CN103733965B - Production method of composite diatomite soilless culture substrate for ginseng - Google Patents

Production method of composite diatomite soilless culture substrate for ginseng Download PDF

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CN103733965B
CN103733965B CN201410017623.XA CN201410017623A CN103733965B CN 103733965 B CN103733965 B CN 103733965B CN 201410017623 A CN201410017623 A CN 201410017623A CN 103733965 B CN103733965 B CN 103733965B
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ginseng
diatomite
bone meal
soilless culture
peat
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CN103733965A (en
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赵亮
苏忠民
刘晓明
李鹿
李光哲
赵红艳
刘宝
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Northeast Normal University
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    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
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    • Y02P60/00Technologies relating to agriculture, livestock or agroalimentary industries
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    • Y02P60/21Dinitrogen oxide [N2O], e.g. using aquaponics, hydroponics or efficiency measures

Abstract

The invention belongs to the technical field of medicinal plant cultivation and particularly relates to a production method of a composite diatomite soilless culture substrate for ginseng. The soilless culture substrate for ginseng is made by proportionally mixing peat, straws, dear excrement, linden sawdust, bone meal, humic acid, diatomite, composite diatomite degradable macromolecular water retention materials, microelements and the like, and is organic, ecological, economical, environment friendly and slow in release. Using the novel soilless culture substrate for ginseng cultivation changes a traditional mode of damaging forests for ginseng cultivation and realizes large-scale, intensified, protected and standard ginseng cultivation to effectively improve ginseng yield and quality. The soilless culture substrate can be used for cultivation of ginseng bonsai and ginseng floriculture to promote development of sightseeing ginseng industry, the conventional concept that the ginseng can be cultivated in the Northeast of China only is broken, and the soilless culture substrate can be used for cultivation of ginseng for drug use, edible use and household appreciation.

Description

A kind of production method of composite diatomite ginseng soilless culture substrate
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of medicinal plant cultivation, be specifically related to a kind of production method of composite diatomite ginseng soilless culture substrate.
Background technology
Ginseng belongs to Araliaceae Panax, is the negative herbaceous plant of dicotyledonous perennial root.Tame ginseng is called garden ginsent (having another name called family's ginseng).At present, Chinese people ginseng cultivating still continues to use the planting type going back woods after traditional deforestation plants ginseng (new woods is native plants ginseng), ginseng, usual cultivation one square meter ginseng needs felling three square meter forest, add that ginseng ground multidigit is in the mountain that has inconvenient traffic, conventional ginseng cultivation mode wastes a large amount of forest land resources and human resources, add ginseng production cost, limit the seed output and quality of high-quality ginseng.In addition, ginseng is the same with other perennial plants, and it is very strong to avoid ground property, can not continuous cropping, can not continuous cropping.Ginseng continuous cropping, crop rotation there will be serious plant disease, burn must, rotten serious.Although traditional culture of ginseng mode output is higher, the ecotope in heavy damage forest zone, mountain area, comprehensive benefit is not high.The farmland ginseng planting that the ginsengs such as Korea S, Japan, Canada, the U.S., American Ginseng producing country adopt does not destroy ecology, and shortcoming yields poorly, and disease is serious; Improvement cost in ground, farmland is high, and the cycle is long; And farmland ginseng planting exist equally can not continuous cropping and continuous cropping problem.
China is the country that culture of ginseng area is maximum in the world, and the implantation methods carrying out science can protect the forest resources, is conducive to again ginseng industry Sustainable Healthy Development.Ginseng woods land used contradiction in recent years in ginseng planting is sharp-pointed all the more, and ginseng industrial land shortage problem is outstanding day by day.Within 2012, China's official approval ginseng is resource food, us are impelled to adopt new-type ginseng cultivation technique for the market demand that ginseng is huge, realize the plantation of ginseng regulation and standardization, improving ginseng quantity and quality, is the only way of Chinese ginseng industry sustainable development.
Beyond soilless culture refers to and adopts natural soil, material is to cultivate the method for plant, comprises water planting, mist (gas) training, substrate culture etc.The chemically inert materials such as usual employing gravel, peat, vermiculite, float stone, wood sawdust are as soilless culture substrate.Researcher has carried out the traditional Chinese medicine soilless culture researchs such as American Ginseng, the red sage root, the root of Chinese wild ginger, research shows that soilless culture is then a kind of planting patterns conveniently can simulating genuine traditional Chinese medicine material nutrition supply, can produce that inherent quality is good, drug effect is high, meet the traditional Chinese medicine of GAP production requirement.
The current research of the ginseng soilless culture about scale mainly concentrates on the pilot development of cultivation matrix, not yet forms commercialization, standardization, scale production.We are with the peat fermented, straw, deer excrement etc. is primary raw material, science mixes nitrogen needed for Ginseng Growth, phosphorus, the macroelement such as potassium, calcium, magnesium, boron, zinc, medium trace element such as germanium and have the composite diatomite degradable macromolecule water-keeping material of independent intellectual property right, be developed into ginseng soilless culture dedicated substrate, not only meet the various nutritions needed for Ginseng Growth, and effectively can prevent the multiple ginseng diseases of people, cultivate saponin content and biological organic germanium content height ginseng, can as exploitation high energy static(al) liquid, high energy outburst liquid and high energy endurance liquid ginseng health product raw material.The application of novel culture of ginseng matrix traditional deforestation that terminated plants moduli formula, can save a large amount of forest land resources, significant for Changbaishan area forest conservation.Relative deforestation plants ginseng, and using this matrix to carry out culture of ginseng, to have cost low, output advantages of higher.Meanwhile, also facilitate and carry out nurse management to ginseng, ginseng agriculture need not be treated on ungetable ginseng ground throughout the year, thus saves a large amount of cost of human resources.
By simulation Ginseng Growth environment, adopt novel ginseng soilless culture substrate to can be implemented in beyond the Northeast and carry out ginseng intensive cultivating; For potted plant ginseng matrix, culture of ginseng cycle needs can be met, for gardening ginseng industry large-scale promotion lays the foundation.Novel culture of ginseng matrix can realize ginseng specification, standardization and facilityization cultivation, ensure the seed output and quality of ginseng, effective solution forest land and farmland ginseng planting can not the bottleneck problems of continuous cropping and continuous cropping, meet the developing direction of domestic and international medicinal plant plant husbandry and industrialized agriculture production, popularizing application prospect is wide.
Summary of the invention
The object of the invention is plant the deficiency of ginseng and farmland ginseng planting for traditional deforestation and a kind of regulation and standardization, spacetabs type ginseng soilless culture substrate and production method thereof are provided.
Technical solution of the present invention is:
Composite diatomite ginseng soilless culture substrate raw material is taken: fermenting mixture 80%, composite diatomite acidifying bone meal 8%, ammonification humic acid 5%, desalination conch meal 3%, composite diatomite slowly releasing trace element 2%, beneficial microbe 1.5% and the composite diatomite degradable macromolecule water-keeping materials 0.5% such as peat, straw and deer excrement according to mass percent.Then according to the number of above-mentioned each constituent weight, join in agitator successively according to the order from many to few and mix, stir while feed in raw material, after whole constituent adds, continue stirring again 10 minutes, then the matrix be uniformly mixed is dried (bake out temperature about 60 DEG C) to water content≤20%, packaging of the matrix of oven dry being weighed again after detection matrix physical and chemical index is qualified.
This composite diatomite ginseng soilless culture substrate is applied to culture of ginseng, can provide Ginseng Growth desired nutritional composition, and can reduce ginseng multiple diseases in seedling stage, improves ginseng survival rate, effectively improves the seed output and quality of ginseng.Realize the scale of ginseng level land, intensive, facility, standardized planting.
The major advantage of invention:
(1) a kind of novel nourishing spacetabs type ginseng soilless culture substrate.
Science adds diatomite and composite diatomite Biodegradable high-molecular water-keeping material, the three-dimensional space network structure of diatomite duct and water-absorbing-retaining material can effectively pin moisture, organic matter and nutritive element, slow releasing in Ginseng Growth, reaches and reduces the organic and loss of nutritive element and the object of volatilization.
(2) a large amount of forest land resources and human resources are saved.
Usual cultivation one square meter ginseng needs felling three square meter forest, and the application of novel culture of ginseng matrix traditional deforestation that terminated plants moduli formula, significant for Changbaishan area forest conservation; Meanwhile, also facilitate and carry out nurse management to ginseng, ginseng agriculture need not be garrisoned throughout the year in ungetable mountain, saves a large amount of human resources and management cost.
(3) standardization of ginseng ginseng, intensive and facilityization cultivation is realized.
Novel culture of ginseng matrix can realize the standardization of ginseng ginseng, intensive and facilityization cultivation, ensure the seed output and quality of ginseng, effective solution forest land and farmland ginseng planting can not the bottleneck problems of continuous cropping and continuous cropping, meet the developing direction that domestic and international medicinal plant plant husbandry and industrialized agriculture are produced.
(4) can be used as potted plant ginseng matrix, development gardening ginseng industry.
Composite diatomite ginseng soilless culture substrate, as potted plant ginseng matrix, can meet culture of ginseng cycle growth needs, for gardening ginseng industry large-scale promotion lays the foundation.
Embodiment
Below by specific embodiment, the invention will be further described.
Ginseng soilless culture substrate is produced and is comprised following concrete steps:
One, Feedstock treating
1. peat pretreatment
with the direct broken air-dry peat of hammer crusher.
add appropriate quicklime (every cube of peat soil adds 8-10Kg quicklime) in peat after pulverizing, stir, carry out pH value mensuration, mixture ph is advisable at 7.0-7.2.
2. straw pretreatment
with cracker, rice straw powder is broken to 1-2cm.
straw 10%-20% athomin after pulverizing is carried out germ dissipation.
3. the mixed culture fermentation such as peat, straw and deer excrement
peat, pulverizing straw, air-dry deer excrement, lime tree sawdust (mass percent: peat 80-90%, straw 5-10%, deer excrement 5-10%, all the other 5-10%) after sterilization processing are added agitator, mixes, pour the sealed fermenting pond that vertical stirrer is housed into.
add in fermentation vat suitable quantity of water (mix to hold agglomerating, webs water breakthrough but do not drip, loose one's grip namely loose as well), compacting, seals after venting air, seals (vexed) a period of time, ferments, and stirs at set intervals once.
reach and become thoroughly decomposed, mixture presents black.The fermentation moisture that material is suitable for is 30-45%, and fermentation temperature 25 DEG C, humidity 80%, fermentation time needs 10-15 days.
the mixture fermented again drying (60-70 DEG C dry to compound moisture content 15-25%) to be put in aeration-drying place after sieving stand-by.
4. bone meal acidolysis
get appropriate bone meal, according to mass ratio 10:1-5:1 15%-30% dilute sulfuric acid process bone meal.Build a daylight canopy, temperature of shed controls, at 25 DEG C-35 DEG C, to be laid in by bone meal in fermentation vat, thickness 2-3cm, is sprayed to moistening, repaves one deck bone meal, spraying, to the last all soaks, holds with a firm grip agglomerating, but without free water droplet, cover plastic film above, different parts acidity in periodic detection heap, when acidity rises to pH 5.5-6.0, bone meal acidolysis terminates, and generally needs 3-7 days.
acidifying bone meal is dried to water content 15%-20%, pulverizes stand-by.
composite diatomite acidifying bone meal: take diatomite 20-30%, acidifying bone meal 70-80% according to mass ratio, the two is stirred with vertical mixer stand-by.
5. humic acid ammonification
brown coal and carbonic hydroammonium are with the mixing of the ratio of mass ratio 5:1, and moisture is no more than 25%,
temperature more than 20 DEG C, sealing ammonification 12-15 days, obtained humic acid ammonia.
6. composite diatomite slowly-releasing ginseng special microelement
Micro-70-80% required for zinc sulphate, potassium sulfate and magnesium sulfate and Ginseng Growth is taken according to mass ratio, diatomite 20-30%, mix rear interpolation amount of water to dissolve, then dry stand-by, wherein between zinc sulphate, potassium sulfate and magnesium sulfate, weight ratio is 85:10:5.
7, composite diatomite degradable macromolecule water-keeping material synthetic method:
Under nitrogen protection; 15g dispersant (Span 60), 100g acrylic acid, 20g diatomite, 20g starch, 1g initator (potassium peroxydisulfate) and 1g crosslinking agent (MBA) are successively added in the flask filling 200ml cyclohexane; after stirring 30-60 min; be warming up to 70-75 DEG C; reaction 2-3 h; after having reacted, firing equipment is turned off; be stirred to solution always and be cooled to room temperature; then reactant liquor suction filtration is separated; spend deionized water, the white precipitate that obtains is composite diatomite degradable macromolecule water-keeping material.
Two, ginseng soilless culture substrate is produced
1. take according to material quality percentage: fermenting mixture 80-85%, composite diatomite acidifying bone meal 5-10%, ammonification humic acid 3-5%, composite diatomite slowly releasing trace element 1%-3%, desalination conch meal 3%-5%, the composite diatomite degradable macromolecule water-keeping materials (0.5%-1%) such as peat, straw and deer excrement, summation is 100%.
2. with agitator, raw materials treated is stirred;
3. mixed material is dried to water content≤20%.
4. detect mixed material pH value, pH value is acceptable material between 6.5-6.8.
5. the material metage that will stir pack is for subsequent use.

Claims (1)

1. a production method for composite diatomite ginseng soilless culture substrate, is characterized in that comprising following concrete steps:
One, Feedstock treating
1). peat pretreatment
With the direct broken air-dry peat of hammer crusher;
In peat after pulverizing, every cube of peat soil adds 8-10Kg quicklime, and stir, carry out pH value mensuration, mixture ph is at 7.0-7.2;
2). straw pretreatment
With cracker, rice straw powder is broken to 1-2cm;
Straw 10%-20% athomin after pulverizing is carried out germ dissipation;
3). peat, straw and the mixed culture fermentation of deer excrement
Peat, pulverizing straw, air-dry deer excrement, lime tree sawdust after sterilization processing are added agitator, mass percent: peat 80-90%, straw 5-10%, deer excrement 5-10%, the sub-5-10% of lime tree sawdust, summation is 100%, mix, pour the sealed fermenting pond that vertical stirrer is housed into;
In fermentation vat, add suitable quantity of water, mix to hold agglomerating, webs water breakthrough but do not drip, loose one's grip namely loose till, compacting, seals after venting air, seals a period of time, ferment, and stirs at set intervals once;
Reach and become thoroughly decomposed, mixture presents black, and the fermentation moisture that material is suitable for is 30-45%, fermentation temperature 25 DEG C, humidity 80%, fermentation time 10-15 days;
The mixture fermented is dried to compound moisture content 15-25% at 60-70 DEG C, is put in aeration-drying place stand-by after sieving;
4). bone meal acidolysis
Get appropriate bone meal, according to mass ratio 10:1-5:1 15%-30% dilute sulfuric acid process bone meal, build a daylight canopy, temperature of shed controls, at 25 DEG C-35 DEG C, to be laid in by bone meal in fermentation vat, thickness 2-3cm, be sprayed to moistening, repave one deck bone meal, spraying, to the last all soak, hold with a firm grip agglomerating, but without free water droplet, upper covering plastic film, when acidity rises to pH 5.5-6.0, bone meal acidolysis terminates;
Acidifying bone meal is dried to water content 15%-20%, pulverizes stand-by;
Composite diatomite acidifying bone meal: take diatomite 20-30%, acidifying bone meal 70-80% according to mass ratio, the two is stirred with vertical mixer stand-by;
5). humic acid ammonification
Brown coal and carbonic hydroammonium are with the mixing of the ratio of mass ratio 5:1, and moisture is no more than 25%,
Temperature more than 20 DEG C, sealing ammonification 12-15 days, obtained humic acid ammonia;
6). composite diatomite slowly-releasing ginseng special microelement
Micro-70-80% required for zinc sulphate, potassium sulfate and magnesium sulfate and Ginseng Growth is taken according to mass ratio, diatomite 20-30%, mix rear interpolation amount of water to dissolve, then dry stand-by, wherein between zinc sulphate, potassium sulfate and magnesium sulfate, weight ratio is 85:10:5;
7). composite diatomite degradable macromolecule water-keeping material synthetic method:
Under nitrogen protection, 15g dispersant Span 60,100g acrylic acid, 20g diatomite, 20g starch, 1g initiator potassium persulfate and 1g crosslinking agent MBA are successively added in the flask filling 200ml cyclohexane, after stirring 30-60 min, be warming up to 70-75 DEG C, reaction 2-3 h, after having reacted, firing equipment is turned off, be stirred to solution always and be cooled to room temperature, then reactant liquor suction filtration is separated, spend deionized water, the white precipitate that obtains is composite diatomite degradable macromolecule water-keeping material;
Two, ginseng soilless culture substrate is produced
1). take according to material quality percentage: peat, straw and deer manure fermentation mixture 80-85%, composite diatomite acidifying bone meal 5-10%, ammonification humic acid 3-5%, composite diatomite slowly-releasing ginseng special microelement 1%-3%, desalination conch meal 3%-5%, composite diatomite degradable macromolecule water-keeping material 0.5%-1%, summation is 100%;
2). with agitator, raw materials treated is stirred;
3). mixed material is dried to water content≤20%;
4). detect mixed material pH value, pH value is acceptable material between 6.5-6.8;
5). the material metage that will stir pack is for subsequent use.
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CN104737892B (en) * 2015-04-17 2017-09-05 文山苗乡三七科技有限公司 A kind of pseudo-ginseng seedling medium and preparation method thereof
CN105036998A (en) * 2015-08-27 2015-11-11 合肥科友生物科技有限公司 Culture soil for ginseng and preparation method thereof
CN107353111A (en) * 2017-08-07 2017-11-17 六安栀子农业科技有限公司 A kind of red sage root plantation nutrient matrix and preparation method thereof
CN108401849A (en) * 2018-01-10 2018-08-17 康光秀 A kind of culture of ginseng special nutrient soil and preparation method thereof
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CN102303991B (en) * 2011-05-12 2013-01-23 北京林业大学 Plant cultivation mixed medium and preparation method thereof
CN102408280B (en) * 2011-08-03 2013-05-08 广州普邦园林股份有限公司 High-activity antibacterial peptide-containing matrix for garden seedling cultivation, as well as preparation and application thereof

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