CN104285678B - A kind of method of flat mushroom Super-high-yielding Cultivation - Google Patents

A kind of method of flat mushroom Super-high-yielding Cultivation Download PDF

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CN104285678B
CN104285678B CN201410604448.4A CN201410604448A CN104285678B CN 104285678 B CN104285678 B CN 104285678B CN 201410604448 A CN201410604448 A CN 201410604448A CN 104285678 B CN104285678 B CN 104285678B
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mushroom
flat mushroom
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cultivation
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CN104285678A (en
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王贤江
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WUHAN SUISUIFENG AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT Co Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G18/00Cultivation of mushrooms
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05GMIXTURES OF FERTILISERS COVERED INDIVIDUALLY BY DIFFERENT SUBCLASSES OF CLASS C05; MIXTURES OF ONE OR MORE FERTILISERS WITH MATERIALS NOT HAVING A SPECIFIC FERTILISING ACTIVITY, e.g. PESTICIDES, SOIL-CONDITIONERS, WETTING AGENTS; FERTILISERS CHARACTERISED BY THEIR FORM
    • C05G5/00Fertilisers characterised by their form
    • C05G5/40Fertilisers incorporated into a matrix

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  • Life Sciences & Earth Sciences (AREA)
  • Pest Control & Pesticides (AREA)
  • Chemical & Material Sciences (AREA)
  • Organic Chemistry (AREA)
  • Mycology (AREA)
  • Environmental Sciences (AREA)
  • Mushroom Cultivation (AREA)

Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of method of flat mushroom Super-high-yielding Cultivation, belong to Edible Fungi field of planting, be specifically related to a kind of method of flat mushroom Super-high-yielding Cultivation. The present invention has mainly taked following measure: in culture medium, add corn flour, dregs of beans, composite fertilizer etc., can obviously increase yield and quality; Add lotus seed shell, can play loose ventilative effect, accelerate the change of tide time. Adopt single head fruiting, nutrition centralizedly supply, product quality is high, and mushroom type is good. The nutrient solution that supplements nitrogenous, sugar and multiple mineral element and trace element, vitamin in the later stage, effectively improves Yield of Pleurotus Ostreatus and quality. The present invention produces cultivation cultivation formula by changing flat mushroom; in conjunction with the planting type of later stage Additional nutrient solution and employing single head fruiting, realize flat mushroom stable and high yields, excellent product, and can effectively enhance productivity; increase utilization of area rate, be applicable to economized and large-scale production.

Description

A kind of method of flat mushroom Super-high-yielding Cultivation
Technical field
The present invention relates to edible mushroom (class of picking up the ears such as flat mushroom, Ji mushroom, elegant precious mushroom) production field of planting, be specifically related to a kind of flat mushroomThe method of Super-high-yielding Cultivation.
Background technology
Flat mushroom, formal name used at school is picked up the ears, the kind of cultivation is mainly taking oyster cap fungus as main, also have in addition red mushroom, Pleurotus citrinopileatus, Ji mushroom,Elegant precious mushrooms etc. are China's cultivation a kind of mushroom class vegetables maximum with consumption. Flat mushroom has strong stress resistance, wide adaptability, is easy to plantThe feature of training, production cost is low, it is little, with short production cycle to invest, generally just can fruiting about 20 days, instant effect. Its productionRaw material sources are extensive, can gather materials on the spot, and biological transformation ratio is high, profitable, are vast town and country labour more than needed, laid-off worker and poorThe good project that tired family gets rich.
General mushroom cultivation has three kinds, raw material, fermentation material, grog, but uses at most at present, the most widely or grog. MainlyBecause raw material and fermentation material are planted in high temperature season and easily pollute, and are difficult for gathering, simultaneously due to thoroughly deinsectization, sterilizing and easilyEndangered by disease and pest. Therefore, adopting cured material bag-cultured is the guarantee of high temperature season cultivation and production high-quality flat mushroom, especially small mushroomMain Cultivation pattern. Tradition grog cultivating white mushroom, output is generally at 100-150%.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to solve the shortcoming that traditional grog cultivating white mushroom yields poorly, a kind of side of flat mushroom Super-high-yielding Cultivation is providedMethod.
Object of the present invention is achieved through the following technical solutions:
A method for flat mushroom Super-high-yielding Cultivation, comprises the steps:
(1) culture medium preparation:
Take following materials in percentage by mass: boll hull 40%, corncob 38%, lotus seed shell 12~15%, corn flour 3~6%,Lime 1~1.5%, gypsum 1%, dregs of beans 0.5%, composite fertilizer 0.5~1%, total amount 100%; Separately add mushroom Feng Su, mushroom doctor.Wherein, mushroom Feng Su is Kodak bio tech ltd, Nanchang product, and mushroom doctor is that Suizhou City Zengdu District is with edge edible mushroom disinfectantFactory's product, mushroom Feng Su, mushroom doctor's consumption reference product operation instruction.
Corncob and lotus seed shell are carried a few days ago and being prewetted, and heap fermentation, adds other raw materials again before pack, regulates water content60-65%。
(2) culture medium pack: use polyethylene plastic bag to pack, put fruiting circle, and seal with polypropylene sealed membraneMouthful.
(3) medium sterilization: bacterium bag is carried out to sterilizing, be can fully go out as standard. Described bacterium bag is cultivation is housedThe polyethylene plastic bag of base.
(4) place sterilization: sterilized in mushroom cultivation place in advance.
(5) inoculated and cultured: carry out disinfection with 75% alcohol opponent, perforation rod and the strain bag surface of inoculation before inoculation.
Inoculation method is: opens fast bacterium and seals membrana oralis, use perforation rod to get hole in bacterium bag central authorities, and quick after access bacterial classificationSeal up newspaper (double-deck newspaper), fix with rubber band.
After inoculation, add forced ventilation, ensure enough oxygen supplies, keeping air humidity is below 50%, to covering with mycelia.
(6) fruiting: after mycelia is covered with, air humidity is increased to when 80-90% continues to be cultured to flat mushroom maturation and gathers.
(7) Additional nutrient solution: gather after two batches of mushrooms, inject nutrient solution in bacterium bag, make bacterium bag recover the follow-up continuous cultivation of former weight;Wherein, the contained raw material proportioning of nutrient solution is: white granulated sugar 0.5%, composite fertilizer 0.3~0.5% (or urea 0.1~0.3% and di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphateHydrogen potassium 0.1~0.3%), gypsum 0.5%, surplus is water; Separately adding triacontanol, brute force to urge mushroom king, mushroom, strong greatly (or mushroom is richElement) etc., the choosings such as mushroom doctor, gram mould king, lime, auxin 802, insect protected spirit add. Triacontanol, brute force are urged mushroom king, mushroomThe consumption reference product operation instruction of the products such as large strong, mushroom Feng Su, mushroom doctor.
Corncob described in step (1) is preferably and is ground into iblet or soybean grain size.
Polyethylene plastic bag described in step (2) is preferably 23cm × 45cm, thickness is 0.3mm, the poly-second of an openingAlkene plastics bag, every packed wet feed 2.5~3kg; Described polypropylene sealed membrane is preferably 12cm × 12cm, thickness is 0.5mmSquare polypropylene film.
Step (3) sterilizing is preferably bacterium bag is to the discharge of " well " font, and 100 DEG C keep 8-10h.
Place described in step (4) is culturing room or booth. Wherein, culturing room's sterilization is for disappearing with smog after culturing room's sealingToxic agent carries out disinfection; Booth sterilization is: by shining canopy, humidity in canopy dropped to below 50%, sprays one time lime, and spray sterilizationMedicine (lysol 10%, bromogeramine, carbendazim) or with aerosol disinfectant spraying (or sootiness), vexed canopy 12 hours,Open film, the flavour of a drug that leave, add an insect protected spirit of spray after 2 days again, and vexed canopy, after 12 hours, is opened booth, and the flavour of a drug that leave are for subsequent use.
Bacterial classification described in step (5) is strain excellent, as No. 1, No. 1, Warburg Pincus, 265,260, little black flat, grey U.S. and summer ashThe highest, best in quality Deng variety yield, these From Eight Strains of Pleurotus Ostreatus are common flat mushroom kind on market, and various places DSMZ allThere is female kind to sell. Bacterial classification form is peg wood bacterial classification or conventional bacterial classification (boll hull or grain kind), and peg wood bacterial classification is every bag and connects one,Every bag of conventional bacterial classification meets 0.25kg.
The present invention cultivates formula by changing flat mushroom production cultivation, in conjunction with the cultivation side of later stage Additional nutrient solution and employing single head fruitingFormula, has realized flat mushroom stable and high yields, excellent product, and can effectively enhance productivity, and increases utilization of area rate, is applicable to economizedAnd large-scale production, concrete principle refers to below technological merit and effect.
(1) the present invention by adding corn flour, dregs of beans, composite fertilizer, mushroom Feng Su (spice king), mushroom doctor in culture medium120 etc. Wherein corn flour can not only play and supplement carbon nitrogen nutrition, can also supplement edible fungi growth and must obtain Cobastab1, because ofFor hypha of Pleurotus ostreatus is to Cobastab1Synthesis capability very weak, the particularly fruiting later stage, can cause flat mushroom fruiting in default of vitaminSlow or normal fruiting, additionally adds corn flour, can effectively increase the content of vitamin in compost, to the output in later stageThere is stabilization; Because protein content, 30.7% (accounting for mushroom soma weight), is 4 of rice protein content in mushroom carpophoreDoubly, the dregs of beans that adds protein content very to enrich in compost can provide good protein for flat mushroom in growth course,Prevent from occurring that because protein provision is not enough mushroom body is less than normal, the problem of mushroom matter deviation; Composite fertilizer in supplementary nitrogen element,Can also play and supplement the indispensable mineral element phosphorus of edible fungi growth and potassium; And contain sugar, nitrogenous in mushroom Feng Su (spice king)Material and growth factor, the nutrition that can change compost is more balanced; And add mushroom doctor can effectively prevent that micropore from causingMiscellaneous bacteria infect; Add lotus seed shell, can play loose ventilative effect, accelerate the change of tide time.
(2) traditional mode adopts two fruiting, and the nutrition supply deficiency of flat mushroom, causes dead mushroom or poor product quality like this, thisInvention adopts single head fruiting, nutrition centralizedly supply, and product quality is high, and mushroom type is good; And subtracted by two passageways of original every discharge of bacteria bagBe a passageway less, thereby increased by 1/3rd the rod amount of putting.
(3) usually not moisturizing of traditional mode cultivation, even if also extra Ensure Liquid not of moisturizing, the former can cause later stage fruiting moistureDeficiency, the latter can cause later stage fruiting malnutrition; The present invention adds nitrogenous, the sugary and multiple mineral of proper proportion in waterElement and trace element, vitamin can effectively improve Yield of Pleurotus Ostreatus and quality.
Adopt cultivating white mushroom of the present invention, production efficiency improves 50% compared with traditional approach, and utilization of area rate improves 30%, does sth. in advance 15It left and right fruiting, success rate improves 5-10% (can arrive more than 99%) compared with traditional approach, and biological transformation ratio will reach260-300%, product meat is thick, mushroom type U.S., quality is high.
Detailed description of the invention
Following examples are used for further illustrating the present invention, but should not be construed as limitation of the present invention. If do not specialize, realExecute the conventional means that technological means used in example is well known to those skilled in the art.
Embodiment 1
Spring (April) flat mushroom indoor growing, select high flat 300 bacterial strains of general types in summer (female kind), by Gaoyou, JiangsuEdible mushroom research institute provides.
(1) culture medium preparation
Take each raw material by following proportioning: boll hull 400kg, corncob 380kg, lotus seed shell 155kg, corn flour 30kg, lime15kg, gypsum 10kg, dregs of beans 5kg, composite fertilizer 5kg, always expect 1000kg; Mushroom Feng Su 3.2kg, mushroom doctor 200g. Wherein,Corncob is ground into iblet or soybean grain size with aperture, 2 centimeters of left and right screen cloth; Composite fertilizer is the high potassium type of high phosphorus, various compositionsRatio is: nitrogen: phosphorus: potassium=12:18:17; Mushroom Feng Su be Kodak bio tech ltd, Nanchang product, mushroom doctor for Suizhou City onceAll district is with edge edible mushroom disinfectant factory product.
Corncob and lotus seed shell are proposed to a few days ago watering and mix thoroughly, the 580kg that adds water, heap fermentation, adds other raw materials again before pack,Regulate water content 60% left and right.
(2) culture medium pack: use that knuckle footpath, bag are long, thickness is 23cm × 45cm × 0.03cm, the polyethylene of an openingPolybag packs, and every packed wet feed 2.5-3kg, puts flat mushroom fruiting circle, and with polypropylene sealed membrane (12cm × 12cm,Thickness is the square polypropylene film of 0.5mm) seal. Pack degree of tightness appropriateness, hand rest bacterium bag is without indenture.
(3) medium sterilization
Pack bacterium bag (polyethylene plastic bag of culture medium is housed) into sterilizing bag and carry out sterilizing inside, bacterium bag " well " font is put.Select the Horizontal energy-saving boiler of 1.6m × 0.6m × 1.6m (length × wide × height) to carry out steam supply. Laying temperature detector in bag, 100 DEG CMaintain 10h, finally cease fire.
While dropping to 70 DEG C of left and right Deng the bacterium bag temperature of the bacterium of having gone out, take the dish out of the pot while hot. By neat the bacterium bag taking the dish out of the pot being placed in culturing room,Wait for inoculation. One 5 of rows uprightly put, and length is not limit, and for convenience of the inspection work in later stage, between bacterium bag, can stay 3-5cmThe distance of left and right.
(4) culturing room's sterilization: noon before that day is put into culturing room by bacterial classification and other inoculating tools in inoculation, airtight door window is usedAerosol disinfectant carries out disinfection to culturing room. 24 square metres of transfer rooms, place aerosol disinfectant 10 boxes.
(5) inoculated and cultured
Before inoculation, carry out disinfection with 75% alcohol opponent, perforation rod and the peg wood strain bag surface of inoculation, the newspaper of sealing use firstUnder being placed on the sun, be exposed to the sun, it is square that newspaper is cut into 12 × 12cm.
The female kind of bacterial classification using on this time producing buied from Gaoyou, Jiangsu edible mushroom research institute, peg wood bacterial classification, be by length and width,Thick is the Ice cream stick of 11.4cm × 1cm × 0.2cm, soak 48 hours through the limewash of 1% concentration, then according to the matter of dry peg woodAmount is than admixing wheat bran 8%, corn flour 3%, white granulated sugar 1%, gypsum 1%, and through high-temperature sterilization, inoculation makes, concrete sterilizing,The method that the conventional bacterial classification of inoculation and incubation step and edible mushroom is made is in full accord.
Before inoculation, carry out disinfection with 75% alcohol opponent, perforation rod and the strain bag surface of inoculation. Inoculation method is: a, quickOpen bacterium and seal membrana oralis, use perforation rod to get in bacterium bag central authorities the hole that is slightly larger than peg wood diameter; B, the side packing along peg woodTo, utilize the elbow of elbow pliers to take out gently a peg wood, vertically insert the hole of bacterium bag central authorities; C, to seal up newspaper fast (twoLayer newspaper), fix with rubber band.
After having inoculated, open door and window, strengthen and ventilate, make air humidity lower than 50%. At room temperature, through 22 days myceliaCover with, mycelia is pure white sturdy, energetic.
(6) fruiting: increase humidity to 80-90%, through the further cultivation of 5 days, just can see former base and form. Warp againSpend a week, treat that flat mushroom grows to ripe very likely, edge curls inward, cap does not have completely to gather when open and flat.
(7) Additional nutrient solution: gather after two batches of mushrooms, inject nutrient solution in bacterium bag, substantially recover original weight as standard taking bacterium bag.Wherein, the contained raw material proportioning of nutrient solution is: white granulated sugar 0.5kg, composite fertilizer 0.3kg, gypsum 0.5kg, separately add triacontanol 25g,Brute force is urged mushroom king 50mL, mushroom Feng Su 0.4kg, is watered 100kg. Composite fertilizer in batching is the high potassium type of high phosphorus, various composition ratiosExample is: nitrogen: phosphorus: potassium=12:18:17; Mushroom Feng Su, triacontanol are Kodak bio tech ltd, Nanchang product, and brute force is urged mushroomKing is that Suizhou City Zengdu District is with edge edible mushroom disinfectant factory product.
After injection nutrient solution, through the cultivation in a week, can continue fruiting, one batch of average every two weeks, fruiting continuously5-6 stubble.
Good by a flat mushroom type of the method cultivation, meat plumpness, without dead mushroom, average bacteria cover diameter can reach 8-12cm and (meetHigh-quality flat mushroom standard), first planting mushroom output can reach 0.6-0.75kg/ bag, and biological transformation ratio is 260%.
The fruiting phase of the present embodiment spring cultivation flat mushroom, in summer, is off-season cultivation, temperature influence, and the aging quickening of mycelia,Lower slightly compared with autumn cultivation output.
Embodiment 2
Autumn (September) flat mushroom greenhouse cultivation, select autumn general types flat mushroom disease-resistant 265, studied by Gaoyou, Jiangsu edible mushroomInstitute provides.
(1) culture medium preparation
Take each raw material by following proportioning: boll hull 400kg, corncob 377kg, lotus seed shell 154kg, corn flour 40kg, lime10kg, gypsum 10kg, dregs of beans 5kg, composite fertilizer 8kg, always expect 1000kg; Mushroom Feng Su 800g, mushroom doctor 200g. Wherein,Corncob is ground into iblet or soybean grain size with aperture, 2 centimeters of left and right screen cloth; Composite fertilizer is the high potassium type of high phosphorus, various compositionsRatio is: nitrogen: phosphorus: potassium=12:18:17; Mushroom Feng Su is Kodak bio tech ltd, Nanchang product, mushroom doctor be Suizhou City onceAll district is with edge edible mushroom disinfectant factory product.
Corncob and lotus seed shell are proposed to a few days ago watering and mix thoroughly, the 580kg that adds water, heap fermentation, adds other raw materials again before pack,Regulate water content 60% left and right.
(2) culture medium pack: use that knuckle footpath, bag are long, thickness is 23cm × 45cm × 0.03cm, the polyethylene of an openingPolybag packs, and every packed wet feed 2.5-3kg, puts flat mushroom fruiting circle, and with polypropylene sealed membrane (12cm × 12cm,Thickness is the square polypropylene film of 0.5mm) seal. Pack degree of tightness appropriateness, hand rest bacterium bag is without indenture.
(3) medium sterilization
Pack bacterium bag (polyethylene plastic bag of culture medium is housed) into sterilizing bag and carry out sterilizing inside, bacterium bag " well " font is put.Select the Horizontal energy-saving boiler of 1.6m × 0.6m × 1.6m (length × wide × height) to carry out steam supply. Laying temperature detector in bag, 100 DEG CMaintain 10h, finally cease fire.
While dropping to 70 DEG C of left and right Deng the bacterium bag temperature of the bacterium of having gone out, take the dish out of the pot while hot. By neat the bacterium bag taking the dish out of the pot being placed in booth,Wait for inoculation. One 5 of rows uprightly put, and length is not limit, and for convenience of the inspection work in later stage, between bacterium bag, can stay 3-5cmThe distance of left and right.
(4) sterilization before booth use
Within 7-10 days, open in advance straw screen or mat and shine canopy, until humidity drops to below 50% in canopy, within 5 days in advance, spray a lime sprayLysol 10%, vexed canopy 12 hours, then open film, flavour of a drug leave. After 2 days, add an insect protected spirit of spray, vexed canopy 12 hoursAfter, open booth, the flavour of a drug that leave are for subsequent use.
Inoculate first two hours bacterial classification and other inoculating tools are put into booth, airtight door window, enters booth with concentration 10% lysolRow sterilization.
(5) inoculated and cultured
Before inoculation, carry out disinfection with 75% alcohol opponent, perforation rod and the cotton seed hulls bacterial classification of inoculation, the newspaper of sealing use is first placed onUnder the sun, be exposed to the sun, it is square that newspaper is cut into 12 × 12cm.
This time produce female kind of the bacterial classification using and buy from Gaoyou, Jiangsu edible mushroom research institute, obtain tradition (cotton through expanding propagationSeed shell) cultigen.
Before inoculation, carry out disinfection with 75% alcohol opponent, perforation rod and the strain bag surface of inoculation.
Inoculation method is: a, open bacterium fast and seal membrana oralis, use perforation rod to get the hole of two centimeters of diameters in bacterium bag central authorities;B, open strain bag, bacterial classification is pinched and fallen apart into iblet size, be sprinkling upon uniformly in bacterium bag surface and central hole every bag cultivating bacteriumBag inoculum concentration is 0.25kg; C, seal up newspaper (double-deck newspaper) fast, fix with rubber band.
After having inoculated, open ventilating opening, strengthen and ventilate, make air humidity lower than 50%. Through 25 days mycelia at room temperature,Cover with, mycelia is pure white sturdy, energetic.
(6) fruiting: increase humidity to 80-90%, through the further cultivation of about 5 days, just can see former base and form.Through about a week, treat that flat mushroom grows to ripe very likely again, edge curls inward, cap does not have completely to gather when open and flat.
(7) Additional nutrient solution: gather after two batches of mushrooms, inject nutrient solution in bacterium bag, substantially recover original weight as standard taking bacterium bag.Wherein, the contained raw material proportioning of nutrient solution is: white granulated sugar 0.5kg, composite fertilizer 0.3kg, gypsum 0.5kg, separately add triacontanol 25g,Brute force is urged mushroom king 50mL, mushroom Feng Su 0.4kg, is watered 100kg. Composite fertilizer in batching is the high potassium type of high phosphorus, various composition ratiosExample is: nitrogen: phosphorus: potassium=12:18:17; Mushroom Feng Su, triacontanol are Kodak bio tech ltd, Nanchang product, and brute force is urged mushroomKing is that Suizhou City Zengdu District is with edge edible mushroom disinfectant factory product.
After injection nutrient solution, through the cultivation in a week, can continue fruiting, fruiting 7-9 stubble continuously, every 15 days are passableThe one batch of mushroom of gathering, until Second Year Ching Ming Festival.
Good by a flat mushroom type of the method cultivation, cap light gray arrives Dark grey, meat plumpness, and without dead mushroom, average bacteria cover diameter canTo reach 8-12cm (meeting high-quality flat mushroom standard), first planting mushroom output can reach 0.6-0.75kg/ bag, and biological transformation ratio exists260-300%。
Embodiment 3
Adopt cultivating white mushroom of the present invention, production efficiency improves 50% compared with traditional approach, and utilization of area rate improves 30%, does sth. in advance 15It left and right fruiting, success rate improves 5-10% (can arrive more than 99%) compared with traditional approach, and biological transformation ratio will reach260-300%, product meat is thick, mushroom type U.S., quality is high.
Following table is that traditional grog cultivating white mushroom, the present invention use traditional cultivating bacterial spawn flat mushroom and the present invention to use peg wood cultivating bacterial spawn flatMushroom comparative test result.
Illustrate: (1) conventional method cultivating white mushroom refer to traditional common prescription " boll hull 50%, corncob 38%, wheat bran 10%,Lime 1%, gypsum 1% " through traditional flat mushroom grog cultivation flow process, two tying, two inoculation, two fruiting, the later stage is notMoisturizing, the flat mushroom that the mode not having additional nutrients is cultivated; (2) the present invention's tradition cultivating bacterial spawn, adopts formula of the present invention and flow process,Through a headgear fruiting circle and polypropylene film sealing, an inoculation (with traditional boll hull bacterial classification, middle punching inoculation), oneFruiting, later stage moisturizing (nutrient solution), has additional nutrients; (3) peg wood bacterial classification of the present invention (preparation of peg wood bacterial classification is with embodiment 1)Cultivation, adopts formula of the present invention and flow process, and through a headgear fruiting circle and polypropylene film sealing, an inoculation (is used peg wood bacteriumKind, middle punching inoculation), a fruiting, later stage moisturizing, has additional nutrients; (4) the rod amount of putting refers to that 0.07 hectare puts flat mushroom bacterium bagQuantity, this experiment adopts the conventional cultivating bag of 23 × 45cm flat mushroom; (5) sending out the bacterium time refers to that playing mycelia from when inoculation covers with entirelyThe time of bag; (6) inoculation speed refers to average everyone inoculation bag number hourly; (7) after success ratio of inoculation finger kind, myceliaGrowth is normal, and without the infection at any inoculation mouth place, if occur after inoculation, mycelia does not sprout or inoculates a mouthful appearance and infect, and is all and connectsPlant unsuccessful; (8) total output of fresh referred in the whole fruiting phase, the average total output of each bacterium bag; (9) biological transformation ratio refers toThe ratio of fresh mushroom production and compost dry weight, and count with percentage; (10) flat mushroom product are divided into mutually to 5 grades, " 0 "For mushroom body jaundice, mushroom root long thin, occur that the death of part mushroom flower bud, mushroom body are loose, thin, debility, " ++++" is that mushroom body is tightGather, meat plumpness, without dead mushroom, to cover large handle short, taking the second damp mushroom of flat mushroom fruiting as passing judgment on material, arbitrarily pluck, and pack intoIn different frame of plastics, in unwitting situation, allow judge pass judgment on by sense organ.
Above-described embodiment is preferably embodiment of the present invention, but embodiments of the present invention are not restricted to the described embodiments,Other any do not deviate from change, the modification done under Spirit Essence of the present invention and principle, substitutes, combination, simplify, all shouldFor equivalent substitute mode, within being included in protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (7)

1. a method for flat mushroom Super-high-yielding Cultivation, is characterized in that comprising the steps:
(1) culture medium preparation:
Take following materials in percentage by mass: boll hull 40%, corncob 38%, lotus seed shell 12~15%, corn flour 3~6%,Lime 1~1.5%, gypsum 1%, dregs of beans 0.5%, composite fertilizer 0.5~1%, total amount 100%; Separately add mushroom Feng Su, mushroom doctor;
Corncob and lotus seed shell are carried a few days ago and being prewetted, and heap fermentation, adds other raw materials again before pack, regulates water content60-65%;
(2) culture medium pack: use polyethylene plastic bag to pack, put fruiting circle, and seal with polypropylene sealed membraneMouthful;
(3) medium sterilization: bacterium bag is carried out to sterilizing; Described bacterium bag is the polyethylene plastic bag that culture medium is housed;
(4) place sterilization: sterilized in mushroom cultivation place in advance;
(5) inoculated and cultured: carry out disinfection with 75% alcohol opponent, perforation rod and the bacterial classification of inoculation before inoculation;
Inoculation method is: opens bacterium and seals membrana oralis, use perforation rod to get hole in bacterium bag central authorities, after access bacterial classification, seal up newspaper,Fix with rubber band;
After inoculation, add forced ventilation, ensure enough oxygen supplies, keeping air humidity is below 50%, to covering with mycelia;
(6) fruiting: after mycelia is covered with, air humidity is increased to when 80-90% continues to be cultured to flat mushroom maturation and gathers;
(7) Additional nutrient solution: gather after two batches of mushrooms, inject nutrient solution in bacterium bag, make bacterium bag recover the follow-up continuous cultivation of former weight;Wherein, the contained raw material proportioning of nutrient solution is: white granulated sugar 0.5%, composite fertilizer 0.3~0.5% or urea 0.1~0.3% and biphosphatePotassium 0.1~0.3%, gypsum 0.5%, surplus is water; Separately add triacontanol, brute force to urge mushroom king, mushroom to strengthen greatly or mushroom Feng Su, mushroomDoctor, gram mould king, lime, auxin 802, insect protected spirit choosing add.
2. the method for flat mushroom Super-high-yielding Cultivation according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the jade described in step (1)Meter Xin is ground into iblet or soybean grain size.
3. the method for flat mushroom Super-high-yielding Cultivation according to claim 1, is characterized in that: gathering described in step (2)Vinyl bag is that 23cm × 45cm, thickness are 0.3mm, the polyethylene plastic bag of an opening, every packed wet feed 2.5~3kg;Described polypropylene sealed membrane is the square polypropylene film that 12cm × 12cm, thickness are 0.5mm.
4. the method for flat mushroom Super-high-yielding Cultivation according to claim 1, is characterized in that: step (3) sterilizing is by bacteriumBag is the discharge of " well " font, and 100 DEG C keep 8-10h.
5. the method for flat mushroom Super-high-yielding Cultivation according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the field described in step (4)Ground is culturing room or booth; Wherein, culturing room's sterilization is for carrying out disinfection with aerosol disinfectant after culturing room's sealing; Booth sterilizationFor: by shining canopy, humidity in canopy is dropped to below 50%, spray one time lime, and spray disinfection drug or spray with aerosol disinfectantMist, vexed canopy 12 hours, then open film, and the flavour of a drug that leave, add an insect protected spirit of spray after 2 days, and vexed canopy, after 12 hours, is openedBooth, the flavour of a drug that leave are for subsequent use.
6. the method for flat mushroom Super-high-yielding Cultivation according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the bacterium described in step (5)Kind comprise Warburg Pincus No. 1, flat mushroom is disease-resistant 265, little black flat, ash is beautiful, grey No. 1 of summer.
7. the method for flat mushroom Super-high-yielding Cultivation according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the bacterium described in step (5)Plant as peg wood bacterial classification or conventional bacterial classification, conventional bacterial classification refers to boll hull or grain kind; Peg wood bacterial classification is every bag and connects one, and conventional bacterial classification is everyBag meets 0.25kg.
CN201410604448.4A 2014-10-30 2014-10-30 A kind of method of flat mushroom Super-high-yielding Cultivation Active CN104285678B (en)

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