CN105165531A - Film-uncovering-free cultivation method adopted in youth tea garden in cold highland area - Google Patents

Film-uncovering-free cultivation method adopted in youth tea garden in cold highland area Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105165531A
CN105165531A CN201510604532.0A CN201510604532A CN105165531A CN 105165531 A CN105165531 A CN 105165531A CN 201510604532 A CN201510604532 A CN 201510604532A CN 105165531 A CN105165531 A CN 105165531A
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tea
film
soil
plantation
ditch
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汪大贵
汪佳琪
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Yu Jia Organic Tea Co Ltd Of Huoshan County
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Yu Jia Organic Tea Co Ltd Of Huoshan County
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods

Abstract

The invention discloses a film-uncovering-free cultivation method adopted in a youth tea garden in the cold highland area. The method comprises the steps of seedling selection, tea garden selection, planting row arrangement, transplantation, black agricultural film mulching, shading crop interplanting and rational fertilizer application. By the adoption of the complete film-uncovering-free cultivation method adopted in the youth tea garden in the Huoshan cold highland area, large-scale production is achieved by means of the film-uncovering-free cultivation technique adopted in the youth tea garden in the Huoshan cold highland area, production time for tea tree garden forming is shortened, low survival rate of the youth tea garden caused by coldness and low temperature in winter is avoided through black agricultural film mulching, burning of tea seedlings caused by high temperature in summer is avoided through shading crop interplanting, labor for weeding of the youth tea garden is reduced, cost is reduced, the tea garden is made to go into production earlier, benefits are increased, and application value and popularization value are quite high; black agricultural films can be used for three years after being applied once; film uncovering is not needed, manpower and material resources are saved, weed growth is restrained, tea tree growth is effectively promoted, and the purpose of two-year production and forming the garden by the third year is realized.

Description

A kind of high and cold mountain area young tea plantations exempts to take off film cultivation method
Technical field
The present invention relates to technical field, specifically a kind of high and cold mountain area young tea plantations exempts to take off film cultivation method.
Background technology
Huoshan County is located in foot of Dabie Mountains, is positioned at north latitude 31 ° 03 '-31 ° 33 ', between 115 ° 52 '-116 ° 32 ', eastern footpath, mean sea level reaches 400 meters, and Shan Gao ridge is large, makes a clear distinction between the four seasons within the border, precipitation is plentiful, winter is comparatively cold dry, fertile soil, and beautiful environment within the border, forest coverage reaches 75.1%, aboundresources, have the good reputation in " medicine ridge, Kingsoft well-known tea ground, water power township, Zhu Hai mulberry field ".
Tea Industry is one of Huoshan County eight big agriculture pillar industry, annual all new development 6000, more than the 7000 mu Clonal Tea Gardens in the county, but survival rate is lower, and mountain area particularly, survival rate is less than 50%.Mainly contain with regard to its reason: one is freeze to tremble with fear seriously.Huoshan County is located in Da Bie Mountain area north slope, and winter temperature is cold, and county's minimum air temperature was at-9 DEG C in recent years--between 13 DEG C, and continue about tens of days.Two is difficulties of watering.Tea shoot transplanting time is short of rain, and winter is dry and cold again, and tea garden in mountainous area is dried up, and source is comparatively far away, difficulty of watering.Three is that crop smothering is serious.Juvenile stage tea place crop smothering is very serious, and artificial weeding management cost is large, and weeding easily makes tea shoot root loosen, and reduce survival rate, be exactly that present labour lacks very much in addition, nobody removes grass, causes many new cultivation tea places to lie waste.High and cold mountain area Tea Clone breeding transplantation of seedlings technology has laid out the important agenda of Liao Wo county Tea Production.Main task one will explore to improve high and cold mountain area Clonal transplantation of seedlings survival rate new technology; Two is the problems solving high and cold mountain area Clonal garden weeding.
Summary of the invention
A kind of high and cold mountain area young tea plantations is the object of the present invention is to provide to exempt to take off film cultivation method, to solve the problem proposed in above-mentioned background technology.
For achieving the above object, the invention provides following technical scheme:
A kind of high and cold mountain area young tea plantations exempts to take off film cultivation method, comprises the steps:
1) seedling is selected: select the yellow bud seedling in height of seedling 15-25cm Huoshan;
2) tea place is selected: the gradient in hillside fields below 15 °, Rim field, nonirrigated farmland etc., acid ground, complete more than soil layer 50cm;
3) plantation row is arranged: hillside fields is entirely cultivated and deep-cut more than 50cm, and gentle slope, level land answers zanjon to hang groove, ditch depth 50cm, wide 70cm, and table soil goes back ditch, and subsoil is also gone up, and weeds a garden, the foreign material such as stone, and topsoil soil wants in small, broken bits loose, smooth good ground.Arrange plantation row according to different terrain, tea place, level land adopts straight line plantation, and tea place, gentle slope then adopts contour to plant, and plantation row has certain length;
4) transplant: transplanting time from October early and middle ten days to mid-March in next year, adopt single file bar to plant, distance between rows and hills is 150cm × 27cm, every cave 2 strain, and every mu needs 2900-3100 strain;
5) main points are transplanted: before planting, on predetermined plantation row, open plantation ditch by plantation specification, plantation ditch width and the degree of depth are determined according to the growing state of tea shoot root system, the degree of depth and width darker than tea shoot root system, wide 8-10cm is advisable, base fertilizer is applied in ditch, mix thoroughly, then tea shoot root is dipped in full yellow mud, implant in ditch, make root system unfold Yu Gouzhong as far as possible, with the collar portion of tea shoot lower than ground, righting tea shoot, the table soil that plantation ditch turns up is inserted in ditch, be filled to a half, tea shoot upwards one is carried gently, again that soil pressure is real, water sufficient normal root water, remaining soil is overlying on tea shoot root, tea moisture in the soil is flattened simultaneously, again that the soil pressure of tea shoot root is real, the top at tea shoot overhead 15-20cm place is all pruned away,
6) black plastic sheeting for farm use covers: select wide 45-55 ㎝, the black plastic sheeting for farm use of thick 0.03-0.05mm, along tea walking gesture, black plastic sheeting for farm use is covered respectively on tea shoot both sides, black plastic sheeting for farm use is tight with earth surface, degree of tightness is appropriate, open and flat, non-wrinkle, without twill, by the ridging compacting of mulch film both sides;
7) crop of sheltering from heat or light is interplanted: Second Year 4-5 month is at the capable limes marginis kind of tea early corn;
8) rational application of fertilizer, growth promoting effects: the first year, tea shoot was about August, uses fertilizer applicator to impose a small amount of urea, amount of application 13-20 pound/acre, promotes the growth of overground part bud-leaf, imposes composite fertilizer 30-40 pound/acre again December in the winter time, promote underground part root growth.Shape for the second time, for the third time before pruning and should select to carry out at spring tea end, after harvesting 1-2 criticizes the yellow young tea leaves in Huoshan, all prune away at original clip raising 5-15 ㎝, re-use fertilizer placement drill and impose a small amount of urea, amount of application 25-25 pound/acre.
Preferably, in step 3, the place larger to bend, for avoiding occurring that line-break, slotting row and closed tea are capable, relatively contour; Trapezoidal tea place, plantation row can along terraced limit curved arrangement, and plantation row is vertical with road or have a certain degree;
Preferably, wide 50 ㎝ of described black plastic sheeting for farm use, thick 0.04mm, covers black plastic sheeting for farm use respectively on the both sides from tea shoot 5cm.
Preferably, in step 8, fertilization time is early August and the early December of First Year, second and be respectively late April and early December on the 3rd year.
Compared with prior art, the invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
High and cold mountain area, the Huoshan young tea plantations that the present invention has formulated complete set exempts to take off film cultivation method; achieve high and cold mountain area, Huoshan young tea plantations to exempt to take off film culture technique production scale; shorten tea tree and become garden production time; by covering black plastic sheeting for farm use; avoiding young tea plantations because of cold low temperature in winter causes survival rate low; by interplanting crop of sheltering from heat or light; avoid summer high temperature to cause tea shoot and burn; fall and lacked young tea plantations weeding recruitment; reduce cost; gone into operation ahead of time in tea place, add benefit, there is higher application and promotional value simultaneously.And black plastic sheeting for farm use once drops into and can use 3 years; Without the need to taking off film, using manpower and material resources sparingly, reducing weed growth, effectively promoting growth of tea plant, reach operation in 2 years, the target in three year's harvest gardens.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, the present invention is further illustrated.
A kind of high and cold mountain area of the present invention young tea plantations exempts to take off film cultivation method, comprises the steps:
1) seedling is selected: the improved seeds such as the Huoshan golden pheasant kind of the yellow bud in suitable for making Huoshan, the tea morning of relaxing, height of seedling about 20cm;
2) tea place is selected: the gradient in hillside fields below 15 °, Rim field, nonirrigated farmland etc., acid ground, complete more than soil layer 50cm;
3) plantation row is arranged: hillside fields is entirely cultivated and deep-cut more than 50cm, and gentle slope, level land answers zanjon to hang groove, ditch depth 50cm, wide 70cm, and table soil goes back ditch, and subsoil is also gone up, and weeds a garden, the foreign material such as stone, and topsoil soil wants in small, broken bits loose, smooth good ground.Arrange plantation row according to different terrain, be conducive to realizing tea place mechanization management, prevent erosion.Tea place, level land adopts straight line plantation, and tea place, gentle slope then adopts contour to plant, and plantation row has certain length.The place larger to bend, for avoiding occurring that line-break, slotting row and closed tea are capable, relatively contour.Trapezoidal tea place, plantation row can along terraced limit curved arrangement, and plantation row is vertical with road or have a certain degree;
4) transplant: transplanting time from October early and middle ten days to mid-March in next year, adopt single file bar to plant, distance between rows and hills is 150cm × 27cm, every cave 2 strain, and every mu needs 2900-3100 strain;
5) transplant main points: before planting by plantation specification on predetermined plantation row, open plantation ditch, plantation ditch width and the degree of depth determine according to the growing state of tea shoot root system, the degree of depth and width darker than tea shoot root system, wide 8-10cm is advisable, and applies base fertilizer, mixes thoroughly in ditch.Then tea shoot root is dipped in full yellow mud, implant in ditch, make root system unfold Yu Gouzhong as far as possible, with the collar portion of tea shoot lower than ground, righting tea shoot, inserts in ditch by the table soil that plantation ditch turns up, be filled to a half, tea shoot upwards one is carried gently, root system is unfolded, then soil pressure is real, water sufficient normal root water, remaining soil is overlying on tea shoot root, tea moisture in the soil is flattened simultaneously, then the soil pressure of tea shoot root is real.The top at tea shoot overhead 15-20cm place is all pruned away, plays the effect that first time sizing is pruned;
6) black plastic sheeting for farm use covers: select wide 50 ㎝, the black plastic sheeting for farm use of thick 0.04mm, along tea walking gesture, black plastic sheeting for farm use is covered respectively on the both sides from tea shoot 5cm, black plastic sheeting for farm use is tight with earth surface, degree of tightness is appropriate, open and flat, non-wrinkle, without twill, by the ridging compacting of mulch film both sides, prevent from being blown up, affect water conservation, soil conservation, the overlay film effect that preserves soil moisture, heat;
7) crop of sheltering from heat or light is interplanted: Second Year 4-5 month is at the capable limes marginis kind of tea early corn, play the effect of sheltering from heat or light summer, reduce temperature in the shed, avoid high temperature to cause unnecessary injury to tea shoot, promote root growth, suppress disease pest and weed to occur, reduce the consumption of nutrient, moisture in soil, realization exempts to take off film culture technique, reaches tea garden management saving of labor, labour-saving object, avoids the pollution using chemical herbicide to soil and tealeaves;
8) rational application of fertilizer, growth promoting effects: with First Year early August, second time early December, second and within the 3rd year, be respectively late April and early December as well, the first year, tea shoot was about August, used fertilizer applicator to impose a small amount of urea, amount of application 15 pounds/acre, promote the growth of overground part bud-leaf, impose composite fertilizer 35 pounds/acre December more in the winter time, promote underground part root growth.In order to increase economic efficiency, for the second time, third time sizing should be selected to carry out at spring tea end before pruning, after harvesting 1-2 criticizes the yellow young tea leaves in Huoshan, improve 10 ㎝ at original clip all to prune away, re-use fertilizer placement drill and impose a small amount of urea, amount of application 20 pounds/acre, promote growth of tea plant, increase branch density, for tea place high yield, high level lay basic unit from now on.
In order to improve Clonal transplantation of seedlings survival rate, reduce tea garden management cost childhood, research and development group membership covered black plastic sheeting for farm use in continuous 3 years to three mu of Clonal tea shoots of newly transplanting, litter and conventional three different tests, and the environment in these three mu of tea places, seedling growth are suitable, observe ground temperature change and tea shoot survival rate situation, wherein
(1) aluminum coated steel: the Second Year autumn newly plants tea shoot with thick 0.04 millimeter, the black plastic sheeting for farm use of wide 50cm, covers black plastic sheeting for farm use respectively on the both sides of distance tea shoot 5cm, at the capable limes marginis kind of tea early corn at the beginning of low 5 months of April, plays the effect of sheltering from heat or light summer.The rational application of fertilizer, fertilising uses fertilizer placement drill, accomplishes that young tea plantations management exempts to take off membrane technology.
(2) litter process: littered before soil is freeze-up every year, material selection weeds, crop stalk, be layered on tea tree earth's surface in the ranks.Generally measure 1500kg with grass for every mu, thickness reaches 3-5cm.
(3) conventional treatment: check experiment, according to the Routine Management of young tea plantations, does not cover, interplants any thing that shelters from heat or light.
5cm, 10cm, 15cm, 20cm angle geothermometer is set often organizing in experiment, First Year starts winter, December in winter, January, every morning in February 8:00 point, June in summer, July, every afternoon in August 16:00 point observe and record soil temperature situation, observe tea tree rudiment situation annual spring, observe growth of tea plant situation autumn.And tea garden soil variations in temperature, the growth of tea plant situation in testing three groups is carried out, sprouting time compares, and analyzes and covers black plastic sheeting for farm use and litter routine, on the impact of soil temperature change on growth of tea plant.
One, different disposal method is to the research of tea garden soil variations in temperature
1, winter, different disposal method was on the impact of ground temperature
Table one different disposal in winter method is on the impact of ground temperature
As can be seen from Table I, overlay film, litter and have obvious regulating action to soil temperature.In the winter of cold, overlay film with litter compared with routine, mean ground temperature overlay film and the raising 1.4-2.4 DEG C littered, visible, overlay film and littering to the heat insulation effect of soil clearly.And tea root is mainly distributed between 15-20cm, new cultivation tea shoot just starts growth at Second Year root system in February, the soil temperature amplitude of variation of 15-20cm is little, remains in the Suitable ranges of tea root growth, and this plays an important role to promotion growth of tea plant and raising tea tree survival rate.
Continue to have studied aluminum coated steel, litter process and conventional treatment three groups experiment tea shoot survive situation.
Table two different disposal method is on the impact of tea shoot survival rate
As can be seen from Table II, in aluminum coated steel, the survival rate of tea shoot is 98%, and higher than littering process 22 percentage points, higher than conventional treatment 48 percentage points, therefore overlay film has obvious effect to raising Clonal transplantation of seedlings survival rate,
2, interplant crop of sheltering from heat or light summer, reduce temperature in the shed
In order to improve tea shoot survival rate, the direct irradiation of sheltered from heat or light by plantation crop, effective stop sunshine, realizes exempting to take off film cultivation management technology.Often in clear and bright front and back, at every Moisture tea capable limit kind a line corn, play the effect of sheltering from heat or light summer, reduce temperature in the shed, avoid high temperature to cause unnecessary injury to tea shoot, realize exempting to take off film cultivation management technology, suppress the generation of tea place disease pest and weed, reduce tea garden management cost.
As can be seen from Table III, in the summer of 6-8 month sweltering heat, Shading with corn is planted between the tea place covering black plastic sheeting for farm use, cover black plastic sheeting for farm use, the soil average maximum littered compared with the control, 5-10cm ground temperature, aluminum coated steel is than conventional low 5.0-6.3 DEG C, litter process than conventional low 4-5.2 DEG C: 15-20cm ground temperature, aluminum coated steel is than conventional low 3-4.7 DEG C, litter process than conventional low 2.1-3.7 DEG C, visible overlay film and litter the temperature that can effectively reduce soil, and the cooling-down effect covering black plastic sheeting for farm use is particularly evident, and the soil temperature of 15-20cm remains on less than 25 DEG C, the growth of the very suitable tea root of this temperature.
Table three different disposal in summer method is on the impact of ground temperature
Two, different disposal method research that tea shoot growing state is affected
Research and development group membership contrast growth of tea plant situation with littering overlay film.
Table four different disposal method 1 year tea shoot growing state
Table five different disposal method two, 3 years tea shoot growing states
As can be seen from table four, five, covering black plastic sheeting for farm use can promote growth of tea plant, and annual tea tree main root has 3, and side root reaches 10, and fibrous root is more, height of tree average out to 42.5cm; The thick average 0.63cm in mother culm footpath, one-level branch have 6, the thick average 0.28cm in footpath; Within 2 years, height of tree average out to 75cm, stem are done rugosity and are on average crossed 0.87cm; 3 years raw height of tree average out to 110cm, stem is done rugosity and is reached 1.6cm, and tree width on average reaches 80 1 100 ㎝.All considerably beyond Routine Management.Cover black plastic sheeting for farm use, decrease weed growth, namely use manpower and material resources sparingly, reach function of fertilizer retention again, effectively can promote growth of tea plant, reach operation in 2 years, the target in three year's harvest gardens.
Three, different disposal method research that sprouting time is affected
Research and development group membership observe And Development of Tea Shoot growth time, and sum up following form.
Table six different disposal method one bud one leaf just opens up the time
As can be seen from table six, cover black plastic sheeting for farm use and just open up time advance 5-6 days than conventional tea tree one bud one leaf, cover black plastic sheeting for farm use ratio litter process tea tree just open up time advance 2-3 days than bud one leaf.
Find out from above test in a word, cover black plastic sheeting for farm use and change soil surface feature, period all there is obvious thermoregulatory effect in soil different depth, different observation, can be incubated in the winter time, moisturizing, improve tea shoot survival rate; 6-8 month high temperature season, plants at tea the direct radiation that crop of sheltering from heat or light decreases the sun in the ranks, has obvious cooling-down effect; Cover black plastic sheeting for farm use and have good facilitation to the growth of young plant young sprout, tea shoot sprouts average 5--6 days in advance; Black plastic sheeting for farm use once drops into and can use 3 years; The rational application of fertilizer, using fertilizer applicator, without the need to taking off film, using manpower and material resources sparingly, and reduce weed growth, effectively promote growth of tea plant, reach operation in 2 years, the target in three year's harvest gardens, adds economic well-being of workers and staff.

Claims (4)

1. high and cold mountain area young tea plantations exempts to take off a film cultivation method, it is characterized in that, comprises the steps:
1) seedling is selected: select the yellow bud seedling in height of seedling 15-25cm Huoshan;
2) tea place is selected: the gradient in hillside fields below 15 °, Rim field, nonirrigated farmland etc., acid ground, complete more than soil layer 50cm;
3) plantation row is arranged: hillside fields is entirely cultivated and deep-cut more than 50cm, and gentle slope, level land answers zanjon to hang groove, ditch depth 50cm, wide 70cm, and table soil goes back ditch, and subsoil is also gone up, and weeds a garden, the foreign material such as stone, and topsoil soil wants in small, broken bits loose, smooth good ground; Arrange plantation row according to different terrain, tea place, level land adopts straight line plantation, and tea place, gentle slope then adopts contour to plant, and plantation row has certain length;
4) transplant: transplanting time from October early and middle ten days to mid-March in next year, adopt single file bar to plant, distance between rows and hills is 150cm × 27cm, every cave 2 strain, and every mu needs 2900-3100 strain;
5) main points are transplanted: before planting, on predetermined plantation row, open plantation ditch by plantation specification, plantation ditch width and the degree of depth are determined according to the growing state of tea shoot root system, the degree of depth and width darker than tea shoot root system, wide 8-10cm is advisable, base fertilizer is applied in ditch, mix thoroughly, then tea shoot root is dipped in full yellow mud, implant in ditch, make root system unfold Yu Gouzhong as far as possible, with the collar portion of tea shoot lower than ground, righting tea shoot, the table soil that plantation ditch turns up is inserted in ditch, be filled to a half, tea shoot upwards one is carried gently, again that soil pressure is real, water sufficient normal root water, remaining soil is overlying on tea shoot root, tea moisture in the soil is flattened simultaneously, again that the soil pressure of tea shoot root is real, the top at tea shoot overhead 15-20cm place is all pruned away,
6) black plastic sheeting for farm use covers: select wide 45-55 ㎝, the black plastic sheeting for farm use of thick 0.03-0.05mm, along tea walking gesture, black plastic sheeting for farm use is covered respectively on tea shoot both sides, black plastic sheeting for farm use is tight with earth surface, degree of tightness is appropriate, open and flat, non-wrinkle, without twill, by the ridging compacting of mulch film both sides;
7) crop of sheltering from heat or light is interplanted: Second Year 4-5 month is at the capable limes marginis kind of tea early corn;
8) rational application of fertilizer, growth promoting effects: the first year, tea shoot was about August, uses fertilizer applicator to impose a small amount of urea, amount of application 13-20 pound/acre, promote the growth of overground part bud-leaf, impose composite fertilizer 30-40 pound/acre again December in the winter time, promote underground part root growth, shape for the second time, for the third time before pruning and should select to carry out at spring tea end, after harvesting 1-2 criticizes the yellow young tea leaves in Huoshan, improve 5-15 ㎝ at original clip all to prune away, re-use fertilizer placement drill and impose a small amount of urea, amount of application 25-25 pound/acre.
2. exempt to take off film cultivation method according to a kind of high and cold mountain area according to claim 1 young tea plantations, it is characterized in that, in step 3, the place larger to bend, for avoiding occurring that line-break, slotting row and closed tea are capable, relatively contour; Trapezoidal tea place, plantation row can along terraced limit curved arrangement, and plantation row is vertical with road or have a certain degree.
3. exempt to take off film cultivation method according to a kind of high and cold mountain area according to claim 1 young tea plantations, it is characterized in that, wide 50 ㎝ of described black plastic sheeting for farm use, thick 0.04mm, covers black plastic sheeting for farm use respectively on the both sides from tea shoot 5cm.
4. exempt to take off film cultivation method according to a kind of high and cold mountain area according to claim 1 young tea plantations, it is characterized in that, in step 8, fertilization time is early August and the early December of First Year, second and be respectively late April and early December on the 3rd year.
CN201510604532.0A 2015-09-21 2015-09-21 Film-uncovering-free cultivation method adopted in youth tea garden in cold highland area Pending CN105165531A (en)

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Cited By (7)

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CN105638357A (en) * 2016-01-04 2016-06-08 王虎琴 Tea garden free of weeding and plowing
CN106171756A (en) * 2016-07-15 2016-12-07 四川雨蒙禾盛农业发展有限公司 The method of a kind of ground film-covering planting tea seedling
CN107493860A (en) * 2017-08-01 2017-12-22 霍山县大化坪秀峰茶业精制厂 A kind of method that yellow bud is planted on golden pheasant mountain
CN107535276A (en) * 2017-10-20 2018-01-05 安庆慧可茶业股份有限公司 Young tea plantations management method
CN109258146A (en) * 2018-09-07 2019-01-25 霍山县雨佳有机茶有限公司 A kind of extremely frigid zones tea tree exempts from the method for taking off film cuttage and seedling culture
CN112005802A (en) * 2020-08-06 2020-12-01 广西壮族自治区茶叶科学研究所 Method for quickly building tea garden in alpine mountain area
CN112449972A (en) * 2020-11-24 2021-03-09 河北润丰林业科技有限公司 Simple winter-proofing overwintering method for northern container seedlings

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Application publication date: 20151223