CN103503684B - A kind of method of transplanting type alfalfa cultivation - Google Patents

A kind of method of transplanting type alfalfa cultivation Download PDF

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CN103503684B
CN103503684B CN201310468916.5A CN201310468916A CN103503684B CN 103503684 B CN103503684 B CN 103503684B CN 201310468916 A CN201310468916 A CN 201310468916A CN 103503684 B CN103503684 B CN 103503684B
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transplanting
seed
clover
seedlings
year
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CN103503684A (en
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关法春
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AGRICULTURAL AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY COLLEGE OF TIBET UNIVERSITY
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AGRICULTURAL AND ANIMAL HUSBANDRY COLLEGE OF TIBET UNIVERSITY
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Abstract

The invention discloses a kind of method of transplanting type alfalfa cultivation, the method of this transplanting type alfalfa cultivation comprises the following steps: select disease resistance strong, dormancy alfalfa variety early, clean seed with the method for selection by winnowing and screening, seed is spread out to put and is exposed to the sun in the sun 3 ~ 4 days; Choose leeward on the sunny side, physical features is high and dry, draining is good, distance water source is nearer plot is as seedbed; Sowing time is selected in the 3-4 month, feeding block seedlings raising, seeding quantity 20g/m 2, earthing 2cm; According to the timely moisturizing of nursery soil water regime and covering; Transplant during mid or late June rainy season set, adopt plane hole hole irrigation for seeding or draw ditch formula transplanting method, or transplanting after rain before rain; The weeds removed around transplanting seedlings replace the time in time of the year when autumn changes into winter soil freezing-thawing, irrigate and freeze water once, when annual spring, clover started to turn green, irrigate and turn green water once; Transplant and do not gather in then, be beneficial to safe overwintering, Second Year can be gathered in the crops autumn.The inventive method is simple, easy to operate, improves the output of clover.

Description

A kind of method of transplanting type alfalfa cultivation
Technical field
The invention belongs to the technical field of alfalfa cultivation, particularly relate to a kind of method of transplanting type alfalfa cultivation.
Background technology
Clover is the common name that clover belongs to (Medicago) plant, it is a kind of perennial flowering plant, wherein foremost is alfalfa (Medicagosativa) as herbage, it is animal feeding-stuff, introduce from the Western Regions in the Western Han Dynastry, clover is famous with " King of Pasture ", not only output is high, and herbaceous stem is excellent, the equal eating of various livestock and poultry, cultivated area about 1,330,000 hm^2 of China clover, along with the development of commodity economy, Alfalfa industrialization scale development is very fast, the cultivated area of clover expands, in order to more scientific ground Planting Medicago sativa, improve the Quality and yield of alfalfa products, now clover farming and cultivation management technology main points are described below:
The primary root of clover can in depth under, during plant strain growth more than 20 years, if subsoil porous, main root can reach more than 15 meters (50 chis) deeply, therefore the tolerance of clover to arid is extremely strong, when growing 2 months, the root of seedling can go deep into 90 centimeters, soil, reach when 5 months 180 centimeters (6 chis), common this situation: the clover of new plantation can tolerate serious summer arid and other root system is more shallow, branch is more leguminous plant because of not drought-resistant and dead;
A large amount of new stem can be gone out by rapid regeneration after the harvesting of Herba Medicaginis stem branch, therefore hay can be gathered in each season of growth 1 time to 13 times more than, the gross yield of the number of times that can gather in and each season of growth depends mainly on the length of the season of growth, the adaptability to soil, whether sunlight is sufficient, especially the quantity of season of growth rainfall and irrigation and distribution, the alfalfa hay of greenery is nutritious, by livestock is liked food, containing the protein of about 16% and the mineral matter of 8%, be rich in again vitamin A, E, D and K;
Clover contains a large amount of thick protein, abundant carbohydrate and B family vitamin, the lot of trace such as injection Vitamin B_6 and iron nutrient, not only can be used for cattle breeding, also be one of the most ancient food of the mankind, the young shoot of people when mainly edible clover turns green early spring, alfalfa bud nutrient component is high, containing abundant dietary fiber, and only having little carbohydrate, heat is very low, is a kind of excellent high microsteping food low in calories.
Summary of the invention
The object of the embodiment of the present invention is a kind of method providing transplanting type alfalfa cultivation, be intended to solve the live clover in existing climate arid wasteland then root system cross shallow and effectively cannot absorb deep carbonate rocks, cause the problem that spring in next year is difficult to turn green.
The embodiment of the present invention is achieved in that a kind of method of transplanting type alfalfa cultivation, and the method for this transplanting type transplanting type alfalfa cultivation comprises the following steps:
Step one, cleans seed with the method for selection by winnowing and screening, and seed is spread out to put and is exposed to the sun in the sun 3 ~ 4 days;
Step 2, choose leeward on the sunny side, physical features is high and dry, draining is good, distance water source is nearer plot is as seedbed;
Step 3, the sowing time elect as at the beginning of 3 months or April early and middle ten days feeding block seedlings raising, seeding quantity 20g/m 2, earthing 2cm;
Step 4, according to the timely moisturizing of nursery soil water regime and covering;
Step 5, transplants during mid or late June rainy season set, adopts plane hole hole irrigation for seeding or draws ditch formula transplanting method, or transplanting after rain before rain;
Step 6, the weeds removed around transplanting seedlings replace the time in time of the year when autumn changes into winter soil freezing-thawing, irrigate and freeze water once, when annual spring, clover started to turn green, irrigate and turn green water once;
Step 7, transplant and do not gather in then, be beneficial to safe overwintering, Second Year can be gathered in the crops autumn.
Further, in step one, alfalfa variety selects No. 4, Algonquin, sweet agriculture.
Further, in step one, after seed is exposed to the sun, Medicament soaked seed or dress seed available 0.1% limewash seed soaking or with 50% tmtd pulvis seed dressing, dress seed consumption be 0.3%.
Further, in step 5, the upper or Second Year of nursery stage 3 months turn green after clover seedlings all can transplant, thickness of earth covering 2cm ~ 5cm, every cave transplants several 3 ~ 5, about every mu of 2000 caves.
The method of transplanting type alfalfa cultivation provided by the invention, makes clover root system then can absorb moisture by deep enough deep subsoil by transplanting seedlings clovers, the root tissue water status preferably resolving clover winter-spring season drain with alfalfa cultivation in there is difficult problem of turning green.The present invention, by choosing elite seed, screens, July early and middle ten days transplant, saved manual priming's number of times, improve the survival rate of transplanting seedlings, scientific management has been carried out to clover.In addition, the inventive method is simple, easy to operate, provides a kind of method of transplanting type alfalfa cultivation, provides the output of clover.
Accompanying drawing explanation
Fig. 1 is the flow chart of the method for the transplanting type alfalfa cultivation that the embodiment of the present invention provides.
Embodiment
In order to make object of the present invention, technical scheme and advantage clearly understand, below in conjunction with embodiment, the present invention is further elaborated.Should be appreciated that specific embodiment described herein only in order to explain the present invention, be not intended to limit the present invention.
Fig. 1 shows the method flow of transplanting type alfalfa cultivation provided by the invention.For convenience of explanation, illustrate only part related to the present invention.
The method of the transplanting type alfalfa cultivation of the embodiment of the present invention, the method for this transplanting type alfalfa cultivation comprises the following steps:
Step one, at the alfalfa variety of Tibet plantation, select disease resistance strong, dormancy alfalfa variety early, clean seed with the method for selection by winnowing and screening, seed is spread out to put and is exposed to the sun in the sun 3 ~ 4 days;
Step 2, choose leeward on the sunny side, physical features is high and dry, draining is good, distance water source is nearer plot is as seedbed;
Step 3, the sowing time is selected in the 3-4 month, and Nyingchi Prefecture is at the beginning of 3 months, and Lhasa area is early and middle ten days feeding block seedlings raising in April, seeding quantity 20g/m 2, earthing 2cm ~ 4cm;
Step 4, according to the timely moisturizing of nursery soil water regime and covering;
Step 5, transplants during mid or late June rainy season set, adopts plane hole hole irrigation for seeding or draws ditch formula transplanting method, or transplanting after rain before rain;
Step 6, the weeds removed around transplanting seedlings replace the time in time of the year when autumn changes into winter soil freezing-thawing, irrigate and freeze water once, when annual spring, clover started to turn green, irrigate and turn green water once;
Step 7, transplant and do not gather in then, be beneficial to safe overwintering, Second Year can be gathered in the crops autumn.
As a prioritization scheme of the embodiment of the present invention, in step one, alfalfa variety selects No. 4, Algonquin, sweet agriculture.
As a prioritization scheme of the embodiment of the present invention, in step one, after seed is exposed to the sun, Medicament soaked seed or dress seed available 0.1% limewash seed soaking or with 50% tmtd pulvis seed dressing, dress seed consumption be 0.3%.
As a prioritization scheme of the embodiment of the present invention, in step 5, Second Year turn green after clover seedlings all can transplant, thickness of earth covering 2cm ~ 5cm, every cave transplants several 3 ~ 5, about every mu of 2000 caves.
Below in conjunction with drawings and the specific embodiments, application principle of the present invention is further described.
As shown in Figure 1, the method for the transplanting type alfalfa cultivation of the embodiment of the present invention comprises the following steps:
S101: select disease resistance strong, dormancy alfalfa variety early, clean seed with the method for selection by winnowing and screening, seed is spread out to put and is exposed to the sun in the sun 3 ~ 4 days;
S102: choose leeward on the sunny side, physical features is high and dry, draining is good, distance water source is nearer plot is as seedbed;
S103: the sowing time is selected in for three ~ April, feeding block seedlings raising, seeding quantity is with 20g/m 2earthing 2cm ~ 4cm;
S104: according to the timely moisturizing of nursery soil water regime and covering;
S105:6 transplants the middle ten days and the last ten days month, adopts plane hole hole irrigation for seeding or draws ditch formula transplanting method, or transplanting after rain before rain;
S106: the weeds removed around transplanting seedlings replace the time in time of the year when autumn changes into winter soil freezing-thawing, irrigates and freezes water once, when annual spring, clover started to turn green, irrigates and turns green water once;
S107: transplant and do not gather in then, be beneficial to safe overwintering, Second Year can be gathered in the crops autumn.
Concrete steps of the present invention are:
The first step, clover nursery
1, alfalfa variety is selected, and requires that disease resistance is strong at the alfalfa variety of Tibet plantation, and early, Algonquin, sweet agriculture No. 4 production effects are better in dormancy;
2, choose seeds, need to clean seed before broadcasting, method of cleaning, based on selection by winnowing and screening, is removed the degree of purity such as ghost, blighted grain, stem stalk, impurity and is reached more than 90%, just can reach that after planting seedling is neat, Miao Zhuan, avoids seedlings to take advantage of seedling, and seedling is caught an illness biography seedlings;
3, seed treatment:
Bask seeds: spread out by seed to put and be exposed to the sun in the sun 3 ~ 4 days, the Shi Yaoqin that basks seeds turns over, in order to avoid the inequality or burn of being heated, also want moistureproof antifreeze;
Medicament soaked seed or the clover introduced of dressing seed can infect multiple diseases and be subject to the harm of multiple insect pest interiorly.The limewash of available 0.1% is soaked seed or is dressed seed with the tmtd pulvis of 50%, and seed dressing consumption is 0.3%;
Second step, the preparation of nursery and the preparation of bed soil
The selection of nursery: clover is mesoxerophytes, likes moistening husky earth or light sticky loamy texture soil, therefore generally to choose leeward on the sunny side, physical features is high and dry, draining is good, distance water source is nearer plot is as seedbed;
Make bed: the link being outbalance in nursery work wholely wholely, for seedling growth creates good soil condition and ecotope, just can cultivate healthy and strong rice shoot, if ground, seedbed is uneven, water, unevenness of application affects seedling growth regularity, adhere to drought wholely, the thin drought of artificial or mechanical rake is levelling.Irrigating with by seedbed for the first two three days of sowing, its pre-sowing water is connected with nutritive cube, allows bed soil moisture reach abundant saturation state, such guarantee rice shoot is in growing period not easily dehydration;
3rd step, sowing
Sowing time: clover is resisted cold, suitable day and night temperature can promote the sprouting of alfalfa seed, and promotes strong sprout, considers the vegetative period extending clover as far as possible, and the suitable sowing time, Lhasa area was mid-April at the beginning of Nyingchi Prefecture was for 4 months;
Seeding quantity, its seeding quantity of feeding block seedlings raising is with 20g/m 2be advisable.
Earthing, thickness of earth covering during alfalfa seed sowing, need to consider to erode the impact of factor on seed thickness of earth covering spring in different regions, earthing 2cm is advisable;
Weeding, the not resistance to weeds in clover pole of First Year, especially grassy weed, after therefore seedling of alfalfa second true leaf launches, just need manually weed a garden in time;
4th step, seedbed management
Be seeded into the management of emerging: Tibet is rather windy for spring, before after planting emerging, seedbed is easy to dehydration, will check that whether covering on seedbed is scraped off by wind at any time and scrape, timely moisturizing and covering;
Seeding stage manages: when clover sees green, when there is first leaf, if will throw off in time with plastic mulching, prevent the too high seedling of burning of ground film temperature, after throwing off covering, evaporation increases, rice shoot transpiration strengthens, and the as easy as rolling off a log dehydration in seedbed, should according to the timely moisturizing of nursery soil water regime;
Final-period management: most important management is exactly the management of moisture and temperature, want running check seedbed moisture and growth of seedling situation, water and will irrigate, can not to water duty, make seedbed moisture excessive, unfavorable to root system development, raise seedling in greenhouse is also noted that temperature, greenhouse temperature does not generally exceed 25 DEG C, rice shoot excessive growth can be made more than 25 DEG C, blade hangs down loosely, seedling stem is thin and delicate, once excessive growth, be difficult to again healthy and strong later, turn green after transplanting slow, viablity declines, therefore, raise seedling in greenhouse will ventilate hardening in time, will large ventilation all the time or booth plastics are all removed after two panels true leaf launches, make seedling growth stalwartness sturdy, grow up to the strong seedling that can adapt to land for growing field crops environment, then there is not ventilating problem in field seedling raising, keep 1 ~ 2cm soil layer place see dry see wet,
5th step, the transplantation technique of clover seedlings
Physical features relatively flat is selected in the selection of 1, transplanting plot, as transplanting plot;
2, wholely: the available rotovator in place with good conditionsi is ploughed, ploughing depth generally at 15cm ~ 18cm, after ploughing when soil moisture time to rake in time, carefully whole, otherwise after to leak gas leakage, have a strong impact on transplanting quality;
3, transplant
Different Transplanting Periods: Tibet is generally from 6 months, enter rainy season the last ten-days period, and therefore, select as far as possible in 6 months, transplant the last ten-days period, one is to save manual priming's number of times, and two is the survival rates that greatly can improve transplanting seedlings.
Transplant the length of time rice seedlings grow: under field conditions (factors), nursery stage more than 3 months or Second Year turn green after clover seedlings all can transplant;
Thickness of earth covering: the general 2cm ~ 5cm of thickness of earth covering;
Transplant a number: every cave transplants several 3 ~ 5;
Transplanting Density: generally about every mu of 2000 caves;
Transplanting method: adopt plane hole hole irrigation for seeding or draw ditch formula transplanting method, or transplanting after rain before rain; In order to enhance productivity, earth's surface be there is no to the plot of bulk stone, transplanter can be adopted to carry out transplanting operation;
6th step, the field management technology after transplanting
Intertill and clean tillage: mainly take artificial weeding.Being transplanted to slow seedling period, the weeds removed around transplanting seedlings must be noted, the living space that the growth for rice shoot is created;
Water management: replace the time in time of the year when autumn changes into winter soil freezing-thawing every year, irrigates and freezes water once, when annual spring, clover started to turn green, irrigates and turns green water once;
7th step, results
Transplant and do not gather in then, be beneficial to safe overwintering, Second Year can be gathered in the crops autumn.
Specific embodiments of the invention:
2 the end of month in 2012 carry out clover nursery in farmland, Aug. 1st town, Fromlingzhi, tibet county, and 6 the end of month in 2012 carry out clover transplanting on the ground at river shoal, Dazi County, Lhasa sandy soil, water the water that once freezes then at the beginning of 12 months; In March, 2013 waters a seedling recovering water, and May, clover regrowth rate was more than more than 80%, and mid-August, plant average height was 82.5cm, every square metre of average biomass 448.96 grams.
The present invention makes clover root system then can absorb moisture by deep enough deep subsoil by transplanting seedlings clovers, the root tissue water status preferably resolving clover winter-spring season drain with alfalfa cultivation in there is difficult problem of turning green.Method is simple, easy to operate, provides a kind of method of transplanting type alfalfa cultivation, provides the output of clover.
The foregoing is only preferred embodiment of the present invention, not in order to limit the present invention, all any amendments done within the spirit and principles in the present invention, equivalent replacement and improvement etc., all should be included within protection scope of the present invention.

Claims (1)

1. a method for transplanting type alfalfa cultivation, is characterized in that, the method for this transplanting type alfalfa cultivation comprises the following steps:
Step one, cleans seed with the method for selection by winnowing and screening, and seed is spread out to put and is exposed to the sun in the sun 3 ~ 4 days;
Step 2, choose leeward on the sunny side, physical features is high and dry, draining is good, distance water source is nearer plot is as seedbed;
Step 3, the sowing time elect as at the beginning of 3 months or mid-April feeding block seedlings raising, seeding quantity 20g/m 2
, thickness of earth covering 2cm;
Step 4, according to the timely moisturizing of nursery soil water regime and covering;
Step 5, rainy season set initial stage mid or late June transplants, and adopts plane hole hole irrigation for seeding or draws ditch formula transplanting method, or transplanting after rain before rain;
Step 6, the weeds removed around transplanting seedlings replace the time in time of the year when autumn changes into winter soil freezing-thawing, irrigate and freeze water once, when annual spring, clover started to turn green, irrigate and turn green water once;
Step 7, the clover of transplanting is not gathered in then, is beneficial to safe overwintering, and Second Year can be gathered in the crops autumn;
In step one, alfalfa variety selects No. 4, Algonquin, sweet agriculture;
Nutritive cube is of a size of 5 ~ 8cm × 5 ~ 8cm;
In step one, after seed is exposed to the sun, Medicament soaked seed or dress seed available 0.1% limewash seed soaking or with 50% tmtd pulvis seed dressing, dress seed consumption be 0.3%;
In step 5, the clover seedlings of nursery stage more than 3 months or Second Year turn green after clover seedlings all can transplant, nutritive cube is removed during transplanting, soil block surface in former nutritive cube should be flat or lower than ground 1 ~ 2cm with ground etc., thickness of earth covering 2cm ~ 5cm, every cave transplants several 3 ~ 5, every mu of 2000 caves.
CN201310468916.5A 2013-10-09 2013-10-09 A kind of method of transplanting type alfalfa cultivation Expired - Fee Related CN103503684B (en)

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CN104770172B (en) * 2015-04-10 2017-07-11 中国农业科学院北京畜牧兽医研究所 One kind quickly sets up the clonal cuttage and seedling culture method of clover
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