CN101889518B - Planting method of Chinese trichosanthes - Google Patents

Planting method of Chinese trichosanthes Download PDF

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Publication number
CN101889518B
CN101889518B CN2010102313159A CN201010231315A CN101889518B CN 101889518 B CN101889518 B CN 101889518B CN 2010102313159 A CN2010102313159 A CN 2010102313159A CN 201010231315 A CN201010231315 A CN 201010231315A CN 101889518 B CN101889518 B CN 101889518B
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China
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root
planting
snakegourd
plant
soil
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CN2010102313159A
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Chinese (zh)
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CN101889518A (en
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王成永
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安徽沪谯中药科技有限公司
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Abstract

The invention relates to a planting method of Chinese trichosanthes, belonging to the technical field of plantation and comprising the steps of: variety breeding, seedling reproduction, transplanting, field management, disease and pest control, harvesting and processing, wherein the variety breeding step includes the sub-steps of the tests in different production places, amplification and verification tests, resistance test, field pest investigation and trichosanthes nematode control; the seedling reproduction step includes the sub-steps of seed reproduction and root reproduction; the transplanting step includes the sub-steps of land selection and preparation, ridging, reproduction and planting, planting method implementation and field management; the land selection and preparation step includes the sub-steps of detection on chemical characteristic of soil, basic fertilizer application and disinfection; the reproduction and planting step includes the sub-steps of seed bud selection, rood cutting and breeding, planting and shed putting up; the planting method implementation step includes the sub-steps of planning density control and staminiferous plant matching; the filed management step includes the sub-steps of intertillagement and weeding, top application, shed putting up, pruning and cold prevention, in particular to intertillagement and weeding, root airing, intercrop, earthing, vine supporting and racking, top application, pruning, flower and fruit protection, chemical control and foliage application; and the disease and pest control step includes the sub-steps of control of diseases and pest and control method implementation.

Description

The kind method for planting of snakegourd
Technical field
The present invention relates to the kind method for planting of snakegourd, belong to the planting technology field.
Background technology
Snakegourd (Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim.) and trichosanthes rosthornii Harms (Trichosanthes kirilowii Hanms) are medicinal main article, and it is wide to distribute at home, plant with a long history, medicine-food two-purpose.Its fruit, pericarp, root all can be used as medicine, and root has another name called root of Chinese trichosanthes.
Though the snakegourd plantation is with a long history; But be as natural crude drugs plantations, at present extensive snakegourd production plantation resource all comes from wild always, aboundresources but germplasm is numerous and diverse; Biological property and economic characters are widely different, have a strong impact on the sound development of standardization plantation and industry.
Snakegourd is stronger to climate adaptability, and suitable gentle temperature is liked sunny.The Bozhou extend across 115 ° 53 '~116 ° 49 of east longitude ', 32 ° 51 '~35 ° 05 of north latitude ', be about 150 kilometers, wide about 90 kilometers.The linchpin border links to each other with the Yellow River breach fan, and physical features is smooth; Physical features northwest, whole Bozhou is high, and gradient is southeastward little inclines with 1/9000 ground nature.Cut transition and the general influence in all previous south, the Yellow River owing to wriggled by the river, crest hill, pod distribute alternately in the formation Plain, and relief is free and easy, have the geomorphic feature of " flat greatly little injustice ".Whole city's weather is in south, warm temperate zone edge, belongs to half gentle climatic region, warm temperate zone, and transitional significantly characteristic is arranged, 14.7 ℃ of average temperatures of the whole year, average 2320 hours sunshine, average 216 days frost-free seasons, 822 millimeters of average precipitation, suitable snakegourd growth.In the shade ground of snakegourd or shade rate be undergrowth greatly then, and output is not high; Cold-resistant, at cold district, ridging in winter ability safe overwintering; Before the general late October frozen ground, cut off branches and leaves at 8cm place overhead, and earth up, can protect and pass the winter in rhizosphere; Also can be high temperature resistant, under 42 ℃ of high temperature of short-term, can get over the summer safely; Snakegourd distributes wider, production base range of choice broad.
Summary of the invention
In view of the above problems, the object of the present invention is to provide the kind method for planting of snakegourd.
A kind of kind method for planting of snakegourd comprises breed breeding, breeding seedling, plants, the control of field management, damage by disease and insect, gather and procedure of processing,
The breed breeding process steps: collect have precocity, the snakegourd germ plasm resource individual plant of disease-resistant, high yield high-quality, carry out the piece root and expand numerously, carry out varietal yield test simultaneously; Select strain to get into the test of kind small size;
The test of kind small size: do comparative variety trial, district's group is arranged at random, each kind field planting 20 strain, and seeding row spacing is 3.5m * 1.2m, area 100m 2, 3 repetitions are established in test; Ripe property, yielding ability, disease resistance, seed shape, seed-producing rate, thousand kernel weight etc. are investigated;
Carry out different provenance trials and amplify demonstration test; Carry out resistant proof;
Carry out the field disease survey, carry out the radices trichosanthis nematoda control;
Breeding seedling: carry out seminal propagation and root division;
The step of planting contains choosing ground and whole ground step, bedding step, breeding and plantation step, plantation method step and field management step;
Choosing ground and whole ground step; The soil chemistry proterties is detected step; Basal dressing and sterilisation step;
The bedding step;
Breeding and plantation step; Select kind of a bud, cut root and grow seedlings, the plantation built,
The plantation method step; The control planting density; The collocation staminiferous plant,
The field management step; Intertill and clean tillage, the root that dries in the air, intercropping, earth up, hold up climingly put on the shelf, topdress, training, flower and fruit protecting control and spray leaf fertilizer;
The field management step has intertill and clean tillage, the frame that topdresses, puts up a shed, beta pruning are pruned, the winter protection step;
Damage by disease and insect prevent and treat step; To disease, insect pest and control method step thereof;
Prevent and treat method 1:
1. clean the rural area: behind the autumn snakegourd fallen leaves, the residual leaf of deadwood concentrated burn and buried.
2. crop rotation or soil deeptillage: the crop rotation or the preceding soil deeptillage of sowing, plough under lower floor with the top layer, to alleviate morbidity in the coming year.
3. enhance field management: draining in time behind the attention rain.
4. rational close planting makes ventilation and penetrating light between strain, promotes plant strain growth healthy and strong, improves premunition.
5. select anosis kind of bud for use, and, sow after disinfecting with 300 times of liquid seed soaking of 65% zineb 10-15 minute.
6. their early stage sprays 800~1000 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim, and is every at a distance from 10 days 1 time, connects and sprays 2-3 time.Perhaps 1: 1: 100 bordeaux mixture of their early stage spray is every at a distance from 10-14 days 1 time, connects and sprays 3~4 times.
Or prevent and treat method 2:
1. the sick leaf of stubble is removed in the results back, concentrates and burns, and eliminates the germ that survives the winter;
2. soil deeptillage, carry out crop rotation more than 3 years:
3. combine field management such as defloration flower bud, intertill and clean tillage, extract the sick leaf in plant bottom, take out of to concentrate outside the field and burn;
4. their early stage sprays 50% carbendazim 800-1000 times liquid, or 1000~1500 times of liquid of 50% topsin, or 1: 1: 100 bordeaux mixture, whenever at a distance from spray in 10 days 1 time, connects and sprays 2-3 time.
Or prevent and treat method 3:
1. combine intertill and clean tillage autumn, thoroughly wipe out the residual leaf of disease branch, remove the residual branch of fallen leaves and concentrate and burn and buried;
2. applying organic manure and phosphorus potash fertilizer promote plant strain growth healthy and strong, strengthen premunition;
3. before blooming to late April in snakegourd germination back, spray 800~1000 times of liquid of 50% carbendazim, or 1000 times of liquid of 50% topsin, or 500 times of liquid of 65% zineb, every at a distance from 10 days 1 time, connect and spray 2~3 times.
Or prevent and treat method 4:
1. clean the rural area, burn invalid branches and leaves and buried;
2. enhance field management, in time ditch cleaning row stain reduces field humidity; Rationally plantation will keep good ventilation and penetrating light condition between plant;
3. their early stage, with 1: 1: 100 bordeaux mixture or 500~600 times of liquid sprayings of 65% zineb, every at a distance from medication in 7~10 days 1 time, till September;
4. cultivate disease-resistant variety.
Gather and procedure of processing;
The after ripening of snakegourd early October fruit elder generation when fruit surface has white powder, and becomes and can pluck when light yellow.During harvesting, take, hang on the ventilation and dry together with carpopodium; Get ripe snakegourd fruit, cut 2-4 cutter to muskmelon pedicel and locate, seed and flesh are taken out; Seed dry semen trichosanthis.
Packing, storage and transportation step.
Quality standard and monitoring:
Quality standard: appearance character:
(1) fruit oval or type sphere, long 7~15cm, diameter 6~10cm, the surface is dark orange-yellow to orange red, shrinkage or more level and smooth, there is remaining style base on the top, and base portion has the carpopodium vestiges; Matter is crisp, is prone to break, and pericarp is thick slightly, the inner surface yellow-white, and the fruit flesh is orange-yellow, and is agglomerating with most seed bondings.Gas such as caramel; It is little sour-sweet to distinguish the flavor of.
(2) root of Chinese trichosanthes is irregular cylindrical, spindle or lobe is block, long 8~16cm, diameter 1.5~5.5cm.Surface yellow-white or light brown yellow, the hole skin of growing crosswise that vertical wrinkle, radicula trace is arranged and slightly cave in, what have has the yellowish-brown crust residual.Matter is solid, section white or faint yellow, and rich mealiness, cross section visible yellow color xylem slightly is radial arrangement, vertical section visible yellow color striated xylem.Odorless, mildly bitter flavor.
Quality-monitoring:
The residue of pesticide monitoring:
With reference to " Pharmacopoeia of People's Republic of China version appendix in 2005 IX 6 " organic chlorine agriculture chemicals determination of residual amount method.
" medicinal plant and goods are imported and exported green industry standard " with reference to State Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation's 2001 promulgations;
Hexachlorcyclohexane (BHC) is smaller or equal to 0.1mg/kg;
DDT is smaller or equal to 0.1mg/kg;
Pcnb PCNB is smaller or equal to 0.1mg/kg;
Aldrin Aldrin is smaller or equal to 0.02mg/kg;
The content of beary metal monitoring;
With reference to " Pharmacopoeia of People's Republic of China version in 2005 " appendix IX heavy metal method of control.
" medicinal plant and goods are imported and exported green industry standard " with reference to State Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic Cooperation's 2001 promulgations;
Total metals is smaller or equal to 20.0mg/kg;
Plumbous (Pb) is smaller or equal to 5.0mg/kg;
Cadmium (Cd) is smaller or equal to 0.3mg/kg;
Mercury (Hg) is smaller or equal to 0.2mg/kg;
Arsenic (As) is smaller or equal to 2.0mg/kg.
Embodiment
Embodiment 1:
Obviously, many modifications and the variation made based on aim of the present invention of those skilled in the art belongs to protection scope of the present invention.
Breed breeding
The seed selection process
Through investigation and resource acquisition, collect altogether have precocity, 4 parts of individual plants of snakegourd germ plasm resource of most objective traits such as disease-resistant, high yield high-quality, the Qiaocheng District snakegourd is bred the base and is carried out the piece root and expand numerously in the Bozhou, carries out varietal yield test simultaneously.Selection is the most precocious, the bacteria resistance angular leaf spot is the strongest, and two best strains of general performance get into the test of kind small sizes.
The test of kind small size
The Qiaocheng District snakegourd is bred the base and is done comparative variety trial in the Bozhou, and district's group is arranged at random, each kind field planting 20 strain, and seeding row spacing is 3.5m * 1.2m, area 100m 2, 3 repetitions are established in test.Ripe property, yielding ability, disease resistance, seed shape, seed-producing rate, thousand kernel weight etc. are investigated.
Through test in 2 years, all after about 10 joints, female flower is arranged successively with No. 2 No. 1 as a result, the back fruit begins maturation and gathers before October 8, and is every later at a distance from gathering once 3-5 day (surpassing a week), without the control group of seed selection about an about week of precocity.The result sees
Table 1.
Table a kind small size comparative test result
Different provenance trials
The result sees table 2.Shi Bali town, Da Yang town, Qiaocheng District, Woyang Yi Men layout in the Bozhou respectively in 2006-2007 to select No. 1 experimental cultivar, carry out comparative test prolifically.Test method is tested with small size.Life equal harvest time is October 11 then, and average aging fruit output is 58.2kg, and is basic identical with the small size result of the test.
Amplify demonstration test and popularization
2007-2008 amplifies with standardized planting in Qiaocheng District snakegourd base and tests; 100 mu in location more than the chosen distance highway 500m, test method is tested with small size, and be October 12 average harvest time; Average aging fruit per mu yield is 786kg, and comparison is high by 15% according to kind.Carried out standardized planting and popularization in Qiaocheng District snakegourd base in 2008.
Resistant proof
, Qiaocheng District snakegourd base carried out the field disease survey when carrying out scale-up in 2007, bacteria resistance angular leaf spot and climing rot in No. 1, anti didymella, high mildew-resistance.
Table 2 kind small size comparative test result
Different provenance trials
Shi Bali town, Da Yang town, Qiaocheng District, Woyang Yi Men layout in the Bozhou respectively in 2006-2007 to select No. 1 experimental cultivar, carry out comparative test prolifically.Test method is tested with small size.Life equal harvest time is October 11 then, and average aging fruit output is 58.2kg, and is basic identical with the small size result of the test.
Amplify demonstration test and popularization
2007-2008 amplifies with standardized planting in Qiaocheng District snakegourd base and tests; 100 mu in location more than the chosen distance highway 500m, test method is tested with small size, and be October 12 average harvest time; Average aging fruit per mu yield is 786kg, and comparison is high by 15% according to kind.Carried out standardized planting and popularization in Qiaocheng District snakegourd base in 2008.
Resistant proof
, Qiaocheng District snakegourd base carried out the field disease survey when carrying out scale-up in 2007, bacteria resistance angular leaf spot and climing rot in No. 1, anti didymella, high mildew-resistance.Radices trichosanthis nematoda control test
The radices trichosanthis nematode is a comparatively severe diseases of snakegourd, and the incidence of disease is high, and harm is serious.
Medicament and processing
3000 times of liquid of (1) 1.5% bacterium line prestige wetting powder; The precious suspending agent 3kg/667m of 5000 times of liquid of (2) 1.5% bacterium line prestige wetting powders (3) 20% red taro