CN104255377A - Method for overcoming biennial fruiting of litchi - Google Patents

Method for overcoming biennial fruiting of litchi Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104255377A
CN104255377A CN201410497225.2A CN201410497225A CN104255377A CN 104255377 A CN104255377 A CN 104255377A CN 201410497225 A CN201410497225 A CN 201410497225A CN 104255377 A CN104255377 A CN 104255377A
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tree
fruit
days
spray
lichee
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CN201410497225.2A
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CN104255377B (en
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朱雨
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BEIHAI DONGYU AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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BEIHAI DONGYU AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilizing, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B1/00Superphosphates, i.e. fertilisers produced by reacting rock or bone phosphates with sulfuric or phosphoric acid in such amounts and concentrations as to yield solid products directly
    • C05B1/02Superphosphates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05BPHOSPHATIC FERTILISERS
    • C05B7/00Fertilisers based essentially on alkali or ammonium orthophosphates
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05DINORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C; FERTILISERS PRODUCING CARBON DIOXIDE
    • C05D1/00Fertilisers containing potassium
    • C05D1/02Manufacture from potassium chloride or sulfate or double or mixed salts thereof
    • CCHEMISTRY; METALLURGY
    • C05FERTILISERS; MANUFACTURE THEREOF
    • C05FORGANIC FERTILISERS NOT COVERED BY SUBCLASSES C05B, C05C, e.g. FERTILISERS FROM WASTE OR REFUSE
    • C05F11/00Other organic fertilisers

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for overcoming biennial fruiting of litchi. The method includes the steps of construction of orchard basic conditions, cultivation and timely booming of autumn shoots, inhibition of winter shoots for booming flowers, booming flowers for fruit harvest and disease and pest control. Specifically, the problem of biennial fruiting can be completely solved by applying ointments to cut openings, planting green manure crops between rows in an orchard, whitewashing trunks with a whitewash agent, laying water absorption films on crowns, laying shade nets on both sides of every trunk, laying reflective films on bases, covering litchi bodies with shade nets, applying a wetting agent to furrows, using plant growth lights, girdling, cutting off fine roots, and performing scientific management, reasonable fertilization and the like at different times. Therefore, the quantity and quality of litchi can be ensured.

Description

A kind of method overcoming lichee biennial fruiting
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of culture method, particularly relate to a kind of method overcoming lichee biennial fruiting.
Background technology
Lichee is the famous and precious fruit in China south of the River.Food fresh litchi can promote the production of body fluid to quench thirst and stomach is put down inverse; Dried lychee decocting or edible effect having filling liver kidney, strengthening the spleen and stomach, replenishing qi and blood of cooking congee are the nourishing fruits of the patients such as body empty, old, anaemia, palpitaition, insomnia after being ill.Lichee is rich in ferro element and vitamin C, and ferro element can improve the content of haemoglobin, and people is had rosy cheeks, and vitamin C can make the fine and smooth high resilience of skin.
In lichee production process, large annual bearing is more, consume a large amount of nutrition of tree body, supplement in time if can not get, tree vigo(u)r will weaken, so that can not take out normal autumn growth bearing basal shoot then, often occurs the winter tip or rush the tip causing without flower, or Inflorescence development bad cause existing colored and shaky, make output lower than good year 70% phenomenon be called off year.In off year, very few owing to yielding positive results, tree vigo(u)r is normally recovered, and autumn growth bearing basal shoot is normal, and can form normal flower fringe winter, also can rise to spend under normal weather and bear fruit, acquisition is had a good harvest.A this annual bearing of lichee is many, and the phenomenon that secondary annual bearing is few occurs repeatedly, is called biennial fruiting phenomenon.
The reason of lichee biennial fruiting is caused to be many-sided, often due to climatic variation, trophic disturbance with manage not science etc. and affect into flower and bear fruit and cause.
Summary of the invention
The invention provides a kind of method overcoming lichee biennial fruiting.Overcome lichee biennial fruiting problem by the primary condition construction of rational orchard, the methods such as in good time healthy and strong autumn growth, the short flower of the control winter tip, flower and fruit protecting and diseases and pests controlling of cultivating, thus improve the seed output and quality of lichee.
Technical scheme provided by the invention is:
Overcome a method for lichee biennial fruiting, comprise the following steps:
(1) orchard primary condition is built:
A, set up complete irrigation and drainage system, at high temperature and drought, autumn bud is taken out and is sent out, bud wakens, Differentiation and development time guarantee water, the timely draining when rainfall is more;
B, deep plough in 11-12 month every year, the degree of depth is 20-30cm, keeps garden mould soft;
C, fruit tree green manuring crop in the ranks, 3-5 month plants green manure in summer, and 10-11 month plants green manure in winter;
(2) in good time healthy and strong autumn growth is cultivated:
10-15 days before D, fruit picking, digs the circular groove of dark, wide each 20-30cm along tree crown drip, fertile apply fruit picking in circular groove before;
5-10 days after E, fruit picking, fertile apply fruit picking in circular groove after, blinding 25-30cm above ground level after fertilising;
10-15 days after F, fruit picking, cut the undesirable branches such as carpopodium, deadwood, overlapping branch, overstocked branch, weak branch, sick branch, water sprout, tree crown is made not reveal top, light therethrough tree crown has money shape to project, one is stayed every 35-40cm, retain 4-6 sheet compound leaf, and smear callus corrosion prevention film to wound, with protecting tree general 600-800 times of liquid spraying trunk and branch;
G, to prune in latter 15 days, carry out thoroughly clear garden, full garden is executed to the quicklime of 1.5-3.0kg by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit;
(3) the short flower of the winter tip is controlled:
H, annual 9-10 month, carrying out shallowly turning over from trunk 40-60cm place to whole tree dish, water processed, the shallow degree of depth of turning over is 15-25cm, the tree more prosperous to growing way chops radicula off, shine root 2-3 days, in circular groove, press green manure, execute earthing after urea 2.5-3.0kg by result 50kg individual plant;
I, treat that winter tip pumping is to 4-5cm, when blade does not open, spray first time control shoot medicine, sprayed once every 25-30 days again;
10-15 days after J, spray first time control shoot medicine, the tree more prosperous to growing way, overhead 15-25cm, carries out girdling to xylem to the trunk that diameter is 6-10cm, phloem 1-3 circle is cut off in girdling, two turn separation are 5-7cm, and form spirality, the cortex width peelled off is 0.3-0.5cm, the quantity of every strain girdling branch accounts for the 0.3-0.6 of major branch, and smear short flower king No. 2 in girdling place, then modulate medicine mud and apply on scarfing, wrap with reflective membrane;
(4) strong flower and fruit:
K, annual 11-12 month, the trunk white-out agent of the ground 1.2-1.8m that adjusts the distance carries out white, green manure, weeds, dead leaf is covered in the topsoil surface of root growth scope, lays absorbing membrane at tree dish;
L, annual February December to next year, in trunk both sides, direct motion is to each laying sunshade net, and in tree dish lay reflex film, overcast and rainy 8:00-19:00 uses plant growth lamp to provide illumination for plant;
M, bloom before 15-20 days, in circular groove, apply short fertilizers for potted flowers, for the larger tree of flower amount, cut long fruit branch and short spray, stay the spray 3-5 bar of long 10-15cm, the long spray of cutting back is to 10-20cm;
N, until Hua Sui extract out 2-3cm time, spread fertilizer over the fields strong fertilizers for potted flowers after rain;
1-3 days after O, flower thinning, foliage fertilizer is imposed outside root, when flower spike length is to more than 10cm, at amputation top, 8-10cm place, extract the blade on band leaf flower fringe, after rain, shake tree, shake ponding and broken blossoms, full-bloom stage is strengthened orchard and is put honeybee, sprays pollen liquid every 2 days, and overcast and rainy 16:00-24:00 uses plant growth lamp to provide illumination for plant;
P, after 10 ~ 15 days, in circular groove, apply fruit-promoting fertilizer until blossom fall;
Q, annual 3-6 month, at high temperature and drought weather, every day, 10:00-15:00 adopted Shading net covering tree body, Shi Shuihou in the direct motion of trunk both sides to each laying sunshade net, being absorbed water by water-loss reducer after 150-250 doubly becomes gel applies in circular groove, in tree dish lay reflex film after blinding, every day, 19:00-24:00 used plant growth lamp to be plant supplementary light;
(5) diseases and pests controlling:
R, within before Winter Solstice 5-10 days, carry out garden clearly, behind clear garden, the sterilization of 0.5-0.8 degree Baume lime sulfur is sprayed to ground and tree body;
S, SPRING WHEAT BEFORE AND AFTER FLOWERING 10-15 days, kill except stinkbug silk worm, looper and Against Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley etc. with 10% Fastac 2000-3000 times liquid;
T, annual 3-6 month, spray 50% carbendazim 700-1200 times liquid during arid and prevent and treat anthracnose, when rainwater is many, spray 58% metalaxyl mancozeb wettable powder 600-800 times of liquid control peronospora tabacina;
U, after blossom fall, sprayed dimehypo 200-500 times of liquid control leaf roller, Against Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley and little hairstreak etc. every 7 ~ 15 days.
Preferably, described a kind ofly overcome in the method for lichee biennial fruiting, described summer, green manure was any one or a few in sesbania, Gui fiber crops, bamboo beans, crotalaria mucronata, described winter green manure be Chinese milk vetch, sweet potato, eat in dish, broad bean any one or a few, the more prosperous tree of described growing way is that 4-10 is raw, and individual plant is born fruit the bearing-age tree of 40-60 kilogram every year.
Preferably, described a kind ofly overcome in the method for lichee biennial fruiting, before described fruit picking, fertilizer is executed by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit: urea 0.7-1.1kg, superphosphate 0.7-1.1kg and magnesium sulfate 0.3-0.5kg, applying tree fertile before described fruit picking is the weak tree that the individual plant amount of bearing fruit is greater than the many trees of the amount of bearing fruit of 70 kilograms or life in more than 12 years, after described fruit picking, fertilizer is executed by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit: peanut press pulp 2.0-3.0kg, urea 0.8-1.2kg, superphosphate 0.7-1.1kg and potassium chloride 0.8-1.0kg, tree fertile after applying described fruit picking is that the individual plant amount of bearing fruit is less than the few tree of the amount of bearing fruit of 20 kilograms or the more prosperous tree of described growing way.
Preferably, described a kind ofly overcome in the method for lichee biennial fruiting, described foliage fertilizer is made up of the material of following components by weight percent: urea 2-4 part, borax 1-2 part, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2-4 part and water 900-1100 part.
Preferably, described a kind ofly overcome in the method for lichee biennial fruiting, described white-out agent is made up of the material of following components by weight percent: quicklime 10-20 part, lime sulfur stoste 2-5 part, vegetable oil 0.2-0.5 part, salt 2-5 part and water 45-55 part.
Preferably, described a kind ofly overcome in the method for lichee biennial fruiting, described first time control shoot medicine be made up of the material of following components by weight percent: 40% ethrel 20-30 part, paclobutrazol 120-150 part and water 40000-60000 part.
Preferably, described a kind ofly overcome in the method for lichee biennial fruiting, described medicine mud is made up of the material of following components by weight percent: without photocatalyst 1-2 part, methyl α-naphthyl acetate 0.01-0.02 part and fresh garden mould 150-200 part.
Preferably, described a kind ofly overcome in the method for lichee biennial fruiting, described short fertilizers for potted flowers is executed by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit: urea 0.2-0.4kg, superphosphate 0.8-1.2kg, quicklime 0.6-0.8kg, magnesium sulfate 0.6-0.8kg and potassium chloride 0.25-0.5kg.
Preferably, described a kind ofly overcome in the method for lichee biennial fruiting, described strong fertilizers for potted flowers is executed by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit: nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer 1.5-3.0kg, the fertilizer 25-30kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, potassium chloride 1.0-1.5kg and magnesium sulfate 0.5-0.75kg.
Preferably, described a kind ofly overcome in the method for lichee biennial fruiting, described fruit-promoting fertilizer is executed by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit: the fertilizer 100-300kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, urea 0.2-0.4kg, superphosphate 0.2-0.4kg and potassium chloride 0.5-1.0kg, and be the potassium dihydrogen phosphate of 0.2-0.4% to foliage-spray mass fraction, every spray in 7-10 days once, continuous 2-3 time.
The invention has the beneficial effects as follows:
The first, girdling litchi trunk; after scarfing smears short flower king No. 2; coated one deck medicine mud again; all strong catalytic oxidation activity can be produced without photocatalyst having light, no light condition in medicine mud; effectively can kill various bacteria, antibiotic rate is up to 99.99%, and the toxin that bacterium or fungi can be discharged decomposes and harmless treatment; can long-acting, can play a very good protection to scarfing.
The second, litchi green manuring crop in the ranks, abundant nutrient can be provided for soil, improve the physicochemical property of soil, prevent erosion.
Three, in annual 11-12 month, carry out white to trunk white-out agent, the prevention and elimination of disease and pests of white-out agent energy, sterilizing, can by daytime abundance sunlight and ultraviolet reflection go out, reduce butt day and night temperature, avoid freeze injury to occur.The litchi of whitewashing, because butt temperature accumulation is comparatively slow, often makes litchi rudiment and flowering stage postpone, " cold in the late spring " can be avoided to cause frostbite.
Four, annual 11-12 month, the autumn and winter, dry low humidity was conducive to high yield, covered laying absorbing membrane at tree crown, humidity can be reduced, appropriateness arid can promote flower bud differentiation, improves the cell concentration of litchi bearing basal shoot growing point, regulates litchi internal hormone to flower bud differentiation future development.
Five, annual February December to next year, the temperature difference is large, sunshine, foot was conducive to high yield, and in trunk both sides, direct motion is to each laying sunshade net, surface temperature can be made to reduce, day and night temperature increases, and in tree dish lay reflex film, can improve the intensity of illumination of tree crown lower floor and tree crown cella, overcast and rainy use plant growth lamp can increase light application time, is conducive to organic accumulation.
Six, annual 3-6 month, at high temperature and drought weather, adopt Shading net covering tree body, Shi Shuihou in the direct motion of trunk both sides to each paving sunshade net, play be in the light, moisturizing, cooling effect, water-loss reducer is applied in circular groove, play water retention, in tree crown lay reflex film, the intensity of illumination of Shading net covering Shu Tihou tree crown lower floor and tree crown cella can be improved, use every day plant growth lamp to be plant supplementary light, be conducive to organic accumulation.
Seven, the overcast and rainy use plant growth lamp in flowering stage can increase illumination for plant, and evening, some insect had phototaxis, and the activity of insect is beneficial to pollination.
Eight, control the supply of liquid manure in the mode chopping radicula off, trunk infusion growth and reproduction can be made to grow and reach balanced.
The present invention is overcome lichee biennial fruiting problem by the primary condition construction of rational orchard, the methods such as in good time healthy and strong autumn growth, the short flower of the control winter tip, flower and fruit protecting and diseases and pests controlling of cultivating, thus is improve the seed output and quality of lichee.
Specifically execute mode
Below in conjunction with embodiment, the present invention is described in further detail, can implement according to this with reference to specification word to make those skilled in the art.
Embodiment 1:
Overcome a method for lichee biennial fruiting, comprise the following steps:
(1) orchard primary condition is built:
A, set up complete irrigation and drainage system, at high temperature and drought, autumn bud is taken out and is sent out, bud wakens, Differentiation and development time guarantee water, the timely draining when rainfall is more.
B, deep plough annual November, the degree of depth is 20cm, keeps garden mould soft.
C, fruit tree green manuring crop in the ranks, March plants sesbania, and October plants Chinese milk vetch.
(2) in good time healthy and strong autumn growth is cultivated:
10 days before D, fruit picking, the weak tree being greater than the many trees of the amount of bearing fruit of 70 kilograms or life in more than 12 years for the individual plant amount of bearing fruit digs the circular groove of dark, wide each 20cm along tree crown drip, execute: urea 0.7kg, superphosphate 0.7kg and magnesium sulfate 0.3kg in circular groove by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit.
5 days after E, fruit picking, the few tree of the amount of bearing fruit of 20 kilograms is less than for the individual plant amount of bearing fruit or 4-10 raw, individual plant is born fruit the bearing-age tree of 40 kilograms every year, execute by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit in circular groove: peanut press pulp 2.0kg, urea 0.8kg, superphosphate 0.7kg and potassium chloride 0.8kg, blinding 25cm above ground level after fertilising.
10 days after F, fruit picking, cut the undesirable branches such as carpopodium, deadwood, overlapping branch, overstocked branch, weak branch, sick branch, water sprout, tree crown is made not reveal top, light therethrough tree crown has money shape to project, one is stayed every 35cm, retain 4 compound leaves, and smear callus corrosion prevention film to wound, with protecting tree general 600 times of liquid spraying trunks and branch.
G, to prune in latter 15 days, carry out thoroughly clear garden, full garden is executed to the quicklime of 1.5kg by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit.
(3) the short flower of the winter tip is controlled:
H, annual September, carrying out shallowly turning over from trunk 40cm place to whole tree dish, water processed, the shallow degree of depth of turning over is 15cm, raw to 4-10, bear fruit the every year bearing-age tree of 40 kilograms of individual plant chops radicula off, shines root 2-3 days, in circular groove, press sesbania, execute earthing after urea 2.5kg by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit.
I, treat that winter tip pumping is to 4-5cm, when blade does not open, spray by the aqueous solution of 40% ethrel 20 parts, paclobutrazol 120 parts and 40000 parts, water, sprayed again once every 25 days.
10 days after J, spray first time control shoot medicine, raw to 4-10, individual plant is born fruit the bearing-age tree of 40 kilograms every year, and overhead 15cm, carries out girdling to xylem to the trunk that diameter is 6cm, girdling is cut off phloem 1 and is enclosed, the cortex width peelled off is 0.3cm, and the quantity of every strain girdling branch accounts for 0.3 of major branch, and smears short flower king No. 2 in girdling place, to apply on scarfing without photocatalyst 1 part, methyl α-naphthyl acetate 0.01 part and fresh garden mould 150 parts modulation patent medicine mud again, wrap with reflective membrane.
(4) strong flower and fruit:
K, annual November, the adjust the distance trunk quicklime 10 parts of ground 1.2-1.8m, lime sulfur stoste 2 parts, vegetable oil 0.2 part, salt 2 parts and 45 parts, water is modulated into white-out agent and carries out white, Chinese milk vetch, weeds, dead leaf are covered in the topsoil surface of root growth scope, lay absorbing membrane at tree dish.
L, annual February December to next year, in trunk both sides, direct motion is to each laying sunshade net, and in tree dish lay reflex film, overcast and rainy 8:00-19:00 uses plant growth lamp to provide illumination for plant;
M, to bloom first 15 days, execute by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit in circular groove: urea 0.2kg, superphosphate 0.8kg, quicklime 0.6kg, magnesium sulfate 0.6kg and potassium chloride 0.25kg, for the tree that flower amount is larger, cut long fruit branch and short spray, stay the spray 3 of long 10cm, the long spray of cutting back is to 10cm.
N, until Hua Sui extract out 2cm time, spread fertilizer over the fields by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit after rain: nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer 1.5kg, the fertilizer 25kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, potassium chloride 1.0kg and magnesium sulfate 0.5kg.
After O, flower thinning 1 day, impose by 2 parts, urea, borax 1 part, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2 parts and water 900 parts of foliage fertilizers be modulated into outside root, when flower spike length is to more than 10cm, at amputation top, 8cm place, extract the blade on band leaf flower fringe, after rain, shake tree, shake ponding and broken blossoms, full-bloom stage is strengthened orchard and is put honeybee, sprays pollen liquid every 2 days, and overcast and rainy 16:00-24:00 uses plant growth lamp to provide illumination for plant.
P, until blossom fall after 10 days, execute by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit in circular groove: the fertilizer 100kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, urea 0.2kg, superphosphate 0.2kg and potassium chloride 0.5kg, and be the potassium dihydrogen phosphate of 0.2% to foliage-spray mass fraction, every spray in 7 days once, continuous 2 times.
Q, annual March, at high temperature and drought weather, every day, 10:00-15:00 adopted Shading net covering tree body, Shi Shuihou in the direct motion of trunk both sides to each laying sunshade net, water-loss reducer is absorbed water 150 times and apply in circular groove after becoming gel, in tree dish lay reflex film after blinding, every day, 19:00-24:00 used plant growth lamp to be plant supplementary light.
(5) diseases and pests controlling:
R, first 5 days of Winter Solstice carry out garden clearly, spray 0.5 degree of Baume lime sulfur sterilization behind clear garden to ground and tree body.
S, SPRING WHEAT BEFORE AND AFTER FLOWERING 10 days, kill except stinkbug silk worm, looper and Against Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley etc. with 10% Fastac, 2000 times of liquid.
T, annual March, spray 50% carbendazim, 700 times of liquid during arid and prevent and treat anthracnose, when rainwater is many, spray 58% metalaxyl mancozeb wettable powder, 600 times of liquid control peronospora tabacinas.
U, after blossom fall, sprayed dimehypo 200 times of liquid control leaf roller, Against Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley and little hairstreaks etc. every 7 days.
Embodiment 2:
Overcome a method for lichee biennial fruiting, comprise the following steps:
(1) orchard primary condition is built:
A, set up complete irrigation and drainage system, at high temperature and drought, autumn bud is taken out and is sent out, bud wakens, Differentiation and development time guarantee water, the timely draining when rainfall is more.
B, deep plough annual December, the degree of depth is 30cm, keeps garden mould soft.
C, fruit tree green manuring crop in the ranks, plant bamboo beans May, November plants sweet potato.
(2) in good time healthy and strong autumn growth is cultivated:
15 days before D, fruit picking, the weak tree being greater than the many trees of the amount of bearing fruit of 70 kilograms or life in more than 12 years for the individual plant amount of bearing fruit digs the circular groove of dark, wide each 30cm along tree crown drip, execute: urea 1.1kg, superphosphate 1.1kg and magnesium sulfate 0.5kg in circular groove by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit.
10 days after E, fruit picking, the few tree of the amount of bearing fruit of 20 kilograms is less than for the individual plant amount of bearing fruit or 4-10 raw, individual plant is born fruit the bearing-age tree of 60 kilograms every year, execute by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit in circular groove: peanut press pulp 3.0kg, urea 1.2kg, superphosphate 1.1kg and potassium chloride 1.0kg, blinding 30cm above ground level after fertilising.
15 days after F, fruit picking, cut the undesirable branches such as carpopodium, deadwood, overlapping branch, overstocked branch, weak branch, sick branch, water sprout, tree crown is made not reveal top, light therethrough tree crown has money shape to project, one is stayed every 40cm, retain 6 compound leaves, and smear callus corrosion prevention film to wound, with protecting tree general 800 times of liquid spraying trunks and branch.
G, to prune in latter 15 days, carry out thoroughly clear garden, full garden is executed to the quicklime of 3.0kg by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit.
(3) the short flower of the winter tip is controlled:
H, annual October, carrying out shallowly turning over from trunk 60cm place to whole tree dish, water processed, the shallow degree of depth of turning over is 25cm, raw to 4-10, bear fruit the every year bearing-age tree of 60 kilograms of individual plant chops radicula off, shines root 2-3 days, in circular groove, press bamboo beans, execute earthing after urea 3.0kg by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit.
I, treat that winter tip pumping is to 4-5cm, when blade does not open, spray by the aqueous solution of 40% ethrel 30 parts, paclobutrazol 150 parts and 60000 parts, water, sprayed again once every 30 days.
15 days after J, spray first time control shoot medicine, raw to 4-10, individual plant is born fruit the bearing-age tree of 60 kilograms every year, overhead 25cm, girdling is carried out to xylem to the trunk that diameter is 10cm, girdling is cut off phloem 3 and is enclosed, two turn separation are 7cm, form spirality, the cortex width peelled off is 0.5cm, and the quantity of every strain girdling branch accounts for 0.6 of major branch, and smears short flower king No. 2 in girdling place, to apply on scarfing without photocatalyst 2 parts, methyl α-naphthyl acetate 0.02 part and fresh garden mould 200 parts modulation patent medicine mud again, wrap with reflective membrane.
(4) strong flower and fruit:
K, annual December, the adjust the distance trunk quicklime 20 parts of ground 1.2-1.8m, lime sulfur stoste 5 parts, vegetable oil 0.5 part, salt 5 parts and 55 parts, water is modulated into white-out agent and carries out white, Chinese milk vetch, weeds, dead leaf are covered in the topsoil surface of root growth scope, lay absorbing membrane at tree dish.
L, annual February December to next year, in trunk both sides, direct motion is to each laying sunshade net, and in tree dish lay reflex film, overcast and rainy 8:00-19:00 uses plant growth lamp to provide illumination for plant.
M, to bloom first 20 days, execute by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit in circular groove: urea 0.4kg, superphosphate 1.2kg, quicklime 0.8kg, magnesium sulfate 0.8kg and potassium chloride 0.5kg, for the tree that flower amount is larger, cut long fruit branch and short spray, stay the spray 5 of long 15cm, the long spray of cutting back is to 20cm.
N, until Hua Sui extract out 3cm time, spread fertilizer over the fields by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit after rain: nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer 3.0kg, the fertilizer 30kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, potassium chloride 1.5kg and magnesium sulfate 0.75kg.
After O, flower thinning 3 days, impose by 4 parts, urea, borax 2 parts, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 4 parts and water 1100 parts of foliage fertilizers be modulated into outside root, when flower spike length is to more than 10cm, at amputation top, 10cm place, extract the blade on band leaf flower fringe, after rain, shake tree, shake ponding and broken blossoms, full-bloom stage is strengthened orchard and is put honeybee, sprays pollen liquid every 2 days, and overcast and rainy 16:00-24:00 uses plant growth lamp to provide illumination for plant.
P, until blossom fall after 15 days, execute by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit in circular groove: the fertilizer 300kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, urea 0.4kg, superphosphate 0.4kg and potassium chloride 1.0kg, and be the potassium dihydrogen phosphate of 0.4% to foliage-spray mass fraction, every spray in 10 days once, continuous 3 times.
Q, annual June, at high temperature and drought weather, every day, 10:00-15:00 adopted Shading net covering tree body, Shi Shuihou in the direct motion of trunk both sides to each laying sunshade net, water-loss reducer is absorbed water 250 times and apply in circular groove after becoming gel, in tree dish lay reflex film after blinding, every day, 19:00-24:00 used plant growth lamp to be plant supplementary light.
(5) diseases and pests controlling:
R, first 10 days of Winter Solstice carry out garden clearly, spray 0.8 degree of Baume lime sulfur sterilization behind clear garden to ground and tree body.
S, SPRING WHEAT BEFORE AND AFTER FLOWERING 15 days, kill except stinkbug silk worm, looper and Against Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley etc. with 10% Fastac, 3000 times of liquid.
T, annual June, spray 50% carbendazim, 1200 times of liquid during arid and prevent and treat anthracnose, when rainwater is many, spray 58% metalaxyl mancozeb wettable powder, 800 times of liquid control peronospora tabacinas.
U, after blossom fall, sprayed dimehypo 500 times of liquid control leaf roller, Against Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley and little hairstreaks etc. every 15 days.
Embodiment 3:
Overcome a method for lichee biennial fruiting, comprise the following steps:
(1) orchard primary condition is built:
A, set up complete irrigation and drainage system, at high temperature and drought, autumn bud is taken out and is sent out, bud wakens, Differentiation and development time guarantee water, the timely draining when rainfall is more.
B, deep plough annual mid-November, the degree of depth is 25cm, keeps garden mould soft.
C, fruit tree green manuring crop in the ranks, April plants crotalaria mucronata, and mid-October plants broad bean.
(2) in good time healthy and strong autumn growth is cultivated:
12 days before D, fruit picking, the weak tree being greater than the many trees of the amount of bearing fruit of 70 kilograms or life in more than 12 years for the individual plant amount of bearing fruit digs the circular groove of dark, wide each 25cm along tree crown drip, execute: urea 0.9kg, superphosphate 0.9kg and magnesium sulfate 0.4kg in circular groove by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit.
10 days after E, fruit picking, the few tree of the amount of bearing fruit of 20 kilograms is less than for the individual plant amount of bearing fruit or 4-10 raw, individual plant is born fruit the bearing-age tree of 60 kilograms every year, execute by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit in circular groove: peanut press pulp 3.0kg, urea 1.2kg, superphosphate 1.1kg and potassium chloride 1.0kg, blinding 30cm above ground level after fertilising.
7 days after F, fruit picking, cut the undesirable branches such as carpopodium, deadwood, overlapping branch, overstocked branch, weak branch, sick branch, water sprout, tree crown is made not reveal top, light therethrough tree crown has money shape to project, one is stayed every 37cm, retain 5 compound leaves, and smear callus corrosion prevention film to wound, with protecting tree general 800 times of liquid spraying trunks and branch.
G, to prune in latter 15 days, carry out thoroughly clear garden, full garden is executed to the quicklime of 2.2kg by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit.
(3) the short flower of the winter tip is controlled:
H, annual 9 last ten-days period, carrying out shallowly turning over from trunk 50cm place to whole tree dish, water processed, the shallow degree of depth of turning over is 20cm, raw to 4-10, bear fruit the every year bearing-age tree of 50 kilograms of individual plant chops radicula off, shines root 2-3 days, in circular groove, press bamboo beans, execute earthing after urea 2.7kg by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit.
I, treat that winter tip pumping is to 4-5cm, when blade does not open, spray by the aqueous solution of 40% ethrel 25 parts, paclobutrazol 135 parts and 50000 parts, water, sprayed again once every 27 days.
12 days after J, spray first time control shoot medicine, raw to 4-10, individual plant is born fruit the bearing-age tree of 50 kilograms every year, overhead 20cm, girdling is carried out to xylem to the trunk that diameter is 8cm, girdling is cut off phloem 2 and is enclosed, two turn separation are 6cm, form spirality, the cortex width peelled off is 0.4cm, and the quantity of every strain girdling branch accounts for 0.4 of major branch, and smears short flower king No. 2 in girdling place, to apply on scarfing without photocatalyst 1.5 parts, methyl α-naphthyl acetate 0.015 part and fresh garden mould 175 parts modulation patent medicine mud again, wrap with reflective membrane.
(4) strong flower and fruit:
K, annual 11 last ten-days period, the adjust the distance trunk quicklime 20 parts of ground 1.2-1.8m, lime sulfur stoste 5 parts, vegetable oil 0.5 part, salt 5 parts and 55 parts, water is modulated into white-out agent and carries out white, Chinese milk vetch, weeds, dead leaf are covered in the topsoil surface of root growth scope, lay absorbing membrane at tree dish.
L, annual February December to next year, in trunk both sides, direct motion is to each laying sunshade net, and in tree dish lay reflex film, overcast and rainy 8:00-19:00 uses plant growth lamp to provide illumination for plant.
M, to bloom first 17 days, execute by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit in circular groove: urea 0.3kg, superphosphate 1.0kg, quicklime 0.7kg, magnesium sulfate 0.7kg and potassium chloride 0.37kg, for the tree that flower amount is larger, cut long fruit branch and short spray, stay the spray 4 of long 12cm, the long spray of cutting back is to 15cm.
N, until Hua Sui extract out 2.5cm time, spread fertilizer over the fields by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit after rain: nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer 2.2kg, the fertilizer 27kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, potassium chloride 1.2kg and magnesium sulfate 0.62kg.
After O, flower thinning 2 days, impose by 3 parts, urea, borax 1.5 parts, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 3 parts and water 1000 parts of foliage fertilizers be modulated into outside root, when flower spike length is to more than 10cm, at amputation top, 9cm place, extract the blade on band leaf flower fringe, after rain, shake tree, shake ponding and broken blossoms, full-bloom stage is strengthened orchard and is put honeybee, sprays pollen liquid every 2 days, and overcast and rainy 16:00-24:00 uses plant growth lamp to provide illumination for plant.
P, until blossom fall after 12 days, execute by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit in circular groove: the fertilizer 200kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, urea 0.3kg, superphosphate 0.3kg and potassium chloride 0.75kg, and be the potassium dihydrogen phosphate of 0.3% to foliage-spray mass fraction, every spray in 8 days once, continuous 3 times.
Q, annual late April, at high temperature and drought weather, every day, 10:00-15:00 adopted Shading net covering tree body, Shi Shuihou in the direct motion of trunk both sides to each laying sunshade net, water-loss reducer is absorbed water 200 times and apply in circular groove after becoming gel, in tree dish lay reflex film after blinding, every day, 19:00-24:00 used plant growth lamp to be plant supplementary light.
(5) diseases and pests controlling:
R, first 7 days of Winter Solstice carry out garden clearly, spray 0.6 degree of Baume lime sulfur sterilization behind clear garden to ground and tree body.
S, SPRING WHEAT BEFORE AND AFTER FLOWERING 12 days, kill except stinkbug silk worm, looper and Against Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley etc. with 10% Fastac, 2500 times of liquid.
T, annual late April, spray 50% carbendazim, 950 times of liquid during arid and prevent and treat anthracnose, when rainwater is many, spray 58% metalaxyl mancozeb wettable powder, 700 times of liquid control peronospora tabacinas.
U, after blossom fall, sprayed dimehypo 350 times of liquid control leaf roller, Against Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley and little hairstreaks etc. every 11 days.
Although embodiment of the present invention are open as above, but it is not restricted to listed in specification and embodiment utilization, it can be applied to various applicable the field of the invention completely, for those skilled in the art, can easily realize other amendment, therefore do not deviating under the universal that claim and equivalency range limit, the present invention is not limited to specific details and illustrates here and the embodiment described.

Claims (10)

1. overcome a method for lichee biennial fruiting, it is characterized in that, comprise the following steps:
(1) orchard primary condition is built:
A, set up complete irrigation and drainage system, at high temperature and drought, autumn bud is taken out and is sent out, bud wakens, Differentiation and development time guarantee water, the timely draining when rainfall is more;
B, deep plough in 11-12 month every year, the degree of depth is 20-30cm, keeps garden mould soft;
C, fruit tree green manuring crop in the ranks, 3-5 month plants green manure in summer, and 10-11 month plants green manure in winter;
(2) in good time healthy and strong autumn growth is cultivated:
10-15 days before D, fruit picking, digs the circular groove of dark, wide each 20-30cm along tree crown drip, fertile apply fruit picking in circular groove before;
5-10 days after E, fruit picking, fertile apply fruit picking in circular groove after, blinding 25-30cm above ground level after fertilising;
10-15 days after F, fruit picking, cut the undesirable branches such as carpopodium, deadwood, overlapping branch, overstocked branch, weak branch, sick branch, water sprout, tree crown is made not reveal top, light therethrough tree crown has money shape to project, one is stayed every 35-40cm, retain 4-6 sheet compound leaf, and smear callus corrosion prevention film to wound, with protecting tree general 600-800 times of liquid spraying trunk and branch;
G, to prune in latter 15 days, carry out thoroughly clear garden, full garden is executed to the quicklime of 1.5-3.0kg by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit;
(3) the short flower of the winter tip is controlled:
H, annual 9-10 month, carrying out shallowly turning over from trunk 40-60cm place to whole tree dish, water processed, the shallow degree of depth of turning over is 15-25cm, the tree more prosperous to growing way chops radicula off, shine root 2-3 days, in circular groove, press green manure, execute earthing after urea 2.5-3.0kg by result 50kg individual plant;
I, treat that winter tip pumping is to 4-5cm, when blade does not open, spray first time control shoot medicine, sprayed once every 25-30 days again;
10-15 days after J, spray first time control shoot medicine, the tree more prosperous to growing way, overhead 15-25cm, carries out girdling to xylem to the trunk that diameter is 6-10cm, phloem 1-3 circle is cut off in girdling, two turn separation are 5-7cm, and form spirality, the cortex width peelled off is 0.3-0.5cm, the quantity of every strain girdling branch accounts for the 0.3-0.6 of major branch, and smear short flower king No. 2 in girdling place, then modulate medicine mud and apply on scarfing, wrap with reflective membrane;
(4) strong flower and fruit:
K, annual 11-12 month, the trunk white-out agent of the ground 1.2-1.8m that adjusts the distance carries out white, green manure, weeds, dead leaf is covered in the topsoil surface of root growth scope, lays absorbing membrane at tree dish;
L, annual February December to next year, in trunk both sides, direct motion is to each laying sunshade net, and in tree dish lay reflex film, overcast and rainy 8:00-19:00 uses plant growth lamp to provide illumination for plant;
M, bloom before 15-20 days, in circular groove, apply short fertilizers for potted flowers, for the larger tree of flower amount, cut long fruit branch and short spray, stay the spray 3-5 bar of long 10-15cm, the long spray of cutting back is to 10-20cm;
N, until Hua Sui extract out 2-3cm time, spread fertilizer over the fields strong fertilizers for potted flowers after rain;
1-3 days after O, flower thinning, foliage fertilizer is imposed outside root, when flower spike length is to more than 10cm, at amputation top, 8-10cm place, extract the blade on band leaf flower fringe, after rain, shake tree, shake ponding and broken blossoms, full-bloom stage is strengthened orchard and is put honeybee, sprays pollen liquid every 2 days, and overcast and rainy 16:00-24:00 uses plant growth lamp to provide illumination for plant;
P, after 10 ~ 15 days, in circular groove, apply fruit-promoting fertilizer until blossom fall;
Q, annual 3-6 month, at high temperature and drought weather, every day, 10:00-15:00 adopted Shading net covering tree body, Shi Shuihou in the direct motion of trunk both sides to each laying sunshade net, being absorbed water by water-loss reducer after 150-250 doubly becomes gel applies in circular groove, in tree dish lay reflex film after blinding, every day, 19:00-24:00 used plant growth lamp to be plant supplementary light;
(5) diseases and pests controlling:
R, within before Winter Solstice 5-10 days, carry out garden clearly, behind clear garden, the sterilization of 0.5-0.8 degree Baume lime sulfur is sprayed to ground and tree body;
S, SPRING WHEAT BEFORE AND AFTER FLOWERING 10-15 days, kill except stinkbug silk worm, looper and Against Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley etc. with 10% Fastac 2000-3000 times liquid;
T, annual 3-6 month, spray 50% carbendazim 700-1200 times liquid during arid and prevent and treat anthracnose, when rainwater is many, spray 58% metalaxyl mancozeb wettable powder 600-800 times of liquid control peronospora tabacina;
U, after blossom fall, sprayed dimehypo 200-500 times of liquid control leaf roller, Against Conopomorpha sinensis Bradley and little hairstreak etc. every 7 ~ 15 days.
2. a kind of method overcoming lichee biennial fruiting as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, described summer, green manure was any one or a few in sesbania, Gui fiber crops, bamboo beans, crotalaria mucronata, described winter green manure be Chinese milk vetch, sweet potato, eat in dish, broad bean any one or a few, the more prosperous tree of described growing way is that 4-10 is raw, and individual plant is born fruit the bearing-age tree of 40-60 kilogram every year.
3. a kind of method overcoming lichee biennial fruiting as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, before described fruit picking, fertilizer is executed by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit: urea 0.7-1.1kg, superphosphate 0.7-1.1kg and magnesium sulfate 0.3-0.5kg, applying tree fertile before described fruit picking is the weak tree that the individual plant amount of bearing fruit is greater than the many trees of the amount of bearing fruit of 70 kilograms or life in more than 12 years, after described fruit picking, fertilizer is executed by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit: peanut press pulp 2.0-3.0kg, urea 0.8-1.2kg, superphosphate 0.7-1.1kg and potassium chloride 0.8-1.0kg, tree fertile after applying described fruit picking is that the individual plant amount of bearing fruit is less than the few tree of the amount of bearing fruit of 20 kilograms or the more prosperous tree of described growing way.
4. a kind of method overcoming lichee biennial fruiting as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, described foliage fertilizer is made up of the material of following components by weight percent: urea 2-4 part, borax 1-2 part, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2-4 part and water 900-1100 part.
5. a kind of method overcoming lichee biennial fruiting as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, described white-out agent is made up of the material of following components by weight percent: quicklime 10-20 part, lime sulfur stoste 2-5 part, vegetable oil 0.2-0.5 part, salt 2-5 part and water 45-55 part.
6. a kind of method overcoming lichee biennial fruiting as claimed in claim 1, is characterized in that, described first time control shoot medicine be made up of the material of following components by weight percent: 40% ethrel 20-30 part, paclobutrazol 120-150 part and water 40000-60000 part.
7. a kind of method overcoming lichee biennial fruiting as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, described medicine mud is made up of the material of following components by weight percent: without photocatalyst 1-2 part, methyl α-naphthyl acetate 0.01-0.02 part and fresh garden mould 150-200 part.
8. a kind of method overcoming lichee biennial fruiting as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, described short fertilizers for potted flowers is executed by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit: urea 0.2-0.4kg, superphosphate 0.8-1.2kg, quicklime 0.6-0.8kg, magnesium sulfate 0.6-0.8kg and potassium chloride 0.25-0.5kg.
9. a kind of method overcoming lichee biennial fruiting as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, described strong fertilizers for potted flowers is executed by result 50kg individual plant: nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer 1.5-3.0kg, the fertilizer 25-30kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, potassium chloride 1.0-1.5kg and magnesium sulfate 0.5-0.75kg.
10. a kind of method overcoming lichee biennial fruiting as claimed in claim 1, it is characterized in that, described fruit-promoting fertilizer is executed by 50kg individual plant of bearing fruit: the fertilizer 100-300kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, urea 0.2-0.4kg, superphosphate 0.2-0.4kg and potassium chloride 0.5-1.0kg, and be the potassium dihydrogen phosphate of 0.2-0.4% to foliage-spray mass fraction, every spray in 7-10 days once, continuous 2-3 time.
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CN105766289A (en) * 2016-03-09 2016-07-20 江苏省林业科学研究院 Efficient three-dimensional cultivation method for oil-use peonies
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CN106717423A (en) * 2017-01-13 2017-05-31 青岛益佰农肥业有限公司 It is a kind of to reduce the fertilizing method that the mango bleeding disease incidence of disease improves mango quality
CN106718567A (en) * 2016-12-14 2017-05-31 陈培党 A kind of osmanthus taste small nut litchi skill overwintering technology method
CN108551795A (en) * 2018-01-31 2018-09-21 霍山县新元生态农业有限公司 A kind of greenhouse gardening method of wild leek
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CN111345140A (en) * 2020-04-13 2020-06-30 江西省水土保持科学研究院 Method for improving soil fertility of fruit trees

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CN105218232A (en) * 2015-09-28 2016-01-06 广西洪喜肥业有限公司 A kind of longan and Specialized fertilizer for litchi and production method thereof
CN105248236A (en) * 2015-11-28 2016-01-20 广西职业技术学院 Avocado tree girdling method
CN105248236B (en) * 2015-11-28 2018-04-24 广西职业技术学院 Avocado girdling method
CN105766289B (en) * 2016-03-09 2019-01-11 江苏省林业科学研究院 A kind of oil highly effective stereo cultivating method of tree peony
CN105766289A (en) * 2016-03-09 2016-07-20 江苏省林业科学研究院 Efficient three-dimensional cultivation method for oil-use peonies
CN105669319A (en) * 2016-04-14 2016-06-15 辽宁石油化工大学 Seneria gourd growth regulating agent
CN106465730A (en) * 2016-08-31 2017-03-01 南宁鼎金生物科技有限公司 Tree resistance prevents and treats formula
CN106718567A (en) * 2016-12-14 2017-05-31 陈培党 A kind of osmanthus taste small nut litchi skill overwintering technology method
CN106717423A (en) * 2017-01-13 2017-05-31 青岛益佰农肥业有限公司 It is a kind of to reduce the fertilizing method that the mango bleeding disease incidence of disease improves mango quality
CN108551795A (en) * 2018-01-31 2018-09-21 霍山县新元生态农业有限公司 A kind of greenhouse gardening method of wild leek
CN108718576A (en) * 2018-05-07 2018-11-02 广东省农业科学院果树研究所 A kind of lichee orchard mechanical cultivation method
CN108605635A (en) * 2018-05-10 2018-10-02 湖北省农业科学院果树茶叶研究所 A method of overcoming persimmon biennial bearing
CN109566233A (en) * 2018-12-29 2019-04-05 广西壮族自治区农业科学院园艺研究所 A kind of flower thinning method of " non-kernel lichee " lichee
CN110622762A (en) * 2019-10-09 2019-12-31 廉江市良垌日升荔枝专业合作社 Method for controlling germination of litchi shoots in winter
CN110612852A (en) * 2019-10-24 2019-12-27 云南特行果业有限责任公司 Planting method of high-quality litchis
CN111345140A (en) * 2020-04-13 2020-06-30 江西省水土保持科学研究院 Method for improving soil fertility of fruit trees

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