CN102986404B - Potato and cotton interplanting high-yield culture technique - Google Patents

Potato and cotton interplanting high-yield culture technique Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102986404B
CN102986404B CN201210380492.2A CN201210380492A CN102986404B CN 102986404 B CN102986404 B CN 102986404B CN 201210380492 A CN201210380492 A CN 201210380492A CN 102986404 B CN102986404 B CN 102986404B
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potato
cotton
soil
time
row
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CN201210380492.2A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN102986404A (en
Inventor
杨世安
李鉴
张定聪
张庆武
孙坚政
张大来
陈永龙
韦世宏
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肥西县农业技术推广中心
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Abstract

The invention discloses a potato and cotton interplanting high-yield culture technique. The invention adopts a 2-1 planting mode in which light, heat, wind conditions in the crop population can be in preferable proportion, the potato and cotton yield-increasing potential can be realized to obtain high yield, and at the same time, the planting mode is also beneficial to plastic mulching, and saves the production cost. According to the invention, by broadcasting a Chinese herbal medicine solution to prevent soil insects, and spraying a Chinese herbal medicine disease and pest preventing agent to prevent diseases and pests, diseases and pests of potatoes and cotton can be greatly reduced, the growth environment of potatoes and cotton is purified, the use of chemical pesticide is reduced, and the ecological environment is protected. The potatoes and the cotton produced by the culture technique are good in product appearance, safe and pollution-free. The cultivation method is simple, has the advantages of low cost, high yield and the like, and is convenient to manage and suitable for large-scale cultivation.

Description

A kind of interplanting potato high-yield culture technique that grows cotton
Technical field
The present invention relates to arviculture technology, be specifically related to a kind of interplanting potato high-yield culture technique that grows cotton.
Background technology
Potato and cotton interplanting, all have cultivation in the most areas of China.The past single files or narrow apart from interplanting pattern that adopt more, due to narrow row makes cotton can not early sowing, be not easy to management and results, and illumination affects etc. each other, so progressively develop i.e. wide cut interplanting pattern to cover mode between wide cut multirow.But due to the difference of cultivation method, potato and cotton competitive relation usually occur obviously or the situation of waste land resources and easily bring out and increase the weight of late blight and endanger, thereby potato that should high yield usually cannot stable high yield.
Summary of the invention
The present invention is directed to the deficiencies in the prior art, a kind of spring potato and the Interplant high-yielding cultivation method of corn is provided, adopt potato and cotton suitable apart from Cultivation Patterns of Interplanting, overcome potato and corn single file or the narrow shortcoming of bringing apart from Cultivation Patterns of Interplanting, improve effective use of land rate, strengthen the resistance of potato plant to late blight, reduce virus infection chance, improve the stable high yield that continues of potato and cotton.
For achieving the above object, the technical solution used in the present invention is as follows:
A kind of interplanting potato high-yield culture technique that grows cotton, comprises the following steps:
(1) wholely with fertilising
Selection topsoil is deep, physical features is smooth, irrigation and drainage are convenient, soil structure is suitable, the sandy soil that physicochemical character is good, before the winter, to deep plough and freeze upturned soil, not only can kill survive the winter insect but also can vegetable soil of a part, the disposable base manure that uses sufficient before sowing, want meticulous whole ground, make field face land smoothing in small, broken bits, soil moisture content is good, and potato needs a large amount of fertilizer to want heavy dressing base manure the time of infertility, mu is executed farmyard manure 2000-2500kg, Modified Urea 20-30kg, superphosphate 70-80kg, ash 1000-1500kg, cake fertilizer 300-400kg, evenly ploughs in soil;
(2) interplanting pattern
Take cover pattern between " 2-1 ", bandwidth 100-120cm, kind 2 row potatos, 1 row cotton, potato is wide-narrow row planting, wide row 50-60cm, narrow row 30-40cm, spacing in the rows 25-30cm, planting density is 4000-4500 plant/acre, plantation 1 row cotton in wide row, cotton distance between rows and hills is 100cm × 22cm, planting density is 3000-3500 plant/acre;
(3) seed selection
For reducing influencing each other of potato and cotton symbiosis phase, potato should be selected knot potato early, the precocity of the shorter plant type compactness of plant, high yield, high-quality, detoxification breeding, the suitable mid-early maturity kind of growing fast, disease-resistant, pest-resistant with plant type compactness, middle and later periods of cotton;
(4) proper seeding
Face south leeward, wide 100-120cm is built in the place of fertile soil, the bud bed of dark 30-40cm, determine bud bed length by cultivated area, germination time is mid or late Febuary, quality and the good potato seed of outward appearance are carried out to stripping and slicing, stripping and slicing size is 20-25g/ piece, guarantee that every potato seed has 1-2 eye, the otch of potato seed is dried to the rear eye phase to be swung in bud bed upward, neat lower uneven in requirement, cover with vegetable garden soil, thickness is 3-4cm, use again afterwards plastic mulching, suitable bud bed tempertaure is 12-15 ℃, treat the long 1-2cm of bud, and can sow after sprouting young root, need 20-25 days,
Sowing time is late March, open the seed furrow that the degree of depth is 10-12cm, in order to prevent and treat soil insect, appropriate Chinese herbal medicine fluid and fine earth or farmyard manure are mixed thoroughly, spread fertilizer over the fields in seed furrow, to potato piece bud be well placed upward by original seeding row spacing, accomplish deeply to put shallow lid, earthing 6-8cm, compacting, for playing the effect that heats moisturizing, with plastic mulching, shorten seedling-growing time, guarantee full stand, after the soil of young shoot top, for avoiding excess Temperature that seedling is caused and burnt, rupture of membranes to put seedling, then rupture of membranes mouth is flattened real with fine earth, mulch film is until remove after potato harvest again
Cotton adopted feeding block seedlings raising at the beginning of 4 months by the end of March, transplanted sowing covering with plastic film, compacting at the beginning of 5 months by the end of April;
(5) field management
After potato emerges, to intertill and loosen the soil in time, gently execute seed manure in conjunction with shallow ridging, mu is executed Modified Urea 5-10kg, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 10-15kg, accelerate the growth of acrial part cauline leaf, to form larger blade face, control acrial part excessive growth in the knot potato phase, it is crucial extending the knot potato phase, want the high ridging of shallow intertillage, fork is made in training, the heart of pinching is beaten the limit heart, extract bud, carry out root and spray fertilizer outward, have prosperous long trend with mepiquat chloride sterling 15-30gization control or with 40% paclobutrazol 40-50g/ mu, accelerate nutrient to underground conveying, ensure that stem tuber constantly expands, potato was robbed fine results at the beginning of 6 months by the end of May,
Cotton management will be about to begin from seedling stage, in potato harvest process, to avoid injuring cotton seedling, after results, should loosen the soil and heat in time, early topdress, impose seed manure according to the growth of cereal crop seedlings, per hectare imposes Modified Urea 70-80kg, because potato is the crop of the power of rising sheer from level ground, add that raising seedling of cotton is transplanted the middle and later periods process of growing fast, therefore, Hua Lingfei should apply for 1 time in early or mid July, mu is executed Modified Urea 15-20kg again, mid or late August is used 1% Modified Urea, 2% superphosphate or 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate carry out foliage-spray 2-3 time, every minor tick 6-7 days, cross in growth process and will change in time control at cotton growth, aim at cotton stem bar middle and lower part even spraying or smear in the cotton early flowering season with the red 200-300 liquid of the many peaches of cotton or 400-500 times of liquid of pollen grain grain gold, interval 15-20 days re-uses 1 time, can only spray or smear by stem bar, forbid blade face caping spraying,
(6) crop protection
Crop protection must put prevention first, in potato and cotton whole vegetative period, and the Chinese medicine preventing disease and pest agent that 300-400 times of water was converted in spray for a time every 2-3 month,
Described Chinese medicine preventing disease and pest agent is by following raw materials in part by weight: 10-15 part Herba Andrographitis, 8-10 part kuh-seng, 10-12 part tobacco leaf, 10-15 part Cynanchum Komarovii, 8-10 part pearl bavin add decocting to boil, collect filtrate to be condensed into dried powder and to make;
Described Modified Urea is prepared by the following method: in urea, add the nano-sized carbon of 1-2%, the wintergreen of 3-4%, the polyvinyl alcohol of 5-6%, the Silane coupling agent KH550 of 2-3%, the sldium lauryl sulfate of 0.2-0.3%, be heated to after urea melting, be uniformly mixed and mix, then granulation obtains Modified Urea again.
Described Chinese herbal medicine fluid is by the raw material of following weight portion: 10-20 part thunder godvine, 10-15 part cloves, 15-20 part rheum officinale, 10-20 part frutus cnidii, 10-15 part madder, 10-20 part Radix Glycyrrhizae, 20-30 part print chinaberry, 10-20 part Ladanum is made through steps such as pulverizing, decoct, filter, be concentrated.
The present invention has following beneficial effect:
The present invention adopts under " 2-1 " cropping pattern and can make light, heat, wind condition in crop groups be in preferably preparation, can bring into play the yield potential of potato and cotton, obtain high yield, simultaneously, this cropping pattern is also conducive to plastic mulching, saves production cost.The present invention is by spreading fertilizer over the fields the anti-soil insect of Chinese herbal medicine fluid, spraying the pre-preventing disease and pest of Chinese herbal medicine preventing disease and pest agent; can greatly reduce the damage by disease and insect of potato and cotton; purify the growing environment of potato and cotton, reduced the use of chemical pesticide, protected ecotope.The potato that the present invention plants out and cotton product lover, safety nuisance free.The advantages such as cultivation method of the present invention is simple, has cost low, and yield is high, convenient management, are applicable to extensive cultivation.
Embodiment
Embodiment
The interplanting potato high-yield culture technique that grows cotton, comprises the following steps:
(1) wholely with fertilising
Selection topsoil is deep, physical features is smooth, irrigation and drainage are convenient, soil structure is suitable, the sandy soil that physicochemical character is good, before the winter, to deep plough and freeze upturned soil, not only can kill survive the winter insect but also can vegetable soil of a part, the disposable base manure that uses sufficient before sowing, want meticulous whole ground, make field face land smoothing in small, broken bits, soil moisture content is good, and potato needs a large amount of fertilizer to want heavy dressing base manure the time of infertility, mu is executed farmyard manure 2400kg, Modified Urea 25kg, superphosphate 70kg, ash 1200kg, cake fertilizer 300kg, evenly ploughs in soil;
(2) interplanting pattern
Take cover pattern between " 2-1 ", bandwidth 120cm, kind 2 row potatos, 1 row cotton, potato is wide-narrow row planting, wide row 60cm, narrow row 30cm, spacing in the rows 25cm, planting density is 4500 plants/acre, plantation 1 row cotton in wide row, cotton distance between rows and hills is 100cm × 22cm, planting density is 3000 plants/acre;
(3) seed selection
For reducing influencing each other of potato and cotton symbiosis phase, potato should be selected knot potato early, the precocity of the shorter plant type compactness of plant, high yield, high-quality, detoxification breeding, the suitable mid-early maturity kind of growing fast, disease-resistant, pest-resistant with plant type compactness, middle and later periods of cotton;
(4) proper seeding
Leeward on the sunny side, the place of fertile soil builds the bud bed of wide 100cm, dark 30cm, determine bud bed length by cultivated area, germination time is mid or late Febuary, quality and the good potato seed of outward appearance are carried out to stripping and slicing, stripping and slicing size is 25g/ piece, guarantee that every potato seed has 2 eyes, the otch of potato seed is dried to the rear eye phase and swing in upward in bud bed, neat lower uneven in requirement, cover with vegetable garden soil, thickness is 4cm, uses afterwards plastic mulching again, and suitable bud bed tempertaure is 15 ℃, treat the long 2cm of bud, and can sow after sprouting young root, need 20 days
Sowing time is late March, open the seed furrow that the degree of depth is 12cm, in order to prevent and treat soil insect, appropriate Chinese herbal medicine fluid and fine earth or farmyard manure are mixed thoroughly, spread fertilizer over the fields in seed furrow, to potato piece bud be well placed upward by original seeding row spacing, accomplish deeply to put shallow lid, earthing 8cm, compacting, for playing the effect that heats moisturizing, can use plastic mulching, shorten seedling-growing time, guarantee full stand, after the soil of young shoot top, for avoiding excess Temperature that seedling is caused and burnt, rupture of membranes to put seedling, then rupture of membranes mouth is flattened real with fine earth, mulch film is until remove after potato harvest again
Cotton adopted feeding block seedlings raising at the beginning of 4 months by the end of March, transplanted sowing covering with plastic film, compacting at the beginning of 5 months by the end of April;
(5) field management
After potato emerges, to intertill and loosen the soil in time, gently execute seed manure in conjunction with shallow ridging, mu is executed Modified Urea 8kg, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 5kg, accelerate the growth of acrial part cauline leaf, to form larger blade face, control acrial part excessive growth in the knot potato phase, it is crucial extending the knot potato phase, want the high ridging of shallow intertillage, fork is made in training, the heart of pinching is beaten the limit heart, extract bud, carry out root and spray fertilizer outward, have prosperous long trend with mepiquat chloride sterling 20gization control or with 40% paclobutrazol 45g/ mu, accelerate nutrient to underground conveying, ensure that stem tuber constantly expands, potato was robbed fine results at the beginning of 6 months by the end of May,
Cotton management will be about to begin from seedling stage, in potato harvest process, to avoid injuring cotton seedling, after results, should loosen the soil and heat in time, early topdress, impose seed manure according to the growth of cereal crop seedlings, per hectare imposes Modified Urea 70kg, because potato is the crop of the power of rising sheer from level ground, add that raising seedling of cotton is transplanted the middle and later periods process of growing fast, therefore, Hua Lingfei should apply for 1 time in early or mid July, mu is executed Modified Urea 18kg again, mid or late August is used 1% Modified Urea, 2% superphosphate or 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate carry out foliage-spray 3 times, every minor tick 7 days, cross in growth process and will change in time control at cotton growth, aim at cotton stem bar middle and lower part even spraying or smear in the cotton early flowering season with red 300 liquid of the many peaches of cotton or 400 times of liquid of pollen grain grain gold, interval re-uses 1 time for 18 days, can only spray or smear by stem bar, forbid blade face caping spraying,
(6) crop protection
Crop protection must put prevention first, in potato and cotton whole vegetative period, spray at quarterly intervals the Chinese medicine preventing disease and pest agent of converting 300 times of water for a time, described Chinese medicine preventing disease and pest agent is by following raw materials in part by weight: 12 parts of Herba Andrographitis, 10 parts of kuh-sengs, 12 parts of tobacco leaves, 10 parts of Cynanchum Komaroviis, 10 parts of pearl bavins add decocting to boil, collect filtrate to be condensed into dried powder and to make;
Wherein, described Modified Urea is prepared by the following method: in urea, add 1% nano-sized carbon, 3% wintergreen, 5% polyvinyl alcohol, 2% Silane coupling agent KH550,0.2% sldium lauryl sulfate, be heated to after urea melting, be uniformly mixed and mix, then granulation obtains Modified Urea again.
Described Chinese herbal medicine fluid is by the raw material of following weight portion: 15 portions of thunder godvines, 12 portions of cloves, 16 parts of rheum officinales, 18 parts of frutus cnidiis, 12 portions of madders, 18 portions of Radix Glycyrrhizaes, 26 parts print chinaberrys, 18 portions of Ladanums are made through steps such as pulverizing, decoct, filter, be concentrated.
Utilize above-mentioned culture technique compared with conventional method cultivation, output obviously improves, and the present invention has following advantage:

Claims (1)

1. the interplanting potato high-yield culture technique that grows cotton, is characterized in that comprising the following steps:
(1) wholely with fertilising
Selection topsoil is deep, physical features is smooth, irrigation and drainage are convenient, soil structure is suitable, the sandy soil that physicochemical character is good, before the winter, to deep plough and freeze upturned soil, not only can kill survive the winter insect but also can vegetable soil of a part, the disposable base manure that uses sufficient before sowing, want meticulous whole ground, make field face land smoothing in small, broken bits, soil moisture content is good, and potato needs a large amount of fertilizer to want heavy dressing base manure the time of infertility, mu is executed farmyard manure 2000-2500kg, Modified Urea 20-30kg, superphosphate 70-80kg, ash 1000-1500kg, cake fertilizer 300-400kg, evenly ploughs in soil; Described Modified Urea is prepared by the following method: in urea, add the nano-sized carbon of 1-2%, the wintergreen of 3-4%, the polyvinyl alcohol of 5-6%, the Silane coupling agent KH550 of 2-3%, the sldium lauryl sulfate of 0.2-0.3%, be heated to after urea melting, be uniformly mixed and mix, then granulation obtains Modified Urea again;
(2) interplanting pattern
Take cover pattern between " 2-1 ", bandwidth 100-120cm, kind 2 row potatos, 1 row cotton, potato is wide-narrow row planting, wide row 50-60cm, narrow row 30-40cm, spacing in the rows 25-30cm, planting density is 4000-4500 plant/acre, plantation 1 row cotton in wide row, cotton distance between rows and hills is 100cm × 22cm, planting density is 3000-3500 plant/acre;
(3) seed selection
For reducing influencing each other of potato and cotton symbiosis phase, potato should be selected knot potato early, the precocity of the shorter plant type compactness of plant, high yield, high-quality, detoxification breeding, the suitable mid-early maturity kind of growing fast, disease-resistant, pest-resistant with plant type compactness, middle and later periods of cotton;
(4) proper seeding
Face south leeward, wide 100-120cm is built in the place of fertile soil, the bud bed of dark 30-40cm, determine bud bed length by cultivated area, germination time is mid or late Febuary, quality and the good potato seed of outward appearance are carried out to stripping and slicing, stripping and slicing size is 20-25g/ piece, guarantee that every potato seed has 1-2 eye, the otch of potato seed is dried to the rear eye phase to be swung in bud bed upward, neat lower uneven in requirement, cover with vegetable garden soil, thickness is 3-4cm, use again afterwards plastic mulching, suitable bud bed tempertaure is 12-15 ℃, treat the long 1-2cm of bud, and can sow after sprouting young root, need 20-25 days,
Sowing time is late March, open the seed furrow that the degree of depth is 10-12cm, in order to prevent and treat soil insect, appropriate Chinese herbal medicine fluid and fine earth or farmyard manure are mixed thoroughly, spread fertilizer over the fields in seed furrow, to potato piece bud be well placed upward by original seeding row spacing, accomplish deeply to put shallow lid, earthing 6-8cm, compacting, for playing the effect that heats moisturizing, with plastic mulching, shorten seedling-growing time, guarantee full stand, after the soil of young shoot top, for avoiding excess Temperature that seedling is caused and burnt, rupture of membranes to put seedling, then rupture of membranes mouth is flattened real with fine earth, mulch film is until remove after potato harvest again
Cotton adopted feeding block seedlings raising at the beginning of 4 months by the end of March, transplanted sowing covering with plastic film, compacting at the beginning of 5 months by the end of April;
Described Chinese herbal medicine fluid is by the raw material of following weight portion: 10-20 part thunder godvine, 10-15 part cloves, 15-20 part rheum officinale, 10-20 part frutus cnidii, 10-15 part madder, 10-20 part Radix Glycyrrhizae, 20-30 part print chinaberry, 10-20 part Ladanum is made through steps such as pulverizing, decoct, filter, be concentrated;
(5) field management
After potato emerges, to intertill and loosen the soil in time, gently execute seed manure in conjunction with shallow ridging, mu is executed Modified Urea 5-10kg, potassium dihydrogen phosphate 10-15kg, accelerate the growth of acrial part cauline leaf, to form larger blade face, control acrial part excessive growth in the knot potato phase, it is crucial extending the knot potato phase, want the high ridging of shallow intertillage, fork is made in training, the heart of pinching is beaten the limit heart, extract bud, carry out root and spray fertilizer outward, have prosperous long trend with mepiquat chloride sterling 15-30gization control or with 40% paclobutrazol 40-50g/ mu, accelerate nutrient to underground conveying, ensure that stem tuber constantly expands, potato was robbed fine results at the beginning of 6 months by the end of May,
Cotton management will be about to begin from seedling stage, in potato harvest process, to avoid injuring cotton seedling, after results, should loosen the soil and heat in time, early topdress, impose seed manure according to the growth of cereal crop seedlings, per hectare imposes Modified Urea 70-80kg, because potato is the crop of the power of rising sheer from level ground, add that raising seedling of cotton is transplanted the middle and later periods process of growing fast, therefore, Hua Lingfei should apply for 1 time in early or mid July, mu is executed Modified Urea 15-20kg again, mid or late August is used 1% Modified Urea, 2% superphosphate or 0.3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate carry out foliage-spray 2-3 time, every minor tick 6-7 days, cross in growth process and will change in time control at cotton growth, aim at cotton stem bar middle and lower part even spraying or smear in the cotton early flowering season with the red 200-300 liquid of the many peaches of cotton or 400-500 times of liquid of pollen grain grain gold, interval 15-20 days re-uses 1 time, can only spray or smear by stem bar, forbid blade face caping spraying,
(6) crop protection
Crop protection must put prevention first, in potato and cotton whole vegetative period, and the Chinese medicine preventing disease and pest agent that 300-400 times of water was converted in spray for a time every 2-3 month,
Described Chinese medicine preventing disease and pest agent is by following raw materials in part by weight: 10-15 part Herba Andrographitis, 8-10 part kuh-seng, 10-12 part tobacco leaf, 10-15 part Cynanchum Komarovii, 8-10 part pearl bavin add decocting to boil, collect filtrate to be condensed into dried powder and to make.
CN201210380492.2A 2012-10-10 2012-10-10 Potato and cotton interplanting high-yield culture technique CN102986404B (en)

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CN103477848B (en) * 2013-09-29 2014-11-05 湖南农业大学 Cultivation method for concentrated boll opening of cotton in cotton regions of South China
CN104350924B (en) * 2014-11-11 2018-07-27 云南省农业科学院经济作物研究所 A kind of cultural method of the intercropping of early and late maturing varieties control late blight of potato
CN104396536A (en) * 2014-12-04 2015-03-11 罗宇 Method for interplanting potato in sugarcane field
CN104521497B (en) * 2014-12-17 2016-09-28 湖南省土壤肥料研究所 A kind of Lake Dongting area cotton interplanting Caulis et Folium Brassicae junceae space-time borrows and utilizes cultural method
CN104855081A (en) * 2015-04-22 2015-08-26 李金新 Interplanting method for potatoes and garlic sprouts
CN105052474A (en) * 2015-07-31 2015-11-18 大禹节水(天津)有限公司 A drip irrigation planting method for potatoes intercropped cottons
CN105394094A (en) * 2015-12-31 2016-03-16 黑龙江省农业科学院植物脱毒苗木研究所 Plant-originated coating agent for seed potato and preparation method thereof
CN107114106B (en) * 2017-06-20 2020-04-14 中国科学院西北高原生物研究所 Interplanting cultivation method for Tanggute radix et rhizoma rhei and common turnip
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