CN102303991B - Plant cultivation mixed medium and preparation method thereof - Google Patents

Plant cultivation mixed medium and preparation method thereof Download PDF

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Publication number
CN102303991B
CN102303991B CN2011101224538A CN201110122453A CN102303991B CN 102303991 B CN102303991 B CN 102303991B CN 2011101224538 A CN2011101224538 A CN 2011101224538A CN 201110122453 A CN201110122453 A CN 201110122453A CN 102303991 B CN102303991 B CN 102303991B
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agriculture
matrix
organic waste
forestry organic
waste
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CN102303991A (en
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孙向阳
田赟
曹吉鑫
张璐
龚小强
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Beijing Forestry University
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Beijing Forestry University
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02WCLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION TECHNOLOGIES RELATED TO WASTEWATER TREATMENT OR WASTE MANAGEMENT
    • Y02W30/00Technologies for solid waste management
    • Y02W30/40Bio-organic fraction processing; Production of fertilisers from the organic fraction of waste or refuse

Abstract

The invention discloses a plant cultivation mixed medium and a preparation method thereof. The cultivation medium comprises peat, an agriculture and forest waste compost fermentation medium and an agriculture and forest waste high-temperature pyrolysis medium, wherein the ratio of the volume of the peat to the total volume of the agriculture and forest waste compost fermentation medium and the agriculture and forest waste high-temperature pyrolysis medium in the medium is (10-40):(60-90); and the volume ratio of the agriculture and forest waste compost fermentation medium to the agriculture and forest waste high-temperature pyrolysis medium is 1:(0.4-3.5). The mixed cultivation medium prepared by the invention has balance nutrition, high nutrient content and stable physical properties. The cultivation medium prepared by the invention is reasonable in nutritional structure, facilitates the absorption of the nutrients by foliage plants, meets the growth needs of foliage plants and improves the survival rate and ornament effects of the foliage plants.

Description

A kind of mixed plant culture medium and preparation method thereof
Technical field
The present invention relates to a kind of nutraceutical matrix of plant cultivation, particularly a kind of nutraceutical matrix of foliage plants soilless culture.
Background technology
Matrix is the basis of soilless substyate culture, and substrate culture is a kind of facility cultivation mode of popularizing area maximum in the soilless culture.It is that root system with plant is fixed in the matrix of organic or inorganic, by the method for drip irrigation or trickle irrigation, supplies with plant nutrition.At present, peat is as China's soilless culture substrate raw material commonly used, is widely used in the aspects such as industrial seedling rearing, roof greening, soil improvement of flower culture, vegetables and nursery stock.
Peat is called again the peat composed of rotten mosses, peat soil or mud coal, and the coal that degree of coalification is minimum is the plant residue stores different decomposition degree, soft, and its content organic and humic acid is very high.It is aseptic, nontoxic, pollution-free that peat has, and the water-permeable and air permeable performance is good, and quality is light, the water holding fertilizer-preserving ability is strong, be conducive to microbial activities, strengthens biological property, and nutritious advantage namely can be used as cultivation matrix, can be used as again good soil mediator agent.
Although peat is a kind of raw material of good cultivation matrix, its stock number is limited, is a kind of in a short time non-renewable natural resources, and overexploitation can damage Wetland Environment; And, use merely peat to have physical instability as cultivation matrix, the shortcoming such as easily subside therefore in the urgent need to the substitute of exploitation peat growing medium, adopts all or part of alternative peat of other raw materials to carry out plant growing.
For example publication number is the full nutraceutical matrix that the application for a patent for invention of CN1702061A discloses a kind of botanical seedling culturing and cultivation.It is that the peat of 50-70%, the perlite that weight ratio is 20-25%, vermiculite and active substance, the nutritive substance that weight ratio is 10-15% mix that this nutraceutical matrix adopts weight ratio.Peat is through high-temperature sterilization, and active substance is to be merged by multiple-microorganism and plant-growth regulator to be polymerized in this matrix.But the size of the cultivation matrix of this disclosure of the invention differs, and after watering, the fine particle in the matrix has been absorbed in the larger noncapilarry porosity, and matrix shrinks and sedimentation, causes the noncapilarry porosity of matrix to diminish, thereby has reduced the gas-water ratio of matrix; Crude fiber content in this full nutraceutical matrix is low in addition, and the addition of the material that need to have additional nutrients has improved production cost.
And for example the patent No. is that 200910076676.8 patent of invention discloses a kind of flower culture matrix and preparation method thereof, this flower culture matrix comprises major ingredient and additive, wherein major ingredient comprises peat, perlite and vermiculite, additive comprises water supply in media amendment, pH adjusting agent and Nutrient germinant, and the particle diameter of peat, perlite and vermiculite is greater than 3mm.This flower culture matrix physical properties is stable, the water supply in media amendment can reduce stromal surface tension force, improve wetting capacity and the homogeneity of stromal surface, change the appearance stability of peat, prevent that moisture scatters and disappears fast, improve in actual the use infiltration rate rate under the moisture, significantly improved the water-absorbent of peat growing medium, delay the efflorescence of peat.But perlite and vermiculite also are natural products, have non-renewable, frangible in the use procedure, the improved effect of peat growing medium is not had a persistence, and perlite itself is alkalescence, so that the pH value rising of matrix own is unfavorable for plant-growth.
At present China's relevant industries to cultivation matrix year total demand about 1,000 ten thousand m 3About, market demand is very big, and also in cumulative year after year, but peat has been on the verge of exhaustion as a kind of Nonrenewable resources, and the alternative base starting material of seeking peat is extremely urgent, and the agricultural organic waste is exactly the desirable equivalent material of a class.
Agriculture and forestry organic waste material is the byproduct that produces in agricultural and production of forestry and the course of processing, enormous amount, have renewable, the regeneration period is short, biodegradable, advantages of environment protection, be important biomass resource, mainly contain bark, shell, limb, stalk, bagasse, rice husk, mushroom slag, corn cob etc.
In the today of advocating thriftiness energetically resource and Sustainable development, China also is in the starting stage to the research of agriculture and forestry organic waste material recycling, the traditional agriculture and forestry organic waste material processing mode of China mainly is landfill or burning, although removed most of agriculture and forestry organic waste material, but these modes have been brought environmental pollution and the wasting of resources, excessively remove agriculture and forestry organic waste material and also can cause many-sided problems such as the serious meta-acid of soil or meta-alkali, organic matter and nutrient content reduce, easily harden, air permeability is poor, the spoiled soil ecological circulation descends soil fertility year by year.
Based on environment protection with the consideration of localization matrix of super quality and competitive price is provided for market, utilize agriculture and forestry organic waste material to produce variation, innoxious substrate products, realize that the reusable edible of natural resources becomes the focus of Recent study.China is peat resource-starved country, and maldistribution of the resources, and peat mainly concentrates on northeast, and being transported to region of Southeast will increase cost.Therefore, investigators turn one's attention on numerous agriculture and forestry organic waste materials, with these organic waste development soilless culture substrates, have not only solved the processing problem of organic waste, also for soilless culture provides good matrix, improved the level of agriculture and forestry organic waste material resource reutilization.
Modern study shows, with the agriculture and forestry organic waste material compost treatment, not only can reduce the area of landfill yard and the breeding place of pathogenic bacteria, also have and increase soil fertility, improve the soil physics structure, water moisture self restraint reduces the functions such as city dust from flying, the soil erosion and rainwash, and can also the beautifying city view, reduce the urban green space maintenance cost and also drive recycling economy development; On the other hand, by garden waste recycling, also can make it revert to soil or replace peat to serve as fertilizer or soilless culture substrate plays important effect in flower culture.
In addition, by the processing mode of pyrolysis that the agriculture and forestry organic waste material recycling is also cognitive by people gradually.So-called pyrolysis processing is to adopt dry distillation, after agriculture and forestry organic waste material is pulverized or granulation processes, the agriculture and forestry organic waste material particle of handling well is placed in the charring furnace, obtains the process of the pyrolysis product of similar peat by oven dry material moisture, pyrolysis processing and desalting treatment etc.By the agriculture and forestry organic waste material behind the high temperature pyrolysis itself with the equal inactivation under hot conditions of the materials such as mushroom, has certain vermins-proof effect, in addition, product after the pyrolysis have slow releasing nutrients element, hygro-expansivity better, the characteristics such as dimensional stabilizing, be used in conjunction with peat and composting substrate, can effectively improve the ratio of matrix ventilating slit and water holding hole, improve the slump resistance of matrix, so that matrix environment more helps the growth of plant, increase its appreciation effect.
Summary of the invention
The object of the present invention is to provide plant cultivation matrix and preparation method thereof, matrix of the present invention is cheap, and the peat consumption reduces, and also provides scientific basis for agriculture and forestry organic waste material in the reasonable utilization aspect the plant soil-less culturing simultaneously.The present invention had both taken full advantage of the agricultural organic waste, saved again the consumption of peat, and the cultivation matrix stable chemical nature of preparation, the soda acid appropriateness, permeability is good, physical and chemical index all reaches the requirement of soilless culture substrate, can provide good and stable matrix environment for plant-growth, especially is suitable for the cultivation of foliage plants.
For realizing purpose of the present invention, one aspect of the present invention provides a kind of mixed plant culture medium, comprises matrix peat, agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate, agriculture and forestry organic waste material high temperature pyrolysis matrix and sterilant.
Wherein, the volume of described matrix peat is 10-40: 60-90 with the ratio of the cumulative volume of agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate and agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis matrix, and wherein, the ratio of the volume of agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate and agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis matrix is 1: 0.4-3.5.
Particularly, the consumption of described sterilant is every 1m 3Matrix peat, agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate and agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis matrix in add sterilant 0.1-2.0kg, be preferably 0.2-1.6kg.
Wherein, one or more during described sterilant selection derosal, sterilant selection derosal, F-1991, dimetachlone, anilazine, fast Poly or enemy's power are taken off.
Wherein, described agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate is prepared from accordance with the following steps: after agriculture and forestry organic waste material, fermenting agent and fermenting additive are mixed, carry out fermentative processing, wherein, described fermenting additive is that bamboo vinegar liquid is or/and wood vinegar.
Particularly, the weight part proportioning of described agriculture and forestry organic waste material and fermenting agent is 100: 0.1-1 is preferably 100: 0.3-0.6.
Wherein, living bacteria count in the described fermenting agent 〉=200,000,000/g, the pH value is 5.5-8.5, effectively viable bacteria contains actinomycetes, thermophile bacteria, whiterot fungi, vinelandii, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, potassium solubilizing bacteria, cellulose-decomposing bacterium etc.
Particularly, the consumption of fermenting additive is to add the described fermenting additive of 8-50ml in every 100kg agriculture and forestry organic waste material.
Wherein, the pH value of described bamboo vinegar liquid is 2-32, and density is 0.9-1.5g/ml, and organic acid content is 7-11%; Content of phenolic compounds is 6-8%; The pH value of described wood vinegar is 2.5-3.5, and density is 0.8-2.0g/ml, and organic acid content is 7-13%, and content of phenolic compounds is 8-12%.
Bamboo vinegar liquid, wood vinegar are hydrophilic solution, stronger absorption, penetrating power are arranged, it can be used as plant promoting agent, growth stimulant, fertilizer-keeping agent, soil improvement agent, soil disinfectant etc., and nontoxic, harmless, noresidue, is a kind of desirable green solvent.
Wherein, described fermentative processing comprises following in sequence step:
1) regulates the C/N of agriculture and forestry organic waste material than being 20-35;
2) add fermenting agent and water, mix, make the water ratio of waste reach 60-70%;
3) waste is piled the fermentation heap body, the fermentative processing of banking up, wherein, temperature and the water ratio of monitoring heap body in the fermentative processing process of banking up, every 3-7 days to fermentation heap body sprinkling fermenting additive once, the consumption of each fermenting additive that sprays is that every 100kg waste sprays 1-2.5ml, and when the water ratio of fermentation heap body less than 50% the time, spray water to water ratio and reach 60-70% to piling body.
Particularly, the C/N ratio step 1) is preferably 25-30; The weight part proportioning of fermenting agent step 2) and agriculture and forestry organic waste material is 0.1-1: 100, be preferably 0.3-0.6: 100.
Especially, living bacteria count in the described fermenting agent 〉=200,000,000/g, the pH value is 5.5-8.5, effectively viable bacteria contains actinomycetes, thermophile bacteria, whiterot fungi, vinelandii, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, potassium solubilizing bacteria, cellulose-decomposing bacterium etc.
Particularly, the number of times that sprays fermenting additive step 3) is 8-20 time.
Especially, the sprinkling total amount of fermenting additive is that every 100kg waste sprays 8-50ml.
Particularly, carry out in the following manner turning in the fermentative processing of banking up step 3):
A) when heap temperature is higher than 55 ℃, carry out turning and process, the control heap temperature is lower than 75 ℃;
B) be reduced to gradually when being lower than 55 ℃ when heap temperature, carried out turning and process in every 6-12 days;
C) after heap temperature is reduced to 20-35 ℃, continue again to stack 7-21 days, wherein, carried out turning and process in every 6-12 days.
Wherein, also comprise in fermenting additive adding entry, spray after making the additive diluent.
Particularly, the ratio of starter and the volume of water is 1 in the additive diluent: 800-2000.
Wherein, described agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis matrix is prepared from accordance with the following steps: the agriculture and forestry organic waste material of water ratio≤10% is carried out the high temperature pyrolysis processing, collect solid product and get final product, wherein, the temperature of pyrolysis processing is 160-220 ℃, treatment time 10-20min, control oxygen volumn concentration≤10% in the described high temperature pyrolysis treating processes.
Particularly, the water ratio of the agriculture and forestry organic waste material of high temperature pyrolysis processing is preferably 5-10%; The pyrolysis processing time is preferably 10-15min; The oxygen volumn concentration is preferably 2-10% in the pyrolysis processing process.
Particularly, also comprise the solid product after the pyrolysis processing is immersed in the water, carry out desalination place 20-120min.
Wherein, the solid product after the pyrolysis processing is 1 with the ratio of the volume of water: 2-3.5.
Particularly, to be dried to water ratio be 15-20% to the solid product after the desalting treatment.
The present invention provides a kind of above-mentioned plant to plant the preparation method of mixed cultivation matrix on the other hand, and raw material matrix peat, agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate, agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis matrix and sterilant are mixed.
Wherein, the volume of described matrix peat is 10-40: 60-90 with the ratio of the cumulative volume of agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate and agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis matrix, and wherein, the ratio of the volume of agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate and agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis matrix is 1: 0.4-3.5.
Particularly, the consumption of described sterilant is every 1m 3Matrix peat, agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate and agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis matrix in add sterilant 0.1-2.0kg, be preferably 0.2-1.6kg.
Foliage plants cultivation mixed-matrix of the present invention has the following advantages:
1, the agricultural organic waste is processed the matrix that makes through bank up fermentative processing and high temperature pyrolysis for the preparation of the cultivation matrix of foliage plants; the present situation of the application that the utilising efficiency of having broken the agricultural organic wastes is lower, can not get other any high added values; overcome the refuse difficult treatment; cause the present situation of environmental disruption; increased the value added of agriculture and forestry organic waste material; utilize resources synthetically is beneficial to environment protection.
2, cultivation mixed-matrix of the present invention has solved plant growing process mesostroma and has been overly dependent upon peat, a high difficult problem, the day by day exhausted predicament of peat resource of matrix production cost, the substitution rate of peat is high among the present invention, reach 60-90%, saved the peat resource, fully effectively utilized agriculture and forestry organic waste material, agriculture and forestry organic waste material is grown fat is treasured.
3, the present invention prepares fermentation and banks up in the process of matrix, the nitrogen element of fermenting additive in can the set agriculture and forestry organic waste material, the stink that can not only suppress to bank up and produce in the fermenting process, can also effectively promote the activity of organism of fermentation, accelerate organic decomposition in the compost, so that the C/N of the mixed-matrix of preparation than high, improves compost fermentation efficient.
4, cultivation mixed-matrix physicochemical property of the present invention are stable, potential of hydrogen moderate (pH6.36~7.02), and specific conductivity (EC value) is 0.68-1.12mS/cm, unit dry weight is 0.16-0.28g/cm 3, total porosity is 74.32-84.30%, and the ventilation space reaches 19.04-26.53%, and the cultivation mixed-matrix of preparation is loose, and permeability is good, and venting capability is good, and the physical and chemical performance index meets the requirement of gardening plant suitable growth, is suitable for cultivation of plants.
5, the Maximum moisture capacity of the cultivation mixed-matrix of the present invention's preparation reaches 1.92-3.61g/g, the water holding hole reaches 53.94-59.79%, the water-retaining capacity that soilless culture substrate of the present invention is described is strong, all but sticking is equivalent to the approximately 1.92-3.61 water yield doubly of own wt, can be plant sufficient moisture condition is provided, and can reduce irrigation times, water saving, streamlining management measure.
6, nitrogen content is 1.46-2.16% in the mixed-matrix of the present invention's preparation, phosphorus content is 0.14-0.96%, potassium content is 0.94-1.28%, content of humic acid is 21.04-28.63%, organic content is 63.83-88.52%, and C/N is 21.62-26.17, and trophic structure is reasonable, be convenient to plant absorbing, satisfy the plant-growth needs.
7, the blended solid matrix of the present invention's preparation has promoter action to plant-growth, and the plant hat width of cloth is large, and plant is high, and the biomass accumulating value is high, and the cultivation mixed-matrix of the present invention's preparation meets or exceeds the quality of peat growing medium.
8, preparation method's technique of the present invention is simple, easy to operate, and the product yield is high, and quality product is controlled, the physical and chemical index of the soilless culture substrate of preparation approach in addition have be better than peat growing medium, satisfy the requirement of soilless culture substrate.
Embodiment
Below in conjunction with specific embodiment, further set forth the present invention.Be not used in but these embodiment only limit to the present invention is described and limit the scope of the invention.
The peat that uses in the embodiment of the invention is the Pin Shi peat available from company of Denmark Pin Shi Top (group).
Embodiment 1
1, the agriculture and forestry organic waste material fermented manure is processed
1) adopt pulverizer (Beijing many meanings Dragon Lord machinery limited liability company) garden waste limb (limbs of the prunings such as willow, Chinese scholartree, willow) to be ground into the particle of particle diameter≤1cm, make the waste particle, measure simultaneously organic carbon content and the nitrogen content of waste particle, measurement result is as shown in table 1.
Adopt the nitrogen content of Kjeldahl nitrogen determination waste particle;
Adopting potassium bichromate titrimetric method---Outside Heating Method is measured the organic carbon content in the cultivation mixed-matrix, and concrete measuring method is as follows: after adding air-dry cultivation mixed-matrix in the hard test tube of drying, add K 2Cr 2O 7Standardized solution and dense H 2SO 4, then test tube is made in vitro liquid boiling 5min under 170-180 ℃, then pour out in vitro tolerantly, carry out titration with the ferrous sulfate standardized solution, the consumption according to ferrous sulfate calculates organic carbon content.
2) add urea in the waste particle, the C/N ratio of regulating the waste particle is 25, makes the fermented manure particle, wherein, adds urea 2.476kg in every 100kg waste particle (dry weight).
Except using urea to regulate the waste particle C/N ratio, can also use feces of livestock and poultry (such as cow dung, chicken manure, horsehit etc.) to increase the nitrogen content of waste.
3) in fermented abandoned composition granule, add fermenting agent organic waste zymophyte bent (Beijing Jingpuyuan Bio-engineering Co., Ltd.) and water, and mix, so that the water ratio of waste particle reaches 65%; Wherein, the consumption of fermenting agent is to be added with the bent 1kg of organic waste zymophyte in every 100kg (dry weight) waste particle, wherein, living bacteria count 〉=200,000,000 in the organic waste zymophyte song/g, the pH value is 5.5, and effectively viable bacteria contains actinomycetes, thermophile bacteria, whiterot fungi, vinelandii, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, potassium solubilizing bacteria, cellulose-decomposing bacterium etc.
Use fermenting agent mainly to comprise tens bacterial classifications (such as actinomycetes, thermophile bacteria, whiterot fungi, vinelandii, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, potassium solubilizing bacteria, cellulose-decomposing bacterium etc.) of the four large floras such as bacterium, fungi, actinomycetes, yeast in the embodiment of the invention, have heat-resisting, phosphorus decomposing, potassium decomposing, fixed nitrogen and decomposition of cellulose function.
4) with the water ratio that has added fermenting agent be that 65% fermentation wastes particle is stacked in indoor, the long 2m of heap body base portion, wide 1.5m, high 1m, processings of banking up of fermenting, and monitor temperature and the water ratio of piling body;
5) when heap temperature reaches 55 ℃, the heap body is carried out turning to be processed, strict control heap temperature≤75 ℃, carrying out along with fermentation, heap temperature reduces gradually, when heap temperature is lower than 55 ℃, carrying out turning in per 6 days processes, until after heap temperature is reduced to room temperature (25 ℃), continued again to bank up 14 days, and carried out turning in per 6 days and process, make the agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate, wherein, in treating processes is banked up in fermentation, when beginning to ferment, the heap body begins to calculate, and per 6 days are to heap body sprinkling fermenting additive diluent (bamboo vinegar liquid diluent) once, spray altogether 12 times, the consumption of each bamboo vinegar liquid diluent that sprays is the bamboo leachate diluent 2L that sprays preparation in 100kg (dry weight) the waste particle, and wherein, bamboo vinegar liquid is 1: 1000 with the ratio of the volume of water in the bamboo vinegar liquid diluent, the pH value of bamboo vinegar liquid is 2.5, and density is 0.9g/ml; Organic acid content is 10%, content of phenolic compounds is 6%, and namely in process was banked up in fermentation, every 100kg (dry weight) waste particle sprayed 24L bamboo vinegar liquid diluent altogether, that is to say, every 100kg (dry weight) waste particle sprays the 24ml bamboo vinegar liquid altogether; Simultaneously, when the water ratio of fermentation heap body less than 50% the time, spraying water to water ratio to the heap body reaches 65%.
2, agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis processing
1) adopt pulverizer (Beijing many meanings Dragon Lord machinery limited liability company) that garden waste limb (limbs of the prunings such as willow, Chinese scholartree, willow) is ground into the waste particle that particle diameter is 1-2cm.
2) open and to add the garden waste particle after carbonizer (Beijing many meanings Dragon Lords machinery limited liability companys, SL-II type) is heated to 100 ℃, under 100 ℃, dry to the particle water ratio be 10%;
3) continue to be heated to 220 ℃, under 220 ℃, the oxygen volumn concentration in the control carbonizer is 10%, under the described conditions pyrolysis processing 10min.
4) stopped heating, the waste particle after the taking-up pyrolysis processing is soaked in the water, carries out desalting treatment, and wherein soak time is 90min, and the volume ratio of water and particle is 2: 1.
5) the waste particle with desalting treatment is 20% at lower natural air drying to the particle water ratio of room temperature (25 ℃), obtains agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis matrix.
3, the preparation of cultivation mixed-matrix
1) gets the raw materials ready according to following volume proportion
Sterilant is except derosal among the present invention, and other sterilant such as F-1991, dimetachlone, anilazine, fast Poly, enemy's power are taken off etc. and all to be applicable to the present invention.
2) above-mentioned raw materials is joined in the fermenter (Beijing Jingpuyuan Bio-engineering Co., Ltd.), add water, the water content of the mixture that makes reaches 60%, mixes, leave standstill 2 days after, being dried to water ratio is 15%, and get final product.
The performance index of the cultivation mixed-matrix of preparation detect as follows:
Unit dry weight, Maximum moisture capacity, total porosity, ventilating slit, water holding hole adopt core cutter method to measure, and concrete measuring method is as follows:
It is 200cm that the air-dry cultivation mixed-matrix of getting the present embodiment preparation is filled it up with volume 31 cutting ring, wherein the weight of cutting ring is W 0, the gross weight of cultivation mixed-matrix and cutting ring is W 1, then cutting ring and cultivation mixed-matrix are immersed in the water, to weigh behind the immersion 24h, weight is W 2, (W again weighs after the moisture in the cutting ring freely drains 3), calculate as follows:
Unit dry weight (g/cm 3)=(w 1-w 0)/200
Maximum moisture capacity (g/g)=(w 3-w 1)/(w 1-w 0)
Total porosity (%)=(w 2-w 1)/200 * 100%
Ventilating slit (%)=(w 2-w 3)/200 * 100%
Water holding hole (%)=total porosity-ventilating slit
Adopt pH meter and electrical conductivity meter to measure base starting material pH value, the EC value, concrete measuring method is as follows: the ratio that will cultivate mixed-matrix and hydromining solid-to-liquid ratio and be 1: 10 (W/V) is mixed, and centrifuging behind the 30min that vibrates is measured pH value and EC value in the filtrate with pH meter, electrical conductivity meter.
Adopt the total humic acid in the potassium bichromate titrimetric method mensuration base starting material, concrete measuring method is as follows: cook extraction agent with the trisodium phosphate basic solution, the humic acid of the base starting material that lixiviate goes out, can be by potassium dichromate oxidation in strongly acidic solution, according to the consumption of potassium bichromate, calculate the content of humic acid.
Nitrogen adopts Kjeldahl nitrogen determination; Phosphorus H 2SO 4-H 2O 2Method disappears and boils, and molybdenum antimony resistance colorimetric method is measured; Potassium adopts H 2SO 4-H 2O 2Method disappears and boils, and flare photometer is measured.
Adopting potassium bichromate titrimetric method---Outside Heating Method is measured the organic carbon content in the cultivation mixed-matrix, and concrete measuring method is as follows: after adding air-dry cultivation mixed-matrix in the hard test tube of drying, add K 2Cr 2O 7Standardized solution and dense H 2SO 4, then test tube is made in vitro liquid boiling 5min under 170~180 ℃, then pour out in vitro tolerantly, carry out titration with the ferrous sulfate standardized solution, the consumption according to ferrous sulfate calculates organic content.
The performance index detected result of cultivation mixed-matrix is shown in table 2,3.
Embodiment 2
1, the agriculture and forestry organic waste material fermented manure is processed
1) adopt pulverizer that the agriculture and forestry organic waste material corn cob meal is broken into the particle that length is 0.5-1.5cm, make the waste particle, measure simultaneously organic carbon content and the nitrogen content of waste particle, measurement result is as shown in table 1.
2) add urea in corn cob granule, the C/N ratio of adjusting corn slug particle is 27, makes the fermented manure particle, wherein, adds urea 0.813kg in every 100kg waste particle (dry weight).
3) in fermented abandoned composition granule, add fermenting agent organic waste zymophyte bent (Beijing Jingpuyuan Bio-engineering Co., Ltd.) and water, and mix, so that the water ratio of waste particle reaches 60%; Wherein, the consumption of fermenting agent is to be added with the bent 0.5kg of organic waste zymophyte in every 100kg (dry weight) waste particle, wherein, living bacteria count 〉=200,000,000 in the organic waste zymophyte song/g, the pH value is 8.5, and effectively viable bacteria contains actinomycetes, thermophile bacteria, whiterot fungi, vinelandii, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, potassium solubilizing bacteria, cellulose-decomposing bacterium etc.
4) with the water ratio that has added fermenting agent be that 60% fermentation wastes particle is stacked in indoor, the long 2m of heap body base portion, wide 1.5m, high 1m, processings of banking up of fermenting, and monitor temperature and the water ratio of piling body.
5) when heap temperature reaches 55 ℃, the heap body is carried out turning to be processed, strict control heap temperature≤75 ℃, carrying out along with fermentation, heap temperature reduces gradually, when heap temperature is lower than 55 ℃, carrying out turning in per 12 days processes, until after heap temperature is reduced to room temperature (20 ℃), continued again to bank up 21 days, and carrying out turning in per 12 days processes, make the agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate, wherein, in treating processes is banked up in fermentation, when beginning to ferment, the heap body begins to calculate, to heap body sprinkling fermenting additive diluent (bamboo vinegar liquid diluent) once sprayed altogether 20 times in per 3 days, the consumption of each bamboo vinegar liquid diluent that sprays is the bamboo leachate diluent 2L that sprays preparation in 100kg (dry weight) the waste particle, wherein, bamboo vinegar liquid is 1: 800 with the ratio of the volume of water in the bamboo vinegar liquid diluent, and the pH value of bamboo vinegar liquid is 2, and density is 1.5g/ml, organic acid content is 11%, content of phenolic compounds is 8%, and namely in process was banked up in fermentation, every 100kg (dry weight) waste particle sprayed 40L bamboo vinegar liquid diluent altogether, that is to say, every 100kg (dry weight) waste particle sprays the 50ml bamboo vinegar liquid altogether; Simultaneously, when the water ratio of fermentation heap body less than 50% the time, spraying water to water ratio to the heap body reaches 60%.
2, agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis processing
1) adopt pulverizer that corn cob meal is broken into the waste particle that particle diameter is 0.5-1.5cm.
2) add the agriculture and forestry organic waste material particle after the unlatching carbonizer is heated to 80 ℃, under 80 ℃, dry to particle water ratio 5%.
3) continue to be heated to 180 ℃, under 180 ℃, the oxygen volumn concentration in the control carbonizer is 5%, under the described conditions pyrolysis processing 10min.
4) stopped heating, the waste particle after the taking-up pyrolysis processing is soaked in the water, carries out desalting treatment, and wherein soak time is 90min, and the volume ratio of water and particle is 2: 1.
5) the waste particle with desalting treatment is 20% at lower natural air drying to the particle water ratio of room temperature (25 ℃), obtains agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis matrix.
3, the preparation of cultivation mixed-matrix
1) gets the raw materials ready according to following weight proportion
2) above-mentioned raw materials is joined in the fermenter, add water, the water content of the mixture that makes reaches 50%, mixes, leave standstill 2 days after, being dried to water ratio is 10%, and get final product.
Measure the performance index of the cultivation mixed-matrix of preparation, detected result is shown in table 2,3.
Embodiment 3
1, the agriculture and forestry organic waste material fermented manure is processed
1) take the agricultural wastes rice husk as raw material, measure organic carbon content and the nitrogen content of agricultural wastes rice husk, measurement result is as shown in table 1.
2) add urea in waste rice husk particle, the C/N ratio of regulating the waste particle is 30, makes the fermented manure particle, wherein, adds urea 1.473kg in every 100kg waste particle (dry weight).
3) add fermenting agent organic waste zymophyte bent (Beijing Jingpuyuan Bio-engineering Co., Ltd.) and spray water and mix in the fermented abandoned composition granule, so that the water ratio of waste particle reaches 70%; Wherein, the consumption of fermenting agent is to be added with the bent 0.1kg of organic waste zymophyte in every 100kg waste particle (dry weight), wherein, living bacteria count 〉=200,000,000 in the organic waste zymophyte song/g, the pH value is 7.5, and effectively viable bacteria contains actinomycetes, thermophile bacteria, whiterot fungi, vinelandii, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, potassium solubilizing bacteria, cellulose-decomposing bacterium etc.
4) with the water ratio that has added fermenting agent be that 70% fermentation wastes particle is stacked in indoor, the long 2m of heap body base portion, wide 1.5m, high 1m, processings of banking up of fermenting, and monitor temperature and the water ratio of piling body.
5) when heap temperature reaches 60 ℃, the heap body is carried out turning to be processed, strict control heap temperature≤75 ℃, when heap temperature is lower than 55 ℃, carrying out turning in per 9 days processes, until after heap temperature reaches room temperature (35 ℃), continued again to bank up 7 days, and carried out making the agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate when turning is processed in 7 days, wherein, in treating processes is banked up in fermentation, when the heap body begins to ferment, begin to calculate, to heap body sprinkling fermenting additive diluent (wood vinegar diluent) once sprayed altogether 10 times in per 5 days, the consumption of each wood vinegar diluent that sprays is the pyroligneous liquor diluent 2L that sprays preparation in 100kg (dry weight) the waste particle, wherein wood vinegar is 1: 1500 with the ratio of the volume of water, and the pH value of wood vinegar is 3.2, and density is 1.0g/ml, organic acid content is 7%, and content of phenolic compounds is 7%.Namely in process was banked up in fermentation, every 100kg (dry weight) waste particle sprayed 20L wood vinegar diluent altogether, that is to say, every 100kg (dry weight) waste particle sprays the 13.3ml wood vinegar altogether; Simultaneously, when the water ratio of fermentation heap body less than 50% the time, spraying water to water ratio to the heap body reaches 70%.
2, agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis processing
1) add agriculture and forestry organic waste material rice husk particle after opening carbonizer and being heated to 80 ℃, dry to water ratio be 10%.
2) continue to be heated to 200 ℃, under 200 ℃, the oxygen volumn concentration in the control carbonizer is 2%, under the described conditions pyrolysis processing 10min.
3) stopped heating, the waste particle after the taking-up pyrolysis processing is soaked in the water, carries out desalting treatment, and wherein soak time is 120min, and the volume ratio of water and particle is 3.5: 1.
4) the waste particle with desalting treatment is 20% at lower natural air drying to the particle water ratio of room temperature (25 ℃), obtains agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis matrix.
3, the preparation of cultivation mixed-matrix
1) gets the raw materials ready according to following weight proportion
2) above-mentioned raw materials is joined in the fermenter (Beijing Jingpuyuan Bio-engineering Co., Ltd.), add water, the water content of the mixture that makes reaches 70%, mixes, leave standstill 2 days after, being dried to water ratio is 20%, and get final product.
Measure the performance index of the cultivation mixed-matrix of preparation, detected result is shown in table 2,3.
Embodiment 4
1, the agriculture and forestry organic waste material fermented manure is processed
1) adopt pulverizer agricultural wastes straw (wheat straw, straw etc.) to be ground into the particle of particle diameter≤1cm, make the waste particle, measure simultaneously organic carbon content and the nitrogen content of waste particle, measurement result is as shown in table 1.
2) add urea in the waste particle, the C/N ratio of regulating the waste particle is 20, makes the fermented manure particle, wherein, adds urea 0.604kg in every 100kg waste particle (dry weight).
3) in fermented abandoned composition granule, add fermenting agent organic waste zymophyte bent (Beijing Jingpuyuan Bio-engineering Co., Ltd.) and water, and mix, so that the water ratio of waste particle reaches 65%; Wherein, the consumption of fermenting agent is to be added with the bent 1kg of organic waste zymophyte in every 100kg (dry weight) waste particle, wherein, living bacteria count 〉=200,000,000 in the organic waste zymophyte song/g, the pH value is 6.5, and effectively viable bacteria contains actinomycetes, thermophile bacteria, whiterot fungi, vinelandii, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, potassium solubilizing bacteria, cellulose-decomposing bacterium etc.
4) with the water ratio that has added fermenting agent be that 65% fermentation wastes particle is stacked in indoor, the long 2m of heap body base portion, wide 1.5m, high 1m, processings of banking up of fermenting, and monitor temperature and the water ratio of piling body.
5) when heap temperature reaches 55 ℃, the heap body is carried out turning to be processed, strict control heap temperature≤75 ℃, carrying out along with fermentation, heap temperature reduces gradually, when heap temperature is lower than 55 ℃, carrying out turning in per 6 days processes, until after heap temperature is reduced to room temperature (25 ℃), continued again to bank up 14 days, and carried out turning in per 9 days and process, make the agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate, wherein, in treating processes is banked up in fermentation, when beginning to ferment, the heap body begins to calculate, and per 7 days are to heap body sprinkling fermenting additive diluent (bamboo vinegar liquid diluent) once, spray altogether 8 times, the consumption of each bamboo vinegar liquid diluent that sprays is the bamboo leachate diluent 2L that sprays preparation in 100kg (dry weight) the waste particle, and wherein, bamboo vinegar liquid is 1: 2000 with the ratio of the volume of water in the bamboo vinegar liquid diluent, the pH value of bamboo vinegar liquid is 2.6, and density is 1.2g/ml; Organic acid content is 9%, and content of phenolic compounds is 7%.Namely in process was banked up in fermentation, every 100kg (dry weight) waste particle sprayed 16L bamboo vinegar liquid diluent altogether, that is to say, every 100kg (dry weight) waste particle sprays the 8ml bamboo vinegar liquid altogether; Simultaneously, when the water ratio of fermentation heap body less than 50% the time, spraying water to water ratio to the heap body reaches 65%.
2, agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis processing
1) the employing pulverizer is 15% agriculture and forestry organic waste material stalk (wheat straw, straw etc.) pulverizing with water ratio, then uses tablets press (Beijing many meanings Dragon Lords machinery limited liability companys) to make the waste particle that particle diameter is 1-2cm.
2) open carbonizer, add the agriculture and forestry organic waste material particle after being heated to 90 ℃, under 90 ℃, dry to particle water ratio 8%;
3) continue to be heated to 180 ℃, under 180 ℃, the oxygen volumn concentration in the control carbonizer is 7%, under the described conditions pyrolysis processing 10min.
4) the waste particle of pyrolysis processing obtains agriculture and forestry organic waste material high temperature pyrolysis matrix in room temperature (25 ℃).
3, the preparation of cultivation mixed-matrix
1) gets the raw materials ready according to following weight proportion
2) above-mentioned raw materials is joined in the fermenter (Beijing Jingpuyuan Bio-engineering Co., Ltd.), add water, the water content of the mixture that makes reaches 60%, mixes, leave standstill 2 days after, being dried to water ratio is 15%, and get final product.
Measure the performance index of the cultivation mixed-matrix of preparation, detected result is shown in table 2,3.
Embodiment 5
1, the agriculture and forestry organic waste material fermented manure is processed
1) adopt pulverizer (Beijing many meanings Dragon Lord machinery limited liability company) garden waste grass bits to be ground into the particle of particle diameter≤0.5cm, make the waste particle, measure simultaneously organic carbon content and the nitrogen content of waste particle, measurement result is as shown in table 1.
2) add urea in the waste particle, the C/N ratio of regulating the waste particle is 35, makes the fermented manure particle, wherein, adds urea 0.667kg in every 100kg waste particle (dry weight).
3) in fermented abandoned composition granule, add fermenting agent organic waste zymophyte bent (Beijing Jingpuyuan Bio-engineering Co., Ltd.) and water, and mix, so that the water ratio of waste particle reaches 60%; Wherein, the consumption of fermenting agent is to be added with the bent 0.6kg of organic waste zymophyte in every 100kg (dry weight) waste particle, wherein, living bacteria count 〉=200,000,000 in the organic waste zymophyte song/g, the pH value is 5.5, and effectively viable bacteria contains actinomycetes, thermophile bacteria, whiterot fungi, vinelandii, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, potassium solubilizing bacteria, cellulose-decomposing bacterium etc.
4) with the water ratio that has added fermenting agent be that 60% fermentation wastes particle is stacked in indoor, the long 2m of heap body base portion, wide 1.5m, high 1m, processings of banking up of fermenting, and monitor temperature and the water ratio of piling body.
5) when heap temperature reaches 55 ℃, the heap body is carried out turning to be processed, strict control heap temperature≤75 ℃, carrying out along with fermentation, heap temperature reduces gradually, when heap temperature is lower than 55 ℃, carrying out turning in per 6 days processes, until after heap temperature is reduced to room temperature (25 ℃), continued again to bank up 7 days, and carried out turning in per 7 days and process, make the agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate, wherein, in treating processes is banked up in fermentation, when beginning to ferment, the heap body begins to calculate, and per 4 days are to heap body sprinkling fermenting additive diluent (wood vinegar diluent) once, spray altogether 14 times, the consumption of each wood vinegar diluent that sprays is the pyroligneous liquor diluent 2L that sprays preparation in 100kg (dry weight) the waste particle, and wherein, wood vinegar is 3: 4000 with the ratio of the volume of water in the wood vinegar diluent, the pH value of wood vinegar is 3, and density is 1.3g/ml; Organic acid content is 9%, and content of phenolic compounds is 10%.Namely in process was banked up in fermentation, every 100kg (dry weight) waste particle sprayed 28L wood vinegar diluent altogether, that is to say, every 100kg (dry weight) waste particle sprays the 21ml wood vinegar altogether; Simultaneously, when the water ratio of fermentation heap body less than 50% the time, spraying water to water ratio to the heap body reaches 60%.
2, agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis processing
1) the employing pulverizer is 20% garden waste grass bits pulverizing with water ratio, then makes the waste particle that particle diameter is 0.5-1.5cm with tablets press.
2) add the agriculture and forestry organic waste material particle after unlatching carbonizer (Beijing many meanings Dragon Lords machinery limited liability companys, SL-II type) is heated to 80 ℃, under 80 ℃, dry to particle water ratio 10%;
3) continue to be heated to 160 ℃, under 160 ℃, the oxygen volumn concentration in the control carbonizer is 5%, under the described conditions pyrolysis processing 15min.
4) the waste particle with pyrolysis processing obtains agriculture and forestry organic waste material high temperature pyrolysis matrix in room temperature (25 ℃).
3, the preparation of cultivation mixed-matrix
1) gets the raw materials ready according to following weight proportion
2) above-mentioned raw materials is joined in the fermenter (Beijing Jingpuyuan Bio-engineering Co., Ltd.), add water, the water content of the mixture that makes reaches 60%, mixes, leave standstill 2 days after, being dried to water ratio is 15%, and get final product.
Measure the performance index of the cultivation mixed-matrix of preparation, detected result is shown in table 2,3.
Embodiment 6
1, the agriculture and forestry organic waste material fermented manure is processed
1) adopt pulverizer agricultural wastes mushroom slag (mushroom, straw mushroom, mushroom, auricularia auriculajudae, white fungus, hedgehog hydnum, dictyophora phalloidea, Trichotoma matsutake, dried mushroom, russule, bolete etc.) to be ground into the particle of particle diameter≤1cm, make the waste particle, measure simultaneously organic carbon content and the nitrogen content of waste particle, measurement result is as shown in table 1.
The characteristic of table 1 agriculture and forestry organic waste material particle
Organic carbon (%) TN(%)
Embodiment 1 47.61 0.79
Embodiment 2 36.87 1.0
Embodiment 3 34.3 0.48
Embodiment 4 39.61 0.86
Embodiment 5 42.5 4.4
Embodiment 6 38.7 0.54
2) add urea in the waste particle, the C/N ratio of regulating the waste particle is 25, makes the fermented manure particle, wherein, adds urea 3.100kg in every 100kg waste particle (dry weight).
3) in fermented abandoned composition granule, add fermenting agent organic waste zymophyte bent (Beijing Jingpuyuan Bio-engineering Co., Ltd.) and water, and mix, so that the water ratio of waste particle reaches 70%; Wherein, the consumption of fermenting agent is to be added with the bent 0.3kg of organic waste zymophyte in every 100kg (dry weight) waste particle, wherein, living bacteria count 〉=200,000,000 in the organic waste zymophyte song/g, the pH value is 5.5-8.5, and effectively viable bacteria contains actinomycetes, thermophile bacteria, whiterot fungi, vinelandii, phosphate solubilizing bacteria, potassium solubilizing bacteria, cellulose-decomposing bacterium etc.
4) with the water ratio that has added fermenting agent be that 70% fermentation wastes particle is stacked in indoor, the long 2m of heap body base portion, wide 1.5m, high 1m, processings of banking up of fermenting, and monitor temperature and the water ratio of piling body.
5) when heap temperature reaches 55 ℃, the heap body is carried out turning to be processed, strict control heap temperature≤75 ℃, carrying out along with fermentation, heap temperature reduces gradually, when heap temperature is lower than 55 ℃, carrying out turning in per 6 days processes, until after heap temperature is reduced to room temperature (25 ℃), continued again to bank up 14 days, and carried out turning in per 6 days and process, make the agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate, wherein, in treating processes is banked up in fermentation, when beginning to ferment, the heap body begins to calculate, and per 3 days are to heap body sprinkling fermenting additive diluent (bamboo vinegar liquid diluent) once, spray altogether 16 times, the consumption of each bamboo vinegar liquid diluent that sprays is the bamboo leachate diluent 2L that sprays preparation in 100kg (dry weight) the waste particle, and wherein, bamboo vinegar liquid is 1: 1000 with the ratio of the volume of water in the bamboo vinegar liquid diluent, the pH value of bamboo vinegar liquid is 2.5, and density is 1g/ml; Organic acid content is 9%, and content of phenolic compounds is 8%.Namely in process was banked up in fermentation, every 100kg (dry weight) waste particle sprayed 32L bamboo vinegar liquid diluent altogether, that is to say, every 100kg (dry weight) waste particle sprays the 32ml bamboo vinegar liquid altogether; Simultaneously, when the water ratio of fermentation heap body less than 50% the time, spraying water to water ratio to the heap body reaches 70%.
2, agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis processing
1) adopting pulverizer is that 20% agricultural wastes mushroom slag (mushroom, straw mushroom, mushroom, auricularia auriculajudae, white fungus, hedgehog hydnum, dictyophora phalloidea, Trichotoma matsutake, dried mushroom, russule, bolete etc.) is pulverized with water ratio, then makes the waste particle that particle diameter is 1-2cm with tablets press.
2) add the agriculture and forestry organic waste material particle after unlatching carbonizer (Beijing many meanings Dragon Lords machinery limited liability companys, SL-II type) is heated to 100 ℃, under 100 ℃, dry to particle water ratio 5%.
3) continue to be heated to 190 ℃, under 190 ℃, the oxygen volumn concentration in the control carbonizer is 5%, under the described conditions pyrolysis processing 10min.
4) stopped heating, the waste particle after the taking-up pyrolysis processing is soaked in the water, carries out desalting treatment, and wherein soak time is 20min, and the volume ratio of water and particle is 3: 1.
5) the waste particle with desalting treatment is 20% at lower natural air drying to the particle water ratio of room temperature (25 ℃), obtains agriculture and forestry organic waste material high temperature pyrolysis matrix.
3, the preparation of cultivation mixed-matrix
1) gets the raw materials ready according to following weight proportion
2) above-mentioned raw materials is joined in the fermenter (Beijing Jingpuyuan Bio-engineering Co., Ltd.), add water, the water content of the mixture that makes reaches 60%, mixes, leave standstill 2 days after, being dried to water ratio is 15%, and get final product.
Measure the performance index of the cultivation mixed-matrix of preparation, detected result is shown in table 2,3.
Reference examples
Take Denmark Pin Shi (Pindstrup) peat as reference examples.The unit dry weight of reference examples matrix, Maximum moisture capacity, total porosity, ventilating slit, water holding hole, pH value, EC value, total content of humic acid, TN, TP, TK and organic content are measured as described in example 1 above method and are carried out.Detected result is shown in table 2,3.
The basic physical behavior of table 2 cultivation matrix
Detected result in the table 1 shows:
1, the unit dry weight of the cultivation mixed-matrix of the present invention's preparation is 0.16-0.28g/cm 3, meet the cultivation matrix unit weight (0.1~0.8g/cm of plant-growth 3) requirement, suitable with the unit weight of reference examples peat growing medium, show that cultivation matrix of the present invention is loose, permeability is good, and fixing plant performance is good;
2, the total porosity of the cultivation matrix of the present invention's preparation is 74.32-84.30%, and the ventilation space reaches air permeability and the good water-retaining property that 19.04-26.53.% shows soilless culture substrate of the present invention; The Maximum moisture capacity of matrix of the present invention reaches 1.92-3.61g/g, the water holding hole reaches 53.94-59.79%, the water-retaining capacity that soilless culture substrate of the present invention is described is strong, all but sticking is equivalent to the approximately 1.92-3.61 water yield doubly of own wt, can be plant sufficient moisture condition is provided, and can reduce irrigation times, water saving, streamlining management measure;
3, the performance index such as the air permeability of the cultivation mixed-matrix of the present invention's preparation, water-retentivity, unit weight all meet the requirement of plant growth medium, and its physicochemical property all close in addition the peat growing medium that is better than contrasting, satisfy the requirement of soilless culture solid substrate.
4, the present invention preparation cultivation mixed-matrix unit weight less, the loose hole of matrix is many, air permeability is good, be beneficial to the growth of arrowroot and the conversion of matrix nutrient, can satisfy the Calathea orbifolia growth to the demand of water, gas, nutrient etc., promote the accumulation of its biomass during growing.
The basic chemical property of table 3 cultivation matrix
Embodiment 1 Embodiment 2 Embodiment 3 Embodiment 4 Embodiment 5 Embodiment 6 Reference examples
pH 6.98 6.79 6.53 6.79 6.36 7.02 6.42
EC(mS/cm) 0.68 0.74 0.94 0.92 1.09 1.12 0.38
TN 1.76 1.46 1.97 2.15 2.16 1.88 1.05
TP 0.14 0.84 0.96 0.82 0.28 0.76 0.09
TK 1.00 1.09 1.28 0.94 1.04 1.20 0.02
Organic % 79.42 63.83 83.26 80.12 88.52 74.83 90.06
Total humic acid % 28.63 22.23 26.57 27.38 27.63 21.04 21.72
C/N 26.17 23.73 24.51 21.62 23.77 23.09 49.75
The detected result of table 3 shows:
1, the potential of hydrogen of the cultivation mixed-matrix of the present invention's preparation is weak acid to neutral, and pH is 6.36-7.02; The EC value is 0.68-1.12mS/cm, illustrate that mixed cultivation solid substrate of the present invention can provide stable matrix growing environment for plant, can not cause toxic action to plant, can not cause detrimentally affect to the nutritive medium that puts on plant yet, not affect the balance of nutritive medium.
2, in the soilless culture substrate of the present invention, total nitrogen content is 1.46-2.16%, content of tatal phosphorus is 0.14-0.96%, and full potassium content is 0.94-1.28%, and content of humic acid is 21.04-28.63%, organic content is 63.83-88.52%, C/N is 21.62-26.17, shows that the trophic structure of cultivating mixed-matrix is reasonable, is convenient to plant absorbing, for the growth of plant provides the sufficient nutrient element, satisfy the plant-growth needs.
3, the cultivation matrix quality of the present invention preparation has reached the quality of import peat growing medium, can import substitutes, greatly saved expense.
The pot experiment of test example 1 Calathea orbifolia
In Watershed, Daxing County, Beijing City flowers company Calathea orbifolia cultivation greenhouse, adopt respectively the Pin Shi peat growing medium of the cultivation mixed-matrix of embodiment of the invention 1-6 preparation and reference examples to carry out the pot experiment of Calathea orbifolia.Full-automatic temperature-controlling, ventilation facility can guarantee at duration of test in the greenhouse, for providing a metastable suitable growth environment for the examination material.
Choose approximately 15cm of plant height, leaf growth is healthy and strong consistent, root system is complete, without Calathea orbifolia (the Calathca rotundifola cv.Fasciata.) seedling of disease and pest, place in the plastic flowerpot of 180mm * 160mm, carry out pot experiment, each cultivation matrix is a processing, 60 repetitions are carried out in each processing, and namely each cultivation matrix is cultivated 60 strain arrowroots, and potted plant adopts completely random to put.Except cultivation matrix, other envrionment conditions and cultivation management measure all are consistent.Behind the upper basin approximately 180 days, arrowroot all reaches the most productive period of nourishing and growing, 10 strains are chosen in each processing at random, observing root grabs native ability and plant is taken out clean, measure growth indexes, measure and total fresh weight of record plant, plant height, always be preced with the width of cloth, root fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, send out a branch number (leaf is long>10cm), heavy, the oven dry Ye Chong of oven dry root etc., measurement result is respectively shown in table 4-6, wherein testing data adopts Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and SPSS16.0 data processing software, carries out variance analysis and multiple comparisons.
1, matrix is on the impact of arrowroot aerial growth situation
Table 4 different substrates is processed on the Calathea orbifolia plant height, always is preced with the width of cloth and sends out the impact of branch number
Plant height average (cm) Total hat width of cloth average (cm 2) Send out a branch number (average (individual) of leaf diameter>10cm)
Embodiment 1 47.03 bc 3650.10 a 26 ab
Embodiment 2 45.73 bc 3026.31 b 22 b
Embodiment 3 52.43 a 3809.91 a 27 a
Embodiment 4 49.97 ab 3654.60 a 26 ab
Embodiment 5 43.63 c 3007.05 b 23 ab
Embodiment 6 46.03 bc 3082.57 b 24 ab
Reference examples 45.67 bc 2695.23 b 24 ab
2, matrix is on the impact of arrowroot biomass
Table 5 different substrates is processed the variation to the Calathea orbifolia biomass
Table 6 different substrates is processed the variation to the Calathea orbifolia biomass
Test-results shows:
1) adopt the arrowroot shoot and leaf growth of cultivation mixed-matrix plantation of the present invention sturdy, color and luster is dark green, and exterior quality is good.
2) utilize the cultivation matrix of the inventive method preparation to cultivate Calathea orbifolia, matrix is remarkable to the promoter action of plant strain growth, the plant strain growth later stage, the hat width of cloth is large, plant is high, the biomass accumulation is high, underground part dry-matter accumulation amount reaches the 38.433-53.900g/ strain, over-ground part dry-matter accumulation amount reaches the 36.167-58.767g/ strain, the accumulation of biomass is higher than the peat growing medium of import, the cultivation matrix of the inventive method preparation has reached the peat growing medium quality, therefore can substitute peat growing medium, has greatly lowered the expense of cultivation matrix.
The test of planting of test example 2 new pteris ferns
The Pin Shi peat growing medium of the cultivation mixed-matrix of employing embodiment of the invention 1-6 preparation and reference examples carries out the pot experiment of new pteris fern in Watershed, Daxing County, Beijing City flowers company cultivating Asplenium nidus greenhouse.Full-automatic temperature-controlling, ventilation facility can guarantee at duration of test in the greenhouse, for providing a metastable suitable growth environment for the examination material.
Choose approximately 15cm of plant height, leaf growth is healthy and strong consistent, root system is complete, without new pteris fern (the Asplenium antiquum Aspleniumnidu) seedling of disease and pest, place in the plastic flowerpot of 180mm * 160mm, carry out pot experiment, each cultivation matrix is a processing, 60 repetitions are carried out in each processing, and namely each cultivation matrix is cultivated 60 strain new pteris ferns, and potted plant adopts completely random to put.Except cultivation matrix, other envrionment conditions and cultivation management measure all are consistent.Behind the upper basin approximately 180 days, new pteris fern all reaches the most productive period of nourishing and growing, 10 strains are chosen in each processing at random, plant is taken out clean, the mensuration growth indexes is measured and total fresh weight, plant height, root fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, foliation number, the oven dry root of record plant are heavy, dry Ye Chong etc., and measurement result is respectively shown in table 7-9, wherein testing data adopts Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and SPSS16.0 data processing software, carries out variance analysis and multiple comparisons.
1, matrix is on the impact of arrowroot aerial growth situation
Table 8 different substrates is processed the impact on new pteris fern plant height and a branch number
Plant height average (cm) Foliation number average value (individual)
Embodiment 1 69.33 ab 59 b
Embodiment 2 69.33 ab 56 c
Embodiment 3 72.08 a 62 a
Embodiment 4 72.74 a 59 b
Embodiment 5 68.80 ab 55 c
Embodiment 6 65.53 b 55 c
Reference examples 54.69 c 53 d
2, matrix is on the impact of new pteris fern biomass
Table 9 different substrates is processed the variation to the new pteris fern biomass
Table 10 different substrates is processed the variation to the new pteris fern biomass
Test-results shows:
1) adopt the new pteris fern shoot and leaf growth of cultivation mixed-matrix plantation of the present invention sturdy, color and luster is dark green, and exterior quality is good.
2) utilize the cultivation matrix of the inventive method preparation to cultivate new pteris fern, matrix is remarkable to the promoter action of plant strain growth, the plant strain growth later stage, the hat width of cloth is large, plant is high, the biomass accumulation is high, over-ground part dry-matter accumulation amount reaches the 44.000-47.580g/ strain, underground part dry-matter accumulation amount reaches the 47.843-52.123g/ strain, the accumulation of biomass is higher than the peat growing medium of import, the cultivation matrix of the inventive method preparation has reached the peat growing medium quality, therefore can substitute peat growing medium, has greatly lowered the expense of cultivation matrix.

Claims (5)

1. a mixed plant culture medium comprises matrix peat, agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate, agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis matrix and sterilant, wherein:
The volume of described matrix peat is 10-40:60-90 with the ratio of the cumulative volume of agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate and agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis matrix, and wherein, the ratio of the volume of agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate and agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis matrix is 1:0.4-3.5;
The consumption of described sterilant is every 1m 3Matrix peat, agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate and agriculture and forestry organic waste material high temperature pyrolysis matrix in add sterilant 0.1-2kg;
Described agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate is for after mixing agriculture and forestry organic waste material, fermenting agent and fermenting additive, carry out fermentative processing, wherein, described fermenting additive is bamboo vinegar liquid or/and wood vinegar, and wherein the consumption of fermenting additive is that to add volume in every 100kg agriculture and forestry organic waste material be the described fermenting additive of 8-50ml; The weight part proportioning of described agriculture and forestry organic waste material and fermenting agent is 100:0.1-1; Described fermentative processing comprises following in sequence step:
1) with after the agriculture and forestry organic waste material pulverizing, regulates its C/N than being 20-35;
2) add fermenting agent and water, mix, make the water ratio of waste reach 60-70%;
3) waste is piled the fermentation heap body, the fermentative processing of banking up, wherein, temperature and the water ratio of monitoring heap body in the fermentative processing process of banking up, every 3-7 days to fermentation heap body sprinkling fermenting additive once, the consumption of each fermenting additive that sprays is that every 100kg waste sprays 1-2.5ml, and when the water ratio of fermentation heap body less than 50% the time, spray water to water ratio and reach 60-70% to piling body;
Wherein:
A) when heap temperature is higher than 55 ℃, carry out turning and process, the control heap temperature is lower than 75 ℃;
B) be reduced to gradually when being lower than 55 ℃ when heap temperature, carried out turning and process in every 6-12 days;
C) after heap temperature is reduced to 20-35 ℃, continue again to stack 7-21 days, wherein, carried out turning and process in every 6-12 days;
Described agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis matrix is prepared from accordance with the following steps: the agriculture and forestry organic waste material of water ratio≤10% is carried out the high temperature pyrolysis processing, collect solid product and get final product, wherein, the temperature of pyrolysis processing is 160-220 ℃, treatment time 10-20min, control oxygen volumn concentration≤10% in the described high temperature pyrolysis treating processes.
2. cultivation mixed-matrix as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that the C/N of agriculture and forestry organic waste material described in the step 1) is than being 25-30.
3. cultivation mixed-matrix as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that the described pyrolysis processing time is 10-15min; The oxygen volumn concentration is preferably 2-10% in the pyrolysis processing process.
4. cultivation mixed-matrix as claimed in claim 1, the consumption that it is characterized in that described sterilant is every 1m 3Matrix peat, agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate and agriculture and forestry organic waste material high temperature pyrolysis matrix in add sterilant 0.2-1.6kg.
5. the preparation method of mixed plant culture medium as claimed in claim 1 is characterized in that raw material matrix peat, agriculture and forestry organic waste material composting substrate, agriculture and forestry organic waste material pyrolysis matrix and sterilant are mixed.
CN2011101224538A 2011-05-12 2011-05-12 Plant cultivation mixed medium and preparation method thereof Expired - Fee Related CN102303991B (en)

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