CN102986406B - High-mountain konjak cultivation technique - Google Patents

High-mountain konjak cultivation technique Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102986406B
CN102986406B CN201210380815.8A CN201210380815A CN102986406B CN 102986406 B CN102986406 B CN 102986406B CN 201210380815 A CN201210380815 A CN 201210380815A CN 102986406 B CN102986406 B CN 102986406B
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konjaku
taro
kilogram
herbal medicine
chinese herbal
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CN102986406A (en
Inventor
杨世安
李鉴
张定聪
张庆武
孙坚政
张大来
陈永龙
韦世宏
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Agricultural Technology Extension Center Feixi County
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Agricultural Technology Extension Center Feixi County
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Abstract

The invention discloses a high-mountain konjak cultivation technique, which comprises the steps of land selection, soil preparation, breeding konjak selection and treatment, due-time planting, field management, diseases and pests prevention and control, harvest and the like. According to the invention, by soaking seeds with a Chinese herbal medicine solution, weeding with a Chinese herbal medicine herbicide, and spraying a Chinese herbal medicine disease and pest preventing agent for prevention, diseases and pests of the konjak can be greatly reduced, the growth environment of the konjak is purified, the use of chemical pesticide is reduced, and the ecological environment is protected. The konjak produced by the cultivation technique is good in product appearance, safe and nuisance-free. The cultivation method is simple, has the advantages of low cost, high yield and the like, and is convenient to manage and suitable for large-scale cultivation.

Description

A kind of culture technique of high mountain konjaku
Technical field
The culture technique that the present invention relates to a kind of high mountain konjaku, belongs to field of plant growing technology.
Background technology
It is first-class that konjaku You is Amorphophalus rivieri, terrible taro, ghost, and konjaku is the unique plant that can extract in a large number Glucomannan.The bulb of konjaku has higher medical and edibility, and it is cold in nature, taste is pungent, poisonous, major function for detumescence, attack poison, external application cures mainly the diseases such as carbuncle sore, pyogenic infections, caking, and venomous snake bite, the tuberculosis of cervical lymph nodes, hernia etc.After konjaku processing, as food, be a kind of gel food, health-care effect is outstanding, fiber content is high, can promote gastrointestinal peristalsis, helps human body to digest and assimilate, eliminate the fatty deposit on painstaking effort tube wall, obesity, constipation, high fat of blood and diabetes etc. are had to good therapeutic effect.
Amorphophallus Yield that at present culture technique plants out average every mu 2600 kilograms of left and right, in addition with the konjaku of existing implantation methods plantation, there is the problems such as damage by disease and insect is many, quality is not good, cause Amorphophallus Yield to be difficult to obtain new breakthrough, in addition, because potato seed, chemical fertilizer, agricultural chemicals drop into larger, not only economic benefit is low, but also make soil deterioration, ecotope is damaged, therefore, explore new konjaku culture technique, become current very important problem.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is to for the deficiencies in the prior art, a kind of culture technique of high mountain konjaku is provided, improve output and the quality of konjaku.
For achieving the above object, the technical solution used in the present invention is as follows:
A culture technique for high mountain konjaku, comprises the following steps:
(1) selection of land
Select soil deep fertile, carry on the back moistening, loose without ponding, the plantation of well-drained sandy loam, pH value 6.5-7.5 is for well, the unsuitable continuous cropping of konjaku, otherwise easily increase the weight of damage by disease and insect harm, avoid 2 years kinds of choosing the plot of konjaku, need not plant the plot of potato, Ipomoea batatas, rape, vegetables as far as possible, and must guard against and cross strong and dry hillside sunshine;
(2) site preparation and fertilization
Before the winter, deep plough konjaku, during deep ploughing, want heavy dressing to take fertilizer as main base fertilizer, every mu the fertilizer 2000-2500 that executes to become thoroughly decomposed kilogram, superphosphate 25-40 kilogram, ash 80-100 kilogram, potassium sulfate 15-20 kilogram, dregs of rapeseed cake 100-200 kilogram, Modified Urea 10-15 kilogram, during whole ground, soil is carried out to sterilizing, Chinese herbal medicine fluid 5-8 kilogram for mu, mix fine earth 25-30 kilogram, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields
(3) plant selection and the processing of taro
Select taro stem tuber less, that the rate of expanding is high in age to do kind of a taro.Require stem tuber ovalize, transverse diameter is greater than upper end, vertical footpath and is greater than lower end, and upper concave end, mouth are put down, sprout is complete sturdy, bud point pinkiness, glossy, and it is flat slightly to exceed Huo Yu limit, recess edge, Tuber color is vivid, the first half is that ash is dark-coloured, and Lower Half and bottom are canescence, epidermis is smooth, without crowfoot cracks, scar, wound is rotten and mildew phenomena, stem tuber 250-350 gram is advisable
After kind taro is chosen, 2-3 days prior to seeding should bask seeds, to digging wound or mildew and rot kind taro, should cut traumatic part or rotten part, wound is smeared with hay wood ash, and the 3-4 days that then bask seeds promote wound healing, for reducing kind of a taro, carry disease germs, can in Chinese herbal medicine fluid, soak 5-6min by choosing the kind taro of having shone, have the kind taro that injury managed and the kind taro having sprouted spring can not carry out soaking disinfection, dry rear plantation;
(4) plantation in good time
Temperature is stable by more than 10 degrees Celsius, could start to plant konjaku, generally at the Spring Equinox to the sunny warm weather of clear and bright Season select, plant, spacing in the rows is advisable with 20-30cm, the kind piece of large grain and granule is interted to sow mutually make ground part form multi-level growth structure, to make full use of light source, being conducive to moisturizing takes precautions against drought, promote expanding of stem tuber, improve land utilization rate, after kind is good, earthing 10-15cm is thick;
(5) field management
(a) furrow face covers
At konjaku after planting, in time at ridge cover agricultural crop straw, such as straw, wheat straw, cornstalk etc., or the dry branches and fallen leaves in mountain forest, thickness 5-10cm, the effect of can play anti-farmland running to weeds, diseases prevention, heat and moisture preserving, anti-high temperature, keeping soil from packing together;
(b) topdress
When the most bud points of konjaku break ground dew pin, topdress for the first time, execute the 150-250 kg/acre of night soil becoming thoroughly decomposed, add 5-10 kg/acre of Modified Urea water mixing 1-2 doubly, execute once short seed manure, topdress for the second time after mid-July, konjaku stem tuber starts to expand,, growth, in the Sheng phase, is executed the 500-600 kg/acre of fertilizer becoming thoroughly decomposed, 4-6 kg/acre nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, puddle 400-500 kg/acre of vegetable garden soil, carry out furrow face and spread fertilizer over the fields;
(c) weeding
When weeds in field grows and konjaku can spray management of weeds with 500-600g Chinese herbal medicine weed killer herbicide by mu while emerging, as less in weeds, can manually pull out, can not shovel with hoe, exempt to hinder konjaku and susceptible;
(d) ridging seedling-protection
Konjaku petiole is slightly crisp, and raw on root, should earth up in time, on former earthing, then earths up 2-3 time, and native thick 5-10cm, careful operation, is sure not to hinder root and damages seedling;
(6) crop protection
Crop protection must put prevention first, in whole vegetative period, the Chinese medicine preventing disease and pest agent of converting 300-400 times of water for one time every spray in 2-3 month, described Chinese medicine preventing disease and pest agent is by following raw materials in part by weight: 8-10 part Chinese wild pepper, 8-10 part kuh-seng, 10-12 part rhizoma nardostachyos, 8-10 part chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium, 8-10 part mother chrysanthemum add decocting to boil, collect filtrate to be condensed into dried powder and to make;
(7) gather
The naturally withered seedling of konjaku acrial part can be gathered in the crops after one week, was generally to dig receipts in late October to early November, should select fine day to excavate, the intact little taro of noting selecting and remain is planted, also can take the method heat-preserving anti-freezing of earthing or cover film, reserve seed for planting to place, treat next spring results.
Described Modified Urea is prepared by the following method: to adding the nano-sized carbon of 1-2% in urea, the seawood meal of the wintergreen of 3-4%, 5-6%, the sldium lauryl sulfate of the Silane coupling agent KH550 of 2-3%, 0.2-0.3%, be heated to after urea melting, be uniformly mixed and mix, then granulation obtains Modified Urea again.
Described Chinese herbal medicine fluid is by the raw material of following weight portion: 10-20 part tuber of stemona, 10-20 part black false hellebore, 15-20 part henbane, 20-30 part coriander, 10-15 part rue, 10-20 part Chinese prickly ash, 20-30 part melia toosendan, 10-20 part root of langdu are made through steps such as pulverizing, soak, filter, be concentrated.
Described Chinese herbal medicine weed killer herbicide is by the raw material of following weight portion: 10-20 part english walnut exocarp, 10-15 part Salvia leucophylla, 8-12 part nutgrass flatsedge, 10-20 part Levant Cotton Root, 10-15 part root of langdu, 8-12 part tuber of stemona are made through steps such as pulverizing, decoct, filter, be concentrated.
Beneficial effect of the present invention:
The present invention, by adopting Chinese herbal medicine fluid seed soaking, the weeding of Chinese herbal medicine weed killer herbicide, Chinese herbal medicine preventing disease and pest agent prevention to spray, can greatly reduce the damage by disease and insect of konjaku, has purified the growing environment of konjaku, has reduced the use of chemical pesticide, has protected ecotope.The konjaku product lover that the present invention plants out, safety nuisance free.The advantages such as cultivation method of the present invention is simple, has cost low, and yield is high, convenient management, are applicable to extensive cultivation.
Embodiment
Embodiment
The culture technique of high mountain konjaku, comprises the following steps:
(1) selection of land
Select soil deep fertile, carry on the back moistening, loose without ponding, the plantation of well-drained sandy loam, pH value 7.2 is for well, the unsuitable continuous cropping of konjaku, otherwise easily increase the weight of damage by disease and insect harm, avoid 2 years kinds of choosing the plot of konjaku, need not plant the plot of potato, Ipomoea batatas, rape, vegetables as far as possible, and must guard against and cross strong and dry hillside sunshine;
(2) site preparation and fertilization
Before the winter, deep plough konjaku, during deep ploughing, want heavy dressing to take fertilizer as main base fertilizer, 2500 kilograms of every mu of fertilizers of executing to become thoroughly decomposed, 40 kilograms of superphosphate, 100 kilograms of ash, 15 kilograms of potassium sulfates, 200 kilograms of dregs of rapeseed cake, 15 kilograms of Modified Ureas, during whole ground, soil is carried out to sterilizing, 6 kilograms of Chinese herbal medicine fluids for mu, mix 25 kilograms of fine earths, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields
(3) plant selection and the processing of taro
Select taro stem tuber less, that the rate of expanding is high in age to do kind of a taro.Require stem tuber ovalize, transverse diameter is greater than upper end, vertical footpath and is greater than lower end, and upper concave end, mouth are put down, sprout is complete sturdy, bud point pinkiness, glossy, and it is flat slightly to exceed Huo Yu limit, recess edge, Tuber color is vivid, the first half is that ash is dark-coloured, and Lower Half and bottom are canescence, epidermis is smooth, without crowfoot cracks, scar, wound is rotten and mildew phenomena, stem tuber 250-350 gram is advisable
After kind taro is chosen, should bask seeds prior to seeding 3 days, to digging wound or mildew and rot kind taro, should cut traumatic part or rotten part, wound is smeared with hay wood ash, and the 4 days that then bask seeds promote wound healing, for reducing kind of a taro, carry disease germs, can in Chinese herbal medicine fluid, soak 5min by choosing the kind taro of having shone, have the kind taro that injury managed and the kind taro having sprouted spring can not carry out soaking disinfection, dry rear plantation;
(4) plantation in good time
Temperature is stable by more than 10 degrees Celsius, could start to plant konjaku, generally at the Spring Equinox to the sunny warm weather of clear and bright Season select, plant, spacing in the rows is advisable with 25cm, the kind piece of large grain and granule is interted to sow mutually make ground part form multi-level growth structure, to make full use of light source, being conducive to moisturizing takes precautions against drought, promote expanding of stem tuber, improve land utilization rate, after kind is good, earthing 12cm is thick;
(5) field management
(a) furrow face covers
At konjaku after planting, in time at ridge cover agricultural crop straw, such as straw, wheat straw, cornstalk etc., or the dry branches and fallen leaves in mountain forest, thickness 10cm, the effect of can play anti-farmland running to weeds, diseases prevention, heat and moisture preserving, anti-high temperature, keeping soil from packing together;
(b) topdress
When the most bud points of konjaku break ground dew pin, topdress for the first time, execute 200 kgs/acre of night soils that become thoroughly decomposed, add 1 times of 10 kgs/acre of Modified Urea water mixing, execute once short seed manure, topdress for the second time after mid-July, konjaku stem tuber starts to expand,, growth, in the Sheng phase, is executed 600 kgs/acre of fertilizers that become thoroughly decomposed, 5 kgs/acre of nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizers, puddle 400 kgs/acre of vegetable garden soils, carry out furrow face and spread fertilizer over the fields;
(c) weeding
When weeds in field grows and konjaku can spray management of weeds with 600g Chinese herbal medicine weed killer herbicide by mu while emerging, as less in weeds, can manually pull out, can not shovel with hoe, exempt to hinder konjaku and susceptible;
(d) ridging seedling-protection
Konjaku petiole is slightly crisp, and raw on root, should earth up in time, on former earthing, then earths up 2-3 time, and native thick 8cm, careful operation, is sure not to hinder root and damages seedling;
(6) crop protection
Crop protection must put prevention first, in whole vegetative period, spray at quarterly intervals the Chinese medicine preventing disease and pest agent of converting 300 times of water for a time, described Chinese medicine preventing disease and pest agent is by following raw materials in part by weight: 8 parts of Chinese wild peppers, 10 parts of kuh-sengs, 12 parts of rhizoma nardostachyos, 10 parts of chrysanthemum cinesariaefoliums, 8 parts of mother chrysanthemums add decocting to boil, collect filtrate to be condensed into dried powder and to make;
(7) gather
The naturally withered seedling of konjaku acrial part can be gathered in the crops after one week, was generally to dig receipts in late October to early November, should select fine day to excavate, the intact little taro of noting selecting and remain is planted, also can take the method heat-preserving anti-freezing of earthing or cover film, reserve seed for planting to place, treat next spring results.
Described Modified Urea is prepared by the following method: in urea, add 1% nano-sized carbon, 3% wintergreen, 5% seawood meal, 2% Silane coupling agent KH550,0.3% sldium lauryl sulfate, be heated to after urea melting, be uniformly mixed and mix, then granulation obtains Modified Urea again.
Described Chinese herbal medicine fluid is by the raw material of following weight portion: 16 parts of tubers of stemona, 18 portions of black false hellebores, 16 portions of henbanes, 25 parts of corianders, 15 portions of rues, 18 portions of Chinese prickly ashes, 24 parts of melia toosendans, 20 parts of roots of langdu are made through steps such as pulverizing, soak, filter, be concentrated.
Described Chinese herbal medicine weed killer herbicide is by the raw material of following weight portion: 15 parts of english walnut exocarps, 12 parts of Salvia leucophyllas, 10 portions of nutgrass flatsedges, 16 parts of Levant Cotton Roots, 10 parts of roots of langdu, 12 parts of tubers of stemona are made through steps such as pulverizing, decoct, filter, be concentrated.
Utilize the konjaku product that konjaku product that above-mentioned complex art is produced plants with conventional method to compare, there is following advantage:

Claims (1)

1. a cultivation method for high mountain konjaku, is characterized in that comprising the following steps:
Selection of land
Select soil deep fertile, carry on the back moistening, loose without ponding, the plantation of well-drained sandy loam, pH value 6.5-7.5, the unsuitable continuous cropping of konjaku, otherwise easily increase the weight of damage by disease and insect harm, avoid 2 years kinds of choosing the plot of konjaku, need not plant the plot of potato, Ipomoea batatas, rape as far as possible, and must guard against and cross strong and dry hillside sunshine;
Site preparation and fertilization
Before the winter, deep plough konjaku, during deep ploughing, want heavy dressing to take fertilizer as main base fertilizer, every mu the fertilizer 2000-2500 that executes to become thoroughly decomposed kilogram, superphosphate 25-40 kilogram, ash 80-100 kilogram, potassium sulfate 15-20 kilogram, dregs of rapeseed cake 100-200 kilogram, Modified Urea 10-15 kilogram, during whole ground, soil is carried out to sterilizing, Chinese herbal medicine fluid 5-8 kilogram for mu, mix fine earth 25-30 kilogram, evenly spread fertilizer over the fields
Plant selection and the processing of taro
Select taro stem tuber less, that the rate of expanding is high in age to do kind of a taro, require stem tuber ovalize, transverse diameter is greater than upper end, vertical footpath and is greater than lower end, upper concave end, mouth are put down, and sprout is complete sturdy, bud point pinkiness, glossy, and it is flat slightly to exceed Huo Yu limit, recess edge, Tuber color is vivid, and it is dark-coloured that the first half is ash, Lower Half and bottom are canescence, epidermis is smooth, without crowfoot cracks, scar, wound is rotten and mildew phenomena, stem tuber 250-350 gram
After kind taro is chosen, 2-3 days prior to seeding should bask seeds, to digging wound or mildew and rot kind taro, should cut traumatic part or rotten part, wound is smeared with hay wood ash, and the 3-4 days that then bask seeds promote wound healing, for reducing kind of a taro, carry disease germs, by choosing the kind taro of having shone, in Chinese herbal medicine fluid, soak 5-6min, have the kind taro that injury managed and the kind taro having sprouted spring can not carry out soaking disinfection, dry rear plantation;
Plantation in good time
Temperature is stable by more than 10 degrees Celsius, could start to plant konjaku, at the Spring Equinox to the sunny warm weather of clear and bright Season select, plant, spacing in the rows 20-30cm, makes ground part form multi-level growth structure mutual interspersed the sowing of the kind piece of large grain and granule, to make full use of light source, being conducive to moisturizing takes precautions against drought, promote expanding of stem tuber, improve land utilization rate, after kind is good, earthing 10-15cm is thick;
Field management
(a) furrow face covers
At konjaku after planting, the timely dry branches and fallen leaves in ridge cover agricultural crop straw or mountain forest, thickness 5-10cm, the effect of play anti-farmland running to weeds, diseases prevention, heat and moisture preserving, anti-high temperature, keeping soil from packing together;
(b) topdress
When the most bud points of konjaku break ground dew pin, topdress for the first time, execute the 150-250 kg/acre of night soil becoming thoroughly decomposed, add 5-10 kg/acre of Modified Urea water mixing 1-2 doubly, execute once short seed manure, topdress for the second time after mid-July, konjaku stem tuber starts to expand, growth is in the Sheng phase, execute the 500-600 kg/acre of fertilizer becoming thoroughly decomposed, 4-6 kg/acre nitrogen-phosphorus-potassium compound fertilizer, puddle 400-500 kg/acre of vegetable garden soil, carry out furrow face and spread fertilizer over the fields;
(c) weeding
When weeds in field grow and konjaku while emerging mu with 500-600g Chinese herbal medicine weed killer herbicide, spray management of weeds, as less in weeds, manually pull out, can not shovel with hoe, exempt to hinder konjaku and susceptible;
(d) ridging seedling-protection
Konjaku petiole is slightly crisp, and raw on root, should earth up in time, on former earthing, then earths up 2-3 time, and native thick 5-10cm, careful operation, is sure not to hinder root and damages seedling;
Crop protection
Crop protection must put prevention first, in whole vegetative period, the Chinese medicine preventing disease and pest agent of converting 300-400 times of water for one time every spray in 2-3 month, described Chinese medicine preventing disease and pest agent is by following raw materials in part by weight: 8-10 part Chinese wild pepper, 8-10 part kuh-seng, 10-12 part rhizoma nardostachyos, 8-10 part chrysanthemum cinesariaefolium, 8-10 part mother chrysanthemum add decocting to boil, collect filtrate to be condensed into dried powder and to make;
Gather
The naturally withered seedling of konjaku acrial part can be gathered in the crops after one week, in late October to early November, dug receipts, should select fine day to excavate, the intact little taro of noting selecting and remain is planted, also take the method heat-preserving anti-freezing of earthing or cover film, reserve seed for planting to place, treat next spring results;
Described Modified Urea is prepared by the following method: to adding the nano-sized carbon of 1-2% in urea, the seawood meal of the wintergreen of 3-4%, 5-6%, the sldium lauryl sulfate of the Silane coupling agent KH550 of 2-3%, 0.2-0.3%, be heated to after urea melting, be uniformly mixed and mix, then granulation obtains Modified Urea again;
Described Chinese herbal medicine fluid is by the raw material of following weight portion: 10-20 part tuber of stemona, 10-20 part black false hellebore, 15-20 part henbane, 20-30 part coriander, 10-15 part rue, 10-20 part Chinese prickly ash, 20-30 part melia toosendan, 10-20 part root of langdu be through pulverizing, immersion, filtration, concentration step and make, and every mu with traditional Chinese medicine 3-5 kilogram;
Described Chinese herbal medicine weed killer herbicide is by the raw material of following weight portion: 10-20 part english walnut exocarp, 10-15 part Salvia leucophylla, 8-12 part nutgrass flatsedge, 10-20 part Levant Cotton Root, 10-15 part root of langdu, 8-12 part tuber of stemona are through pulverizing, decoction, filtration, concentration step and make.
CN201210380815.8A 2012-10-10 2012-10-10 High-mountain konjak cultivation technique Expired - Fee Related CN102986406B (en)

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