talent in tree stump director, can be quick The fence of shading is formed in the periphery of common vetch dish, ensures demand of the common vetch dish to growing environment, while shortens the week of entire forest land transformation Phase.Certainly, it is above-mentioned simply simply to illustrate the main function that each factor is individually played the role of, by the mutually coordinated of each factor, Common vetch dish is enabled all to carry out the picking of high yield every year, and the common vetch dish picked is sturdy, quality is good.
And common vetch colza plant is carried out using above-mentioned improvement soil and selenium-rich clay fertilizer, Organic Selenium can effectively be absorbed by common vetch dish, The Se content in common vetch dish can be effectively improved, Se content about improves 3~4 times in the dry common vetch dish of harvest, and compost maturity is exactly that agricultural is raw The means of common green manure compost maturity in production.
Detailed scheme is:
The height of Ba Geng is 60~80cm, and improvement soil fills out whole thickness as 30~35cm, and improvement soil is filled out under flood Side is provided with sandy soils, and Ba Geng bottoms are extended in sandy soils.Plantation tea tree, tea tree on the ground are planted after second year at second kind to be located at Pierce Chinese fir inside and with thorn Chinese fir it is interval-staggered.Bud fertilizer is helped to prepare to obtain for 50kg fire loam and 10L people's retention of urine liquid.The After 2 years, pierce Chinese fir trunk is larger and also tree stump at dwarf branch item it is also in great numbers, just as forming a hedge in the outside in ditch Larger tea seedling is planted on column on the inside of it at this time, and tea tree happiness is cloudy, can be good at growing, due to planting tea tree, second kind of plant What the ground level on ground was set is more than first 10~15cm of planting site ground level, and more crop interplantings improve entire economic benefit. Moreover, thorn Chinese fir, common vetch dish are all the crops that insect pest will not occur, by interplanting, large stretch of Tea planting can be eliminated and easily occurred The phenomenon that pest and disease damage, improves the economic benefit of entire agricultural.
In addition, feces of livestock and poultry rich in Organic Selenium and weeds, lime, the ripe obtained selenium-rich fertilizer of cake fertilizer mixed compaction heap and The application of poultry muck after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term), the Organic Selenium in poultry muck can effectively be absorbed by tea tree so that Selenium Content in tea is big Big to improve, Se content is 1.8 times or more of Se content in the brewed millet paste of ordinary tea leaves in the brewed millet paste of tealeaves.Tealeaves punching is applied Fertilizer should be compared with using before poultry muck, and tealeaves punching fertilising can effectively facilitate absorption of the tea oil tree to organic selenium fertilizer, in addition may also function as Premunition is strong, the effect of volume increase.
Above-mentioned technical proposal can significantly improve the yield and quality of common vetch dish, and after the 3rd year every year can to common vetch dish into Row picking, the fresh leaf of tealeaves is stout and strong, is not in pest and disease damage phenomenon.
Description of the drawings
The structure diagram in ditch is opened up in Fig. 1 slope surfaces;
Fig. 2 is the sectional schematic diagram of slope surface.
Specific embodiment
In order to which objects and advantages of the present invention are more clearly understood, the present invention is carried out specifically with reference to embodiments It is bright.It should be appreciated that following word is only used to one or more of specific embodiments of the description present invention, not to the present invention The protection domain specifically asked carries out considered critical.
Following Examples 1 to 2 are in my company (ten thousand grass of Anqing, thousand wooden agricultural science and technology Co., Ltd) and Wuhu perseverance promise energy Technology Co., Ltd., the cool breeze farm (Yuexi County lotus flower village cool breeze group) of Yuexi County Hong Sheng agricultural science and technologys Co., Ltd joint development Middle progress, gemma refer to send tender white gemma on the common vetch dish root and stem of certain plants, and gemma is picked after growing up to common vetch dish, loose stool water behaviour retention of urine Liquid and 2 times of water mixed preparings obtain, and urea water is prepared to obtain for 100~200g urea and 1L water.It is unknown in following embodiments 1,2 The specific amount of application of fertilizer really illustrated, those skilled in the art can in right amount be made according to the effect of fertilizer and use age With ensureing the reliable plant of crops, in addition, in entire planting process, be required for carrying out weeding every year, loosen the soil, the behaviour such as desinsection Make.In the present invention unless otherwise instructed, the percentage of component is mass concentration.
For improvement soil used to be made in embodiment 3~6, selenium-rich clay fertilizer is to be made in embodiment 7~9 in embodiment 1,2 , the improvement in hillside forest land is specifically as shown in Figure 1, 2.
Tealeaves punching fertilising ploughs the punching fertilising of board tea tree, application method for the cloud of Zhengzhou Yun Geng agricultural science and technologys Co., Ltd production It rushes for dilution and applies trickle irrigation for 800-1200 times, dropper punching per acre applies 2.0 kilograms;Certainly the tealeaves punching of other companies production can also be used Fertilising is used, and has obtained same effect.The excrement that poultry muck is collected for raising livestock and poultry;According to 6:3:1 mass ratio will Sorghum, wheat, soybean, which crush, is hybridly prepared into fermentation substrate, according to 1:5 mass ratio adds yeast selenium and fermentation substrate mixing The product of fermentation and feed be mixed for raising livestock and poultry by water fermentation process 70 days at 28 DEG C, to the excrement of livestock and poultry into Row is collected.
Embodiment 1
Fire line is held successfully in selected hillside forest land and carries out refining mountain, selects fine day handle ground is burned to grill thoroughly, by tree root, the careless root and stem of certain plants behind burning ground It roots out, by hillside forest land site preparation into staged, each planting site 11 after site preparation opens up respectively along the contour on hillside, adjacent plantation It is built a dam the ridge 12 using stone heap on the outside of slope surface between ground 11, offers ditch 13 in the middle part of each planting site 11, ditch 13 is along plantation The length direction on ground 11 opens up and ditch 13 is arranged at intervals compartment 131 along its length, and ditch 13 is separated into respectively by compartment 131 Sink, sets first and second flowing water mouth 132 on the both ends compartment 131 of each sink respectively, and the 3rd stream is opened up on the cell wall on the outside of sink The mouth of a river 133, the height of the 3rd flowing water mouth 133 and the height of the smaller flowing water mouth of height in first and second flowing water mouth 132 on same sink Degree be consistent (height at such as first-class mouth of a river less than the second mouth of a river height, then the 3rd flowing water mouth 133 height and first The height of flowing water mouth is consistent), 131 and the 3rd flowing water mouth 133 of compartment on adjacent ditch 13 is arranged respectively in interleaved shape, The top ditch 13 in hillside forest land is connected with water supply installation, and the upper outside on the dam ridge 12 is provided with the sparge pipe of horizontal shape arrangement 14, it is arranged at intervals with Bidirectional spray head on the pipe shaft of sparge pipe, it is the oblique side wall for being directed toward Ba Geng in a water outlet direction of Bidirectional spray head, double The one side away from Ba Geng is directed toward obliquely to another water outlet direction of nozzle, and planting site 11 is divided into positioned at ditch 13 by ditch 13 First planting site 111 of inside and the second planting site 112 positioned at 13 outside of ditch, the first planting site 111 is using improvement soil Fill out it is whole form, the height on the dam ridge 12 is 60~80cm, and improvement soil fills out whole thickness as 30~35cm, and improvement soil fills out flood Downside is provided with sandy soils 15, and 12 bottom of the dam ridge is extended in sandy soils 15, and the width of the first planting site 111 is 30~40cm, The width of second planting site 112 is 1~1.2m;
Then spring be spaced on the second planting site 112 plant 4~5 years raw thorn Chinese fir seedlings, spacing in the rows 1.5m, thorn China fir seedling into The trunk for piercing Chinese fir seedling is clipped after work and preservative treatment is carried out to truncated position, tufted at the tree stump of China fir is pierced and grows thorn China fir seedling, The common vetch dish seedling 11a of artificial propagation is planted on the first planting site 111 close to interval at 12 bottom of the dam ridge in the autumn in the same year It plants, plants the width of plant hole as 20~25 centimetres, size is 20 × 20cm, is transplanted by spacing in the rows 15cm, and during transplanting, common vetch dish seedling 11a should Transplantation with soil does not hinder root system, and root water is poured after cultivation, and pours water in ditch 13, and the water surface elevation in ditch 13 is less than the first 12~the 17cm of ground level on ground 111 is planted, stops irrigating and in one layer of leaf of earth's surface bedding of the first planting site 111 after the Frost's Descent, The leaf and pine needle that optional miscellaneous tree descends slowly and lightly carry out bedding;
Second year starts to irrigate after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term), and 4~May, common vetch dish started bract bud, and daily night opening is two-way after common vetch dish bract bud Nozzle carries out the spray painting of 3~5min, before gemma and carries out top dressing with loose stool water or urea water after gemma and carries seedling, bract bud First Year is not Common vetch dish is picked, thorn Chinese fir is trimmed, retains a major branch, remaining thorn China fir seedling, which carries out plucking top, makes its height exist Between 1.4~1.6m, second year autumn plants at first kind broadcasts sowing Chinese milk vetch on the ground, and receipts and leaf one are cut after Chinese milk vetch maturation Earth's surface of the bedding in the first planting site is played, during September part, the planting hole for digging 50cm depths on the ground is planted at second kind, at the bottom of planting hole Portion put into 2.0kg green manure, then with 1.5kg poultry mucks, 2.0kg cake fertilizer be compacted, covering mulch carry out it is decomposed, it is decomposed drop back from Mulch stir spreading to the fertilizer in planting hole, and 3~4 years raw tea seedlings are planted during November, and tea tree, which is located at, pierces Chinese fir Inside and, the Frost's Descent after stopping irrigation interval-staggered with thorn Chinese fir;Since second year, before Chinese milk vetch and leaf bedding It plants for one kind and spreads fertilizer over the fields selenium-rich clay fertilizer on the ground, the amount of spreading fertilizer over the fields of selenium-rich clay fertilizer spreads fertilizer over the fields 120~150kg for the first planting site per acre.
Since the 3rd year, repeat to operate as follows every year:Start after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term) irrigate and to tealeaves apply Tea Industry punching fertilising and Poultry muck, the applied amount of poultry muck is 160~170kg/ mus, once helps bud fertile the application of common vetch dish in 3, April, tealeaves hair Daily night opens the spray painting that Bidirectional spray head carries out 3~5min after bud and common vetch dish bract bud, and 4~May is to common vetch dish picking 3~4 It is secondary, the 3rd year tealeaves without picking only trimmed, the 4th year starts to pick tealeaves, to pierce Chinese fir dwarf branch item into Row trimming makes its height be no more than 1.5m, and autumn broadcasts sowing Chinese milk vetch in the first planting site, and second kind is planted sowing clover on the ground, Receipts and leaf are cut after Chinese milk vetch maturation, and bedding in the earth's surface of the first planting site, is turned over after clover maturation and is embedded in together Stop irrigating in the soil of two planting sites, after the Frost's Descent, bud fertilizer is helped to prepare to obtain for 50kg fire loam and 10L people's retention of urine liquid.
Embodiment 2
Fire line is held successfully in selected hillside forest land and carries out refining mountain, selects fine day handle ground is burned to grill thoroughly, by tree root, the careless root and stem of certain plants behind burning ground It roots out, by hillside forest land site preparation into staged, each planting site 11 after site preparation opens up respectively along the contour on hillside, adjacent plantation It is built a dam the ridge 12 using stone heap on the outside of slope surface between ground 11, offers ditch 13 in the middle part of each planting site 11, ditch 13 is along plantation The length direction on ground 11 opens up and ditch 13 is arranged at intervals compartment 131 along its length, and ditch 13 is separated into respectively by compartment 131 Sink, sets first and second flowing water mouth 132 on the both ends compartment 131 of each sink respectively, and the 3rd stream is opened up on the cell wall on the outside of sink The mouth of a river 133, the height of the 3rd flowing water mouth 133 and the height of the smaller flowing water mouth of height in first and second flowing water mouth 132 on same sink Degree be consistent (height at such as first-class mouth of a river less than the second mouth of a river height, then the 3rd flowing water mouth 133 height and first The height of flowing water mouth is consistent), 131 and the 3rd flowing water mouth 133 of compartment on adjacent ditch 13 is arranged respectively in interleaved shape, The top ditch 13 in hillside forest land is connected with water supply installation, and the upper outside on the dam ridge 12 is provided with the sparge pipe of horizontal shape arrangement 14, it is arranged at intervals with Bidirectional spray head on the pipe shaft of sparge pipe, it is the oblique side wall for being directed toward Ba Geng in a water outlet direction of Bidirectional spray head, double The one side away from Ba Geng is directed toward obliquely to another water outlet direction of nozzle, and planting site 11 is divided into positioned at ditch 13 by ditch 13 First planting site 111 of inside and the second planting site 112 positioned at 13 outside of ditch, the first planting site 111 is using improvement soil Fill out it is whole form, the height on the dam ridge 12 is 60~80cm, and improvement soil fills out whole thickness as 30~35cm, and improvement soil fills out flood Downside is provided with sandy soils, and 12 bottom of the dam ridge is extended in sandy soils, and the width of the first planting site 111 is 30~40cm, and second The width of planting site 112 is 1~1.2m;
Then spring be spaced on the second planting site 112 plant 4~5 years raw thorn Chinese fir seedlings, spacing in the rows 1.5m, thorn China fir seedling into The trunk for piercing Chinese fir seedling is clipped after work and preservative treatment is carried out to truncated position, tufted at the tree stump of China fir is pierced and grows thorn China fir seedling, Wild common vetch dish seedling 11a close to interval at 12 bottom of the dam ridge is transplanted on the first planting site 111 in the autumn in the same year, is planted The width of plant hole is 20~25 centimetres, and size is 20 × 20cm, is transplanted by spacing in the rows 15cm, and during transplanting, common vetch dish seedling 11a should be with soil mud It plants, does not hinder root system, root water is poured after cultivation, and pour water in ditch 13, the water surface elevation in ditch 13 is less than the first planting site 111 12~17cm of ground level, stop irrigating and in one layer of leaf of earth's surface bedding of the first planting site 111 after the Frost's Descent, can be selected miscellaneous It sets the leaf to descend slowly and lightly and pine needle carries out bedding;
Second year starts to irrigate after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term), and 4~May, common vetch dish started bract bud, and daily night opening is two-way after common vetch dish bract bud Nozzle carries out the spray painting of 3~5min, before gemma and carries out top dressing with loose stool water or urea water after gemma and carries seedling, bract bud First Year is not Common vetch dish is picked, thorn Chinese fir is trimmed, retains a major branch, remaining thorn China fir seedling, which carries out plucking top, makes its height exist Between 1.4~1.6m, second year autumn plants at first kind broadcasts sowing Chinese milk vetch on the ground, and receipts and leaf one are cut after Chinese milk vetch maturation Earth's surface of the bedding in the first planting site is played, during September part, the planting hole for digging 50cm depths on the ground is planted at second kind, at the bottom of planting hole Portion put into 2.0kg green manure, then with 1.5kg poultry mucks, 2.0kg cake fertilizer be compacted, covering mulch carry out it is decomposed, it is decomposed drop back from Mulch stir spreading to the fertilizer in planting hole, and 3~4 years raw tea seedlings are planted during November, and tea tree, which is located at, pierces Chinese fir Inside and, the Frost's Descent after stopping irrigation interval-staggered with thorn Chinese fir;Since second year, before Chinese milk vetch and leaf bedding It plants for one kind and spreads fertilizer over the fields selenium-rich clay fertilizer on the ground, the amount of spreading fertilizer over the fields of selenium-rich clay fertilizer spreads fertilizer over the fields 120~150kg for the first planting site per acre.
Since the 3rd year, repeat to operate as follows every year:Start after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term) irrigate and to tealeaves apply Tea Industry punching fertilising and Poultry muck, the applied amount of poultry muck is 160~170kg/ mus, once helps bud fertile the application of common vetch dish in 3, April, tealeaves hair Daily night opens the spray painting that Bidirectional spray head carries out 3~5min after bud and common vetch dish bract bud, and 4~May is to common vetch dish picking 3~4 It is secondary, the 3rd year tealeaves without picking only trimmed, the 4th year starts to pick tealeaves, to pierce Chinese fir dwarf branch item into Row trimming makes its height be no more than 1.5m, and autumn broadcasts sowing Chinese milk vetch in the first planting site, and second kind is planted sowing clover on the ground, Receipts and leaf are cut after Chinese milk vetch maturation, and bedding in the earth's surface of the first planting site, is turned over after clover maturation and is embedded in together Stop irrigating in the soil of two planting sites, after the Frost's Descent, bud fertilizer is helped to prepare to obtain for 50kg fire loam and 10L people's retention of urine liquid.
In above-described embodiment 1,2, the plantation amount of common vetch dish is 2000~2500 plants per acre, produces 350 kilograms of fresh common vetch dishes per year per acre, The length of fresh common vetch dish is picked as 15~20cm, the root diameter (RD) of fresh common vetch dish root is 0.8~1.2cm, the fibrosis journey of fresh common vetch dish Spend low, Se content in common vetch dish is high, and Se content is about 3~4 times of common common vetch dish in dry common vetch dish obtained.
Traditional level land plantation, the plantation amount of mu common vetch dish is 4500~6000 plants, produces 300 kilograms of fresh common vetch dishes, picking per year per acre The length of fresh common vetch dish is 15~20cm, and the root diameter (RD) of fresh common vetch dish root is 0.3~0.6cm, the fibrosis journey on fresh common vetch dish surface Degree is high.
Tealeaves was picked in above-described embodiment 1,2 since the 4th year, the tealeaves fertilizer of picking is tender, and tealeaves is not in disease pest Evil, per mu yield dry tea 100kg or so, Se content is 1.8 of Se content in the brewed millet paste of ordinary tea leaves in the brewed millet paste of tealeaves Times or more.
Embodiment 3
By dry land soil, peat soil, selenium-rich batch mixing and fiery loam according to 1:1:0.4:0.2 weight ratio mixed preparing is changed Good soil, dry land soil is not sowed crop during dry field and is digged 2 times for the paddy soils that is taken after rice terrace draining dry field June, fiery The fire ash that loam is stalk, tree branches and leaves, weeds burn till is with forest land native (hillside forest land native country) according to 1:2 weight ratio mixed preparing It obtains;Selenium-rich batch mixing is rotten through compost for 4kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry mucks, 0.5kg cake fertilizer and 5g sodium selenites Ripe to obtain, poultry muck obtains with the following method:According to 6:3:Sorghum, wheat, soybean are crushed mixed preparing by 1 mass ratio Into fermentation substrate, according to 1:Yeast selenium and fermentation substrate mixing are added water fermentation process 70 days at 28 DEG C by 5 mass ratio, will The product and feed of fermentation carry out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, and the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
Embodiment 4
By dry land soil, peat soil, selenium-rich batch mixing and fiery loam according to 1.2:1:0.8:0.4 weight ratio mixed preparing obtains Improve soil, dry land soil is not sowed crop during dry field and is digged 3 times by the paddy soils that is taken after rice terrace draining dry field March, The fire ash that fiery loam is stalk, tree branches and leaves, weeds burn till is with forest land soil according to 1:3 weight ratio mixed preparing obtains;Selenium-rich is mixed Expect to obtain through compost maturity for 4kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry mucks, 0.5kg cake fertilizer and 10g sodium selenites, poultry Muck obtains with the following method:According to 6:3:Sorghum, wheat, soybean are crushed and are hybridly prepared into fermentation substrate by 1 mass ratio, According to 1:Yeast selenium and fermentation substrate mixing are added water fermentation process 70 days at 28 DEG C by 5 mass ratio, by the product of fermentation and Feed carries out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, and the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
Embodiment 5
By dry land soil, peat soil, selenium-rich batch mixing and fiery loam according to 1:1:0.8:0.4 weight ratio mixed preparing is changed Good soil, dry land soil is not sowed crop during dry field and is digged 3 times for the paddy soils that is taken after rice terrace draining dry field April, fiery The fire ash that loam is stalk, tree branches and leaves, weeds burn till is with forest land soil according to 1:2.5 weight ratio mixed preparing obtains;Selenium-rich is mixed Expect to obtain through compost maturity for 4kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry mucks, 0.5kg cake fertilizer and 8g sodium selenites, poultry Muck obtains with the following method:According to 6:3:Sorghum, wheat, soybean are crushed and are hybridly prepared into fermentation substrate by 1 mass ratio, According to 1:Yeast selenium and fermentation substrate mixing are added water fermentation process 70 days at 28 DEG C by 5 mass ratio, by the product of fermentation and Feed carries out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, and the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
Embodiment 6
By dry land soil, peat soil, selenium-rich batch mixing and fiery loam according to 1.2:1:0.4:0.4 weight ratio mixed preparing obtains Improve soil, dry land soil is not sowed crop during dry field and is digged 2 times by the paddy soils that is taken after rice terrace draining dry field April, The fire ash that fiery loam is stalk, tree branches and leaves, weeds burn till is with forest land soil according to 1:2.5 weight ratio mixed preparing obtains;Selenium-rich Batch mixing obtains for 4kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry mucks, 0.5kg cake fertilizer and 8g sodium selenites through compost maturity, fowl Animal manure fertilizer obtains with the following method:According to 6:3:Sorghum, wheat, soybean are crushed and are hybridly prepared into fermentation bottom by 1 mass ratio Object, according to 1:Yeast selenium and fermentation substrate mixing are added water fermentation process 70 days at 28 DEG C, by the production of fermentation by 5 mass ratio Object and feed carry out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, and the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
The improvement soil produced in above-described embodiment 3~6, acid-base value and fertility are all particularly suitable for the production of common vetch dish, because This, the common vetch dish shoot survival percent of transplanting is high, and fertilizer efficiency persistently improves the yield of common vetch dish, and wherein Organic Selenium can effectively be inhaled by common vetch dish It receives, improves the organic selenium content in finished product common vetch dish.
Embodiment 7
Selenium-rich clay fertilizer is 6kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry mucks, 3.5kg cake fertilizer and 3~5g sodium selenites pass through Compost maturity obtains;Poultry muck obtains with the following method:According to 6:3:1 mass ratio crushes sorghum, wheat, soybean mixed Conjunction is configured to fermentation substrate, according to 1:Yeast selenium and fermentation substrate mixing are added water fermentation process 70 at 28 DEG C by 5 mass ratio My god, the product of fermentation and feed are carried out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
Embodiment 8
Selenium-rich clay fertilizer is 8kg green manure, 1.0kg lime, 4.0kg poultry mucks, 3.5kg cake fertilizer and 3~5g sodium selenites pass through Compost maturity obtains;Poultry muck obtains with the following method:According to 6:3:1 mass ratio crushes sorghum, wheat, soybean mixed Conjunction is configured to fermentation substrate, according to 1:Yeast selenium and fermentation substrate mixing are added water fermentation process 70 at 28 DEG C by 5 mass ratio My god, the product of fermentation and feed are carried out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
Embodiment 9
Selenium-rich clay fertilizer is 6kg green manure, 1.2kg lime, 6.0kg poultry mucks, 3.5kg cake fertilizer and 3~5g sodium selenites pass through Compost maturity obtains;Poultry muck obtains with the following method:According to 6:3:1 mass ratio crushes sorghum, wheat, soybean mixed Conjunction is configured to fermentation substrate, according to 1:Yeast selenium and fermentation substrate mixing are added water fermentation process 70 at 28 DEG C by 5 mass ratio My god, the product of fermentation and feed are carried out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
It is larger to the loss of soil after common vetch dish grows harvesting every year, thus it is annual need to carry out soil fertility supplement and Acid-base value is adjusted, and the selenium-rich clay fertilizer produced in above-described embodiment 7~9, acid-base value is higher than the normal growth conditions of common vetch dish, It uses, effectively the acid-base value of soil can be adjusted before bedding herbage and leaf, while supplement fertility and Organic Selenium, ensure The annual high yield output of selenium-rich common vetch dish.
The above is only the preferred embodiment of the present invention, it is noted that for the ordinary skill people of the art For member, after content described in the present invention is known, without departing from the principle of the present invention, it can also be made several Equal conversion and replacement, these, which convert and substitute on an equal basis, also should be regarded as belonging to the scope of protection of the present invention.

Claims (3)

1. a kind of new method for selenium-enriched tea leaf plantation refers in hillside interplanting in woodland common vetch dish, tealeaves, the method for piercing China fir, tool Body includes following operating procedure:
S1:By hillside forest land site preparation into staged, each planting site after site preparation opens up respectively along the contour on hillside, adjacent plantation It is built a dam the ridge using stone heap on the outside of slope surface between ground, each planting site middle part offers ditch, length side of the ditch along planting site To opening up and be arranged at intervals compartment in ditch along its length, ditch is separated into each sink by compartment, the both ends of each sink every First and second flowing water mouth in section is set respectively, opens up the 3rd flowing water mouth on the cell wall on the outside of sink, the 3rd flowing water mouth on same sink Height and the height of the smaller flowing water mouth of height is consistent in first and second flowing water mouth, the compartment on adjacent ditch and the 3rd Flowing water mouth arranges that the top ditch in hillside forest land is connected with water supply installation, the upper outside of Ba Geng in interleaved shape respectively The sparge pipe of horizontal shape arrangement is provided with, Bidirectional spray head, a water outlet direction of Bidirectional spray head are arranged at intervals on the pipe shaft of sparge pipe The oblique side wall for being directed toward Ba Geng, another water outlet direction of Bidirectional spray head are directed toward the one side away from Ba Geng obliquely, and ditch will plant Ground is divided into the first planting site on the inside of ditch and the second planting site on the outside of ditch, and the first planting site is using improvement Soil fill out it is whole form, improvement soil for dry land soil, peat soil, selenium-rich batch mixing and fire loam according to 1:1:0.4:0.2~1.2:1: 0.8:0.4 weight ratio mixed preparing obtains, and dry land soil is by the paddy soils taken after 3~June of rice terrace draining dry field, dry field phase Between do not sow crop and dig 2~3 times, the fire ash that fiery loam is stalk, tree branches and leaves, weeds burn till is with forest land soil according to 1:2~3 Weight ratio mixed preparing obtain;Selenium-rich batch mixing is 4kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry mucks, 0.5kg cake fertilizer and 5~ 10g sodium selenites are obtained through compost maturity;
S2:Spring plants 4~5 years raw thorn Chinese fir seedlings of interval plant on the ground at second kind then, and thorn China fir seedling will pierce Chinese fir after surviving The trunk of seedling is clipped and carries out preservative treatment to truncated position, pierces tufted at the tree stump of China fir and grows thorn China fir seedling, in the autumn in the same year Artificial propagation/wild common vetch dish seedling is planted at first kind and transplanted on the ground close to interval at Ba Geng bottoms, and filled in ditch Water, the water surface elevation in ditch are less than 12~17cm of ground level of the first planting site, stop irrigating and at the first after the Frost's Descent Plant one layer of leaf of earth's surface bedding on ground;
S3:Second year starts to irrigate after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term), and 4~May, common vetch dish started bract bud, and night opens two-way spray daily after common vetch dish bract bud Head carries out the spray painting of 3~5min, and bract bud First Year is not picked common vetch dish, and thorn Chinese fir is trimmed, retains a major branch, Remaining thorn China fir seedling, which carries out plucking top, makes its height between 1.4~1.6m, and second year autumn plants at first kind broadcasts sowing purple cloud on the ground English, cut after Chinese milk vetch maturation receipts and leaf together bedding the first planting site earth's surface, during September part, in the second planting site The upper planting hole for digging 50cm depths puts into 2.0kg green manure, then with 1.5kg poultry mucks, 2.0kg cake fertilizer in the bottom of planting hole Compacting, covering mulch carry out decomposed, and the liftoff film of decomposed recession stir spreading to the fertilizer in planting hole, and when November plants 3~4 years raw tea seedlings of kind, tea tree are located at the inside of thorn Chinese fir and, the Frost's Descent after stopping irrigation interval-staggered with thorn Chinese fir;From Second year starts, and is planted before Chinese milk vetch and leaf bedding at first kind and spreads fertilizer over the fields selenium-rich clay fertilizer on the ground, the amount of spreading fertilizer over the fields of selenium-rich clay fertilizer is every The first planting site of mu spreads fertilizer over the fields 120~150kg, and selenium-rich clay fertilizer is 6kg green manure, 0.8kg lime, 4.0kg poultry mucks, 3.5kg cakes Fertilizer and 3~5g sodium selenites are obtained through compost maturity;
S4:Since the 3rd year, repeat to operate as follows every year:Start to irrigate after the Waking of Insects (3rd solar term) and apply Tea Industry punching fertilising and fowl to tealeaves Animal manure fertilizer, the applied amount of poultry muck is 160~170kg/ mus, once helps bud fertile the application of common vetch dish in 3, April, tealeaves germination And daily night opening Bidirectional spray head carries out the spray painting of 3~5min after common vetch dish bract bud, 4~May common vetch dish is picked 3~4 times, 3rd year tealeaves is only trimmed without picking, and the 4th year starts to pick tealeaves, and the dwarf branch item for piercing Chinese fir is carried out Trimming makes its height be no more than 1.5m, and autumn broadcasts sowing Chinese milk vetch in the first planting site, and second kind is planted sowing clover on the ground, purple Receipts and leaf are cut after cloud Yingcheng is ripe, and bedding in the earth's surface of the first planting site, is turned over after clover maturation and is embedded in second together Stop irrigating in the soil of planting site, after the Frost's Descent, bud fertilizer is helped to be obtained for fiery loam and people and animals' urine/urea mixed preparing;
Poultry muck obtains with the following method:According to 6:3:Sorghum, wheat, soybean are crushed and are hybridly prepared by 1 mass ratio Fermentation substrate, according to 1:Yeast selenium and fermentation substrate mixing are added water fermentation process 70 days at 28 DEG C, will sent out by 5 mass ratio The product and feed of ferment carry out being mixed for raising livestock and poultry, and the feces of livestock and poultry of collection is poultry muck.
2. the new method according to claim 1 for selenium-enriched tea leaf plantation, it is characterised in that:The height of Ba Geng is 60 ~80cm, improvement soil fill out whole thickness as 30~35cm, and improvement soil, which is filled out, is provided with sandy soils on the downside of flood, Ba Geng bottoms It extends in sandy soils.
3. the new method according to claim 1 for selenium-enriched tea leaf plantation, it is characterised in that:Bud fertilizer is helped as 50kg fire fertilizer Soil and 10L people and animals' urines are prepared to obtain.
CN201510107538.7A 2015-03-11 2015-03-11 A kind of new method for selenium-enriched tea leaf plantation Expired - Fee Related CN104686170B (en)

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