CN101889518B - Planting method of Chinese trichosanthes - Google Patents

Planting method of Chinese trichosanthes Download PDF

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CN101889518B
CN101889518B CN2010102313159A CN201010231315A CN101889518B CN 101889518 B CN101889518 B CN 101889518B CN 2010102313159 A CN2010102313159 A CN 2010102313159A CN 201010231315 A CN201010231315 A CN 201010231315A CN 101889518 B CN101889518 B CN 101889518B
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root
planting
snakegourd
plant
soil
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CN101889518A (en
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王成永
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Bozhou Huqiao Pharmaceutical Co ltd
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ANHUI HUQIAO TRADITIONAL CHINESE MEDICINE TECHNOLOGY Co Ltd
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Abstract

The invention relates to a planting method of Chinese trichosanthes, belonging to the technical field of plantation and comprising the steps of: variety breeding, seedling reproduction, transplanting, field management, disease and pest control, harvesting and processing, wherein the variety breeding step includes the sub-steps of the tests in different production places, amplification and verification tests, resistance test, field pest investigation and trichosanthes nematode control; the seedling reproduction step includes the sub-steps of seed reproduction and root reproduction; the transplanting step includes the sub-steps of land selection and preparation, ridging, reproduction and planting, planting method implementation and field management; the land selection and preparation step includes the sub-steps of detection on chemical characteristic of soil, basic fertilizer application and disinfection; the reproduction and planting step includes the sub-steps of seed bud selection, rood cutting and breeding, planting and shed putting up; the planting method implementation step includes the sub-steps of planning density control and staminiferous plant matching; the filed management step includes the sub-steps of intertillagement and weeding, top application, shed putting up, pruning and cold prevention, in particular to intertillagement and weeding, root airing, intercrop, earthing, vine supporting and racking, top application, pruning, flower and fruit protection, chemical control and foliage application; and the disease and pest control step includes the sub-steps of control of diseases and pest and control method implementation.

Description

The kind method for planting of snakegourd
Technical field
The present invention relates to the kind method for planting of snakegourd, belong to the planting technology field.
Background technology
Snakegourd (Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim.) and trichosanthes rosthornii Harms (Trichosanthes kirilowii Hanms) are medicinal main article, and it is wide to distribute at home, plant with a long history, medicine-food two-purpose.Its fruit, pericarp, root all can be used as medicine, and root has another name called root of Chinese trichosanthes.
Though the snakegourd plantation is with a long history; But be as natural crude drugs plantations, at present extensive snakegourd production plantation resource all comes from wild always, aboundresources but germplasm is numerous and diverse; Biological property and economic characters are widely different, have a strong impact on the sound development of standardization plantation and industry.
Snakegourd is stronger to climate adaptability, and suitable gentle temperature is liked sunny.The Bozhou extend across 115 ° 53 '~116 ° 49 of east longitude ', 32 ° 51 '~35 ° 05 of north latitude ', be about 150 kilometers, wide about 90 kilometers.The linchpin border links to each other with the Yellow River breach fan, and physical features is smooth; Physical features northwest, whole Bozhou is high, and gradient is southeastward little inclines with 1/9000 ground nature.Cut transition and the general influence in all previous south, the Yellow River owing to wriggled by the river, crest hill, pod distribute alternately in the formation Plain, and relief is free and easy, have the geomorphic feature of " flat greatly little injustice ".Whole city's weather is in south, warm temperate zone edge, belongs to half gentle climatic region, warm temperate zone, and transitional significantly characteristic is arranged, 14.7 ℃ of average temperatures of the whole year, average 2320 hours sunshine, average 216 days frost-free seasons, 822 millimeters of average precipitation, suitable snakegourd growth.In the shade ground of snakegourd or shade rate be undergrowth greatly then, and output is not high; Cold-resistant, at cold district, ridging in winter ability safe overwintering; Before the general late October frozen ground, cut off branches and leaves at 8cm place overhead, and earth up, can protect and pass the winter in rhizosphere; Also can be high temperature resistant, under 42 ℃ of high temperature of short-term, can get over the summer safely; Snakegourd distributes wider, production base range of choice broad.
Summary of the invention
In view of the above problems, the object of the present invention is to provide the kind method for planting of snakegourd.
A kind of kind method for planting of snakegourd comprises breed breeding, breeding seedling, plants, the control of field management, damage by disease and insect, gather and procedure of processing,
The breed breeding process steps: collect have precocity, the snakegourd germ plasm resource individual plant of disease-resistant, high yield high-quality, carry out the piece root and expand numerously, carry out varietal yield test simultaneously; Select strain to get into the test of kind small size;
The test of kind small size: do comparative variety trial, district's group is arranged at random, each kind field planting 20 strain, and seeding row spacing is 3.5m * 1.2m, area 100m 2, 3 repetitions are established in test; Ripe property, yielding ability, disease resistance, seed shape, seed-producing rate, thousand kernel weight etc. are investigated;
Carry out different provenance trials and amplify demonstration test; Carry out resistant proof;
Carry out the field disease survey, carry out the radices trichosanthis nematoda control;
Breeding seedling: carry out seminal propagation and root division;
The step of planting contains choosing ground and whole ground step, bedding step, breeding and plantation step, plantation method step and field management step;
Choosing ground and whole ground step; The soil chemistry proterties is detected step; Basal dressing and sterilisation step;
The bedding step;
Breeding and plantation step; Select kind of a bud, cut root and grow seedlings, the plantation built,
The plantation method step; The control planting density; The collocation staminiferous plant,
The field management step; Intertill and clean tillage, the root that dries in the air, intercropping, earth up, hold up climingly put on the shelf, topdress, training, flower and fruit protecting control and spray leaf fertilizer;
The field management step has intertill and clean tillage, the frame that topdresses, puts up a shed, beta pruning are pruned, the winter protection step;
Damage by disease and insect prevent and treat step; To disease, insect pest and control method step thereof;
Prevent and treat method 1:
1. clean the rural area: behind the autumn snakegourd fallen leaves, the residual leaf of deadwood concentrated burn and buried.
2. crop rotation or soil deeptillage: the crop rotation or the preceding soil deeptillage of sowing, plough under lower floor with the top layer, to alleviate morbidity in the coming year.
3. enhance field management: draining in time behind the attention rain.
4. rational close planting makes ventilation and penetrating light between strain, promotes plant strain growth healthy and strong, improves premunition.
5. select anosis kind of bud for use, and, sow after disinfecting with 300 times of liquid seed soaking of 65% zineb 10-15 minute.
6. their early stage sprays 800~1000 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim, and is every at a distance from 10 days 1 time, connects and sprays 2-3 time.Perhaps 1: 1: 100 bordeaux mixture of their early stage spray is every at a distance from 10-14 days 1 time, connects and sprays 3~4 times.
Or prevent and treat method 2:
1. the sick leaf of stubble is removed in the results back, concentrates and burns, and eliminates the germ that survives the winter;
2. soil deeptillage, carry out crop rotation more than 3 years:
3. combine field management such as defloration flower bud, intertill and clean tillage, extract the sick leaf in plant bottom, take out of to concentrate outside the field and burn;
4. their early stage sprays 50% carbendazim 800-1000 times liquid, or 1000~1500 times of liquid of 50% topsin, or 1: 1: 100 bordeaux mixture, whenever at a distance from spray in 10 days 1 time, connects and sprays 2-3 time.
Or prevent and treat method 3:
1. combine intertill and clean tillage autumn, thoroughly wipe out the residual leaf of disease branch, remove the residual branch of fallen leaves and concentrate and burn and buried;
2. applying organic manure and phosphorus potash fertilizer promote plant strain growth healthy and strong, strengthen premunition;
3. before blooming to late April in snakegourd germination back, spray 800~1000 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim, or 1000 times of liquid of 50% topsin, or 500 times of liquid of 65% zineb, every at a distance from 10 days 1 time, connect and spray 2~3 times.
Or prevent and treat method 4:
1. clean the rural area, burn invalid branches and leaves and buried;
2. enhance field management, in time ditch cleaning row stain reduces field humidity; Rationally plantation will keep good ventilation and penetrating light condition between plant;
3. their early stage, with 1: 1: 100 bordeaux mixture or 500~600 times of liquid sprayings of 65% zineb, every at a distance from medication in 7~10 days 1 time, till September;
4. cultivate disease-resistant variety.
Gather and procedure of processing;
The after ripening of snakegourd early October fruit elder generation when fruit surface has white powder, and becomes and can pluck when light yellow.During harvesting, take, hang on the ventilation and dry together with carpopodium; Get ripe snakegourd fruit, cut 2-4 cutter to muskmelon pedicel and locate, seed and flesh are taken out; Seed dry semen trichosanthis.
Packing, storage and transportation step.
Quality standard and monitoring:
Quality standard: appearance character:
(1) fruit oval or type sphere, long 7~15cm, diameter 6~10cm, the surface is dark orange-yellow to orange red, shrinkage or more level and smooth, there is remaining style base on the top, and base portion has the carpopodium vestiges; Matter is crisp, is prone to break, and pericarp is thick slightly, the inner surface yellow-white, and the fruit flesh is orange-yellow, and is agglomerating with most seed bondings.Gas such as caramel; It is little sour-sweet to distinguish the flavor of.
(2) root of Chinese trichosanthes is irregular cylindrical, spindle or lobe is block, long 8~16cm, diameter 1.5~5.5cm.Surface yellow-white or light brown yellow, the hole skin of growing crosswise that vertical wrinkle, radicula trace is arranged and slightly cave in, what have has the yellowish-brown crust residual.Matter is solid, section white or faint yellow, and rich mealiness, cross section visible yellow color xylem slightly is radial arrangement, vertical section visible yellow color striated xylem.Odorless, mildly bitter flavor.
Quality-monitoring:
The residue of pesticide monitoring:
With reference to " Pharmacopoeia of People's Republic of China version appendix in 2005 IX 6 " organic chlorine agriculture chemicals determination of residual amount method.
" medicinal plant and goods are imported and exported green industry standard " with reference to State Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation's 2001 promulgations;
Hexachlorcyclohexane (BHC) is smaller or equal to 0.1mg/kg;
DDT is smaller or equal to 0.1mg/kg;
Pcnb PCNB is smaller or equal to 0.1mg/kg;
Aldrin Aldrin is smaller or equal to 0.02mg/kg;
The content of beary metal monitoring;
With reference to " Pharmacopoeia of People's Republic of China version in 2005 " appendix IX heavy metal method of control.
" medicinal plant and goods are imported and exported green industry standard " with reference to State Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation's 2001 promulgations;
Total metals is smaller or equal to 20.0mg/kg;
Plumbous (Pb) is smaller or equal to 5.0mg/kg;
Cadmium (Cd) is smaller or equal to 0.3mg/kg;
Mercury (Hg) is smaller or equal to 0.2mg/kg;
Arsenic (As) is smaller or equal to 2.0mg/kg.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1:
Obviously, many modifications and the variation made based on aim of the present invention of those skilled in the art belongs to protection scope of the present invention.
Breed breeding
The seed selection process
Through investigation and resource acquisition, collect altogether have precocity, 4 parts of individual plants of snakegourd germ plasm resource of most objective traits such as disease-resistant, high yield high-quality, the Qiaocheng District snakegourd is bred the base and is carried out the piece root and expand numerously in the Bozhou, carries out varietal yield test simultaneously.Selection is the most precocious, the bacteria resistance angular leaf spot is the strongest, and two best strains of general performance get into the test of kind small sizes.
The test of kind small size
The Qiaocheng District snakegourd is bred the base and is done comparative variety trial in the Bozhou, and district's group is arranged at random, each kind field planting 20 strain, and seeding row spacing is 3.5m * 1.2m, area 100m 2, 3 repetitions are established in test.Ripe property, yielding ability, disease resistance, seed shape, seed-producing rate, thousand kernel weight etc. are investigated.
Through test in 2 years, all after about 10 joints, female flower is arranged successively with No. 2 No. 1 as a result, the back fruit begins maturation and gathers before October 8, and is every later at a distance from gathering once 3-5 day (surpassing a week), without the control group of seed selection about an about week of precocity.The result sees
Table 1.
Table a kind small size comparative test result
Different provenance trials
The result sees table 2.Shi Bali town, Da Yang town, Qiaocheng District, Woyang Yi Men layout in the Bozhou respectively in 2006-2007 to select No. 1 experimental cultivar, carry out comparative test prolifically.Test method is tested with small size.Life equal harvest time is October 11 then, and average aging fruit output is 58.2kg, and is basic identical with the small size result of the test.
Amplify demonstration test and popularization
2007-2008 amplifies with standardized planting in Qiaocheng District snakegourd base and tests; 100 mu in location more than the chosen distance highway 500m, test method is tested with small size, and be October 12 average harvest time; Average aging fruit per mu yield is 786kg, and comparison is high by 15% according to kind.Carried out standardized planting and popularization in Qiaocheng District snakegourd base in 2008.
Resistant proof
, Qiaocheng District snakegourd base carried out the field disease survey when carrying out scale-up in 2007, bacteria resistance angular leaf spot and climing rot in No. 1, anti didymella, high mildew-resistance.
Table 2 kind small size comparative test result
Different provenance trials
Shi Bali town, Da Yang town, Qiaocheng District, Woyang Yi Men layout in the Bozhou respectively in 2006-2007 to select No. 1 experimental cultivar, carry out comparative test prolifically.Test method is tested with small size.Life equal harvest time is October 11 then, and average aging fruit output is 58.2kg, and is basic identical with the small size result of the test.
Amplify demonstration test and popularization
2007-2008 amplifies with standardized planting in Qiaocheng District snakegourd base and tests; 100 mu in location more than the chosen distance highway 500m, test method is tested with small size, and be October 12 average harvest time; Average aging fruit per mu yield is 786kg, and comparison is high by 15% according to kind.Carried out standardized planting and popularization in Qiaocheng District snakegourd base in 2008.
Resistant proof
, Qiaocheng District snakegourd base carried out the field disease survey when carrying out scale-up in 2007, bacteria resistance angular leaf spot and climing rot in No. 1, anti didymella, high mildew-resistance.Radices trichosanthis nematoda control test
The radices trichosanthis nematode is a comparatively severe diseases of snakegourd, and the incidence of disease is high, and harm is serious.
Medicament and processing
3000 times of liquid of (1) 1.5% bacterium line prestige wetting powder; The precious suspending agent 3kg/667m of 5000 times of liquid of (2) 1.5% bacterium line prestige wetting powders (3) 20% red taros 2200 times of liquid of (4) 3% Phoxin wettable powders; (5) blank (not dispenser).
Experimental scheme
The second crop soil that experimental field was selected near continuous cropping Qiaocheng District snakegourd base in 2007 makes an experiment, and last end of the year, nematode was taken place.
Ground and field planting are applied fertilizer, put in order in the snakegourd field according to conventional method, with the field planting after about 10 minutes of reagent seed soaking root, gets experimental field piece soil sample before the dispenser earlier earlier, adds up nematode population at microscopically, waters as normal root water with soup and execute, and every cave is watered and executed 1000 milliliters.Mid-May, with medicament was irritated root twice again, and every strain is watered and executed 1000 milliliters.Next year repeats chemicals treatment, and the soil sample collection separates laggard column rule borer population amount microscopy, and statistical computation goes out the preventive effect that each is handled.
The preventive effect computational methods
Insect population rate (%)=[(insect population number-control back insect population number before the control)/preceding insect population number of control] * 100 of going down
Result of the test is seen table 3.
Table 3 radices trichosanthis tie lines borer population amount statistical form n=2
The result shows: before the dispenser experimental field in the soil root-knot nematode amount higher; The nematode number of dispenser post processing zone all has minimizing in various degree; Preventive effect with 3000 times of liquid of 1.5% bacterium line prestige wetting powder is the highest; Next is 5000 times of liquid of 1.5% bacterium line prestige wetting powder, and precious suspending agent of 20% red taro and 3% Phoxin wettable powder preventive effect are lower.
The breeding seedling
1, seminal propagation production root of Chinese trichosanthes is main with this method.Because of having only only a few in the seed is female, if be unworthy of planting then result not of staminiferous plant, this helps the formation and the high yield of piece root.
Seminal propagation can be carried out sowing in the field and plant the two kinds of methods of moving with growing seedlings:
(1) live is exactly that seed is directly planted on the whole good commerial growing base, need not the seedling raising and transplanting stage through the nursery.
(2) seedling raising and transplanting can be in selected planting site or the bedding on the ground of special garden, distance between rows and hills is by 15 * 9 centimetres or 18 * 8 centimetres of water furrow plantings.
Sowing should be on February, the middle ten days to early March carries out.Cut melon building shell open the taking-up seed before sowing, chose in the warm water that a big full fruit grain is put in 40-50 degree centigrade immersion 24 hours, change water 2-3 time midway; Take out then with wet river sand mixing and put vernalization under indoor 25-30 degree centigrade the condition; When most of seed breach, can sow, broadcast 3-5 centimetre of back earthing, furrow face covering with plastic film is with heat and moisture preserving; Anti-cold in the late spring is attacked, and every mu with kind of a 0.5-1 kilogram.Generally just emerged, when seedling grows the high about 30 centimetres of left and right sides of several pieces true leaves, be transplanted to big Tanaka through 13-18 days.This method has to be adopted, stay, sows conveniently, the characteristics of time and labour saving.
2, root division is when every year, summer in winter or spring were gathered in the crops smallpox powder agglomates root, and according to the requirement of different cultivated purpose, the plant piece root of selecting to take different sexes is made seedling.If with results piece root root of Chinese trichosanthes is that purpose then all selects for use the piece root of female plant or staminiferous plant to make propagating materials.Require to select during seed collecting to have grown or as a result the piece root of the healthy and strong plant of 3-5 breeding snakegourd plant.In conjunction with the root of Chinese trichosanthes of gathering winter, choose thick 3-5 centimetre of footpath specially, fresh root of the no damage by disease and insect of section white gives over to kind, plants root and can mix the indoor storage of branch stratification with river sand, is left to next spring field planting.As for the original place outdoor wintering seed field of excavating again spring, can on former plot of land, train thick soil or cover grass and freeze with winter protection.This method breeding has the breeding of maintenance proterties, the fast characteristics of going into operation.
Plant
Field planting is suitable for the 3-4 month in spring to be carried out.Planting density is advisable with 1.5 * 0.5 meters or 1.3 * 0.5 meters, cave footpath with dark each 30 centimetres, use sufficient base manure, and puddle evenly with cave soil, fill out fine earth 8-10 cm thick again, can plant into the seedling that has cultivated, reserve seed for planting piece root or live seed.Live seed can be through emerge in worm water vernalization sowing when just having showed money or valuables one carries unintentionally, every bunch planting 4-6 grain, and earthing 4-5 centimetre then, and suitably cover careless trickle or mulch film keeps cave soil moistening.The plantation of piece root is then taken out root indoor or that reserve seed for planting in the original place in the open; Be cut into long 5-8 centimetre one section, otch dips in ash, dries in the air and transport to planting site to the dry and comfortable healing of otch and sow in room ventilation dry place in stand; Every cave keeps flat kind of a root 1--2 section; Earthing 8--10 centimetre, same lid grass or covering film can be emerged in about about 20 days on the cave.
Field management
1, after the intertill and clean tillage plantation, annual spring, summer, autumn each intertill and clean tillage once, in vegetative period, see that grass in time pulls out, accomplish that the field do not have weeds.Stem is climing do not put on the shelf before, should shallow loosening the soil, can be deeply after putting on the shelf.It is climing to note not hindering stem.
2, topdress and combine intertill and clean tillage to carry out.After the transplanting, 1 year should many nitrogen fertilizer applications, and duty is executed Shaoshi.With people's domestic animals manure and urea is main.From 1 year, topdress every year three times, in the time of height of seedling 25--30 centimetre, execute 1500 kilograms of people's domestic animals manures for every mu for the first time, 50 kilograms in cake fertilizer, 10 kilograms in urea applies in the other trench digging of plant, and the earthing lid is fertile.Second bloom inferior to early June before, 1500 kilograms of every mu of manurings, 50 kilograms in cake fertilizer, after 50 kilograms of mixing of superphosphate, trench digging applies, the earthing lid is fertile.Combine to survive the winter winter protection for the third time, mix in the soil every strain in back with the barnyard manure that becomes thoroughly decomposed and cover a mound, not only winter protection but also apply fertilizer.
3, the scaffolding frame when stem climing high more than 30 centimetres the time, with rod, bamboo pole, preferably prefabricated cement square column is made the pillar frame of puing up a shed, frame is high about 1.5 meters.By plant, every at a distance from 2 meters upright 1 posts, per 2 row set up crossbearer with along frame, last durable crude iron silk, frame bamboo pole, branch and iron wire are tied the jail, are barricaded as frame.Insert 1 bamboo pole in that every strain is other again, the upper end is bundled on the frame pole, ties gently with plastic tape that stem is climing to draw climing putting on the shelf on bamboo pole.
4, beta pruning is pruned when drawing climing putting on the shelf, whenever selects good strains in the field for seed and stays strong climing 2--3 bar, and remaining stem is climing all to be cut.Pruning in 1 year is pruned, and impels the main length of overgrowing, and the climing training again of the stem of putting on the shelf is pruned, and it is evenly distributed, and not overlapping anti-Japanese pressure is in order to ventilation and penetrating light.
5, the winter protection snakegourd is before surviving the winter, and it is climing to cut off the long stem in top, only stays overhead 1 meter climing coiling of long stem on the ground, and a mound is covered in every strain, and high about 30 centimetres, winter protection is survived the winter, and next early April in spring, pushs mound aside, in order to the growth of emerging.
In addition, also to carry out artificial pollination, can significantly improve percentage of fertile fruit and output, should attach great importance in flowering stage.
The control of damage by disease and insect
The snakegourd clearwing moth is a Lepidoptera Aegeriidae big legs clearwing moth (Melittiabombyliformis Cramer), and its mark sheet of causing harm is present: after the late July larva hatching, and the moth food on the stem surface; Overhead invading about about 1m, the white transparent jelly of its secretion and the ight soil of drainage mix, and stick to the polypide surface; After moth is gone into stem; Progressively stem is eaten sky, and stem is progressively expanded, form insect gall.The emergence peak period is with 2000 times of liquid sprays of 50% phosphorus ammonium emulsion stem at the beginning of 7 months, and control efficiency can reach 95.2%; 1000 times of liquid sprayings of 80% DDT EC control efficiency reaches 91.6%.The larva of 15-30 day in July adopts 5% carbaryl powder control efficiency can reach 86.1% during one, two ages.Dig winter and dig cocoon, can reduce the insect population of surviving the winter.
The black cucumber beetle of black foot
The black cucumber beetle (Aupacophora nigripennis Motsch.) of black foot belongs to the coleoptera Chrysomelidae, is the primary pest of snakegourd, also is the main cause of the snakegourd underproduction.Adult has the habit of trooping and causing harm, tens even tens strain snakegourds of causing harm usually, and for netted, and that adjacent plant is injured is lighter with the blade food; The adult happiness is got food at blade back, and the ight soil of discharge drops on the front of following blade, makes the blade face be covered with the worm excrement of celadon.The first Shiqi chorion in larva hatching back, the epiblem of causing harm then, along with polypide grows up, moth is gone in the root gradually, and 3 instar larvaes moth feeding habits are strong.If before early morning, dew was dried, pat frame, then the rate of catching and killing of shake completion worm reaches more than 85%.It is respond well to utilize the seemingly-dead property of adult to carry out the manual catching and killing, and particularly the sticking laws on arrests of batter is better, not only expense low, do not have pesticide pollution, do not injure natural enemy, and can keep the field ecological balance.In addition, 3000~5000 times of liquid sprayings of also available 2.5% cream of decamethrin or 2.5% time missible oil are as the complementary prophylactico-therapeutic measures of adult control; Satisfactory for result with 50% phoxim emulsifiable concentrate or 500 times of liquid irrigating roots of 40% Isofenphos methyl missible oil to the control larva.
Water chestnut spot epilachna
Water chestnut spot epilachna (Epilachna insignis Gorham) different name water chestnut spot is put in order ladybug [Afissa insignis (Gorham)], belongs to coleoptera Coccinellidae epilachna subfamily.Mid or late June to August, early and middle ten days was the larva harm phase, along with the worm growth in age, and appetite and get food speed and increase.Larva latent evil leaf lower epidermis and mesophyll are transferred on other blades behind the food complete leaf again and are endangered, and behind 4~6d, the complete stool blade is withered, only stays climing branch and growing point, also climb full larva on the tender leaf of severe patient growth newly.After mid or late August, larvae pupation, pupa time 4~5d, the adult of emergence on the snakegourd harm a period of time after, transfer on the other plant and endanger.Larva and adult gnaw the snakegourd plant leaf, and be very big to the output and the quality influence of fruit, the strain reduction of income 8%~10% of generally being injured, and weight person complete stool is withered, causes total crop failure.Aspect preventing and treating, mid or late June is to early July, larva gone out with 1000 times of liquid of 40% flolimat, 30% synergy Belmark, 20% for 1~3 length of time sweep sharp 2500 times of liquid spraying leaf back, control efficiency average out to 94.8%; Mid or late August is to early September, adult contained the phase of sending out go out with 20% and sweep sharp 2000 times of liquid and spray, and effect can reach more than 90%.In addition, also can when carry out field management, pinch on the spot and kill, can effectively reduce insect population quantity.Ovum is incubated the Sheng phase with 1000 times of liquid sprayings of AVM, can effectively prevent and treat ovum, larva and the adult of this ladybug.
The melon vine longicorn
Melon vine longicorn (Apomecyna saltator Fabricius) is one of primary pest of snakegourd, takes place in 1 year 1 generation, removes the withered rattan in field winter, concentrates to burn or make compost, and can effectively reduce melon vine longicorn hibernating base, obviously reduces worm source in the coming year; And when finding the plug-in worm excrement of tendril, stab tendril diagonally 3~5 times with sharp-pointed thin wire, very high to the assassination rate of the larva in tendril, particularly high instar larvae; When insect pest is serious,, wrap tightly the tendril at plug-in worm excrement place, can effectively prevent and treat the larva of melon vine longicorn with the cotton balls that suctions 10~20 times of liquid of 80% DDT EC.
Disease control
Anthracnose
Due to anthracnose was infected by thorn dish spore bacterium [Colletotrichum orbiculare (Berk.& Mont) Arx], the optimum temperature of its morbidity was one of important disease of snakegourd about 24 ℃.Along with the continuous expansion of snakegourd cultivated area, its harm also is on the rise.This disease takes place throughout the year, and the 8-9 month is main harm period, and its symptom shows as the blade morbidity; Water soaked spots at first occurs, be expanded into irregular withered spot gradually, scab can merge mutually for a long time and form irregular big spot; Concentric wheel stripe appears in the scab middle part, and blade is all withered when serious; Fruit morbidity, water soaked spots at first appears in scab, after be expanded into circular depressed, be full of cracks appears in the later stage, retransmits the dehydration of sick fruit and shortens the black mummy into; The carpopodium morbidity can cause fruit dead rapidly, and loss is maximum.Control is better with the high effect of 10% generation, is triazolone, carbendazim secondly.
With 500 times of liquid seed soaking of 50% carbendazim 1h, or 150 times of liquid agricultural streptomycin seed soaking 15min, or use water seed soaking, can play certain prevention effect.At the initial stage of a disease or possess morbidity during weather, in time spraying the cloth agricultural chemicals can prevent and control the generation of this disease and spread.These agricultural chemicals have 600 times of liquid of 50% thiophanate methyl wetting powder, 600 times of liquid of 50% carbendazol wettable powder, 300 times of liquid of the U.S. wetting powder of 80% anthrax good fortune, 600 times of liquid of 70% mancozeb wettable powder, 600 times of liquid of 75% tpn wetting powder, 500 times of liquid of 25% charcoal Trane wetting powder, 4000 times of liquid of 25% Shi Baoke missible oil, 200 times of liquid of 2% antimycoin (pesticide corrosion 120 aqua), 200 times of liquid of 2% Astromicin aqua.
Root rot
Former bacterium is Fusarium point sickle spore Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. and fusarium solanae F.solani (Mart.) Sacc..Field investigation and artificial infection show that pathogen is only infected the piece root, and dissemination is not then taken place in stem.Mainly showing as of field, diseased plant emerges partially evening, the seedling growing way a little less than, become the strain stem climing very thin, blade is littler than healthy leaves, spends fewly, fruiting rate is low, fruit is little, output reduces; During underground root morbidity, earlier in the morbidity of piece root upper end, progressively to the lower end expansion, mainly show as the microtubule fasolculus jaundice, the parenchyma cell around the microtubule fasolculus sustains damage and becomes brown, and severe patient piece root browning rots.The generation of root rot increases the weight of along with the prolongation of the snakegourd cultivation time limit.
Research shows, the height of phosphorus, two kinds of constituent contents of zinc and the obvious relation that has of root rot, and the piece root incidence of disease that promptly these two kinds of constituent contents are high is low; The snakegourd incidence of disease that is planted in the high soil of these two kinds of constituent contents is also lower.Lack phosphorus in the snakegourd piece root tissue, make the depauperation of piece root tissue, metabolic function weakens, and premunition descends, and causes the serious generation of root rot.Phosphorization is handled can promote the growth of snakegourd plant and the metabolism of carbohydrate, and the growing way of plant is also more vigorous; Increase the growth of zinc processing also can promotion snakegourd, and total reducing sugars content is obviously raise, the state of an illness alleviates.This research proposal, control snakegourd root rot mainly should be strengthened cultivation management, and the rational application of fertilizer changes the light phosphorus of diazonium and mends potassium for the phosphorization of control nitrogen, does to impose outside the root fertilizer such as phosphorus, potassium, zinc well in the middle and later periods of fertility, to strengthen the premunition of plant self.
Fusarium wilt
Fusarium wilt is claimed dead arm, wilt disease again, be one type of seedling phase from root infect, the entozoic whole-plant disease of vascular bundle, its cause of disease is a sharp sickle spore bacterium (Fusarium oxysporumSchlecht).Less apparent disease of general seedling phase of this disease, infected plant is many to begin to show successively disease from the knot melon phase, particularly melon and fruit expanding stage of blooming.At the noon of fine day, wilting like the lack of water shape appears in blade, especially lobus cardiacus wilt sagging more obvious, at dusk or m seq can recover normal condition, increase the weight of but wilt noon on the 2nd, at dusk, recover more slowly early morning.So repeatedly, 2 fast~3d, 5 slow~6d, diseased plant just can not recover again, and is dried-up gradually and dead, and the field often takes place in flakes.The root of most diseased plants is impaired little, but lobe often appears in main viticula base portion crust, and the surface grows the mould layer of one deck pink during high humidity.The diseased plant basal part of stem is cut open, can be seen vascular bundle browning look.Biological control can adopt wither-resistant agent to spray, irritate root or seed soaking.Medical treatment must handle soil prior to seeding or the dispenser in seedling stage just can have certain control efficiency.Can use seedling stage 1200~1500 times of liquid of 500 times of liquid of 50% carbendazol wettable powder or 10% generation high-moisture powder to drench root, the about 300mL of every strain drenches 1~2 time; Seedling with stretch the climing phase can every strain with 500~800 times of liquid irrigating roots of 250mL potassium permanganate.And in the grave illness district, apply pulverized limestone during whole ground and can play control efficiency to change soil pH value.Their early stage can be selected 15% disappear 400 times of liquid of disease Lingshui Spring agent or 1000 times of liquid irrigating roots of 70% fenaminosulf for use.
The root knot (insect gall) that differs in size is all arranged on root knot nematode disease diseased plant master in early stage, side, the fibrous root, and diameter maximum on the main root is cut the female nematode of the visible white in root knot back open more than 2 centimetres; Later stage causes butt rot, and diseased plant is short and small, grows slowly, and blade diminishes and moves back green jaundice, and last complete stool stem is climing withered.
Control should be used physics and biological synthesis method:
Soil deeptillage when (1) put in order ground autumn to early spring tans by the sun soil, kills the disease worm;
(2) select anosis worm root and fruit and seed to plant, reduce the anthropochory of pathogeny;
(3) strengthen field drainage rainy season, soil moisture is reduced in the pass, finds that diseased plant in time takes off the soil inspection, excises old complaint or pulls out diseased plant, and the place sprinkles pulverized limestone in sick cave, and the earthing compacting is prevented something from spreading;
(4) disease available in case of necessity low toxicity bactericide Polyoxin or antifungi 100--150ppm soup are irritated the root control at the plant their early stage.
Aulacophora femoralis adult knot crowd stings the food blade; Larva half is autochthonal, in soil, stings the food root, even eats in the root, makes plant withered and dead.
Prevent and treat method:
Ground and field planting are applied fertilizer, put in order in a, snakegourd field according to conventional method, with the field planting after about 10 minutes of reagent seed soaking root, get experimental field piece soil sample before the dispenser earlier earlier, add up nematode population at microscopically, water as normal root water with soup and execute, and every cave is watered and executed 1000 milliliters.Mid-May, with medicament was irritated root twice again, and every strain is watered and executed 1000 milliliters.
Carry out the manual catching and killing adult in b, morning.In order to improve insect-catching efficient, seedling stage and non-blooming the setting phase, the seemingly-dead property of adult capable of using, the hand-held washbowl that mixes water that fills is connected on the cauline leaf below, then light bellow frame of another hand or cauline leaf, adult just drops one after another and is choked to death in the basin water.
C, spray control with 400-600 times of dilution of biologic product derris extract.
Melon aphid: belong to the Homoptera Aphidiadae.The harm browse makes the leaf rolling flavescence.Prevent and treat method: spray 1500 times of liquid controls of 40% dimethoate emulsifiable concentrate.
Gather and process
1 fruit (whole Fructus Trichosanthis, the fruit-rind of Chinese trichosanthes, semen trichosanthis)
The after ripening of snakegourd early October fruit elder generation when fruit surface has white powder, and becomes and can pluck when light yellow.Fruit maturation has successively, plucks too early, and skin and flesh is not thick, and seed is also immature, plucks evening, the pulp attenuation, and output reduces.During harvesting, take, hang on the ventilation and dry, can not dry together with carpopodium.Dry that then color and luster is scarlet, whole Fructus Trichosanthis; Get ripe snakegourd fruit, cut 2-4 cutter to muskmelon pedicel and locate, seed and flesh are taken out.Seed dry semen trichosanthis.
2 radices trichosanthises (root of Chinese trichosanthes)
In planting back 2-3, early November digs root and digs out, and after female plant was wanted fruit maturation, staminiferous plant was taking around the Frost's Descent for good.The root of snakegourd is darker, will deep-cut when excavating and choose clean, and the root that digs is removed clean earth and reed head, takes advantage of aquatic foods and scrapes off tertia, thin is cut into 10 centimetres of pipe nipples, and thick can indulge the 2-4 of portion lobe, dry commodity.Preserve in aeration-drying place, because of the radices trichosanthis opaque is many, sugar is big, and the easy moisture absorption is wanted frequent airing in summer when rainy, in case damage by worms or moldy metamorphism.
Embodiment 2:
Atmosphere, water quality, the free of contamination area of soil should be selected in the production base.Pollution source must not be arranged on every side, the environmental ecology quality: air ambient should meet the secondary standard of " atmospheric environment " quality standard: quality of irrigation water should meet " farmland irrigating water " quality standard: soil environment quality should meet the relevant national standard secondary standard.
Choosing ground and whole ground
Choosing ground
Soil physical property:
Snakegourd is used as medicine with fruit, seed and root, and it is dark to bury, the hillside fields that should select that the soil is porous, soil layer is deep, physical features is high and dry or tilt, and draining is good, and the sand loam that soil property is fertile, burning into sand loess and alluvial loam are for well.Soil layer is thin, impeded drainage or be difficult for the sand of preserve moisture and fertility, all undergrowth: viscosity weight, Tu Jieban, low-lying land, be prone to ponding or should not be planted by the place of flood impact easily.The saline land also should not be planted.Avoid continuous cropping.Can with aster, safflower, chrysanthemum, legume crop rotation.At a distance from ability plantation in 3~5 years.The hillside fields plantation should be selected tailo, and south orientation is advisable to the east of the aspect, and do not have around the ground trees and other concealment things shade, in order to avoid influence output.Functional, the loose fertile sand of Haozhou, Anhui, main producing region medicinal herb grower's more options farming, silt two are closed soil species and are planted, and it is good to grow, and root is sturdy, and output is higher.For preventing scarab beetle harm, stubble is the location of cucurbitaceous plant before had better not selecting.
The soil chemistry proterties:
Snakegourd requires not tight to the acid-base value of soil.The soil of pH6.5-8 is the most suitable.
The soil persticide residue:
The concentration of hexachlorcyclohexane must not surpass 0.1 mg/kg.
The concentration of DDT must not surpass 0.1 mg/kg.
Content of beary metal:
With reference to yellow earth, the yellow maximum level (unit: mg/litre) that allows in earth, brown earth, cinnamon soil, the grey cinnamonic soil of combining
Mercury 0.264 mg/litre (yellow earth), cadmium 0.28 mg/litre (yellow earth, the grey cinnamonic soil combined), plumbous 82 mg/litre (yellow earth), arsenic 35 mg/litre (yellow earth), chromium 131 1 198 mg/litre (brown earth).
Whole ground
The snakegourd growth year is long, can not turn over every year in the soil, and is extremely important wholely before planting, and requires intensive cultivation.After September, previous crops was gathered in the crops, select fine day to plough, plough deeply more than the soil 30cm, make its abundant weathering slaking, through repeatedly turning over, break up the clods again, remove stone, grass roots, want the Ex-all rhizome of nutgrass flatsedge and root of couch grass especially.
Basal dressing and sterilization:
Before the whole ground, execute 45% compound potassium sulfate fertilizer 50kg for every mu, superphosphate 50kg, borax 1kg, zinc sulphate 0.3kg~1kg, the cake fertilizer 100kg that becomes thoroughly decomposed, well-rotted farmyard manure 3000kg.Fertilising is adopted ditch spread or is delayed and execute, and is promptly opening a row application ditch apart from 50cm place, furrow limit, or on furrow at interval 1.5m delay according to square the beating of 50cm, fertilizer and part soil mixed apply, then earthing.
Every square metre of nursery bed disinfection is converted 1000 times in water with 70% thiophanate methyl wetting powder 8g; Bacterium line prestige 0.3g~0.5g converts 3500~7000 times in water, evenly sprays preparatory antiforeign bacteria and root knot nematode disease on the furrow face.
Bedding:
High 20~the 30cm of the furrow of growing seedlings, about furrow face width 100cm, furrow spacing 40cm.Open the zanjon about wide 50cm around the seedbed, be convenient to draining.
Flat furrow or high furrow, bedding can be according to different the deciding of the soil texture, draining quality, local climate condition and farming custom, and