CN108157115B - Compound planting method of paeonia rockii for oil in arid sand area - Google Patents

Compound planting method of paeonia rockii for oil in arid sand area Download PDF

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CN108157115B
CN108157115B CN201810211073.3A CN201810211073A CN108157115B CN 108157115 B CN108157115 B CN 108157115B CN 201810211073 A CN201810211073 A CN 201810211073A CN 108157115 B CN108157115 B CN 108157115B
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soil
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paeonia rockii
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CN108157115A (en
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刘克彪
马剑平
满多清
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Gansu Desert Control Research Institute
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Gansu Desert Control Research Institute
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01CPLANTING; SOWING; FERTILISING
    • A01C21/00Methods of fertilising, sowing or planting
    • A01C21/005Following a specific plan, e.g. pattern
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/10Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in agriculture
    • Y02A40/22Improving land use; Improving water use or availability; Controlling erosion
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02PCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE PRODUCTION OR PROCESSING OF GOODS
    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
    • Y02P60/40Afforestation or reforestation

Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of woody plant planting, and particularly relates to a compound planting method of paeonia rockii for oil in arid desert areas. The method is mainly characterized in that the row spacing of planted paeonia rockii is 1.5m multiplied by 2.0m, two rows of sweet corns are planted among rows of the paeonia rockii in a drill mode, and a row of soybeans is planted in a drill mode in the middle position between the two rows of sweet corns. The method is mainly used for large-scale planting of the woody oil plant paeonia rockii in the arid sand area, has the advantages of utilizing the symbiotic relationship of organisms, overcoming or avoiding sunburn injury of the paeonia rockii in large-scale planting of the arid sand area, promoting the growth and development of the paeonia rockii, fixing nitrogen by organisms, improving soil fertility, reducing or avoiding damage of plant diseases and insect pests, along with no pollution, greenness, organic property, high economic benefit per unit area and the like.

Description

Compound planting method of paeonia rockii for oil in arid sand area
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of woody plant planting, and particularly relates to a compound planting method of paeonia rockii for oil in arid desert areas. Comprises a compound planting technology of peony (Paeonia rockii) used as main planting crop oil, soybean (Glycine max) used as companion crop and sweet corn (Zea mays var. rugosa Bonaf).
Background
Paeonia suffruticosa is deciduous shrub of Paeonia of Paeoniaceae, and is known as "very beautiful" and "king of flowers" because it is very flower, colorful, graceful, luxurious and modesty. The wild species are distributed in Gansu, Shaanxi and Henan West. As an ornamental and medicinal plant, there is a culture history of over 1500 years in China.
The paeonia rockii woody oil plant has high setting percentage, the oil yield of the kernel is 31.36 percent, 18 fatty acids are contained, wherein, linolenic acid accounts for 65.23 percent of the total fatty acid content, unsaturated fatty acid accounts for 96.62 percent of the total fatty acid content, and the paeonia rockii woody oil plant has obvious effects of reducing the cholesterol content in human blood and preventing hypertension, apoplexy and heart diseases. The national ministry of health issues a 'notice about peony seed oil as a new resource food' (2011 No. 9), and now peony tea, peony essential oil, peony food, peony health care products and the like are developed and are well received by the market.
Soybeans are native to China and cultivated all over the world. Is one of Chinese important grain crops, has five thousand years of cultivation history, and is a crop with seeds containing rich plant protein. Soybeans are most commonly used for making various bean products, extracting soybean oil, brewing soy sauce, and extracting proteins. The soybean-rhizobium has the function of nitrogen fixation, and can effectively improve the soil fertility.
Sweet corn is a variety of corn, also called vegetable corn, has the characteristics of sweetness, freshness, crispness and tenderness, is well favored by consumers of all levels, is processed into sweet corn cans or is sold on the market with fresh ears, and is one of the main vegetables in developed countries such as Europe, America, Korea and Japan. The growth period is 90-100 days, the plant height is 1.9m, the ear length is 0.18-0.22 m, and the diameter is 0.04-0.06 m.
The paeonia rockii is mainly cultivated in Gansu, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Ningxia provinces and the like. The paeonia rockii is planted in gardens and urban landscape zones mainly, the paeonia rockii for field planting oil is easy to suffer from early-spring physiological drought and sunburn caused by strong solar radiation in summer, and the physiological drought reduces and avoids the damage through planting technical measures such as improvement of lignification level of branches, establishment of farmland protection forests and the like.
In order to prevent the paeonia rockii from being damaged by strong solar radiation, the inventor finds out the most suitable illumination intensity for the growth and development of the paeonia rockii by performing experimental analysis on the photosynthetic characteristics and the leaf character characteristics of the paeonia rockii under different sun-shading conditions, and provides a brand-new composite planting method for the large-scale planting of the woody oil plant paeonia rockii in arid sand areas on the basis of understanding the photosynthetic physiological characteristics and the regulation mechanism of the photosynthetic physiological characteristics.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a composite planting method of paeonia rockii for oil in arid desert areas, which utilizes a biological symbiotic relationship to overcome or avoid sunburn damage of paeonia rockii in field cultivation in arid desert areas, promotes the growth and development of the paeonia rockii, and provides a brand-new planting mode for large-scale planting of woody oil plant paeonia rockii in arid desert areas and obtaining better economic benefits.
In order to achieve the purpose, the invention adopts the following technical scheme: a method for compound planting of paeonia rockii for oil in arid sand areas; the method comprises the steps of planting paeonia rockii, planting sweet corn and soybean, performing field management, harvesting and returning straw to field, and specifically comprises the following steps:
planting paeonia rockii
(1) Selecting soil: the sandy loam with good drainage is selected, and the selection of saline-alkali soil with the salt content of more than 0.55 percent and cohesive soil as planting forestation land is avoided.
(2) Fertilizing: before soil preparation, each 666.67m2Applying 1000kg of decomposed farmyard manure sheep manure or cow manure and 50kg of calcium superphosphate as base fertilizer.
(3) Soil disinfection: before soil preparation, each 666.67m21kg of carbendazim wettable powder with the mass concentration of 50 percent is applied and evenly mixed with 20kg of fine dry soil to prepare toxic soil, and the toxic soil is spread on the surface of the soil to prevent and treat various fungal diseases.
(4) Land preparation: afforestation and soil preparation in autumn: afforestation is carried out after harvesting in summer in 7-8 months in the year, the afforestation land is cleaned, fertilization and soil disinfection are combined, deep ploughing and tedding are carried out, the depth is 50 cm, the solarization is carried out for 30-60 days, the land is raked and leveled, soil curing is promoted through the solarization, germs and worm eggs are killed, and the soil preparation quality requirements of the horizon, fine soil, sufficient soil moisture and high fertility are met. Afforestation and soil preparation in spring: the method is carried out after harvesting in autumn 1 year and 10 months before afforestation, the afforestation land is cleaned, the deep tillage of the afforestation land is realized by combining fertilization and soil disinfection, the soil preparation quality requirements of the flat land, the fine soil, the sufficient soil moisture and the high fertilizer are met, sufficient winter water is irrigated, and the soil is convenient to loosen.
(5) Forestation: selecting nursery stocks: the paeonia rockii seedlings grow for 4-5 years, excessive branches and leaves are cut off, and 4-5 trunks are reserved. Hole opening and fertilization: digging 1.0m multiplied by 0.8m tree planting holes, applying cured and crushed cow dung or sheep dung 3-5 kg and biological micro-fertilizer 0.1kg in each tree planting hole, fully and uniformly stirring organic fertilizer and dug soil, and backfilling. Planting time: planting in the middle ten days of 9 months in autumn or 4 months in spring, preferably in autumn, and growing hairy roots before overwintering after planting, so as to facilitate germination and survival in the next year; the planting is carried out before the purple-spotted peony leaves do not emerge in spring. Planting: the row spacing of the seedlings is 1.5m multiplied by 2.0m, the seedlings are transplanted with soil balls, the specification of the soil balls is 0.40m multiplied by 0.35m multiplied by 0.30m, the planting depth is 0.4-0.5 m, the seedlings are righted, planting is carried out by adopting 'one lifting, two stepping and three burying', the surfaces of tree planting holes and the ground are kept horizontal, and water is poured immediately after transplanting.
Planting sweet corn and soybean
Planting time: 4, 20-30 days in 4 months; the planting technology comprises the following steps: conventional corn and soybean planting technology; planting specification: two rows of sweet corns are planted among the paeonia rockii rows in a drilling mode, the row spacing of the plants is 0.3m multiplied by 0.5m, namely the row spacing of the two rows of sweet corns and the two-side paeonia rockii rows is 0.75 m; and then, row of soybeans are planted in a drill way at the middle position between the two rows of sweet corn rows, namely, the distance between the soybeans and the paeonia rockii is 1.0m, the distance between the soybeans and the two rows of sweet corn rows is 0.25m, and the distance between the soybean plants is 0.3 m.
Third, field management
(1) And (3) irrigation: watering enough winter water in the first 11 th of the year, watering early spring water in the middle 4 th of the year, and watering once in each of the middle 5 th of the month, the last 6 th of the month, the middle 7 th of the month and the last 8 th of the month; irrigating for 6 times all year round.
(2) Soil loosening and weeding: loosening soil and weeding once in 5-6 days after irrigation in 5 months, 6 months and 7 months.
(3) Shaping and trimming paeonia rockii: performing one-time shaping and trimming on paeonia rockii before winter or spring germination every year, determining main branches, and removing redundant, excessive, crossed and overlapped branches; keeping robust branches, and removing insect-infected branches, weak branches, drooping branches and dead branches; thinning out the sprouts and the over dense buds at the base part of the plant, and cutting off the withered parts at the upper ends of the buds; the branches and the stems are uniformly distributed, the plant shape is perfect, ventilation and light transmission are realized, and the growth and development of the paeonia rockii are promoted.
(4) Timely castration of sweet corn: timely emasculation is a key cultivation technology for ensuring high yield and high quality of the sweet corn. Generally, in the middle 7 th month, young corn shoots are harvested, emasculation is performed when male ears exceed top leaves and are not pollen-dispersed, sweet corn tender ears are harvested, and emasculation is performed 2-3 days after pollen-dispersion of the male ears. The emasculation time is preferably selected on a sunny day, and is performed from 9 am to 4 pm, because the temperature is higher, the moisture of the plants is less, the wound is easy to heal, and the germ infection can be avoided.
(5) Removing the ears of the sweet corn: in order to produce high-quality and high-yield fruit ears, the excessive small ears must be continuously removed in the middle 7 th month, namely only one maximum ear is reserved; the leaf area of the sweet corn is small, and in order to ensure enough nutrition area, tillers can be kept without removal.
Fourthly, harvesting and returning the straws to the field
(1) Paeonia rockii: after 9 months, the peel is yellow brown, and the seeds can be harvested after the suture line is slightly cracked; after picking, spreading the pod in a cool and ventilated room, stacking the pod with the thickness of 20cm, turning the pod for 1-2 times every day, after 7-10 days, cracking most of pods by self, popping out seeds, slightly rolling the pod without popping out, after sorting, drying the pod until the water content of the seeds is 8-10%, and storing the pod in a ventilated, damp-proof, insect-proof and rat-proof place.
(2) Sweet corn: generally, sweet corns are harvested in the middle and late 8 months, the harvest is suitable for the young stage with the grain water content of 66% -71%, the harvest stage of the sweet corns has great influence on the commodity quality and the nutrition quality, the harvest is too early, the grain content is less, and the harvest is late, so that the peel becomes hard, the slag is more, and the special flavor of the sweet corns is lost. Generally, the harvesting period is 5-7 days. The purpose of processing the can is to harvest the fresh ears in the early stage for 1-2 days and to harvest the fresh ears in the late stage for 2-4 days.
(3) Soybean: soybeans were harvested in the middle and last ten months of 9 months. The whole bean pod and bean grain show the original color of the variety, the leaves are yellow and fall off, when the dry matter accumulation is not increased any more, the moisture of the seeds is reduced, the soybean is in the mature period, and the pod explosion is prevented by harvesting at proper time.
(4) Returning the sweet corn straws to the field: after the soybeans are harvested, the harvested straws of the sweet corns are mechanically crushed, and the straws are directly turned over and pressed in the soil during ploughing. So as to increase soil organic matter, improve soil structure, loosen soil, increase porosity, reduce capacity, promote microbial activity and crop root growth and increase yield.
The method is mainly used for large-scale planting of the woody oil plants paeonia rockii in arid sand areas. The method is mainly characterized in that the plant is planted on the paeonia rockii, the row spacing is 1.5m multiplied by 2.0m, two rows of sweet corns are planted among the rows of the paeonia rockii in a drilling manner, and a row of soybeans are planted in the middle position among the rows of the sweet corns in a drilling manner. The method has the advantages of utilizing the symbiotic relationship of organisms, overcoming or avoiding sunburn injury caused by large-scale cultivation of the paeonia rockii in arid and sandy areas, promoting the growth and development of the paeonia rockii, fixing nitrogen by organisms, improving the soil fertility, reducing or avoiding the damage of plant diseases and insect pests, being pollution-free and green and organic, having high economic benefit per unit area and the like. The main characteristics are as follows:
1. the sweet corn helps the paeonia rockii to grow and develop: reasonable crop selection, plant selection and row spacing are beneficial to ventilation and sun shading of the paeonia rockii, and a growth and development microenvironment beneficial to the paeonia rockii is formed. The paeonia rockii has the growth characteristics of spring germination, summer napping, autumn root growth and winter dormancy, leaf growth occurs in 5-6 months, at the moment, sweet corn and soybean grow short and have small influence on growth and development of the paeonia rockii, in the last ten days of 7-8 months, solar radiation is strong, atmosphere dryness is high, at the moment, the height of the corn is 1.3-1.9 m, the height of the soybean is 0.3-0.5 m, the sunlight can be shaded by 10-25%, the relative humidity of air on the ground is increased by 2-5%, and the net photosynthetic rate of the paeonia rockii is increased by 13-25%.
2. Improving soil fertility by soybeans: the rhizobium can fix nitrogen through symbiotic nodulation with the soybeans, provide nitrogen nutrition for the growth and development of the soybeans, improve the soil fertility, improve the crop yield and reduce the production cost.
3. The economic benefit is high: feeding: the seedling cost of the paeonia rockii is 160 yuan/666.67 m2The cost of soybean seeds is 5 yuan/666.67 m2The cost of sweet corn seeds is 15 yuan/666.67 m2Labor cost 545 Yuan/666.67 m2And the other inputs are 120 yuan/666.67 m2Total input 845 yuan/666.67 m2. Income: soybean income 120 yuan/666.67 m2The income of sweet corn is 1480 Yuan/666.67 m2. The 8-year-old paeonia rockii enters a stable-yield and high-yield period, and the seeds are 100-125 kg/666.67m220-30 yuan/kg, 2800 yuan income, 4400 yuan total income, 3555 yuan/666.67 m pure income2
Drawings
Fig. 1 is a schematic structural view of a planting mode of the invention.
Detailed Description
Example 1; afforestation in autumn
Planting paeonia rockii
1. Selecting soil: selecting improved sand claim soil 11400m with good drainage in civil sand control comprehensive test station2And the area is used as a paeonia rockii planting area. The poplar protection forest is arranged around the soil, and the salt content of the soil is 0.43 percent.
2. Fertilizing: 10-12 days at 7 months in 2016, and each 666.67m2Applying 1000kg of decomposed farmyard manure cow dung and 50kg of calcium superphosphate as base fertilizer.
3. Soil disinfection: 2016/666.67 m/7/13/7/month21kg of carbendazim wettable powder with the mass concentration of 50 percent is applied and evenly mixed with 20kg of fine dry soil to prepare toxic soil, and the toxic soil is spread on the surface of the soil to prevent and treat various fungal diseases.
4. Soil preparation and modeling: 14-19 days in 7 months in 2016, fertilizing, soil disinfecting, deep ploughing and tedding to a depth of 50 cm, and solarizing for 49-55 days, wherein the paeonia rockii planting area is divided into 98 planting cells of 10m multiplied by 10m by an irrigation channel and an operation channel.
5. Forestation: forestation time: 2016, 9 months, 7-12 days. Selecting nursery stocks: the paeonia rockii seedlings are from Yuzhong and peace peony gardens of Lanzhou, are 5 years old, and are planted with excessive branches and leaves cut off and 4-5 trunks reserved. Hole opening and fertilization: digging 1.0m multiplied by 0.8m tree planting holes, applying cured and crushed cow dung 5kg and biological micro-fertilizer 0.1kg to each tree planting hole, fully and uniformly stirring organic fertilizer and dug soil, and backfilling. Planting: the row spacing of the seedlings is 1.5m multiplied by 2.0m, the seedlings are transplanted with soil balls, the specification of the soil balls is 0.40m multiplied by 0.35m multiplied by 0.30m, the planting depth is 0.4-0.5 m, the seedlings are righted, planting is carried out by adopting 'one lifting, two stepping and three burying', the surfaces of tree planting holes and the ground are kept horizontal, and water is poured immediately after transplanting.
Planting sweet corn and soybean
Planting time: 24-28 days 4 months in 2017. The planting technology comprises the following steps: the conventional corn and soybean planting technology. Planting specification: two rows of sweet corns are planted among the paeonia rockii rows in a drilling mode, the row spacing of the plants is 0.3m multiplied by 0.5m, and the row spacing of the two rows of sweet corns and the two-side paeonia rockii rows is 0.75 m. Then, a row of soybeans is planted in a drill way at the middle position between the two rows of sweet corn rows, namely, the distance between the soybeans and the paeonia rockii is 1.0m, the distance between the soybeans and the two rows of sweet corn rows is 0.25m, and the distance between the soybean plants is 0.3 m.
Third, field management
1. And (3) irrigation: in 2016, in 9 th and 11 th to 12 th, fully irrigating the water for fixing seedlings, in 11 th and 10 th, fully irrigating the water for winter, in 2017 in 4 th and middle ten days, and in 5 th and 22 th, 6 th and 21 th, 7 th and 16 th and 8 th and 23 th respectively, according to the soil moisture condition, fully irrigating the water for winter in 11 th and 9 th; irrigating for 6 times all year round.
2. Shaping and trimming paeonia rockii: 27-28 months in 2017, performing primary shaping and trimming on the paeonia rockii before germination in spring, determining main branches, and removing redundant, dense and crossed and overlapped branches; keeping robust branches, and removing insect-infected branches, weak branches, drooping branches and dead branches; thinning out the sprouts and the over dense buds at the base part of the plant, and cutting off the withered parts at the upper ends of the buds; the branches and the stems are uniformly distributed, the plant shape is perfect, ventilation and light transmission are realized, and the growth and development of the paeonia rockii are promoted.
3. Soil loosening and weeding: and in 2017, soil is loosened and weeded once in 5-6 days after irrigation in 5 months, 6 months and 7 months.
4. Timely castration of sweet corn: and in 2017, in 10-15 days in 7 months, emasculating when the tassel exceeds the top leaf and is not subjected to pollen scattering, harvesting the young corn shoots, in 12-17 days in 7 months, emasculating 2-3 days after the tassel is subjected to pollen scattering, and harvesting the tender sweet corn ears. The emasculation time is preferably selected from sunny days, and is performed from 9 am to 4 pm.
5. Removing the ears of the sweet corn: and 7, 10-20 days in 2017, removing redundant spikelets and only reserving one maximum spike for each bead in order to produce high-quality and high-qualified-rate clusters. The leaf area of the sweet corn is small, and in order to ensure enough nutrition area, tillers can be kept without removal.
Fourthly, harvesting and returning the straws to the field
1. Paeonia rockii: and 6-10 days in 2017, 9 and 6-10 months, collecting paeonia rockii seeds, picking, spreading in a cool and ventilated room, stacking to the thickness of 20cm, turning for 1-2 times every day, after 7-10 days, most of pods crack automatically, popping out the seeds, slightly rolling the unexploded seeds, after sorting, drying in the shade until the water content of the seeds is 8-10%, and storing in a ventilated, damp-proof, insect-proof and rat-proof place.
2. Sweet corn: and 8, 14-20 days in 2017, and harvesting in the milk stage with the water content of the seeds of 66-71%. The harvesting period is 7 days. The fresh ears of the sweet corns harvested early are used for processing cans, and the fresh ears of the sweet corns harvested late are directly sold.
3. Soybean: and harvesting soybeans in 2017 in 9 months and 20-24 days.
4. Returning the sweet corn straws to the field: and in 2017, in 10 and 24 months, the harvested straws of the sweet corns are directly turned and pressed in the soil through mechanical crushing and ploughing.
Example 2; spring afforestation
Planting paeonia rockii
1. Selecting soil: in a civil sand control comprehensive test station, improved sand claim soil 8640m with good drainage is selected2And as a paeonia rockii planting area, the salt content of the soil is 0.48 percent.
2. Fertilizing: 23-25 days at 10 months in 2015, and 666.67m each time2Applying 1000kg of decomposed farmyard manure sheep manure and 50kg of calcium superphosphate as base fertilizer.
3. Soil disinfection: 10 and 26 months in 2015, and each 666.67m21kg of carbendazim wettable powder with the mass concentration of 50 percent is applied and evenly mixed with 20kg of fine dry soil to prepare toxic soil, and the toxic soil is spread on the surface of the soil to prevent and treat various fungal diseases.
4. Soil preparation and modeling: 27-28 days 10 months in 2015, fertilizing and soil disinfecting are combined, deep ploughing and tedding are carried out to a depth of 50 cm, and the soil is harrowed to be flat, so that the soil preparation quality requirements of the ground level, fine soil, sufficient soil moisture and high fertilizer are met. And dividing the paeonia rockii planting area into 3 planting cells of 120m multiplied by 12m by an irrigation channel.
5. Forestation: forestation time: in 2016, 8-10 days in 4 months, and when the leaf buds of the paeonia rockii sprout and do not grow. Selecting nursery stocks: the paeonia rockii seedlings are from Qingyuan Zhe Zizhuicun in Liangzhou district of Wuwei, the seedling ages are 5 years old, excessive branches are cut off during planting, and 3-4 main stems are reserved. Hole opening and fertilization: digging 1.0m multiplied by 0.8m tree planting holes, applying cured and crushed sheep manure 5kg and biological micro-fertilizer 0.1kg in each tree planting hole, fully and uniformly stirring organic fertilizer and dug soil, and backfilling. Planting: the row spacing of the seedlings is 1.5m multiplied by 2.0m, the seedlings are transplanted with soil balls, the specification of the soil balls is 0.40m multiplied by 0.35m multiplied by 0.30m, the planting depth is 0.35-0.4 m, the seedlings are righted, planting is carried out by adopting 'one lifting, two stepping and three burying', the surfaces of tree planting holes and the ground are kept horizontal, and water is poured immediately after transplanting.
Planting sweet corn and soybean
Planting time: 2016, 4 months, 25-26 days. The planting technology comprises the following steps: the conventional corn and soybean planting technology. Planting specification: two rows of sweet corns are planted among the paeonia rockii rows in a drilling mode, the row spacing of the plants is 0.3m multiplied by 0.5m, namely the row spacing of the sweet corns in the 2 rows and the paeonia rockii on the two sides is 0.75 m. And then, row of soybeans are planted in a drill way at the middle position between the two rows of sweet corn rows, namely, the distance between the soybeans and the paeonia rockii is 1.0m, the distance between the soybeans and the sweet corn is 0.25m, and the distance between the soybean plants is 0.3 m.
Third, field management
1. And (3) irrigation: and 4, 14 days in 2016, filling sufficient water for seedling setting, and filling water for 26 days in 5 months, 24 days in 6 months, 16 days in 7 months and 25 days in 8 months in 2016, filling water for winter in 8 days in 11 months and filling water for 6 times in the whole year according to the soil moisture condition.
2. Soil loosening and weeding: loosening soil and weeding once every 5-6 days after irrigation in 2016 (5 months, 6 months and 7 months).
3. Timely castration of sweet corn: and in 2016, removing the tassel when the tassel exceeds the top leaf and is not subjected to pollen scattering, harvesting the young corn shoots after 12-14 days in 7 months, and removing the tassel 2-3 days after pollen scattering of the tassel, and harvesting the tender sweet corn ears. The emasculation time is preferably selected from sunny days, and is performed from 9 am to 4 pm.
4. Removing the ears of the sweet corn: removing redundant spikelets after 2016 (16-20 months), and only keeping one maximum spike for each bead; tillering retention.
Fourthly, harvesting and returning the straws to the field
1. Paeonia rockii: and (3) harvesting paeonia rockii seeds for 8-10 days in 2016, spreading the paeonia rockii seeds in a cool and ventilated room after picking, stacking the paeonia rockii seeds to be 20cm thick, turning the paeonia rockii seeds for 1-2 times every day, automatically cracking most of pods after 7-10 days, popping the seeds, slightly rolling the unexploded seeds, drying the seeds in shade after sorting until the water content of the seeds is 8-10%, and storing the seeds in a ventilated, damp-proof, insect-proof and rat-proof place.
2. Sweet corn: and (4) in 2016, 15-21 days after 8 months, and harvesting in a milk stage with the water content of seeds of 66-71%, wherein the harvesting period is 6 days.
3. Soybean: and (5) harvesting soybeans in 2016, wherein 9 months and 24-26 days are taken as the soybean maturation period.
4. Returning the sweet corn straws to the field: in 2016, 10 months and 18 days, the harvested straws of the sweet corns are directly turned and pressed in the soil through mechanical crushing and ploughing.

Claims (2)

1. A method for compound planting of paeonia rockii for oil in arid sand areas; the method is characterized by comprising the steps of planting paeonia rockii, planting sweet corn and soybean, performing field management, harvesting and returning straw to field, and specifically comprises the following steps:
planting paeonia rockii
(1) Selecting soil: selecting sandy loam with good drainage, and avoiding selecting saline-alkali soil with the salt content of more than 0.55% and cohesive soil as planting forestation land;
(2) fertilizing: before soil preparation, each 666.67m2Applying 1000kg of decomposed farmyard manure sheep manure or cow manure and 50kg of calcium superphosphate as base fertilizer;
(3) soil disinfection: before soil preparation, each 666.67m21kg of carbendazim wettable powder with the mass concentration of 50% is applied and evenly mixed with 20kg of fine dry soil to prepare toxic soil, and the toxic soil is scattered on the surface of the soil;
(4) land preparation: afforestation and soil preparation in autumn: afforesting is carried out in summer after harvesting in 7-8 months in the year, the afforestation land is cleaned, fertilizing and soil disinfecting are combined, deep ploughing and tedding are carried out, the depth is 50 cm, solarization is carried out for 30-60 days, the land is harrowed and leveled, and the land preparation quality requirements of the flat ground, the fine soil, the sufficient soil moisture and the high fertilizer are met; afforestation and soil preparation in spring: after harvesting in autumn 1 year and 10 months before afforestation, clearing the afforestation land, combining fertilization and soil disinfection, deeply ploughing the afforestation land to meet the soil preparation quality requirements of flat land, fine soil, sufficient soil moisture and high fertilizer, and irrigating enough winter water to facilitate soil loosening;
(5) forestation: selecting nursery stocks: growing the paeonia rockii seedlings for 4-5 years, cutting off excessive branches and leaves, and reserving 4-5 trunks; hole opening and fertilization: excavating tree planting holes of 1.0m multiplied by 0.8m, applying cured and crushed cow dung or sheep dung 3-5 kg and biological micro-fertilizer 0.1kg in each tree planting hole, fully and uniformly stirring organic fertilizer and excavated soil, and backfilling; planting time: planting in the middle ten days of autumn 9 or the last ten days of spring 4, wherein the planting is carried out before the purple-spotted peony leaves do not emerge in spring; planting: the row spacing of the seedlings is 1.5m multiplied by 2.0m, the seedlings are transplanted with soil balls, the specification of the soil balls is 0.40m multiplied by 0.35m multiplied by 0.30m, the planting depth is 0.4-0.5 m, the seedlings are righted, planting is carried out by adopting 'one lifting, two stepping and three burying', the surfaces of tree planting holes and the ground are kept horizontal, and water is poured immediately after transplanting;
planting sweet corn and soybean
Planting time: 4, 20-30 days in 4 months; the planting technology comprises the following steps: conventional corn and soybean planting technology; planting specification: two rows of sweet corns are planted among the paeonia rockii rows in a drilling mode, the row spacing of the plants is 0.3m multiplied by 0.5m, namely the row spacing of the two rows of sweet corns and the two-side paeonia rockii rows is 0.75 m; then, a row of soybeans are planted in a drill way at the middle position between the two rows of sweet corn rows, namely, the distance between the soybeans and the paeonia rockii is 1.0m, the distance between the soybeans and the two rows of sweet corn rows is 0.25m, and the distance between the soybean plants is 0.3 m;
third, field management
(1) And (3) irrigation: watering enough winter water in the first 11 th of the year, watering early spring water in the middle 4 th of the year, and watering once in each of the middle 5 th of the month, the last 6 th of the month, the middle 7 th of the month and the last 8 th of the month; irrigating for 6 times all year round;
(2) soil loosening and weeding: loosening soil and weeding once in 5-6 days after irrigation in 5 months, 6 months and 7 months;
(3) shaping and trimming paeonia rockii: performing one-time shaping and trimming on paeonia rockii before winter or spring germination every year, determining main branches, and removing redundant, excessive, crossed and overlapped branches; keeping robust branches, and removing insect-infected branches, weak branches, drooping branches and dead branches; thinning out the sprouts and the over dense buds at the base part of the plant, and cutting off the withered parts at the upper ends of the buds; the branches and the stems are uniformly distributed, the plant shape is perfect, ventilation and light transmission are realized, and the growth and development of the paeonia rockii are promoted;
(4) timely castration of sweet corn: generally, harvesting young corn in the middle 7 th month, emasculating when the tassel exceeds the top leaf and is not pollen-dispersed, harvesting sweet corn tender ears, and emasculating 2-3 days after the tassel is pollen-dispersed; the emasculation time is preferably selected on sunny days, and is carried out from 9 am to 4 pm, because the temperature is higher in the period, the moisture of the plants is less, the wound is easy to heal, and the germ infection can be avoided;
(5) removing the ears of the sweet corn: in order to produce high-quality and high-yield fruit ears, the excessive small ears must be continuously removed in the middle 7 th month, namely only one maximum ear is reserved; the leaf area of the sweet corn is small, and in order to ensure enough nutrition area, tillering can be kept and not removed;
fourthly, harvesting and returning the straws to the field
(1) Paeonia rockii: after 9 months, the peel is yellow brown, and the seeds can be harvested after the suture line is slightly cracked; after picking, spreading the pod in a cool and ventilated room, stacking the pod with the thickness of 20cm, turning the pod for 1-2 times every day, after 7-10 days, cracking most pods by self, popping out seeds, slightly rolling the pod without popping out, after sorting, drying the pod in the shade until the water content of the seeds is 8-10%, and storing the pod in a ventilated, damp-proof, insect-proof and rat-proof place;
(2) sweet corn: harvesting sweet corns in the middle and last ten days of 8 months generally, and harvesting in the maturity stage with grain water content of 66-71%, wherein the harvesting period is 5-7 days; the purpose of processing the can is to harvest the can for 1-2 days in the early period and to harvest the fresh ears mainly for 2-4 days in the late period;
(3) soybean: harvesting soybeans in the middle and last ten days of 9 months;
(4) returning the sweet corn straws to the field: after the soybeans are harvested, the harvested straws of the sweet corns are mechanically crushed, and the straws are directly turned over and pressed in the soil during ploughing.
2. The method for the compound planting of paeonia rockii for oil in the arid sand area as claimed in claim 1; the method is characterized in that: the planting time of afforestation is autumn.
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