A kind of mating system that shortens Glycyrrhiza Seeds productive phase
The invention belongs to Chinese herbal medicine planting technology field, relate in particular to a kind of the numerous of Glycyrrhiza Seeds productive phase that shortenEducate method.
Radix Glycyrrhizae is that pulse family belongs to herbaceos perennial, for one of common Chinese medicine material, have " ten side's nine grass "Say to there is useful gas bowl spares, relieving spasm to stop pain, moistens the lung and relieve the cough, purging intense heat and detonicating, effect of coordinating the drug actions of a prescription;And licorice is widely used in the additive of tobacco, cosmetics, food etc. Along with medical researchDeeply and the increasing of exploitation dynamics, the market demand of Radix Glycyrrhizae is also strengthening year by year, and market prospects are more and more wide.But traditional Radix Glycyrrhizae, to gather wild resource as main, has been caused serious environmental disruption, based on conceding the land to forestryThe enforcement of policy, the collection of wild licorice is restricted, and artificial growth Radix Glycyrrhizae industry forms gradually, has solvedThe market demand of Radix Glycyrrhizae.
At present, in artificial growth Radix Glycyrrhizae industry, its seed source is in wild licorice, but excavating continuously for many years,Cause wild licorice resource to be subject to serious destruction, especially main root more than diameter 1.0cm is fewer and feweri,The supply of Glycyrrhiza Seeds in serious threat. In the face of the increasingly serious present situation in short supply of Glycyrrhiza Seeds, relevant enterprise entersGo biological engineering's test, but because seed growing technology is lack of standardization, low, the ropy problem of seed production,All the time can not meet the demand of Radix Glycyrrhizae provenance.
In recent years, along with the fast development of tissue culture technique, Radix Glycyrrhizae tissue cultivating and seedling technology is more and more subject toTo paying close attention to, as patent CN101265462A discloses a kind of cultural method of licorice cell industrialization, it willGlycyrrhiza Seeds, after sterilization, is inoculated in culture medium and is cultured to and sprouts, then segment was cultivated for 5 generations and obtained Kinds of LicoriceSub-tissue fluid, can carry out large-scale production, although solved the problem of provenance rareness, tissue is cultivated skillArt cost of investment is high, can not be accepted by great majority plantation family. Exist cost high for tissue culture techniqueProblem, patent CN103503677A discloses a kind of method that improves Glycyrrhiza Seeds output and quality, and it is logicalCross the technology such as planting density control, fertilizing management, the prevention and control of plant diseases, pest control, improve output and quality to reachObject, but adopt traditional implantation methods to breed, exist and produce a long problem of kind of cycle, continuously plantationAfter cause land fertility reduce, disease increase.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to: overcome existing Radix Glycyrrhizae provenance in short supply, breeding cycle is long, the problem that cost is high,Provide a kind of and shorten Radix Glycyrrhizae productive phase, cost is low, the high and measured Glycyrrhiza Seeds breeding method of matter of seed production,Taking the old root of more than 5 years Radix Glycyrrhizae as maternal, adopt stolon segment to transplant means, and by improving growth of Glycyrrhiza uralensisEnvironment, Pest management etc., reach and shorten Radix Glycyrrhizae productive phase object.
To achieve these goals, the present invention adopts following technical scheme:
A mating system that shortens Glycyrrhiza Seeds productive phase, comprising: 1) selection of land and whole ground, 2) breed materialMaterial select and process, 3) transplant, 4) fertilizing management, 5) weeding and waterproof prevention waterlogging, 6) human assistance awardsPowder, 7) control growth and flower and fruit protecting, 8) pest control, 9) and survive the winter cold-proof, 10) collect seed in good time, itsBe characterised in that: described step 1) in selection of land and whole ground, selection of land require for seed field independent, around 300～Without pollination crop, seed field physical features is smooth in 500m, and it is convenient to irrigate, and draining is good, soil be alkalescent orNeutrality is advisable; Require to rake after ploughing deeply 20～25cm wholely, and make the Ancient-sacrifice of wide 3m.
Described step 2) breed in material selection and processing, (November) or spring (April) in the fall,Take the old root of more than 5 years Radix Glycyrrhizae, stolon is cut and is cut into the section of 30cm, imbed wet soil or wet Sha ZhongbaoWater.
Described step 3) transplant, first press line-spacing 40cm machinery and ditch, water and spread a small amount of plant ash,By the spacing in the rows of 30cm by the rhizome yaw cutting in ditch, then earthing the soil moisture conservation of raking.
Described step 4) in fertilizing management, fertilizer be in farm manure, calcium superphosphate or Diammonium phosphate (DAP) arbitrarilyOne, dose is: farm manure 1000kg/ mu, calcium superphosphate 50kg/ mu, Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 10kg/ mu.
Described step 7) to control in growth and flower and fruit protecting, Radix Glycyrrhizae enters the 3rd year, grows vigorous, takesThe method of pinching off young shoots, suppresses its prosperous length and makes its multiple side shoot, strengthens the amount of blooming, and be that Radix Glycyrrhizae opens annual 7～AugustThe Sheng phase of bow structure fruit, spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2～3 times, to reach the object of flower and fruit protecting.
The present invention, in conjunction with the biological nature of Radix Glycyrrhizae, adopts the technological means of segment cuttage, reaches and shortens Radix Glycyrrhizae knotThe object of real phase, compared with existing Glycyrrhiza Seeds breeding method, beneficial effect of the present invention is:
1) adopt the old root of more than 5 years Radix Glycyrrhizae for breeding material, because it has completed vegetative growth phase and has enteredBlossoming and bearing fruit the phase of reproductive growth, after being transplanted, Second Year just can be solid, effectively shortened the breeding time limit.
2), while transplanting the old undercut section of Radix Glycyrrhizae, machinery spreads a small amount of plant ash after ditching, watering, to adjust plantation ditchAcid-base value, makes Radix Glycyrrhizae segment in neutrality or weakly alkaline environment, meets growth of Glycyrrhiza uralensis condition, improve output andQuality.
3) take the method for pinching off young shoots, suppress the growth of Radix Glycyrrhizae stem stalk, make its multiple side shoot, and at the Radix Glycyrrhizae knot of bloomingThe Sheng phase of fruit, sprays potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2～3 times, strengthens the amount of blooming, and increases output.
Detailed description of the invention
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, embodiments of the present invention are described further.
Experimental field: 10 mu, Shou Yang town, Longxi County, Gansu.
Experimental field weather conditions: experimental field 1800 meters of height above sea level, 7.7 DEG C of year-round average temperatures, annual rainfall 450㎜, 145 days frost-free periods.
Experimental field edaphic condition: be experimental field yellow soil, alkalescent, soil layer is deep, has irrigation conditions.
A mating system that shortens Glycyrrhiza Seeds productive phase, comprising: 1) selection of land and whole ground, 2) breed materialMaterial select and process, 3) transplant, 4) fertilizing management, 5) weeding and waterproof prevention waterlogging, 6) human assistance awardsPowder, 7) control growth and flower and fruit protecting, 8) pest control, 9) and survive the winter cold-proof, 10) collect seed in good time, itsConcrete steps are as follows:
1) selection of land and whole ground: Radix Glycyrrhizae has happiness dry climate, cold-resistant, is afraid of waterlogging, strong adaptability, strong stress resistanceEtc. characteristic, and adopt artificial or honeybee to propagate pollination, therefore selection of land require for seed field independent, around 300～In 500m, without equal pollination crop, seed field physical features is smooth, and it is convenient to irrigate, and draining is good, and soil is weak baseProperty or neutrality are advisable; Require to rake after ploughing deeply 20～25cm wholely, and make the Ancient-sacrifice of wide 3m.
2) breed material select and process: growth of Glycyrrhiza uralensis for many years after, because it has completed vegetative growth phaseAnd enter blossoming and bearing fruit the phase of reproductive growth, after being transplanted, Second Year just can be solid, therefore, in the first year 11Month or then April, take the old root of more than 5 years Radix Glycyrrhizae as breeding material, but the transplanting of old root is produced intoThis height, in order to reduce costs, cuts old the Radix Glycyrrhizae taking root stolon be cut into the section of 30cm, imbeds wetWater conservation in native or wet sand.
3) transplant: first press line-spacing 40cm machinery trench digging, water and spread a small amount of plant ash, by the spacing in the rows of 30cmBy the rhizome yaw cutting in ditch, then earthing the soil moisture conservation of raking.
4) fertilizing management: transplant first 20～30 days, after deep ploughing seed field, apply fertilizer, fertilizer selection farm manure,Any one in calcium superphosphate or Diammonium phosphate (DAP), dose is: farm manure 1000kg/ mu, calcium superphosphate50kg/ mu, Diammonium phosphate (DAP) 10kg/ mu.
5) weeding and waterproof prevention waterlogging: the old undercut section of Radix Glycyrrhizae is looked the timely weeding of weed growth situation the first year after transplanting,After transplanting, avoid irrigating, look soil moisture content June, can irrigate 1 time as arid too, within later 3 months, be Gansu withThe rainy season of northwest, for fear of rotten, generally not water, draining will be noted in the plot of hypsography low-lying; TransplantThe 2nd year, there is 50% plant to start to blossom and bear fruit; The 3rd year, all plant were all solid, just can be continuousReceive 3～5 years seeds.
6) artificial supplementary pollination: adopt the pollinating process of putting the auxiliary Radix Glycyrrhizae of honeybee mode.
7) control growth and flower and fruit protecting: Radix Glycyrrhizae enters the 3rd year, grows vigorous, take the method for pinching off young shoots,Suppress its prosperous length and make its multiple side shoot, strengthen the amount of blooming, be the Sheng phase that Radix Glycyrrhizae yields positive results annual 7～August,Spray potassium dihydrogen phosphate 2～3 times, to reach the object of flower and fruit protecting.
8) pest control: for Radix Glycyrrhizae yields positive results the phase, spray flolimat etc. and prevent aphid at the beginning of 6 the end of month～8 monthWorm and the harm of silk worm Jia worm.
9) survive the winter cold-proof: the main root of Radix Glycyrrhizae and horizontal walk stem form in winter then survive the winter bud and bud, ensure peaceEntirely survive the winter, the bud of surviving the winter should be at soil layer 2～5cm place, and with stalk or straw screen or mat covering and heat insulating.
10) in good time collect seed: transplant beginning in the 2nd year, just can collect seed, in the time of Radix Glycyrrhizae pod flavescence look andTime results, too early seed blighted grain is many, and after being drenched with rain late, seed blackening all affects quality.
Adopt embodiment of the present invention to carry out Radix Glycyrrhizae breeding, its output is as following table 1.
Table 1-transplants the time limit and seed production
|Transplant the time limit
||The 2nd year
||The 3rd year
||The 4th year
||The 5th year
|Per mu yield (kg)
Can find out from upper table 1, transplanting the 2nd annual production is 50% left and right of output after 3 years, and transplanting the be describedWithin 2 years, approximately have 50% plant to start solid, the 3rd year starts, and plant is all solid. And contrast the 3rd, 4,5 yearsOutput, find the 4th year high compared with the 3rd annual production, illustrate the 3rd year and still have part plant in nourishing and growingPhase, the 4th year is high compared with the 5th annual production, and its reason may be: along with the increase of Planting Years, and soil property and fertilizerThe condition atrophys gradually such as effect, disease and pest increases, and has reduced output.