CN106538366B - Method for cultivating anoectochilus formosanus by utilizing moss and humus - Google Patents

Method for cultivating anoectochilus formosanus by utilizing moss and humus Download PDF

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CN106538366B
CN106538366B CN201610944018.6A CN201610944018A CN106538366B CN 106538366 B CN106538366 B CN 106538366B CN 201610944018 A CN201610944018 A CN 201610944018A CN 106538366 B CN106538366 B CN 106538366B
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moss
forest
anoectochilus
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CN106538366A (en
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甘金佳
蒋水元
毛玲莉
李虹
黄夕洋
向巧彦
梁勇诗
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Guangxi Institute of Botany of CAS
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Guangxi Institute of Botany of CAS
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G24/00Growth substrates; Culture media; Apparatus or methods therefor

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for cultivating anoectochilus formosanus by utilizing moss and humus, which comprises the following operation steps: 1. selecting and arranging cultivation places; 2. collecting under-forest humus and moss; 3. cultivating anoectochilus formosanus; 4. managing after planting; 5. daily management; 6. and (6) harvesting at proper time. The invention fully utilizes the natural culture medium, is convenient to obtain the medium and saves the production cost. The fresh moss provides an excellent breathable and moist microenvironment for the growth of the anoectochilus formosanus, the plant diseases and insect pests are less, the survival rate of the anoectochilus formosanus is as high as 90 percent, the content of the medicinal effective components of the produced anoectochilus formosanus is high, the medicinal value is high, the farming operation of the cultivation method is simple, and the labor force can be saved.

Description

Method for cultivating anoectochilus formosanus by utilizing moss and humus
Technical Field
The invention relates to the technical field of economic plant cultivation, in particular to a method for cultivating anoectochilus formosanus by utilizing moss and humus.
Background
Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) is a dry whole herb of L ind. of Anoectochilus roxburghii (Wall.) of Labiatae, belongs to the traditional rare and rare medicinal materials in China, is widely used in folk, also called Anoectochilus roxburghii, spun gold grass and gold grass, is named as gold grass, king of the drugs, Mesona chinensis and black ginseng in folk, is mainly produced in Fujian, Guangxi, Guangdong, Jiangxi, Hainan, Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang and other provinces in China.
Because the growth of the anoectochilus formosanus has strict ecological requirements, the anoectochilus formosanus seeds have low germination rate and slow growth under natural conditions, and wild resources are seriously damaged due to the fact that the anoectochilus formosanus seeds are dug in a production area. In order to protect and reasonably develop the important traditional medicinal plant, artificial cultivation of the anoectochilus formosanus needs to be developed, and the tissue culture rapid propagation and transplanting technology provides technical support for large-scale greenhouse cultivation and understory wild-imitating cultivation of the anoectochilus formosanus. The growth conditions of the anoectochilus formosanus are harsh, the anoectochilus formosanus is distributed on a humus soil layer, a ditch edge shady and humid place and a stone wall under the forest with complete vegetation, about seven-yin three-yang transmittance and higher air humidity sporadically, the growing environment of the anoectochilus formosanus is good in water permeability, air permeability and water retention, and moss grows together with the moss. The anoectochilus formosanus tissue culture seedlings are taken out from the bottle and transferred to the culture medium, the growth environment is greatly changed, and if the culture medium is not proper, the survival and growth of the anoectochilus formosanus can be seriously influenced. The existing anoectochilus formosanus culture medium has complex components, poor water permeability and water retention property, and is easy to be wet or dry, so that the growth of the anoectochilus formosanus is not facilitated, and the survival rate of the anoectochilus formosanus is influenced.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a method for cultivating anoectochilus formosanus by utilizing moss and humus.
The technical scheme for solving the technical problem is as follows:
a method for cultivating anoectochilus formosanus by utilizing moss and humus comprises the following operation steps:
step one, selection and arrangement of cultivation places
1) The slope of the natural forest or the artificial forest land which is close to the side of the stream ditch and has no industrial pollution is less than 40 degrees, clean water sources are arranged around the forest land, the natural forest or the artificial forest land can avoid wind and keep warm in winter, the canopy density of the forest land is 60-90 percent, the lowest temperature in winter is more than 5 ℃, the highest temperature in summer is less than 36 ℃, the relative humidity of the ambient air is kept more than 60 percent, and the transportation is convenient.
2) Cleaning dead branches and fallen leaves, leveling a cultivation land to be beneficial to placing cultivation baskets, raising a furrow, arranging a drainage ditch, wherein the furrow is 1m wide and 20cm high, arranging a small arched shed on the furrow, the small arched shed is 1m high, covering a sunshade net with the transmittance of 50-70 percent on the small arched shed, and arranging a water spray pipe and a spray nozzle below the small arched shed and above the furrow surface.
3) Sterilizing a cultivation land, performing irrigation sterilization on the cultivation forest land by using 800-1000 times of potassium permanganate solution, and spreading quicklime on the ground for sterilization.
Step two, collecting the forest humus soil and moss
1) Collecting under-forest humus as a culture medium, wherein the pH value of the under-forest humus is 6-8, disinfecting the under-forest humus, spraying 1000 times of potassium permanganate solution to disinfect the under-forest humus, uniformly turning, tightly covering with a film, fermenting for 15 days, composting, fermenting, spreading out and airing. Collecting fresh moss nearby as a culture substrate.
Step three, anoectochilus formosanus cultivation
1) Spreading a 200-mesh gauze in a plastic basket of 30cm × 40cm, disinfecting the gauze and the basket by using 1000 times of potassium permanganate solution, and spreading the disinfected under-forest humus soil in the plastic basket, wherein the thickness of the under-forest humus soil is about 1 cm;
2) transplanting anoectochilus formosanus in spring or autumn, wherein the spring cultivation is carried out in 3-4 months, and the autumn cultivation is carried out in 8-9 months; transferring the anoectochilus roxburghii tissue culture seedlings to an outdoor shade place for hardening the seedlings for 20 days, taking out the anoectochilus roxburghii tissue culture seedlings, cleaning the tissue culture seedlings by clear water until no culture medium residue exists, disinfecting the tissue culture seedlings by 1500 times of potassium permanganate solution for 15 minutes, removing weak seedlings and sick and disabled seedlings, and selecting robust anoectochilus roxburghii tissue culture seedlings with the height of 7-9 cm for cultivation;
3) one day before planting, under-forest humus is watered to ensure that the soil humidity is about 50%, anoectochilus roxburghii seedlings are planted in the under-forest humus, moss is wrapped in the anoectochilus roxburghii while planting, the anoectochilus roxburghii plants are fully distributed among the anoectochilus roxburghii plants, the moss is wrapped below two or three leaves at the tops of the anoectochilus roxburghii, the thickness of the moss layer is about 7cm, and the spacing between the anoectochilus roxburghi.
Step four, managing after planting
Placing the basket in which the anoectochilus formosanus is cultivated in a small arched shed under a forest, watering for planting, covering a layer of sunshade net on the small arched shed to avoid direct sunlight, observing the dryness and wetness degree of the moss each day, properly spraying water to keep the moss in a moist state in the morning, and watering for keeping the moss moist just.
Step five, daily management
Carrying out pollution-free management on the anoectochilus formosanus, checking the growth condition and the moss wetting degree of the anoectochilus formosanus every day, and immediately spraying to wet the moss if the moss is dry. And observing the dryness and the humidity of the under-forest humus soil under the moss once or twice every week, and spraying water to moisten the moss and the under-forest humus soil if the humus soil is dry.
And applying foliage dressing to the anoectochilus formosanus every 15 days, spraying 500 times of diluent obtained by decomposing and fermenting soybean cakes, rapeseed cakes or peanut bran, adding 2-4 g of ferrous sulfate into each 100kg of diluent, and continuously spraying for 6 times. Or spraying 0.2% urea and 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution for 6 times.
If the diseased anoectochilus formosanus is found to be eliminated in time, the pest and disease control is mainly combined with agricultural control, biological control and physical control.
Harvesting at proper time
Harvesting the anoectochilus formosanus planted for six months after transplantation, harvesting the whole anoectochilus formosanus with the plant height of more than 10cm and fresh weight of more than 1g, peeling off moss during harvesting, pulling up the anoectochilus formosanus and connecting roots, shaking off soil, and cleaning with clear water. The rest plantlets which do not reach the harvesting standard can be cultivated in a concentrated way, and then harvested after the plantlets grow up.
The invention has the beneficial effects that:
1. the invention initiates a planting mode by reasonably matching moss and humus in the technical field of anoectochilus roxburghii cultivation, so that the survival rate of anoectochilus roxburghii cultivation is high.
2. The humus and the moss are easy to obtain, the planting operation is simple and reasonable, the time and the labor are saved, the production cost is reduced, and the high-quality anoectochilus formosanus can be provided for the market by combining scientific pollution-free management.
Detailed Description
The present invention will be described in further detail with reference to specific examples.
Example 1
A method for cultivating anoectochilus formosanus by utilizing moss and humus comprises the following operation steps:
step one, selection and arrangement of cultivation places
1) The slope of the natural forest or the artificial forest land which is close to the side of the stream ditch and has no industrial pollution is less than 40 degrees, clean water sources are arranged around the forest land, the natural forest or the artificial forest land can avoid wind and keep warm in winter, the canopy density of the forest land is 60 percent, the lowest temperature in winter is more than 5 ℃, the highest temperature in summer is less than 36 ℃, the relative humidity of the ambient air is kept more than 60 percent, and the transportation is convenient.
2) Cleaning dead branches and fallen leaves, leveling a cultivation land to be beneficial to placing cultivation baskets, raising a furrow and arranging a drainage ditch, wherein the furrow is 1m wide and 20cm high, a small arched shed is arranged on the furrow, the small arched shed is 1m high, a sunshade net with the transmittance of 50 percent is covered on the small arched shed, and a water spray pipe and a spray nozzle are arranged below the small arched shed and above the surface of the furrow.
3) Sterilizing the cultivation land, spraying and irrigating the cultivation forest land with 800 times of potassium permanganate solution, and spreading quicklime on the ground for sterilization.
Step two, collecting the forest humus soil and moss
1) Collecting under-forest humus as a culture medium, wherein the pH value of the under-forest humus is 6, disinfecting the under-forest humus, spraying 1000 times of potassium permanganate solution on the under-forest humus to disinfect the under-forest humus, uniformly turning, tightly covering with a film, fermenting for 15 days, composting, fermenting, spreading out and airing. Collecting fresh moss nearby as a culture substrate.
Step three, anoectochilus formosanus cultivation
1) Spreading a 200-mesh gauze in a plastic basket of 30cm × 40cm, disinfecting the gauze and the basket by using 1000 times of potassium permanganate solution, and spreading the disinfected under-forest humus soil in the plastic basket, wherein the thickness of the under-forest humus soil is about 1 cm;
2) transplanting anoectochilus formosanus in spring and cultivating in 3 months; transferring the anoectochilus roxburghii tissue culture seedlings to an outdoor shade place for hardening the seedlings for 20 days, taking out the anoectochilus roxburghii tissue culture seedlings, cleaning the tissue culture seedlings by clear water until no culture medium residue exists, disinfecting the tissue culture seedlings by 1500 times of potassium permanganate solution for 15 minutes, removing weak seedlings and sick and disabled seedlings, and selecting robust anoectochilus roxburghii tissue culture seedlings with the height of 7cm for cultivation;
3) one day before planting, under-forest humus is watered to ensure that the soil humidity is about 50%, anoectochilus roxburghii seedlings are planted in the under-forest humus, moss is wrapped in the anoectochilus roxburghii while planting, the anoectochilus roxburghii plants are fully distributed among the anoectochilus roxburghii plants, the moss is wrapped below two or three leaves at the tops of the anoectochilus roxburghii, the thickness of the moss layer is about 7cm, and the spacing between the anoectochilus roxburghi.
Step four, managing after planting
1) Placing the basket in which the anoectochilus formosanus is cultivated in a small arched shed under a forest, watering for planting, covering a layer of sunshade net on the small arched shed to avoid direct sunlight, observing the dryness and wetness degree of the moss each day, properly spraying water to keep the moss in a moist state in the morning, and watering for keeping the moss moist just.
Step five, daily management
Carrying out pollution-free management on the anoectochilus formosanus, checking the growth condition and the moss wetting formation degree of the anoectochilus formosanus every day, immediately spraying water to wet the moss if the moss is dry, and observing the under-forest humus soil moisture degree under the moss once or twice every week, and spraying water to wet the moss and the under-forest humus soil if the humus soil is dry.
And applying foliage dressing to the anoectochilus formosanus every 15 days, spraying 500 times of diluent after decomposing and fermenting soybean cakes, rapeseed cakes or peanut bran, adding 2 g of ferrous sulfate into each 100kg of diluent, and continuously spraying for 6 times.
If the diseased anoectochilus formosanus is found to be removed in time, the plant protection policy of 'prevention is mainly and comprehensively' for pest control insisting on 'prevention', mainly takes agricultural prevention, physical prevention and biological prevention and chemical prevention as assistance. Firstly, cleaning a field before cultivation, removing sundries and weeds, keeping the environment clean, and sterilizing and killing insects on the ground by using quicklime and potassium permanganate solution. And observing whether diseases and insect pests exist in the anoectochilus formosanus every day after planting, and if finding that the diseased anoectochilus formosanus plants need to be removed in time. The occurrence time of diseases and insect pests of anoectochilus formosanus is mostly in high-temperature and high-humidity seasons, the diseases and insect pests often occur in places with poor ventilation, adverse factors are overcome, and in hot and high-humidity seasons, the sunshade net is uncovered timely to facilitate ventilation, the culture medium is properly reduced, and the occurrence and spread of the diseases are reduced. Disease prevention: controlling the humidity of the culture medium, mainly spraying water until humus soil and moss are wet, and ensuring that the humus soil and the moss cannot be over wet; if the pesticide can be applied when large-area diseases occur, the pesticide with high efficiency, low toxicity and low residue is selected to be applied according to the symptoms, and the pesticide is applied strictly according to the application method. The insect pests are mainly cutworms, snails, slugs and red spiders, and the prevention measures are as follows: selecting areas with less insect pests for cultivation, and if the cultivated areas have a small amount of insect pests, adopting an insect-proof net for prevention; for cutworm, sugar-vinegar solution (sugar: vinegar: wine: water: 3:4:1:2) is added with a small amount of pesticide for trapping and killing; for snails and slugs, snail removal and purification can be spread under an insect prevention net and at entrances and exits of a cultivation field, and individual snails can be manually captured; for red spiders, a trap plate is preferably selected for trapping and killing, and 1.8% of abamectin missible oil can be sprayed by 2000 times.
Harvesting at proper time
Harvesting the anoectochilus formosanus planted for six months after transplantation, harvesting the whole anoectochilus formosanus with the plant height of more than 10cm and fresh weight of more than 1g, peeling off moss during harvesting, pulling up the anoectochilus formosanus and connecting roots, shaking off soil, and cleaning with clear water. The rest plantlets which do not reach the harvesting standard can be cultivated in a concentrated way, and then harvested after the plantlets grow up.
Example 2
A method for cultivating anoectochilus formosanus by utilizing moss and humus comprises the following operation steps:
step one, selection and arrangement of cultivation places
1) The slope of the natural forest or the artificial forest land which is close to the side of the stream ditch and has no industrial pollution is less than 40 degrees, clean water sources are arranged around the forest land, the natural forest or the artificial forest land can avoid wind and keep warm in winter, the canopy density of the forest land is 90 percent, the lowest temperature in winter is more than 5 ℃, the highest temperature in summer is less than 36 ℃, the relative humidity of the ambient air is kept more than 60 percent, and the transportation is convenient.
2) Cleaning dead branches and fallen leaves, leveling a cultivation land to be beneficial to placing cultivation baskets, raising a furrow and arranging a drainage ditch, wherein the furrow is 1m wide and 20cm high, a small arched shed is arranged on the furrow and is 1m high, a sunshade net with 70% of transmittance is covered on the small arched shed, and a water spray pipe and a spray nozzle are arranged below the small arched shed and above the surface of the furrow.
3) Sterilizing the cultivation land, spraying 1000 times potassium permanganate solution to the cultivation forest land for sterilization, and spreading quicklime on the ground to kill ground pests and sterilize.
Step two, collecting the forest humus soil and moss
1) Collecting under-forest humus as a culture medium, wherein the pH value of the under-forest humus is 8, disinfecting the under-forest humus, namely spraying 1000 times of potassium permanganate solution on the under-forest humus, uniformly turning, tightly covering with a film, fermenting for 15 days, composting, fermenting, spreading out and airing. Collecting fresh moss nearby as a culture substrate.
Step three, anoectochilus formosanus cultivation
1) Spreading a 200-mesh gauze in a plastic basket of 30cm × 40cm, disinfecting the gauze and the basket by using 1000 times of potassium permanganate solution, and spreading the disinfected under-forest humus soil in the plastic basket, wherein the thickness of the under-forest humus soil is 1 cm;
2) transplanting anoectochilus formosanus is carried out in 9 months. Transferring the anoectochilus roxburghii tissue culture seedlings to an outdoor shade place for hardening the seedlings for 20 days, taking out the anoectochilus roxburghii tissue culture seedlings, cleaning the tissue culture seedlings by clear water until no culture medium residue exists, disinfecting the tissue culture seedlings by 1500 times of potassium permanganate solution for 15 minutes, removing weak seedlings and sick and disabled seedlings, and selecting robust anoectochilus roxburghii tissue culture seedlings with the height of 8cm for cultivation;
3) one day before planting, under-forest humus is watered to ensure that the soil humidity is about 50%, anoectochilus roxburghii seedlings are planted in the under-forest humus, moss is wrapped in the anoectochilus roxburghii while planting, the anoectochilus roxburghii plants are fully distributed among the anoectochilus roxburghii plants, the moss is wrapped below two or three leaves at the tops of the anoectochilus roxburghii, the thickness of the moss layer is about 7cm, and the spacing between the anoectochilus roxburghi.
Step four, managing after planting
1) Placing the basket in which the anoectochilus formosanus is cultivated in a small arched shed under a forest, watering for planting, covering a layer of sunshade net on the small arched shed to avoid direct sunlight, observing the dryness and wetness degree of the moss each day, properly spraying water to keep the moss in a moist state in the morning, and watering for keeping the moss moist just.
Step five, daily management
Carrying out pollution-free management on the anoectochilus formosanus, checking the growth condition and the moss wetting degree of the anoectochilus formosanus every day, immediately spraying water to wet the moss if the moss is dry, and observing the under-forest humus soil dry and wet degree under the moss once and twice every week, and spraying water to wet the moss and the under-forest humus soil if the humus soil is dry.
Foliage dressing was applied to anoectochilus formosanus every 15 days, sprayed once with 0.2% urea and 0.3% monopotassium phosphate solution, and sprayed 6 times consecutively.
If the diseased anoectochilus formosanus is found, the diseased anoectochilus formosanus is cleared in time. The plant protection policy of 'prevention is mainly performed and comprehensive prevention and control' is insisted on the plant disease and insect pest prevention and control, and mainly takes agricultural prevention, physical prevention and control and biological prevention and control as well as chemical prevention and control as assistance. Firstly, cleaning a field before cultivation, removing sundries and weeds, keeping the environment clean, and sterilizing and killing insects on the ground by using quicklime and potassium permanganate solution. And observing whether diseases and insect pests exist in the anoectochilus formosanus every day after planting, and if finding that the diseased anoectochilus formosanus plants need to be removed in time. The occurrence time of diseases and insect pests of anoectochilus formosanus is mostly in high-temperature and high-humidity seasons, the diseases and insect pests often occur in places with poor ventilation, adverse factors are overcome, and in hot and high-humidity seasons, the sunshade net is uncovered timely to facilitate ventilation, the culture medium is properly reduced, and the occurrence and spread of the diseases are reduced. Disease prevention: controlling the humidity of the culture medium, mainly spraying water until humus soil and moss are wet, and ensuring that the humus soil and the moss cannot be over wet; if the pesticide can be applied when large-area diseases occur, the pesticide with high efficiency, low toxicity and low residue is selected to be applied according to the symptoms, and the pesticide is applied strictly according to the application method. The insect pests are mainly cutworms, snails, slugs and red spiders, and the prevention measures are as follows: selecting areas with less insect pests for cultivation, and if the cultivated areas have a small amount of insect pests, adopting an insect-proof net for prevention; for cutworm, sugar-vinegar solution (sugar: vinegar: wine: water: 3:4:1:2) is added with a small amount of pesticide for trapping and killing; for snails and slugs, snail removal and purification can be spread under an insect prevention net and at entrances and exits of a cultivation field, and individual snails can be manually captured; for red spiders, a trap plate is used for trapping and killing.
Harvesting at proper time
Harvesting the anoectochilus formosanus for six months after transplantation, harvesting the whole anoectochilus formosanus with the plant height of more than 10cm and the fresh weight of more than 1g, peeling off moss during harvesting, pulling up the anoectochilus formosanus with roots, shaking off soil, and cleaning with clear water. The rest plantlets which do not reach the harvesting standard can be cultivated in a concentrated way, and then harvested after the plantlets grow up.
By adopting the technical scheme, the invention has the beneficial effects that: the anoectochilus formosanus is a yin-grown plant, the photosynthesis is weak, the growth is slow, the required mineral substance nutrients are less, the humus with the thickness of about 1cm in the invention has good air permeability and moisture retention, certain nutrients can be provided for the growth of the anoectochilus formosanus, and the growth of the anoectochilus formosanus is faster and stronger due to the supplement of the leaf fertilizer. The fresh and wet moss plays a certain role in supporting the anoectochilus formosanus and provides a wet and breathable environment for the growth of the anoectochilus formosanus. Due to the reasonable matching of the humus and the moss, the occurrence and the propagation of plant diseases and insect pests can be reduced, and the survival rate of the anoectochilus formosanus is improved.
The invention initiates a planting mode by reasonably matching moss and humus in the technical field of anoectochilus roxburghii cultivation, so that the survival rate of the anoectochilus roxburghii cultivation is high and the effective medicinal components are high; the humus and the moss are easy to obtain, the planting operation is simple and reasonable, the time and the labor are saved, the production cost is reduced, and the high-quality anoectochilus formosanus can be provided for the market by combining scientific pollution-free management.
All modifications which can be derived or suggested by a person skilled in the art from the present disclosure are to be considered within the scope of the invention.

Claims (1)

1. A method for cultivating anoectochilus formosanus by utilizing moss and humus is characterized by comprising the following operation steps:
step one, selection and arrangement of cultivation places
Selecting natural forest or artificial forest land which is close to the side of a stream ditch and has no industrial pollution, wherein the slope is less than 40 degrees, clean water sources are arranged around the forest land, the natural forest or artificial forest land can avoid wind and keep warm in winter, the canopy density of the forest land is 60-90 percent, the lowest temperature in winter is more than 5 ℃, the highest temperature in summer is less than 36 ℃, the relative humidity of ambient air is kept more than 60 percent, and the transportation is convenient;
cleaning off withered branches and fallen leaves, leveling a cultivation land to facilitate placement of cultivation baskets, raising a furrow, and arranging a drainage ditch, wherein the furrow is 1m wide and 20cm high, a small arched shed is arranged on the furrow, the small arched shed is 1m high, a sunshade net with the transmittance of 50% -70% is covered on the small arched shed, and a water spray pipe and a spray nozzle are arranged below the small arched shed and above the surface of the furrow;
sterilizing a cultivation land, performing irrigation sterilization on the cultivation forest land by using 800-1000 times of potassium permanganate solution, and spreading quicklime on the ground for sterilization;
step two, collecting the forest humus soil and moss
Collecting under-forest humus as a culture medium, wherein the pH value of the under-forest humus is 6-8, disinfecting the under-forest humus, spraying 1000 times of potassium permanganate solution on the under-forest humus to disinfect the under-forest humus, turning uniformly, tightly covering with a film, fermenting for 15 days, composting, fermenting, spreading out and airing; collecting fresh moss nearby as a culture substrate;
step three, anoectochilus formosanus cultivation
Spreading a 200-mesh gauze in a plastic basket of 30cm × 40cm, disinfecting the gauze and the basket by using 1000 times of potassium permanganate solution, and spreading the disinfected under-forest humus soil in the plastic basket, wherein the thickness of the under-forest humus soil is 1 cm;
transplanting anoectochilus formosanus in spring or autumn, wherein the spring cultivation is carried out in 3-4 months, and the autumn cultivation is carried out in 8-9 months; transferring the anoectochilus roxburghii tissue culture seedlings to an outdoor shade place for hardening the seedlings for 20 days, taking out the anoectochilus roxburghii tissue culture seedlings, cleaning the tissue culture seedlings by clear water until no culture medium residue exists, disinfecting the tissue culture seedlings by 1500 times of potassium permanganate solution for 15 minutes, removing weak seedlings and sick and disabled seedlings, and selecting robust anoectochilus roxburghii tissue culture seedlings with the height of 7-9 cm for cultivation;
watering the under-forest humus soil one day before planting to enable the soil humidity to be 50%, planting anoectochilus roxburghii seedlings in the under-forest humus soil, wrapping the anoectochilus roxburghii with moss while planting, enabling the moss to be fully distributed among the anoectochilus roxburghii plants, wrapping the moss to be below two or three leaves at the tops of the anoectochilus roxburghii, wherein the thickness of the moss layer is about 7cm, and the spacing between the anoectochilus roxburghii plants is about 3 cm;
step four, managing after planting
Placing the basket in which the anoectochilus formosanus is cultivated in a small arched shed under a forest, watering for planting, covering a layer of sunshade net on the small arched shed to avoid direct sunlight, observing the dryness and wetness degree of moss every day, properly spraying water to keep the moss in a moist state in the morning, and watering for keeping the moss just moist;
step five, daily management
Carrying out pollution-free management on the anoectochilus formosanus, checking the growth condition and the moss wetting degree of the anoectochilus formosanus every day, and immediately spraying to wet the moss if the moss is dry; observing the dryness and the humidity of the under-forest humus soil under the moss once or twice every week, and spraying water to moisten the moss and the under-forest humus soil if the humus soil is dry;
applying foliage dressing to anoectochilus formosanus every 15 days, spraying 500 times of diluent obtained after decomposing and fermenting soybean cakes, rapeseed cakes or peanut bran, adding 2-4 g of ferrous sulfate into each 100kg of diluent, and continuously spraying for 6 times, or spraying once by using 0.2% of urea and 0.3% of monopotassium phosphate solution and continuously spraying for 6 times;
if the diseased anoectochilus formosanus is found to be eliminated in time, the pest and disease control is mainly combined with agricultural control, biological control and physical control; cleaning a field before cultivation, removing sundries and weeds, keeping the environment clean, and sterilizing and killing insects on the ground by using quicklime and potassium permanganate solution; observing whether diseases and insect pests exist in the anoectochilus formosanus every day after planting, uncovering a sunshade net in hot and high-humidity seasons to facilitate ventilation, reduce the humidity of a culture medium and reduce the occurrence and spread of diseases;
disease prevention: watering in a spraying mode until humus soil and moss are wet and can not be over wet; if the pesticide can be used when large-area diseases occur, the pesticide with high efficiency, low toxicity and low residue is selected for symptomatic application, and the pesticide is applied strictly according to the using method; the insect pests are mainly cutworms, snails, slugs and red spiders, and the prevention measures are as follows: selecting areas with less insect pests for cultivation, and if the cultivated areas have a small amount of insect pests, adopting an insect-proof net for prevention; for cutworm, a small amount of insecticide is added into sugar-vinegar liquid with the ratio of sugar to vinegar to wine to water being 3:4:1:2 for trapping and killing; for snails and slugs, the snails and the slugs are sprinkled under the insect prevention net and at the entrances of the cultivation land by snail removal, and red spiders are trapped and killed by an insect trapping plate;
harvesting at proper time
Harvesting the anoectochilus formosanus planted for six months after transplantation, harvesting the whole anoectochilus formosanus with the plant height of more than 10cm and fresh weight of more than 1g, peeling off moss during harvesting, pulling up the root of the anoectochilus formosanus, shaking off soil, cleaning with clear water, and harvesting the rest plantlets which do not reach the harvesting standard after the plantlets grow up.
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