CN101578956B - Standardization planting method of uncaria - Google Patents

Standardization planting method of uncaria Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101578956B
CN101578956B CN2009101026281A CN200910102628A CN101578956B CN 101578956 B CN101578956 B CN 101578956B CN 2009101026281 A CN2009101026281 A CN 2009101026281A CN 200910102628 A CN200910102628 A CN 200910102628A CN 101578956 B CN101578956 B CN 101578956B
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Prior art keywords
seedling
hooks
water
seedbed
root
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CN101578956A (en
Inventor
邓忠
兰才武
焦洪海
陈米
罗琳
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Chang Huang Huang (Guizhou) Chinese Medicine Co., Ltd.
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GUIZHOU CHANGHAO TRADITIONAL CHINSES MEDICINE DEVELOPMENT CO LTD
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Abstract

The invention discloses a standardization planting method of uncaria, which comprises the following steps of: step one. seed seedling breeding: (1) seed seeding breeding; (2) seed breeding or stickingbreeding; step two. main field transplanting: (1) choosing cultivating land; (2) land preparation; (3) basic fertilizer; (4) transplanting; (5) complementary planting of seedling; step three. field management: (1) cultivating and weeding; (2) additional fertilizer; (3) beating inflorescence (4) trimming and shaping; step four. uncaria harvesting; and disease control and pest control. The indicators of the uncaria obtained by the method are in line with the contents requirements of the traditional Chinese medicinal material GAP, can be normally planted in large area; the method has little planting investment and high benefits.

Description

A kind of normalized planting method of yncaria stem with hooks
Technical field
The present invention relates to the plant cultivation field, relate in particular to a kind of kind method for planting of yncaria stem with hooks.
Background technology
Yncaria stem with hooks be the perennial wooden evergreen liane of Rubiaceae (Uncaria rhynchophylla (Miq.) Jacks. yncaria stem with hooks, its medicinal part are dry buckle stem branch, this kind for " Chinese pharmacopoeia (2005 editions an one) record kind.Have another name called claws of a hawk phoenix, golden yncaria stem with hooks, golden hook company etc., its morphological feature of yncaria stem with hooks, sprig four prism type.Stem length can reach about 10 meters, and the abnormal branch of being born in the armpit becomes hook-shaped, long 1~2cm, and hook is many with single double space growth, also has only a few only to be with double hook or double hook to occupy the majority.Leaf is to life, papery, ellipse, rare avette, long 6~10cm, wide 3~6cm, the wide wedge shape of base portion, above light, slightly be white powder, browning look in the back; Long 8~the 12mm of petiole; Stipule 2 drastic cracks, the sliver strip bores shape, long 6~12mm.The single armpit of capitulum is given birth to or is the raceme that give birth on the top, diameter 2~2.5cm; Total bennet is very thin, long 2~5cm, and the middle part gives birth to several pieces of bracts; Spend 5 numbers; Calyx is about 2mm, and by little coarse wool, the limb sliver is long not as good as 1mm; Corolla is yellow, long 6~7mm, and only the sliver outside is by Powdered pubescence.The capsule turbination, long 7~10mm, diameter 1.5~2mm, by pubescence, tool place calyx.5~July of florescence, 10~November of fructescence.
In recent years, the market demand of yncaria stem with hooks increases day by day, and the market price also rises steadily, and receives the driving of interests, and wild resource is excavated by artificial predation, and resource is withered day by day brown, and natural environment destroys serious.Wild in addition yncaria stem with hooks receives the influence of natural cause, and quality, quantity all are difficult to guarantee, have become the bottleneck of yncaria stem with hooks series tcm development.
Under the new existence theory of the mankind, new life style promote; The medicine that with natural resources is raw material more and more comes into one's own in prevention from suffering from the diseases, treatment and health care, and the Chinese medicine industry of integrate green, safety, prevention, health care, treating is becoming the important component part of world's medicinal industry.Country pays much attention to the Chinese medicine industry development, actively pushes forward the modernization of Chinese medicine and industrialization, and the Chinese medicine industry will become the strategic industry of 21 century Chinese Economy Development.Yncaria stem with hooks has economic plants and the double characteristic of ecological vegetable concurrently, and its plantation and processing have strict demand again to limiting various chemical contaminations, are good environment amity industries.Greatly develop the yncaria stem with hooks industry and not only can create considerable economic results in society, can also bring good ecological environment benefit.
What solve that the approach of existing problem usually adopts is that wild yncaria stem with hooks is become the method that family plants; But at present owing to lack the GAP technology; Make that the yncaria stem with hooks planting scale is little, planting cost is high, quality is unstable, and part index number does not meet the content request of traditional Chinese medicine GAP.
Summary of the invention
A kind of each item index that the objective of the invention is to overcome above-mentioned shortcoming and provide meets the content request of traditional Chinese medicine GAP, the establishing in large scale that can standardize, the normalized planting method of the yncaria stem with hooks of plantation small investment, high efficiency.
The normalized planting method of a kind of yncaria stem with hooks of the present invention may further comprise the steps:
(1) sapling multiplication
1) seminal propagation
1. seed collection
Acquisition time: gather yncaria stem with hooks kind ball in 11~December of autumn.
Collecting method: select good, healthy and strong yncaria stem with hooks plant to do to gather kind of a ball maternal plant; With under the fruit shear, take back indoor kind of the ball of taking with secateurs.
2. plant ball screening and storage: removes shrivelled kind of ball, choosing big, the full kind ball 20cm * 20cm cloth bag of packing into hangs over the preservation of dry ventilation;
3. put in order ground to the choosing of ground, seedbed
Select that physical features is smooth, water source mellow soil easily, or plastic tunnel is done yncaria stem with hooks seedling breeding garden;
Time of site preparation: at the beginning of mid-March~April in spring;
Whole ground: plough or manual work is digged with ox, plough the soil block of carefully raking, tilling depth 30cm picks up most foreign material;
Seedbed base manure: every mu is spread fertilizer over the fields the ox barnyard manure 2000kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed and makes base manure, turns over to dig whole carefully, rakes;
Play the railway carriage or compartment: the wide 1.2m in railway carriage or compartment, long 10m~20m, ditch depth 10cm, wide 30cm;
Soil disinfection: spray the railway carriage or compartment face with 750 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim, give nursery bed disinfection, sowing after 5 days;
4. seed treatment
Bask seeds: select fine surface temperature at 20~25 ℃, calm or wind-force is basked seeds below 3 grades the time, spreads film before basking seeds, and the time of basking seeds is 3~4h;
Rub kind of ball with the hands and sieve: rub kind of a ball, pericarp is fully broken, the seed shelling is put into 50 order specification sieve with the kind ball of rubbing, and rubs kind of skin repeatedly and sieves 3 times;
Seed dressing:
In seed: ash: thin river sand=1: 4: 10 ratio is fully mixed thoroughly and is waited to broadcast;
5. planting seed
Seeding quantity: seed, ash, thin river sand mixture by 3.75kg/ mu is mixed are being put in order uniform broadcasting on the good native railway carriage or compartment face;
Outdoor sowing should be covered little arch film, takes the sunshade net and shades; The booth sowing also should be covered little arch film, notes keeping the humidity and the temperature in seedbed in the canopy;
6. the preceding management of emerging
Temperature: growing seedlings keeps 18 ℃~27 ℃ of temperature in the shed, and when being higher than 30 ℃, it is aeration-cooling to take off film;
Humidity: keep enough moisture before germinateing, in time water, keep the interior humidity of little arch film 80~90%;
Weeding: after planting in time carry out artificial weeding (forbidding using chemical herbicide), carefully pull out during weeding, take the yncaria stem with hooks seed when avoiding weeding out of, carry out before emerging 1 time or 2 weedings;
7. management after emerging
Ventilate: note ventilating in the back of emerging, should take off little arch film daytime during weather high temperature, and raise seedling in greenhouse should start ventilation equipment and keep that air flows in the canopy, reduces temperature of shed, and night is overlay film again, keeps little arch temperature in the shed, guarantees that seed is sprouted fully to emerge;
Take off film: the back 30~40d of emerging takes off film fully;
Thinning: when seedling grows tall to the 5cm left and right sides, begin thinning, thinning is carried out in the place that seedling is intensive, density is controlled at 100 strains/m 2, adopt " remove seedlings, stay seedling " to carry out thinning, the seedling that comes out between should noting during thinning trying not to damage;
Heel in: the seedling that comes out between thinning (is played the railway carriage or compartment and plays the railway carriage or compartment method by above-mentioned seedbed) on the face of railway carriage or compartment, seedbed by 10cm * 10cm density heel in; The method of heeling in be earlier on the face of railway carriage or compartment by spacing 10cm, open dark 5cm ditch, enter seedling in the ditch by the 10cm spacing in the rows then; Cover fine earth (covering the seedling root fully); Water sufficient normal root water at last, open country is heeled in and is put up the sunshade net, and later management method is consistent with seedbed management;
Weeding: the every 10d weeding of artificial weeding once (forbids using chemical herbicide) before taking off film fully; The weeding care should be used to weeds out the rank grass; Avoid mistake to pull out yncaria stem with hooks seedling and damage seedling, take off fully behind the film the weed growth busy season by 2 times/month weedings, carry out 2~3 weedings March October to next year;
Topdress: seedling topdresses when growing tall to the 5cm left and right sides, and topdressing method is that preparation 2% urea and 3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate mixed solution spray with sprayer, and mu urea-potassium dihydrogen phosphate mixed solution consumption is 30kg, and after this every separated two weeks sprays once by above-mentioned;
Water: make regular check on seedbed humidity; Should in time water when finding in the soil layer 1~2cm of seedbed antecedent soil moisture, the water pipe that waters will have shower nozzle, must guard against water pipe and directly waters; Avoid water to flow through strong and destruction seedbed soil layer, cause yncaria stem with hooks seedling root to expose and cause dead seedling;
Prevention waterlogging: open country is grown seedlings and will be cleaned out a drain to keep the drain ditch unimpeded, guarantees that the seedbed do not have ponding,
Leaf is beaten in pinching: when seedling grows tall to 10cm when above, cut off toply, stay 3~4 no damage by disease and insect, the leaf look fresh blade, beat rest blade, and erase axillalry bud;
8. refine seedling
The booth seedling is being transplanted previous month, or seedling grows to 15cm when above, ventilates and refines seedling;
9. seedling stage diseases and pests control
Sterilization: spray in the blade face with 500 times of liquid of 10% solubility carbendazim, sprayed 2 times in every month;
Leaf spot is prevented and treated method: their early stage sprays with 1: 1: 120 bordeaux mixture or 500~800 times of liquid of 65% zineb;
Rust is prevented and treated method: their early stage sprays 1500 times of liquid of 25% triadimefon or 500 times of liquid of 80% zineb;
The control of aphids method: the discovery initial stage sprays 1000 times of liquid of 10% flolimat emulsion or 1000 to 1500 times of liquid of horse traction sulphur emulsion or 1000 times of liquid of DDT EC and sprays;
The chrysomelid method of preventing and treating: the discovery initial stage sprays 1500 times of liquid of 4.5% wooden dipper first enemy and sprays;
10. lifting
Lifting: play transplantation of seedlings the previous day, water irrigates the seedbed; Carefully dig nursery stock with spud along ditch, avoided hindering root;
Root relief: repair root damage stem apex 2~3cm;
Making beating: rand is beaten length and width 2m * 2m in the seedbed, and the Xiao Chi of dark 40cm pours 500kg fine earth and pollution-free water into and stirs pulping, with the yncaria stem with hooks seedling by 50 strains/, then wisp yncaria stem with hooks root is dipped in slurry tying into wisp;
Packing: utilize 30cm * 30cm foil-type plastic bag to encase shoot root portion;
Remove tender stem and defoliation: cut off the tender stem in top and pluck 1/2 blade with scissors, reduce transpiration;
Behind the lifting, can not transplant Wan the same day or seedling to be transported, and concentrated to be stored in ventilation, frescade;
Transportation: with plastic crate or bamboo basket dress seedling, place vertically and put, root system pushes down, does not preserve moisture;
Nursery stock requires: height of seedling 30cm~50cm, leading thread>8mm, well developed root system, anosis worm harm;
1. select ground: March, axillalry bud was sprouted period, selected more fertile, moistening and well-drained sandy loam to make milpa;
2. seedbed, whole ground arrangement: rise about row spacing 1.2m, high 25cm, it is fixed that length is come according to the nursery lot concrete condition; Be convenient to weeding, water, also require the seedbed breathe freely, be incubated, preserve moisture, smooth, pick up most weeds and foreign material; Rake is thin, makes soil loose back in small, broken bits play the railway carriage or compartment, and humus soil, phosphate fertilizer and the soil of corresponding proportion are mixed thoroughly; Thin river sand evenly is sprinkled upon on the smooth good case face, and thickness is about 1 centimetre, with mulch film slotting machine is covered and is beneficial to insulation, preserves moisture;
The preparation of 3. transplanting a cutting: the requirement of cuttage bar: 1-2 is given birth to healthy and strong branch, and it is good transplanting a cutting to be with two joints, and plug is whittled into horse ear angle; To transplanting a cutting top processings of sealing with wax, attention action is wanted avoid branch to be scalded soon when sealing with wax; Classify by the length size transplanting a cutting; Plug and top are consistent and tie up, and put into rooting powder solution to the branch of tying up then and soak, and it is fixed that soak time is come according to root-inducing powder;
4. cottage method: about cuttage seeding row spacing 16cm, draw the hole with the bigger wooden stick of relative cuttage bar of fining away earlier during cuttage, insert transplanting a cutting, insertion depth is for transplanting a cutting 2/3 of length; Can not too deeply can not be too shallow, can cause bad root phenomenon too deeply, too shallow water divides inadequate; Difficulty is taken root, and transplants a cutting to become 45 degree with ground, and the top is along the slotting machine direction; After cuttage finishes, watered in whole seedbed, cover the sunshade net at last;
5. refine seedling
Under the situation that weather allows, generally just can open the sunshade net in mid-September and refine seedling, if weather is arid, intensity of sunshine is too big, and it is fixed to come according to actual conditions, and the field planting of yncaria stem with hooks seedling is transplanted and generally carried out in November or 1 year spring then;
6. field management
Water: specifically decide according to weather condition, note to let the seedbed arid at any time, note prevention waterlogging rainy season, weeding, topdress and want duty to remove, when yncaria stem with hooks is taken root, apply thin rich water, also can suitably apply urea to the weeds on ground, seedbed; Take off film: when temperature raises gradually, generally at the beginning of 6 months, draw film, otherwise the too high meeting of ground temperature comes to harm seedling.
(2) field-transplanting
1. select ground
Soil condition: soil is with fertile, loose, preserve moisture and fertility, loam or sand loam more than the farming bed thickness 30cm, and the pH value is 6.0~7.5, organic>more than 1.0%; The gradient is<30 °, gentle slope belt or open forest land, mountain valley; Soil environment quality must meet country's " soil environment quality standard " (GB15618~1995) secondary standard or above standard;
Atmospheric conditions: air is pollution-free, meets country's " ambient air quality " (GB3095~96) secondary or above standard, and promptly atmosphere index II is between 0.6~1.0;
Condition of water quality: annual rainfall 1000mm~1500mm has water source and the facility that can supply irrigate at rain hot same period, water nonpollution, and water quality reaches the standard of country " farmland irrigating water's quality standard " (GB5084~2005);
2. wholely
When transplanting spring or transplanting autumn, in previous month to the clear garden of planting site, 1.5m * 1.5m digs the cave by seeding row spacing, mu dig about several 300 caves, cave, the dark 30cm in cave, wide 30cm * 30cm,
3. basal dressing
Dig and apply become thoroughly decomposed ox barnyard manure and 0.25kg composite fertilizer of 4~5kg behind the cave and make base manure (need mix thoroughly), cover fine earth and pass the winter;
4. transplant
Transplant season: spring or autumn transplant;
Transplant weather: select behind the rain fine day or cloudy day to transplant;
It is thin to utilize little trench-hoe that soil in the cave is clapped, and digs length and width 20cm * 20cm, and dark 15cm vesicle is put into the cave with the seedling root, covers fine earth, compresses to make real;
5. fill the gaps with seedlings
After transplanted seedling becomes to live, check that big Tanaka lacks nest and dead growth of cereal crop seedlings condition, in time fills the gaps with seedlings;
(3) field management
1. intertill and clean tillage
Intertillage: intertillage is carried out transplanting in later six months, and the intertillage scope is under the tree crown in the 20cm, and the intertillage degree of depth is 10cm, does not balk, and weeds a garden;
Weeding: the hoe with about wide 15cm is hoed up weeds, and the weeds of plant periphery remove with hand-lifting; Transplant 1 year 4~July whenever at a distance from weeding in 1 month once, 8~September, combination was topdressed weeding once, and only remove once March November to next year; Carried out 3 weedings in 1 year, be respectively carry out for 3~April for the first time, 7~August for the second time, carry out for the third time 10~November; Only 2 weedings after the 3rd year, being respectively carries out once, gathers for 3~April carried out once in previous month;
2. topdress
1 year: after being revival from transplanting, execute urea 0.05kg/ strain for every mu; Before blooming for 6~July, combine intertill and clean tillage to impose and once make microbial-bacterial fertilizer by oneself, consumption spreads fertilizer over the fields around plant by the 0.5kg/ strain and covers fine earth; Executing phosphate fertilizer 0.5kg/ strain in 11~December passes the winter in order to plant;
1 year: germinate for 3~April and come into leaves preceding and the preceding intertill and clean tillage that combines of blooming for 7~August, impose compoiste fertilizer one time, consumption spread fertilizer over the fields around plant by the 0.5kg/ strain, covers the fine earth water spinach root and stem of certain plants;
After the 3rd year, before 3~April, germination was come into leaves, combine intertill and clean tillage, impose compoiste fertilizer one time, consumption spreads fertilizer over the fields around plant by the 0.5kg/ strain and covers fine earth;
3. beat inflorescence
It is extraterrestrial remove to reserve to collect seed, and remaining yncaria stem with hooks cuts off the branch of wounded in the battle preface with secateurs when existing bud, take out of extraterrestrial;
4. the shaping of pruning
Grew tall to 50cm when above when yncaria stem with hooks stem rattan in 1 year, the point of pinching keeps plant height in 50cm, and side shoot is more than 3 when above simultaneously, cuts off the growing way difference and has damage by disease and insect, withered branch;
Begin setting 1 year winter, keep plant height at 100cm, divide stem several 3~4 strains, remainder cuts off with secateurs;
Prune annual winter after the 3rd year, keeps plant height at 150cm, and remainder cuts off with secateurs, the withered branch and the damage by disease and insect branch of cleaning plant base portion;
(4) gather
1. collecting time: field planting 11~December, selected fine day or cloudy day to gather after 2 years;
2. the instrument of gathering: secateurs, rope etc. require totally, not contacted harmful substance;
3. collecting method: cut branch with secateurs, remove blade, select and remove disease, tie wisp into 3~5kg;
(5) preliminary working: be put in 55 ℃ of oven dry in the drying room, water content is controlled in 10%;
(6) packing: go in the woven bag by 20kg/ is packed.
Above-mentioned yncaria stem with hooks normalized planting method comprises following step:
(1) yncaria stem with hooks disease control
1. leaf spot is prevented and treated method: their early stage sprays with 1: 1: 120 bordeaux mixture or 500~800 times of liquid of 65% zineb;
2. rust is prevented and treated method: their early stage sprays 1500 times of liquid of 25% triadimefon or 500 times of liquid of 80% zineb;
3. control of aphids method: the discovery initial stage sprays 1000 times of liquid of 10% flolimat emulsion or 1000 to 1500 times of liquid of horse traction sulphur emulsion or 1000 times of liquid of DDT EC and sprays;
(2) yncaria stem with hooks pest control:
1. control of aphids method: utilize the natural enemy protection, main natural enemy has ladybug, Chrysopa etc.; The aphid happiness is clustered in the tender position of yncaria stem with hooks children causes harm, and in time wipes out water sprout, the aphid above eliminating; The discovery initial stage selects for use 50% to ward off 2500 times of liquid of aphid mist wetting powder or 2000 times of liquid sprayings of 10% Imidacloprid control;
2. the chrysomelid method of preventing and treating: the discovery initial stage sprays 1500 times of liquid of 4.5% wooden dipper first enemy and sprays.
Above-mentioned yncaria stem with hooks GAP, wherein: the raw material of compoiste fertilizer is humus, potassium sulphate, phosphate fertilizer, urea, in the finished product, organic matter account for gross weight 20%, inorganic nutrients accounts for 20% of gross weight, N: P 2O 5: K 2O=5: 7: 8.
Above-mentioned yncaria stem with hooks GAP, wherein: when seedling breeding adopts seminal propagation, thousand grain weigth 0.030-0.038g, the capsule of planting on the ball is counted 50-60, the seed number 30-45 grain in each capsule kind ball.
The normalized planting method of yncaria stem with hooks of the present invention, under normal time situation, living yncaria stem with hooks medicinal material annual production in the 3rd year can reach 200~300kg/ mu (aquatic foods), 80~120kg/ mu (doing); Living yncaria stem with hooks medicinal material annual production in the 4th year can reach 500~600kg/ mu (aquatic foods), and 200~240kg/ mu (doing) was given birth to the annual production of yncaria stem with hooks medicinal material later on and can be reached 700~800kg/ mu (aquatic foods) on the 5th year; 280~320kg/ mu (doing); And yncaria stem with hooks medicinal material each item index meets the content request of traditional Chinese medicine GAP, and the establishing in large scale that can standardize is planted plantation small investment, high efficiency; Greatly develop the yncaria stem with hooks industry in the mountain area and not only can create considerable economic results in society, can also bring good ecological environment benefit.
Embodiment
The raw material of the compoiste fertilizer that the present invention adopted is humus, potassium sulphate, phosphate fertilizer, urea, in the finished product, organic matter account for gross weight 20%, inorganic nutrients accounts for 20% of gross weight, N: P 2O 5: K 2O=5: 7: 8.
Embodiment 1
A kind of normalized planting method of yncaria stem with hooks may further comprise the steps:
(1) sapling multiplication
1. seed collection
Acquisition time: gather yncaria stem with hooks kind ball in 11~December of autumn.
Collecting method: select good, healthy and strong yncaria stem with hooks plant to do to gather kind of a ball maternal plant; With under the fruit shear, take back indoor kind of the ball of taking with secateurs.
2. plant ball screening and storage: removes shrivelled kind of ball, choosing big, the full kind ball 20cm * 20cm cloth bag of packing into hangs over the ventilation preservation.Thousand grain weigth 0.030-0.038g, the capsule of planting on the ball is counted 50-60, the seed number 30-45 grain in each capsule kind ball.
3. put in order ground to the choosing of ground, seedbed
Select that physical features is smooth, water source mellow soil easily, or plastic tunnel is done yncaria stem with hooks seedling breeding garden;
Time of site preparation: at the beginning of mid-March~April in spring.
Whole ground: plough or manual work is digged with ox, plough the soil block of carefully raking, tilling depth 30cm picks up most foreign material;
Seedbed base manure: every mu is spread fertilizer over the fields the ox barnyard manure 2000kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed and makes base manure, turns over to dig whole carefully, rakes;
Play the railway carriage or compartment: the wide 1.2m in railway carriage or compartment, long 10m~20m, ditch depth 10cm, wide 30cm;
Soil disinfection: spray the railway carriage or compartment face with 750 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim, give nursery bed disinfection, sowing after 5 days;
4. seed treatment
Bask seeds: select fine surface temperature at 20~25 ℃, calm or wind-force is basked seeds below 3 grades the time, spreads film before basking seeds, and the time of basking seeds is 3~4h.
Rub kind of ball with the hands and sieve: rub kind of a ball, pericarp is fully broken, the seed shelling; The kind ball of rubbing is put into 50 order specification sieve, rub kind of skin repeatedly and sieve 3 times.
Seed dressing: in seed: ash: thin river sand=1: 4: 10 ratio is fully mixed thoroughly and is waited to broadcast.
5. planting seed
Seeding quantity: seed, ash, thin river sand mixture by 3.75kg/ mu is mixed are being put in order uniform broadcasting on the good native railway carriage or compartment face.
Outdoor sowing should be covered little arch film, takes the sunshade net and shades; The booth sowing also should be covered little arch film, notes keeping the humidity and the temperature in seedbed in the canopy;
6. the preceding management of emerging
Temperature: growing seedlings keeps 18 ℃~27 ℃ of temperature in the shed, and when being higher than 30 ℃, it is aeration-cooling to take off film.
Humidity: keep enough moisture before germinateing, in time water, keep the interior humidity of little arch film 80~90%.
Weeding: after planting in time carry out artificial weeding (forbidding using chemical herbicide), carefully pull out during weeding, take the yncaria stem with hooks seed when avoiding weeding out of, carry out before emerging 1 time or 2 weedings.
7. management after emerging
Ventilate: note ventilating in the back of emerging, should take off little arch film daytime during weather high temperature, and raise seedling in greenhouse should start ventilation equipment and keep that air flows in the canopy, reduces temperature of shed, and night is overlay film again, keeps little arch temperature in the shed, guarantees that seed is sprouted fully to emerge;
Take off film: the back 30~40d of emerging takes off film fully;
Thinning: when seedling grows tall to the 5cm left and right sides, begin thinning, thinning is carried out in the place that seedling is intensive, density is controlled at 100 strains/m 2, adopt " remove seedlings, stay seedling " to carry out thinning, the seedling that comes out between should noting during thinning trying not to damage;
Heel in: the seedling that comes out between thinning (is played the railway carriage or compartment and plays the railway carriage or compartment method by above-mentioned seedbed) on the face of railway carriage or compartment, seedbed by 10cm * 10cm density heel in; The method of heeling in be earlier on the face of railway carriage or compartment by spacing 10cm; Open dark 5cm ditch, enter seedling in the ditch by the 10cm spacing in the rows then, cover fine earth (covering the seedling root fully); Water sufficient normal root water at last, open country is heeled in and is put up the sunshade net.Later management method is consistent with seedbed management;
Weeding: the every 10d weeding of artificial weeding once (forbids using chemical herbicide) before taking off film fully, and the weeding care should be used to weeds out the rank grass, and avoids mistake to pull out yncaria stem with hooks seedling and damage seedling.Take off fully behind the film the weed growth busy season by 2 times/month weedings, carry out 2~3 weedings March October to next year;
Topdress: seedling topdresses when growing tall to the 5cm left and right sides, and topdressing method is that preparation 2% urea and 3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate mixed solution spray with sprayer, and mu urea-potassium dihydrogen phosphate mixed solution consumption is 30kg, and after this every separated two weeks sprays once by above-mentioned;
Water: make regular check on seedbed humidity; Should in time water when finding in the soil layer 1~2cm of seedbed antecedent soil moisture, the water pipe that waters will have shower nozzle, must guard against water pipe and directly waters; Avoid water to flow through strong and destruction seedbed soil layer, cause yncaria stem with hooks seedling root to expose and cause dead seedling;
Prevention waterlogging: open country is grown seedlings and will be cleaned out a drain to keep the drain ditch unimpeded, guarantees that the seedbed do not have ponding.
Leaf is beaten in pinching: when seedling grows tall to 10cm when above, cut off toply, stay 3~4 no damage by disease and insect, the leaf look fresh blade, beat rest blade, and erase axillalry bud;
8. refine seedling
The booth seedling is being transplanted previous month, or seedling grows to 15cm when above, ventilates and refines seedling.
9. seedling stage diseases and pests control
Sterilization: spray in the blade face with 500 times of liquid of 10% solubility carbendazim, sprayed 2 times in every month;
Leaf spot is prevented and treated method: their early stage sprays with 1: 1: 120 bordeaux mixture or 500~800 times of liquid of 65% zineb;
Rust is prevented and treated method: their early stage sprays 1500 times of liquid of 25% triadimefon or 500 times of liquid of 80% zineb;
The control of aphids method: the discovery initial stage sprays 1000 times of liquid of 10% flolimat emulsion or 1000 to 1500 times of liquid of horse traction sulphur emulsion or 1000 times of liquid of DDT EC and sprays.
The chrysomelid method of preventing and treating: the discovery initial stage sprays 1500 times of liquid of 4.5% wooden dipper first enemy and sprays.
10. lifting
Lifting: play transplantation of seedlings the previous day, water irrigates the seedbed; Carefully dig nursery stock with spud along ditch, avoided hindering root;
Root relief: repair root damage stem apex 2~3cm;
Making beating: rand is beaten length and width 2m * 2m in the seedbed, and the Xiao Chi of dark 40cm pours 500kg fine earth and pollution-free water into and stirs pulping, with the yncaria stem with hooks seedling by 50 strains/, then wisp yncaria stem with hooks root is dipped in slurry tying into wisp.
Packing: utilize 30cm * 30cm foil-type plastic bag to encase shoot root portion.
Remove tender stem and defoliation: cut off the tender stem in top and pluck 1/2 blade with scissors, reduce transpiration;
Behind the lifting, can not transplant Wan the same day or seedling to be transported, and concentrated to be stored in ventilation, frescade;
Transportation: with plastic crate or bamboo basket dress seedling, place vertically and put, root system pushes down, does not preserve moisture;
Nursery stock requires: height of seedling 30cm~50cm, leading thread>8mm, well developed root system, anosis worm harm;
(2) field-transplanting
1. select ground
The base is positioned at 26 ° 39 ' 22 of north latitude ", 108 ° 35 ' 18 in footpath, east ", height above sea level 815m belongs to Central Asia monsoon humid climate; Winter does not have severe cold, and the summer does not have heat, average annual rainfall 1200.1mm; 16.7 ℃ of mean temperature of air, average sunshine duration 1186.9 hours is about 317 days frost-free seasons.Base soil is yellow earth; Soil layer deep, fertile loose, draining is good; Through detecting; The base soil environment quality meets country's " soil environment quality standard " (GB15618~1995) secondary standard, and atmospheric conditions meet country's " ambient air quality " (GB3095~96) secondary, and condition of water quality reaches the standard of country " farmland irrigating water's quality standard " (GB5084~2005);
2. wholely
When transplanting spring or transplanting autumn, in previous month to the clear garden of planting site, 1.5m * 1.5m digs the cave by seeding row spacing, mu dig about several 300 caves, cave, the dark 30cm in cave, wide 30cm * 30cm,
3. basal dressing
Dig and apply become thoroughly decomposed ox barnyard manure and 0.25kg composite fertilizer of 4~5kg behind the cave and make base manure (need mix thoroughly), cover fine earth and pass the winter.
4. transplant
Transplant season: spring or autumn transplant.
Transplant weather: select behind the rain fine day or cloudy day to transplant.
It is thin to utilize little trench-hoe that soil in the cave is clapped, and digs length and width 20cm * 20cm, and dark 15cm vesicle is put into the cave with the seedling root, covers fine earth, compresses to make real.
5. fill the gaps with seedlings
After transplanted seedling becomes to live, check that big Tanaka lacks nest and dead growth of cereal crop seedlings condition, in time fills the gaps with seedlings;
(3) field management
1. intertill and clean tillage
Intertillage: intertillage is carried out transplanting in later six months, and the intertillage scope is under the tree crown in the 20cm, and the intertillage degree of depth is 10cm, does not balk, and weeds a garden.
Weeding: the hoe with about wide 15cm is hoed up weeds, and the weeds of plant periphery remove with hand-lifting; Transplant 1 year 4~July whenever at a distance from weeding in 1 month once, 8~September, combination was topdressed weeding once, and only remove once March November to next year; Carried out 3 weedings in 1 year, be respectively carry out for 3~April for the first time, 7~August for the second time, carry out for the third time 10~November; Only 2 weedings after the 3rd year, being respectively carries out once, gathers for 3~April carried out once in previous month.
2. topdress
1 year: after being revival from transplanting, execute urea 0.05kg/ strain for every mu; Before blooming for 6~July, combine intertill and clean tillage to impose and once make microbial-bacterial fertilizer by oneself, consumption spreads fertilizer over the fields around plant by the 0.5kg/ strain and covers fine earth; Executing phosphate fertilizer 0.5kg/ strain in 11~December passes the winter in order to plant.
1 year: germinate for 3~April and come into leaves preceding and the preceding intertill and clean tillage that combines of blooming for 7~August, impose compoiste fertilizer one time, consumption spread fertilizer over the fields around plant by the 0.5kg/ strain, covers the fine earth water spinach root and stem of certain plants.
After the 3rd year, before 3~April, germination was come into leaves, combine intertill and clean tillage, impose compoiste fertilizer one time, consumption spreads fertilizer over the fields around plant by the 0.5kg/ strain and covers fine earth.
3. beat inflorescence
It is extraterrestrial remove to reserve to collect seed, and remaining yncaria stem with hooks cuts off the branch of wounded in the battle preface with secateurs when existing bud, take out of extraterrestrial;
4. the shaping of pruning
Grew tall to 50cm when above when yncaria stem with hooks stem rattan in 1 year, the point of pinching keeps plant height in 50cm, and side shoot is more than 3 when above simultaneously, cuts off the growing way difference and has damage by disease and insect, withered branch.
Begin setting 1 year winter, keep plant height at 100cm, divide stem several 3~4 strains, remainder cuts off with secateurs.
Prune annual winter after the 3rd year, keeps plant height at 150cm, and remainder cuts off with secateurs, the withered branch and the damage by disease and insect branch of cleaning plant base portion.
(4) gather
1. collecting time: field planting 11~December, selected fine day or cloudy day to gather after 2 years;
2. the instrument of gathering: secateurs, rope etc. require totally, not contacted harmful substance;
3. collecting method: cut branch with secateurs, remove blade, select and remove disease, tie wisp into 3~5kg.
(5) preliminary working: be put in 55 ℃ of oven dry in the drying room, water content is controlled in 10%.
(6) packing: go in the woven bag by 20kg/ is packed.
The normalized planting method of described yncaria stem with hooks, wherein the raw material of compoiste fertilizer is humus, potassium sulphate, phosphate fertilizer, urea, in the finished product, organic matter account for gross weight 20%, inorganic nutrients accounts for 20% of gross weight, N: P 2O 5: K 2O=5: 7: 8.
(5) yncaria stem with hooks disease control
1. leaf spot is prevented and treated method: the blade initial stage of catching an illness shows as the water stain shape patch that fades, and what have is canescence or strip pathology spot, after expand as the large-scale patch of difform puce; Profile is unclear, and a plurality of pathologies can be fused into bigger speckle, and many pores are arranged on the later stage scab; When serious, scab is discontented with full leaf, makes leaf rolling shrivelled and dead; The high temperature and rainy of being everlasting takes place season, and during high humidity, leaf back forms the mould layer of grey cause of disease spore.Integrated pest control in agriculture: pull out diseased plant and burn; Thoroughly clear after autumn garden is concentrated residual leaf, sick leaf and is burnt.Chemical control: their early stage sprays with 1: 1: 120 bordeaux mixture or 500~800 times of liquid of 65% zineb;
2. rust is prevented and treated method: their early stage sprays 1500 times of liquid of 25% triadimefon or 500 times of liquid of 80% zineb;
3. control of aphids method: the discovery initial stage sprays 1000 times of liquid of 10% flolimat emulsion or 1000 to 1500 times of liquid of horse traction sulphur emulsion or 1000 times of liquid of DDT EC and sprays.
(6) yncaria stem with hooks pest control
1. control of aphids method: utilize the natural enemy protection, main natural enemy has ladybug, Chrysopa etc.; The aphid happiness is clustered in the tender position of yncaria stem with hooks children causes harm, and in time wipes out water sprout, the aphid above eliminating; The discovery initial stage selects for use 50% to ward off 2500 times of liquid of aphid mist wetting powder or 2000 times of liquid sprayings of 10% Imidacloprid control;
2. the chrysomelid method of preventing and treating: the discovery initial stage sprays 1500 times of liquid of 4.5% wooden dipper first enemy and sprays.
Under normal time situation, living yncaria stem with hooks medicinal material annual production in the 3rd year can reach 200~300kg/ mu (aquatic foods), 80~120kg/ mu (doing); Living yncaria stem with hooks medicinal material annual production in the 4th year can reach 500~600kg/ mu (aquatic foods); 200~240kg/ mu (doing); Give birth to the annual production of yncaria stem with hooks medicinal material later on the 5th year and can reach 700~800kg/ mu (aquatic foods), 280~320kg/ mu (doing), and yncaria stem with hooks medicinal material each item index meets the content request of traditional Chinese medicine GAP.
Embodiment 2
A kind of normalized planting method of yncaria stem with hooks may further comprise the steps:
(1) sapling multiplication
Cottage propagation
1. select ground: March, axillalry bud was sprouted period, selected more fertile, moistening and well-drained sandy loam to make milpa;
2. seedbed, whole ground arrangement: rise about row spacing 1.2m, high 25cm, it is fixed that length is come according to the nursery lot concrete condition; Be convenient to weeding, water, also require the seedbed breathe freely, be incubated, preserve moisture, smooth, pick up most weeds and foreign material; Rake is thin, makes soil loose back in small, broken bits play the railway carriage or compartment, and humus soil, phosphate fertilizer and the soil of corresponding proportion are mixed thoroughly; Thin river sand evenly is sprinkled upon on the smooth good case face, and thickness is about 1 centimetre, with mulch film slotting machine is covered and is beneficial to insulation, preserves moisture;
The preparation of 3. transplanting a cutting: the requirement of cuttage bar: 1-2 is given birth to healthy and strong branch, and it is good transplanting a cutting to be with two joints, and plug is whittled into horse ear angle; To transplanting a cutting top processings of sealing with wax, attention action is wanted avoid branch to be scalded soon when sealing with wax; Classify by the length size transplanting a cutting; Plug and top are consistent and tie up, and put into rooting powder solution to the branch of tying up then and soak, and it is fixed that soak time is come according to root-inducing powder;
4. cottage method: about cuttage seeding row spacing 16cm, draw the hole with the bigger wooden stick of relative cuttage bar of fining away earlier during cuttage, insert transplanting a cutting, insertion depth is for transplanting a cutting 2/3 of length; Can not too deeply can not be too shallow, can cause bad root phenomenon too deeply, too shallow water divides inadequate; Difficulty is taken root, and transplants a cutting to become 45 degree with ground, and the top is along the slotting machine direction; After cuttage finishes, watered in whole seedbed, cover the sunshade net at last; 5. refine seedling
Under the situation that weather allows, generally just can open the sunshade net in mid-September and refine seedling, if weather is arid, intensity of sunshine is too big, and it is fixed to come according to actual conditions, and the field planting of yncaria stem with hooks seedling is transplanted and generally carried out in November or 1 year spring then;
6. field management
Water: specifically decide according to weather condition, note to let the seedbed arid at any time, note prevention waterlogging rainy season, weeding, topdress and want duty to remove, when yncaria stem with hooks is taken root, apply thin rich water, also can suitably apply urea to the weeds on ground, seedbed; Take off film: when temperature raises gradually, generally at the beginning of 6 months, take off film, otherwise the too high meeting of ground temperature comes to harm seedling.
(2) field-transplanting
As follows embodiment 1.

Claims (4)

1. the normalized planting method of a yncaria stem with hooks may further comprise the steps:
(1) seedling breeding
Adopt seminal propagation, step is following:
1. seed collection
Acquisition time: gather yncaria stem with hooks kind ball in 11~December of autumn;
Collecting method: select good, healthy and strong yncaria stem with hooks plant to do to gather kind of a ball maternal plant; With under the fruit shear, take back indoor kind of the ball of taking with secateurs;
2. plant ball screening and storage: removes shrivelled kind of ball, choosing big, the full kind ball 20cm * 20cm cloth bag of packing into hangs over the preservation of dry ventilation;
3. put in order ground to the choosing of ground, seedbed
Select that physical features is smooth, water source mellow soil easily, or plastic tunnel is done yncaria stem with hooks seedling breeding garden;
Time of site preparation: at the beginning of mid-March~April in spring;
Whole ground: plough or manual work is digged with ox, plough the soil block of carefully raking, tilling depth 30cm picks up most foreign material;
Seedbed base manure: every mu is spread fertilizer over the fields the ox barnyard manure 2000kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed and makes base manure, turns over to dig whole carefully, rakes;
Play the railway carriage or compartment: the wide 1.2m in railway carriage or compartment, long 10m~20m, ditch depth 10cm and wide 30cm;
Soil disinfection: spray the railway carriage or compartment face with 750 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim, give nursery bed disinfection, sowing after 5 days;
4. seed treatment
Bask seeds: select fine surface temperature at 20~25 ℃, calm or wind-force is basked seeds below 3 grades the time, spreads film before basking seeds, and the time of basking seeds is 3~4h;
Rub kind of ball with the hands and sieve: rub kind of a ball, pericarp is fully broken, the seed shelling is put into 50 order specification sieve with the kind ball of rubbing, and rubs kind of skin repeatedly and sieves 3 times;
Seed dressing:
In seed: ash: thin river sand=1: 4: 10 ratio is fully mixed thoroughly and is waited to broadcast;
5. planting seed
Seeding quantity: seed, ash, thin river sand mixture by 3.75kg/ mu is mixed are being put in order uniform broadcasting on the good native railway carriage or compartment face;
Outdoor sowing should be covered little arch film, takes the sunshade net and shades; The booth sowing also should be covered little arch film, notes keeping the humidity and the temperature in seedbed in the canopy;
6. the preceding management of emerging
Temperature: growing seedlings keeps 18 ℃~27 ℃ of temperature in the shed, and when being higher than 30 ℃, it is aeration-cooling to take off film;
Humidity: keep enough moisture before germinateing, in time water, keep the interior humidity of little arch film 80~90%;
Weeding: after planting in time carry out artificial weeding, carry out before emerging 1 time or 2 weedings;
7. management after emerging
Ventilate: note ventilating in the back of emerging, should take off little arch film daytime during weather high temperature, and raise seedling in greenhouse should start ventilation equipment and keep that air flows in the canopy, reduces temperature of shed, and night is overlay film again, keeps little arch temperature in the shed, guarantees that seed is sprouted fully to emerge;
Take off film: the back 30~40d of emerging takes off film fully;
Thinning: when seedling grows tall to the 5cm left and right sides, begin thinning, thinning is carried out in the place that seedling is intensive, density is controlled at 100 strains/m 2, adopt " remove seedlings, stay seedling " to carry out thinning, the seedling that comes out between should noting during thinning trying not to damage;
Heel in: the seedling to coming out between thinning is heeled on the face of railway carriage or compartment, seedbed by 10cm * 10cm density, play a railway carriage or compartment and play the railway carriage or compartment method by above-mentioned seedbed, the method for heeling in be earlier on the face of railway carriage or compartment by spacing 10cm; Open dark 5cm ditch; Enter seedling in the ditch by the 10cm spacing in the rows then, cover fine earth, water sufficient normal root water at last to covering the seedling root fully; Open country is heeled in and is put up the sunshade net, and later management method is consistent with seedbed management;
Weeding: take off before the film the every 10d weeding of artificial weeding fully once, take off fully behind the film the weed growth busy season by 2 times/month weedings, carry out 2~3 weedings March October to next year;
Topdress: seedling topdresses when growing tall to the 5cm left and right sides, and topdressing method is that preparation 2% urea and 3% potassium dihydrogen phosphate mixed solution spray with sprayer, and mu urea-potassium dihydrogen phosphate mixed solution consumption is 30kg, and after this every separated two weeks sprays once by above-mentioned;
Water: make regular check on seedbed humidity; Should in time water when finding in the soil layer 1~2cm of seedbed antecedent soil moisture, the water pipe that waters will have shower nozzle, must guard against water pipe and directly waters; Avoid water to flow through strong and destruction seedbed soil layer, cause yncaria stem with hooks seedling root to expose and cause dead seedling;
Prevention waterlogging: open country is grown seedlings and will be cleaned out a drain to keep the drain ditch unimpeded, guarantees that the seedbed do not have ponding;
Leaf is beaten in pinching: when seedling grows tall to 10cm when above, cut off toply, stay 3~4 no damage by disease and insect, the leaf look fresh blade, beat rest blade, and erase axillalry bud;
8. refine seedling
The booth seedling is being transplanted previous month, or seedling grows to 15cm when above, ventilates and refines seedling;
9. seedling stage diseases and pests control
Sterilization: spray in the blade face with 500 times of liquid of 10% solubility carbendazim, sprayed 2 times in every month;
Leaf spot is prevented and treated method: their early stage sprays with 1: 1: 120 bordeaux mixture or 500~800 times of liquid of 65% zineb;
Rust is prevented and treated method: their early stage sprays 1500 times of liquid of 25% triadimefon or 500 times of liquid of 80% zineb;
The control of aphids method: the discovery initial stage sprays 1000 times of liquid of 10% flolimat emulsion or 1000 to 1500 times of liquid of horse traction sulphur emulsion or 1000 times of liquid of DDT EC and sprays;
The chrysomelid method of preventing and treating: the discovery initial stage sprays 1500 times of liquid of 4.5% wooden dipper first enemy and sprays;
10. lifting
Lifting: play transplantation of seedlings the previous day, water irrigates the seedbed; Carefully dig nursery stock with spud along ditch, avoided hindering root;
Root relief: repair root damage stem apex 2~3cm;
Making beating: rand is beaten length and width 2m * 2m in the seedbed, and the Xiao Chi of dark 40cm pours 500kg fine earth and pollution-free water into and stirs pulping, with the yncaria stem with hooks seedling by 50 strains/, then wisp yncaria stem with hooks root is dipped in slurry tying into wisp;
Packing: utilize 30cm * 30cm foil-type plastic bag to encase shoot root portion;
Remove tender stem and defoliation: cut off the tender stem in top and pluck 1/2 blade with scissors, reduce transpiration;
Behind the lifting, can not transplant Wan the same day or seedling to be transported, and concentrated to be stored in ventilation, frescade;
Transportation: with plastic crate or bamboo basket dress seedling, place vertically and put, root system pushes down, does not preserve moisture;
Nursery stock requires: height of seedling 30cm~50cm, leading thread>8mm, well developed root system, anosis worm harm;
(2) field-transplanting
1. select ground
Soil condition: soil is with fertile, loose, preserve moisture and fertility, loam or sand loam more than the farming bed thickness 30cm, and the pH value is 6.0~7.5, organic>more than 1.0%; The gradient is<30 °, gentle slope belt or open forest land, mountain valley; Soil environment quality must meet national grade ii standard or above standard;
Atmospheric conditions: air is pollution-free, and atmosphere index II is between 0.6~1.0;
Condition of water quality: annual rainfall 1000mm~1500mm has water source and the facility that can supply irrigate at rain hot same period, water nonpollution, and water quality reaches the standard of country " farmland irrigating water's quality standard " GB5084~2005;
2. wholely
When transplanting spring or transplanting autumn, in previous month to the clear garden of planting site, 1.5m * 1.5m digs the cave by seeding row spacing, mu dig about several 300 caves, cave, the dark 30cm in cave, wide 30cm * 30cm,
3. basal dressing
Dig and apply become thoroughly decomposed ox barnyard manure and 0.25kg of 4~5kg behind the cave and mix composite fertilizer thoroughly and make base manure, cover fine earth and pass the winter;
4. transplant
Transplant season: spring or autumn transplant;
Transplant weather: select behind the rain fine day or cloudy day to transplant;
It is thin to utilize little trench-hoe that soil in the cave is clapped, and digs length and width 20cm * 20cm, and dark 15cm vesicle is put into the cave with the seedling root, covers fine earth, compresses to make real;
5. fill the gaps with seedlings
After transplanted seedling becomes to live, check that big Tanaka lacks nest and dead growth of cereal crop seedlings condition, in time fills the gaps with seedlings;
(3) field management
1. intertill and clean tillage
Intertillage: intertillage is carried out transplanting in later six months, and the intertillage scope is under the tree crown in the 20cm, and the intertillage degree of depth is 10cm, does not balk, and weeds a garden;
Weeding: the hoe with about wide 15cm is hoed up weeds, and the weeds of plant periphery remove with hand-lifting; Transplant 1 year 4~July whenever at a distance from weeding in 1 month once, 8~September, combination was topdressed weeding once, and only remove once March November to next year; Carried out 3 weedings in 1 year, be respectively carry out for 3~April for the first time, 7~August for the second time, carry out for the third time 10~November; Only 2 weedings after the 3rd year, being respectively carries out once, gathers for 3~April carried out once in previous month;
2. topdress
1 year: after being revival from transplanting, execute urea 0.05kg/ strain for every mu; Before blooming for 6~July, combine intertill and clean tillage to impose and once make microbial-bacterial fertilizer by oneself, consumption spreads fertilizer over the fields around plant by the 0.5kg/ strain and covers fine earth; Executing phosphate fertilizer 0.5kg/ strain in 11~December passes the winter in order to plant;
1 year: germinate for 3~April and come into leaves preceding and the preceding intertill and clean tillage that combines of blooming for 7~August, impose compoiste fertilizer one time, consumption spread fertilizer over the fields around plant by the 0.5kg/ strain, covers the fine earth water spinach root and stem of certain plants; Wherein: the raw material of compoiste fertilizer is humus, potassium sulphate, phosphate fertilizer, urea, in the finished product, organic matter account for gross weight 20%, inorganic nutrients accounts for 20% of gross weight, N: P 2O 5: K 2O=5: 7: 8;
After the 3rd year, before 3~April, germination was come into leaves, combine intertill and clean tillage, impose compoiste fertilizer one time, consumption spreads fertilizer over the fields around plant by the 0.5kg/ strain and covers fine earth;
3. beat inflorescence
It is extraterrestrial remove to reserve to collect seed, and remaining yncaria stem with hooks cuts off the branch of wounded in the battle preface with secateurs when existing bud, take out of extraterrestrial;
4. the shaping of pruning
Grew tall to 50cm when above when yncaria stem with hooks stem rattan in 1 year, the point of pinching keeps plant height in 50cm, and side shoot is more than 3 when above simultaneously, cuts off the growing way difference and has damage by disease and insect, withered branch;
Begin setting 1 year winter, keep plant height at 100cm, divide stem several 3~4 strains, remainder cuts off with secateurs;
Prune annual winter after the 3rd year, keeps plant height at 150cm, and remainder cuts off with secateurs, the withered branch and the damage by disease and insect branch of cleaning plant base portion;
(4) gather
1. collecting time: field planting 11~December, selected fine day or cloudy day to gather after 2 years;
2. the instrument of gathering: secateurs, rope etc. require totally, not contacted harmful substance;
3. collecting method: cut branch with secateurs, remove blade, select and remove disease, tie wisp into 3~5kg;
(5) preliminary working: be put in 55 ℃ of oven dry in the drying room, water content is controlled in 10%;
(6) packing: go in the woven bag by 20kg/ is packed.
2. the normalized planting method of yncaria stem with hooks as claimed in claim 1, wherein: seedling breeding adopts cottage propagation, and its step is following:
1. select ground: March, axillalry bud was sprouted period, selected more fertile, moistening and well-drained sandy loam to make milpa;
2. seedbed, whole ground arrangement: rise about row spacing 1.2m, high 25cm, it is fixed that length is come according to the nursery lot concrete condition; Be convenient to weeding, water, also require the seedbed breathe freely, be incubated, preserve moisture, smooth, pick up most weeds and foreign material; Rake is thin, makes soil loose back in small, broken bits play the railway carriage or compartment, and humus soil, phosphate fertilizer and the soil of corresponding proportion are mixed thoroughly; Thin river sand evenly is sprinkled upon on the smooth good case face, and thickness is about 1cm, with mulch film slotting machine is covered and is beneficial to insulation, preserves moisture;
The preparation of 3. transplanting a cutting: the requirement of cuttage bar: 1-2 is given birth to healthy and strong branch, and it is good transplanting a cutting to be with two joints, and plug is whittled into horse ear angle; To transplanting a cutting top processings of sealing with wax, attention action is wanted avoid branch to be scalded soon when sealing with wax; Classify by the length size transplanting a cutting; Plug and top are consistent and tie up, and put into rooting powder solution to the branch of tying up then and soak, and it is fixed that soak time is come according to root-inducing powder;
4. cottage method: about cuttage seeding row spacing 16cm, draw the hole with the relatively large wooden stick of fining away earlier during cuttage, insert transplanting a cutting, insertion depth is for transplanting a cutting 2/3 of length; Can not too deeply can not be too shallow, can cause bad root phenomenon too deeply, too shallow water divides inadequate; Difficulty is taken root, and transplants a cutting to become 45 degree with ground, and the top is along the slotting machine direction; After cuttage finishes, watered in whole seedbed, cover the sunshade net at last;
5. refine seedling
Under the situation that weather allows, just open the sunshade net in mid-September and refine seedling, if weather is arid, intensity of sunshine is too big, and it is fixed to come according to actual conditions, and the field planting transplanting of yncaria stem with hooks seedling is being carried out in November or 1 year spring then;
6. field management
Water: specifically decide according to weather condition, note to let the seedbed arid at any time, note prevention waterlogging rainy season, weeding, topdress and want duty to remove, when yncaria stem with hooks is taken root, apply thin rich water, suitably apply urea to the weeds on ground, seedbed; Take off film: when temperature raises gradually, at the beginning of 6 months, draw film, otherwise the too high meeting of ground temperature comes to harm seedling.
3. according to claim 1 or claim 2 yncaria stem with hooks normalized planting method comprises following step:
(1) yncaria stem with hooks disease control
1. leaf spot is prevented and treated method: their early stage sprays with 1: 1: 120 bordeaux mixture or 500~800 times of liquid of 65% zineb;
2. rust is prevented and treated method: their early stage sprays 1500 times of liquid of 25% triadimefon or 500 times of liquid of 80% zineb;
3. control of aphids method: the discovery initial stage sprays 1000 times of liquid of 10% flolimat emulsion or 1000 to 1500 times of liquid of horse traction sulphur emulsion or 1000 times of liquid of DDT EC and sprays;
(2) yncaria stem with hooks pest control
1. control of aphids method: utilize the natural enemy protection, main natural enemy has ladybug, Chrysopa; The aphid happiness is clustered in the tender position of yncaria stem with hooks children causes harm, and in time wipes out water sprout, the aphid above eliminating; The discovery initial stage selects for use 50% to ward off 2500 times of liquid of aphid mist wetting powder or 2000 times of liquid sprayings of 10% Imidacloprid control;
2. the chrysomelid method of preventing and treating: the discovery initial stage sprays 1500 times of liquid of 4.5% wooden dipper first enemy and sprays.
4. yncaria stem with hooks GAP as claimed in claim 1, wherein: when seedling breeding adopts seminal propagation, thousand grain weigth 0.030-0.038g, the capsule of planting on the ball is counted 50-60, the seed number 30-45 grain in each capsule kind ball.
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CN107114090A (en) * 2017-05-07 2017-09-01 湖北民族学院 A kind of implantation methods of penthorum chinense pursh
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