CN102860208B - Diversity culture method of young economical fruit interplanting amorphophallus xiei H.Li - Google Patents

Diversity culture method of young economical fruit interplanting amorphophallus xiei H.Li Download PDF

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CN102860208B
CN102860208B CN201210363249XA CN201210363249A CN102860208B CN 102860208 B CN102860208 B CN 102860208B CN 201210363249X A CN201210363249X A CN 201210363249XA CN 201210363249 A CN201210363249 A CN 201210363249A CN 102860208 B CN102860208 B CN 102860208B
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konjaku
bulb
monarch
blade
fruit
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CN102860208A (en
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徐文果
岩所
黄廷祥
赵庆云
杨雅凌
康云昌
陈军文
梁泉
梁艳丽
谢世清
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DEHONG DAI AND JINGPO AUTONOMOUS PREFECTURE AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY PROMOTION CENTER
Yunnan Agricultural University
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DEHONG DAI AND JINGPO AUTONOMOUS PREFECTURE AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGY PROMOTION CENTER
Yunnan Agricultural University
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Abstract

The invention discloses a diversity culture method of young economical fruit interplanting amorphophallus xiei H.Li, and the method comprises the following steps of: soil preparation, amorphophallus planting treatment, sowing, field management, disease pest and weed comprehensive prevention and control and harvest. The method particularly comprises the following steps: selecting young economical fruits; ploughing under to great depth and finely harrowing in the field; selecting diced seed tuber and sowing; managing the field by insisting in the principle by taking base fertilizer and farmyard manure as primary and additional fertilizer and chemical fertilizer as secondary'; and harvesting when the tuber is mature. The invention provides the diversity culture method of young conomical fruit interplanting amorphophallus xiei H.Li by starting from the growing and developing characteristics of amorphophallus and economical fruits according to differences of the amorphophallus and economical fruits to requirements of lighting, nutrition and moisture. By means of a series of technical measures, the yield of amorphophallus is improved, the economical fruit growth is promoted, and the income of peasants is increased. The method has the advantages of double income, namely increasing the yield of amorphophallus, promoting growth of economical fruits, improving economic benefit, and reducing the management cost.

Description

A kind of young economic fruit interplanting thanks to monarch's konjaku diversity cultivation method
Technical field
The invention belongs to the crop cultivating technology field, further belong to economic crops diversity cultivation method technical field, be specifically related to a kind of young economic fruit interplanting and thank to monarch's konjaku diversity cultivation method.
Background technology
Konjaku ( Amorphallus) be Araeceae (Areaceae) Amorphophallus ( AmorphophallusBl. ex Decne) perennial root bulb herbaceous plant is the unique plant that contains in a large number Glucomannan known to the present mankind.Glucomannan is as the main component of konjaku, has the physicochemical properties such as water-soluble, thickening, gelling, film forming, bonding, stable, suspension, and is of many uses in fields such as food, medicine, chemical industry, oil, weavings.The medicine of making take konjaku as Raw material processing and health products, can be used for preventing and treating diabetes, cardiovascular disease, enterogastritis, constipation etc.The konjaku powder expansion rate is large, and adhesion strength is strong, can make multiple binder, emulsifier, preservative, moisture preserving agent, insecticide, paper strengthening agent, styptic sponge etc.Konjaku has special purposes at field of Environment Protection, and the complete biodegradable plastic sheeting for farm use of producing take konjaku as raw material, food fresh keeping membrane, coating for internal and external wall etc. are significant to reducing environmental pollution.Konjaku originates from the bottom vegetation of the torrid zone, hylaeion hypotropicum, likes warmly, avoids high temperature, and happiness scattered light and the low light level, avoid the high light direct projection, belongs to half heliophobous plant.Because economic fruit takes effect slowly, period of cost recovery is long, before abounding with in 2 ~ 6 years, weed growth is fast, management cost is high, land utilization rate is low, deficiency in economic performance., for addressing the above problem, develop a kind of simple and effective, resource utilization is high, production cost is low, economic benefit is high cultivation method is very important.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of young economic fruit interplanting to thank to monarch's konjaku diversity cultivation method.
The object of the present invention is achieved like this, comprises whole ground, plants taro processing, sowing, field management, disease pest and weed integrated control, the step of gathering, and specifically comprises:
A, whole ground: select 2 ~ 6 economic forest in age orchards, woods fruit spacing in the rows is 4 ~ 6m, and line-spacing is 5 ~ 7m, has a good transport service, and soil layer is deep, and quality is loose, and the content of organic matter is high, and P in soil H value is between 6.5 ~ 7; The whole ground before the beginning of spring in next year, economic orchard of not bearing fruit, operation orchard cleaning orchard rapidly after fruit harvesting finishes, carry out soil disinfection, and the woods fruit is ploughed deeply thin rake in the ranks;
B, planting taro processes: select kind of age little, anosis worm harm, ganoid bulb is as kind of a taro, after three ages, above kind taro should be destroyed main bud, stripping and slicing is planted, minimum with the surface of a wound while planting the taro stripping and slicing, the protection of bud clump is the most effectively principle, the stripping and slicing material should not be stacked, require otch up during airing, the cutter of cutting kind of use requires blade thin, the edge of a knife is sharp, cutter is resolute at present to cut kind, tangent plane is smooth, the damage of minimizing to bulb, when stripping and slicing runs into rotten kind, cutter will could continue to use through disinfecting, avoid the germ cross-infection, bulb as stripping and slicing should be less than 300g, the stripping and slicing size is advisable with 100 ~ 200g, for guaranteeing emergence rate, each stripping and slicing must be with clump bud more than 2,
C, sowing: stripping and slicing is airing 2 ~ 3d in the sun, allows surface of a wound dehydration shrink, and can sow after wound healing; By the end of April, sow konjaku before rainy season set, capable of according to economic fruit carrying out wide-narrow row planting, wide row space 60 ~ 80 ㎝, little line-spacing 30 ~ 40 ㎝, spacing in the rows 20 ~ 40 ㎝, every mu of plantation 2000 ~ 3000 strains, according to kind of a taro size, carry out the plantation of classification burst, konjaku, after planting with cornstalk or sugarcane leaf mulch, is controlled weed growth, avoids soil compaction;
D, field management: the principle of adhering to " base manure, farmyard manure are main, topdress, chemical fertilizer is auxiliary "; Execute well-rotted farmyard manure 1800 ~ 2200kg for every mu before plantation, execute Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 40 ~ 60kg, mid-June, in conjunction with every mu of cultivation and banking, with potash fertilizer 15 ~ 25kg, composite fertilizer 15 ~ 25kg, impose;
E, disease pest and weed integrated control: 7 ~ August, want timely draining, thank to monarch's konjaku Major Diseases southern blight, soft rot, leaf blight etc. are arranged, the long-term ponding in plot, plant the taro mechanical damage, execute the farmyard manure that do not become thoroughly decomposed, nitrogenous fertilizer too much, the reasons such as continuous cropping, burning sun irradiation all can cause disease to occur, should take the policy of " putting prevention first, integrated control "; Insect pest mainly contains cutworm, grub, prodenia litura etc., uses larva insecticide poisoning larva when sowing and large ridging, adopts black light lamp or sugar-vinegar liquid trapping adult; Thank to monarch's konjaku and have the characteristics of " emerge slowly, grow and be fast ", need 30 ~ 50 days from sowing here seedling, weed growth is very fast during this period of time, it is also the critical period of crop smothering prevention and control, konjaku is after planting in time closed down weeds 1 time with weed killer herbicide, sporadicly emerge and with weed killer herbicide, close down weeds 1 ~ 2 time afterwards, the middle and later periods need be carried out artificial weeding;
F, gather: thank to monarch's konjaku blade tip and can produce a plurality of blade faces bulb, general 4 ~ 10, many reaches 30 ~ 35, and blade face bulb majority is between 8 ~ 25 grams, and 110 grams weigh most, blade face bulb majority is rounded, oval, minority is irregular shape, and due to solar radiation, the bulb epidermis shows slightly coarse, plant skin thicker than underground stem tuber, be convenient to storing; Thanking to the yellow of monarch's konjaku maternal plant falls after seedling, the blade face bulb can come off by nature, and therefore, maternal plant falls the optimal harvest time that front 1 ~ 2 week of seedling is the blade face bulb, can produce 1 ~ 2 blade owing to thanking to growth cycle of monarch's konjaku, the blade that first grows is first aging, and the blade face bulb is also first ripe, therefore, should adhere to the principle of " in batches gathering; focus on " while gathering the blade face bulb, the bulb on the chrysanthemum blade of in time gathering, rear difficult collection of avoiding coming off; Mid-November, the complete yellow of blade is fallen after seedling, selects fine weather to receive and digs underground bulb, receives and should avoid mechanical damage while digging as far as possible, and the bulb of reserving seed for planting answers original place to ted 1 ~ 2 time after receiving and digging, and until the rear concentrated storage of loss of water 10%-20%, the commodity taro is received and digs rear timely processing.
The present invention, from the growth and development characteristics of konjaku and economic forest,, according to its difference to illumination, nutrition and moisture requirement, makes a cover young economic garden interplanting and thanks to the diversity culture technique of monarch's konjaku.By reasonable selection of land, begin sowing in good time, plant that taro processing, rational close planting, liquid manure are planned strategies for, disease pest and weed integrated control, timely collecting and plant the technical measures such as taro safe storage, strengthen the young growth orchard management, improve Amorphophallus Yield, increase farmers' income.
The present invention a kind ofly can improve Amorphophallus Yield and promote simultaneously young economic fruit to grow, increase economic efficiency, reduce two income diversity cultivation methods of management cost.
Description of drawings
Fig. 1 is workflow diagram of the present invention.
Embodiment
The present invention is further illustrated below in conjunction with accompanying drawing and embodiment, but never in any form the present invention is limited, and any conversion or replacement based on training centre of the present invention is done, all belong to protection scope of the present invention.
The present invention includes as shown in drawings whole ground, plant taro processing, sowing, field management, disease pest and weed integrated control, the step of gathering, specifically comprise:
Be to select 2 ~ 6 economic forest in age orchards, woods fruit spacing in the rows is 4 ~ 6m wholely, and line-spacing is 5 ~ 7m, has a good transport service, and soil layer is deep, and quality is loose, and the content of organic matter is high, and P in soil H value is between 6.5 ~ 7; The whole ground before the beginning of spring in next year, economic orchard of not bearing fruit, operation orchard cleaning orchard rapidly after fruit harvesting finishes, carry out soil disinfection, and the woods fruit is ploughed deeply thin rake in the ranks;
planting the taro processing is to select kind of age little, anosis worm harm, ganoid bulb is as kind of a taro, after three ages, above kind taro should be destroyed main bud, stripping and slicing is planted, minimum with the surface of a wound while planting the taro stripping and slicing, the protection of bud clump is the most effectively principle, the stripping and slicing material should not be stacked, require otch up during airing, the cutter of cutting kind of use requires blade thin, the edge of a knife is sharp, cutter is resolute at present to cut kind, tangent plane is smooth, the damage of minimizing to bulb, when stripping and slicing runs into rotten kind, cutter will could continue to use through disinfecting, avoid the germ cross-infection, bulb as stripping and slicing should be less than 300g, the stripping and slicing size is advisable with 100 ~ 200g, for guaranteeing emergence rate, each stripping and slicing must be with clump bud more than 2,
Sowing is with stripping and slicing airing 2 ~ 3d in the sun, allows surface of a wound dehydration shrink, and can sow after wound healing; By the end of April, sow konjaku before rainy season set, capable of according to economic fruit carrying out wide-narrow row planting, wide row space 60 ~ 80 ㎝, little line-spacing 30 ~ 40 ㎝, spacing in the rows 20 ~ 40 ㎝, every mu of plantation 2000 ~ 3000 strains, according to kind of a taro size, carry out the plantation of classification burst, konjaku, after planting with cornstalk or sugarcane leaf mulch, is controlled weed growth, avoids soil compaction;
Field management is the principle of adhering to " base manure, farmyard manure are main, topdress, chemical fertilizer is auxiliary "; Execute well-rotted farmyard manure 1800 ~ 2200kg for every mu before plantation, execute Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 40 ~ 60kg, mid-June, in conjunction with every mu of cultivation and banking, with potash fertilizer 15 ~ 25kg, composite fertilizer 15 ~ 25kg, impose;
The disease pest and weed integrated control is in 7 ~ August, want timely draining, thank to monarch's konjaku Major Diseases southern blight, soft rot, leaf blight etc. are arranged, the long-term ponding in plot, plant the taro mechanical damage, execute the farmyard manure that do not become thoroughly decomposed, nitrogenous fertilizer too much, the reasons such as continuous cropping, burning sun irradiation all can cause disease to occur, should take the policy of " putting prevention first, integrated control "; Insect pest mainly contains cutworm, grub, prodenia litura etc., uses larva insecticide poisoning larva when sowing and large ridging, adopts black light lamp or sugar-vinegar liquid trapping adult; Thank to monarch's konjaku and have the characteristics of " emerge slowly, grow and be fast ", need 30 ~ 50 days from sowing here seedling, weed growth is very fast during this period of time, it is also the critical period of crop smothering prevention and control, konjaku is after planting in time closed down weeds 1 time with weed killer herbicide, sporadicly emerge and with weed killer herbicide, close down weeds 1 ~ 2 time afterwards, the middle and later periods need be carried out artificial weeding;
Gather is to thank to monarch's konjaku blade tip can produce a plurality of blade faces bulb, general 4 ~ 10, many reaches 30 ~ 35, and blade face bulb majority is between 8 ~ 25 grams, and 110 grams weigh most, blade face bulb majority is rounded, oval, minority is irregular shape, and due to solar radiation, the bulb epidermis shows slightly coarse, plant skin thicker than underground stem tuber, be convenient to storing; Thanking to the yellow of monarch's konjaku maternal plant falls after seedling, the blade face bulb can come off by nature, and therefore, maternal plant falls the optimal harvest time that front 1 ~ 2 week of seedling is the blade face bulb, can produce 1 ~ 2 blade owing to thanking to growth cycle of monarch's konjaku, the blade that first grows is first aging, and the blade face bulb is also first ripe, therefore, should adhere to the principle of " in batches gathering; focus on " while gathering the blade face bulb, the bulb on the chrysanthemum blade of in time gathering, rear difficult collection of avoiding coming off; Mid-November, the complete yellow of blade is fallen after seedling, selects fine weather to receive and digs underground bulb, receives and should avoid mechanical damage while digging as far as possible, and the bulb of reserving seed for planting answers original place to ted 1 ~ 2 time after receiving and digging, and until the rear concentrated storage of loss of water 10%-20%, the commodity taro is received and digs rear timely processing.
In described whole ground step, economic fruit is a kind of in loquat, lichee, macadamia nut.
In described whole ground step, soil layer is loam and sandy loam.
In described whole ground step, soil disinfection can be used a kind of in quicklime, formalin, bordeaux mixture.The quicklime consumption is every mu of 50 ~ 100Kg; 200 times of formalin spray covering with plastic film behind earth's surface, take off film and sow in vexed 8 ~ 12 days; 100 times of bordeaux mixture spray earth's surface, can sow after soil is slightly dried.
A kind of during in described kind of taro treatment step, cutter is disinfected and can be disappeared with liquor potassic permanganate, 75% alcohol or hundred bacterium.
In described field management step, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium N:P:K is 10 ~ 20:10 ~ 20:10 ~ 20.
In described disease pest and weed integrated control step, the larva insecticide is a kind of in ground Trane, battlefield tiger or first dimension desinsection list; Consumption is every mu of 1 ~ 3kg.
In described disease pest and weed integrated control step, sugar-vinegar liquid is 1 ~ 2 part of weight portion sugar, 1 ~ 2 part of wine, and 3 ~ 5 parts of vinegar, 11 ~ 21 parts, water, add 0.1 ~ 0.2 part of chlorophos and make after mixing well.
In described disease pest and weed integrated control step, the adult insecticide is a kind of in 1000 ~ 2000 times of liquid of first dimension desinsection list, 1000 ~ 1500 times of liquid of victory hat or 300 ~ 500 times of liquid of 25% sevin wetting powder.
In described disease pest and weed integrated control step, weed killer herbicide goes a kind of in Tianjin, paraquat, glyphosate for elegant.
The present invention, from the growth and development characteristics of konjaku and economic forest,, according to its difference to illumination, nutrition and moisture requirement, makes a cover young economic orchard interplanting and thanks to the diversity culture technique of monarch's konjaku.By reasonable selection of land, begin sowing in good time, plant that taro processing, rational close planting, liquid manure are planned strategies for, integrated pest prevention and control, timely collecting and plant the technical measures such as taro safe storage, strengthen the young growth orchard management, improve Amorphophallus Yield, increase farmers' income.
Loquat in economic fruit ( Eriobotrya japonica) be a kind of perennial tropical dungarunga, the system of taproot, originate in jungle, likes the environment of warm and high light intensity.The loquat interplanting konjak is conducive to build good field microclimate environment, reduces the generation of konjak soft rot, extends konjaku vegetative period, improves Amorphophallus Yield, realizes fruit, taro bumper harvests; The loquat interplanting konjak can also improve utilization rate of fertilizer, reduces the amount of application of fertilizer and pesticide, effectively controls weed growth, reduces the orchard management cost; The loquat interplanting konjak can increase the production imcome in children orchard in age, the purpose that reach combination of long drives and drop shots, raises short-long.
The present invention a kind ofly can improve Amorphophallus Yield and promote simultaneously economic fruit to grow, increase economic efficiency, reduce two income diversity cultivation methods of management cost.
In the present invention, economic fruit is not limited by kind, all can realize the present invention, and below the invention will be further described with the loquat in economic forest:
Embodiment 1:
Reach villager group Hu Dao village, Dehong prefecture Longchuan County fiber crops in 2010 and carry out children loquat in age interplanting and thank to 91 mu of monarch's konjaku demonstration plants, only plant 0.5 mu, plantation peasant household 37 families, the loquat age of tree of interplanting was 3 ~ 5 ages, and spacing in the rows is 5 meters, and line-spacing is 6 meters.Soil is red soil, with quicklime, disinfecting soil is processed, and plants taro airing 3 days before sowing.Execute farmyard manure 2000kg for every mu, the N:P:K ratio is that the Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 40kg of 15:15:15 is as base fertilizer.Adopt the stripping and slicing kind taro of 100g left and right, carry out vernalization before sowing and process.Wide row space 70 ㎝, little line-spacing 30 ㎝, spacing in the rows 30 ㎝, every mu of plantation 3000 strain left and right.On April 25 ~ 30 konjaku sowing time, after planting earthing 10 ~ 15cm, in time go to Tianjin to close down weeds with rust after earthing, inferior daily sugarcane leaf mulch.Carrying out topdressing in konjaku 50% left and right of emerging seedling stage, executes Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 20kg, potash fertilizer 20kg for every mu.Blade face bulb maturation is in time gathered afterwards, the growth parameter(s)s such as routine observation statistics seedling-growing time, the time of falling the seedling, the incidence of disease, double seedlings rate (in Table 1, table 2).Received to dig to survey November 8 and produce, the heavy 2.8kg of maximum bulb, the highest per mu yield 2063.4kg, average yield per mu 1278.2kg, gather in the crops 116.3 tons of commodity taros altogether, and the output value reaches 24.42 ten thousand yuan.Wherein Ma Da village Zhao fiber crops mountain is 2.2 mu of 4 Loquat Garden interplantings in age, and average yield per mu 1723.8 kg, gather in the crops commodity taro 3792.5 kg altogether, and the output value reaches 7964.3 yuan.Thank to monarch's konjaku by implementing the interplanting of children loquat in age, effectively improved the Loquat Garden overall economic efficiency, increase the orchard diversity of organism, effectively control weeds and damage by disease and insect and occur, have good ecological benefits.
Table 1 fiber crops reach Loquat Garden in the 4 age interplanting of Zhao of villager group fiber crops mountain and thank to performance breeding time of monarch's konjaku
Table 2 fiber crops reach Loquat Garden in the 3 age interplanting of Zhao of villager group fiber crops mountain and thank to the performance of monarch's konjaku productivity
Embodiment 2:
Carried out the interplanting of children loquat in age in island, family, Dehong prefecture Longchuan County seven teams in 2010 and thank to 41 mu of monarch's konjaku demonstration plants, plantation peasant household 22 families, the loquat age of tree of interplanting was 5 ages, and spacing in the rows is 5 meters, and line-spacing is 6 meters.
Wang Ming new Loquat Garden interplanting in 5 ages in seven groups, island, table 3 family thanks to performance breeding time of monarch's konjaku
Wang Ming new Loquat Garden interplanting in 5 ages in seven groups, island, table 4 family thanks to the performance of monarch's konjaku productivity
Embodiment 3:
Linked villager group in 2010 in Hu Dao village, Dehong prefecture Longchuan County and carry out children loquat in age interplanting and thank to 78 mu of monarch's konjaku demonstration plants, plantation peasant household 29 families, the loquat age of tree of interplanting was 4 ages, and spacing in the rows is 5 meters, and line-spacing is 6 meters.
Table 5 links villager group's poplar fiber crops fruit Loquat Garden in 4 age interplanting and thanks to performance breeding time of monarch's konjaku
Table 6 links villager group's poplar fiber crops fruit Loquat Garden in 4 age interplanting and thanks to the performance of monarch's konjaku productivity
Embodiment 4
Experimental field carried out the interplanting of children loquat in age at Dehong prefecture through doing to stand in 2009 and thank to 2 mu of monarch's konjaku demonstration plants, only plant 0.3 mu, the loquat age of tree of interplanting was 2 ~ 3 ages, and spacing in the rows is 4 meters, and line-spacing is 5 meters.Soil is loam, with quicklime, disinfecting soil is processed, and plants taro airing 4 days before sowing.Execute farmyard manure 1800kg for every mu, the N:P:K ratio is 10:20: 10 Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 70kg is as base fertilizer.Adopt the stripping and slicing kind taro of 180g left and right, carry out vernalization before sowing and process.Wide row space 60 ㎝, little line-spacing 20 ㎝, spacing in the rows 20 ㎝, every mu of plantation 2500 strain left and right.On April 25 ~ 30 konjaku sowing time, after planting earthing 10 ~ 15cm, in time go to Tianjin to close down weeds with rust after earthing, and inferior daily straw covers.Carrying out topdressing in konjaku 60% left and right of emerging seedling stage, executes Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 30kg, potash fertilizer 20 kg for every mu.Blade face bulb maturation is in time gathered afterwards, the growth parameter(s)s such as routine observation statistics seedling-growing time, the time of falling the seedling, the incidence of disease, double seedlings rate (in Table 7, table 8).Received to dig to survey November 8 and produce, the heavy 4.5kg of maximum bulb, the highest per mu yield 3915 kg, average yield per mu 2728 kg, gather in the crops 5.5 tons of commodity taros altogether, and the output value reaches 1.6 ten thousand yuan.Thank to monarch's konjaku by implementing the interplanting of children loquat in age, effectively improved the Loquat Garden overall economic efficiency, increase the orchard diversity of organism, effectively control weeds and damage by disease and insect and occur, have good ecological benefits.
Table 7 Dehong prefecture thanks to performance breeding time of monarch's konjaku through the experimental field Loquat Garden interplanting in age of standing
Experimental field age, the Loquat Garden interplanting thanked to the performance of monarch's konjaku productivity to table 8 Dehong prefecture through standing
Embodiment 5
Experimental field carried out the interplanting of children loquat in age at Dehong prefecture through doing to stand in 2010 and thank to 5 mu of monarch's konjaku demonstration plants, only plant 0.5 mu, the loquat age of tree of interplanting was 5 ~ 6 ages, and spacing in the rows is 6 meters, 7 meters of line-spacings.Soil is sandy loam, with quicklime, disinfecting soil is processed, and plants taro airing 3 days before sowing.Execute farmyard manure 2200kg for every mu, the N:P:K ratio is that the Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 50kg of 20:10:20 is as base fertilizer.Adopt the stripping and slicing kind taro of 200g left and right, carry out vernalization before sowing and process.Wide row space 80 ㎝, little line-spacing 40 ㎝, spacing in the rows 40 ㎝, every mu of plantation 2000 strain left and right.On April 25 ~ 30 konjaku sowing time, after planting earthing 10 ~ 15cm, in time go Tianjin and paraquat to close down weeds with rust after earthing, and inferior daily maize straw covers.Carrying out topdressing in konjaku 50% left and right of emerging seedling stage, executes Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 50kg, potash fertilizer 28 kg for every mu.Blade face bulb maturation is in time gathered afterwards, the growth parameter(s)s such as routine observation statistics seedling-growing time, the time of falling the seedling, the incidence of disease, double seedlings rate (in Table 9, table 10).Received to dig to survey November 8 and produce, maximum bulb weighs 5.3 kg, the highest per mu yield 3018 kg, and average yield per mu 2376.3kg, gather in the crops 1.19 tons of commodity taros altogether, and the output value reaches 3.5 ten thousand yuan.Thank to monarch's konjaku by implementing the interplanting of children loquat in age, effectively improved the Loquat Garden overall economic efficiency, increase the orchard diversity of organism, effectively control weeds and damage by disease and insect and occur, have good ecological benefits.
Table 9 Dehong prefecture thanks to performance breeding time of monarch's konjaku through the experimental field Loquat Garden interplanting in age of standing
Experimental field age, the Loquat Garden interplanting thanked to the performance of monarch's konjaku productivity to table 10 Dehong prefecture through standing

Claims (8)

1. a young economic fruit interplanting thanks to monarch's konjaku diversity cultivation method, it is characterized in that comprising whole ground, plants taro processing, sowing, field management, disease pest and weed integrated control, the step of gathering, and specifically comprises:
A, whole ground: select 2 ~ 6 economic forest in age orchards, woods fruit spacing in the rows is 4 ~ 6m, and line-spacing is 5 ~ 7m, has a good transport service, and soil layer is deep, and quality is loose, and the content of organic matter is high, and P in soil H value is between 6.5 ~ 7; The whole ground before the beginning of spring in next year, economic orchard of not bearing fruit, operation orchard cleaning orchard rapidly after fruit harvesting finishes, carry out soil disinfection, and the woods fruit is ploughed deeply thin rake in the ranks;
B, planting taro processes: select kind of age little, anosis worm harm, ganoid bulb is as kind of a taro, after three ages, above kind taro should be destroyed main bud, stripping and slicing is planted, minimum with the surface of a wound while planting the taro stripping and slicing, the protection of bud clump is the most effectively principle, the stripping and slicing material should not be stacked, require otch up during airing, the cutter of cutting kind of use requires blade thin, the edge of a knife is sharp, cutter is resolute at present to cut kind, tangent plane is smooth, the damage of minimizing to bulb, when stripping and slicing runs into rotten kind, cutter will could continue to use through disinfecting, avoid the germ cross-infection, bulb as stripping and slicing should be less than 300g, the stripping and slicing size is advisable with 100 ~ 200g, for guaranteeing emergence rate, each stripping and slicing must be with clump bud more than 2,
C, sowing: stripping and slicing is airing 2 ~ 3d in the sun, allows surface of a wound dehydration shrink, and can sow after wound healing; By the end of April, sow konjaku before rainy season set, capable of according to economic fruit carrying out wide-narrow row planting, wide row space 60 ~ 80cm, little line-spacing 30 ~ 40cm, spacing in the rows 20 ~ 40cm, every mu of plantation 2500 ~ 3000 strains, according to kind of a taro size, carry out the plantation of classification burst, konjaku, after planting with cornstalk or sugarcane leaf mulch, is controlled weed growth, avoids soil compaction;
D, field management: the principle of adhering to " base manure, farmyard manure are main, topdress, chemical fertilizer is auxiliary "; Execute well-rotted farmyard manure 1800 ~ 2200kg for every mu before plantation, execute Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 40 ~ 60kg, mid-June, in conjunction with every mu of cultivation and banking, with potash fertilizer 15 ~ 25kg, Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium 15 ~ 25kg, impose; Described Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium N:P:K content is 15:15:15;
E, disease pest and weed integrated control: 7 ~ August, want timely draining, thank to monarch's konjaku Major Diseases southern blight, soft rot, leaf blight etc. are arranged, the long-term ponding in plot, plant the taro mechanical damage, execute the farmyard manure that do not become thoroughly decomposed, nitrogenous fertilizer too much, the reasons such as continuous cropping, burning sun irradiation all can cause disease to occur, should take the policy of " putting prevention first, integrated control "; Insect pest mainly contains cutworm, grub, prodenia litura etc., uses larva insecticide poisoning larva when sowing and large ridging, adopts black light lamp or sugar-vinegar liquid trapping adult; Thank to monarch's konjaku and have the characteristics of " emerge slowly, grow and be fast ", need 30 ~ 50 days from sowing here seedling, weed growth is very fast during this period of time, it is also the critical period of crop smothering prevention and control, konjaku is after planting in time closed down weeds 1 time with weed killer herbicide, sporadicly emerge and with weed killer herbicide, close down weeds 1 ~ 2 time afterwards, the middle and later periods need be carried out artificial weeding;
F, gather: thank to monarch's konjaku blade tip and can produce a plurality of blade faces bulb, general 4 ~ 10, many reaches 30 ~ 35, and blade face bulb majority is between 8 ~ 25 grams, and 110 grams weigh most, blade face bulb majority is rounded, oval, minority is irregular shape, and due to solar radiation, the bulb epidermis shows slightly coarse, plant skin thicker than underground stem tuber, be convenient to storing; Thanking to the yellow of monarch's konjaku maternal plant falls after seedling, the blade face bulb can come off by nature, and therefore, maternal plant falls the optimal harvest time that front 1 ~ 2 week of seedling is the blade face bulb, can produce 1 ~ 2 blade owing to thanking to growth cycle of monarch's konjaku, the blade that first grows is first aging, and the blade face bulb is also first ripe, therefore, should adhere to the principle of " in batches gathering; focus on " while gathering the blade face bulb, the bulb on the chrysanthemum blade of in time gathering, rear difficult collection of avoiding coming off; Mid-November, the complete yellow of blade is fallen after seedling, selects fine weather to receive and digs underground bulb, receives and should avoid mechanical damage while digging as far as possible, and the bulb of reserving seed for planting answers original place to ted 1 ~ 2 time after receiving and digging, and until the rear concentrated storage of loss of water 10%-20%, the commodity taro is received and digs rear timely processing;
Described economic fruit is loquat.
2. young economic fruit interplanting according to claim 1 thanks to monarch's konjaku diversity cultivation method, it is characterized in that being that in described A step, soil layer is loam and sandy loam.
3. young economic fruit according to claim 1 interplanting thanks to monarch's konjaku diversity cultivation method, it is characterized in that being that soil disinfection in described A step can use a kind of in quicklime, formalin, bordeaux mixture; The quicklime consumption is every mu of 50 ~ 100Kg; 200 times of formalin spray covering with plastic film behind earth's surface, take off film and sow in vexed 8 ~ 12 days; 100 times of bordeaux mixture spray earth's surface, can sow after soil is slightly dried.
4. young economic fruit according to claim 1 interplanting thanks to monarch's konjaku diversity cultivation method, it is characterized in that being that cutter in described B step disinfects a kind of in can disappearing with liquor potassic permanganate, 75% alcohol or hundred bacterium.
5. young economic fruit according to claim 1 interplanting thanks to monarch's konjaku diversity cultivation method, it is characterized in that being a kind of in Trane, ground, battlefield tiger or first dimension desinsection list of larva insecticide in described E step; Consumption is every mu of 1 ~ 3kg.
6. young economic fruit interplanting according to claim 1 thanks to monarch's konjaku diversity cultivation method, it is characterized in that being that in described E step, sugar-vinegar liquid is 1 ~ 2 part of weight portion sugar, 1 ~ 2 part of wine, 3 ~ 5 parts of vinegar, 11 ~ 21 parts, water, add 0.1 ~ 0.2 part of chlorophos and make after mixing well.
7. young economic fruit according to claim 1 interplanting thanks to monarch's konjaku diversity cultivation method, it is characterized in that being that adult insecticide in described E step is a kind of in 1000 ~ 2000 times of liquid of first dimension desinsection list, 1000 ~ 1500 times of liquid of victory hat or 300 ~ 500 times of liquid of 25% sevin wetting powder.
8. young economic fruit according to claim 1 interplanting thanks to monarch's konjaku diversity cultivation method, it is characterized in that being that weed killer herbicide in described E step goes a kind of in Tianjin, paraquat, glyphosate for elegant.
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