JP4860128B2 - ワイヤボンディング方法 - Google Patents

ワイヤボンディング方法 Download PDF

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JP4860128B2
JP4860128B2 JP2004253339A JP2004253339A JP4860128B2 JP 4860128 B2 JP4860128 B2 JP 4860128B2 JP 2004253339 A JP2004253339 A JP 2004253339A JP 2004253339 A JP2004253339 A JP 2004253339A JP 4860128 B2 JP4860128 B2 JP 4860128B2
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bonding
wire
ball
capillary
semiconductor chip
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JP2005086200A (ja
Inventor
仁九 姜
相▲ヨープ▼ 李
震鎬 金
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三星電子株式会社Samsung Electronics Co.,Ltd.
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Priority to KR10-2003-0061760A priority Critical patent/KR100536898B1/ko
Priority to KR2003-061760 priority
Application filed by 三星電子株式会社Samsung Electronics Co.,Ltd. filed Critical 三星電子株式会社Samsung Electronics Co.,Ltd.
Publication of JP2005086200A publication Critical patent/JP2005086200A/ja
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Description

本発明は、電子パッケージングに関するものであって、さらに詳細にはワイヤボンディング方法、半導体チップ、及び半導体パッケージに関する。

一般に、電子パッケージは、ハウジングと「半導体素子」、「チップ」または「ダイ」と呼ばれる集積回路等の連結からなり、電子システムを形成する。パッケージはチップを支持するとともに外部環境から保護し、且つ、チップやシステムから発生する熱を除去する手段、またはチップに信号と電力を供給するための電気的接続を提供する。

ワイヤボンディング技術とは、パッケージ内部の電気的接続に用いられる従来の技術である。このとき、ボンディングワイヤとして、金(Au)やアルミニウム(Al)、銅(Cu)を使用する場合もある。ワイヤの一端はチップに連結され、他端は基板、すなわち、リードフレームをはじめとする印刷回路基板、セラミック基板、フレキシブル回路基板などに連結される。

従来のワイヤボンディング技術は、チップにボールボンディングを、基板にステッチボンディングを行う。すなわち、ワイヤボンダ(wire bonder)のキャピラリ(capillary)の終端下に出てきたワイヤのテールにボールを形成させた後、熱または超音波振動を加えてキャピラリにより押し付けて半導体チップのボンディングパッドにボンディングする。そして、キャピラリを用いて一定の軌跡のループ(loop)を作った後基板のボンディング位置にてウェッジ型ステッチボンドを形成する。

しかし、ボンディングワイヤのループを安定に形成・維持するためには、半導体チップの上面に対するボンディングワイヤの高さを十分に維持しなければならない。すなわち、ワイヤの直径によって異なる場合もあるが、チップの上面に対するボンディングワイヤの高さを100μm以上にしなければならない。従って、既存のワイヤボンディング法は半導体パッケージの薄形化における障害要因として作用している。

こうした問題を解決するための努力として、バンプリバースボンディング技術が開発された。バンプリバースボンディングは、基板にボールボンディングを、半導体チップにステッチボンディングを行うものである。半導体チップにステッチボンディングをすることによってチップのボンディングパッドにボールバンプを載置することができ、それにより、ボンディングパッド上にループを形成せずワイヤボンディングを実現することができる。上記関連技術として、1994年7月12日付及び1998年4月7日付の2つの従来技術文献、そして、2002年8月13日の別の従来技術文献に開示されている(例えば、特許文献1乃至3参照)。
米国特許第5,328,079号明細書 米国特許第5,735,030号明細書 韓国登録特許公報第0350084号明細書

しかし、バンプリバースボンディング(bump-reverse bonding)は、図7に示すように、キャピラリの動きが多いために、ワイヤボンディング工程時間が長くなる問題がある。すなわち、半導体チップのボンディングパッド52においてボールバンプ82を形成する工程を行った後、配線基板のボンディング位置62へ移動させて、ボンディング位置62にボールボンディングをした後半導体チップのボンディングパッド52へ再移動してステッチボンディングすることにより仕上げる。

前述したように、半導体チップ50のボンディングパッド52と基板のボンディング位置62とをボンディングワイヤにより連結するために、キャピラリの往復運動が必要である。ここで、実線矢印は、キャピラリの移動による実質的なワイヤボンディング工程が行われる移動経路を表し、点線矢印は実質的なワイヤボンディング工程前のキャピラリの移動経路を表す。

従って、本発明の目的は、ワイヤボンディング中にキャピラリの不要な移動時間を最小化することによりワイヤボンディング時間を最小化できるワイヤボンディング法を提供することにある。

上記目的を達成するために、本発明は、ボンディングパッドを有する半導体チップが実装され、上記半導体チップの近接にボンディング位置が形成されている配線基板を備える段階と、上記ボンディングパッドとボンディング位置を接続するためのボンディングワイヤを備える段階と、上記半導体チップのボンディングパッド上にボールバンプを形成する段階と、上記ボールバンプ上に上記ボンディングワイヤの第1ステッチボンドを形成する段階と、上記ボンディング位置に上記ボンディングワイヤの第2ステッチボンドを形成する段階とを有することを特徴とするワイヤボンディング方法を提供する。

さらに、本発明は、ボンディングパッドを有する半導体チップが実装され、上記半導体チップの近方にボンディング位置が形成されている配線基板を備える段階と、上記ボンディングパッドとボンディング位置を連結するためにキャピラリを通じてワイヤを提供する段階と、上記キャピラリの下に出てきたワイヤの終端にボールを形成する段階と、上記ワイヤのボールを押し付けることによって上記半導体チップのボンディングパッドにボールバンプを形成する段階と、上記ボールバンプをボンディングパッドに保持するためにワイヤから切断段階と、上記ワイヤをボールバンプ上に押し付けることにより上記ボールバンプ上に第1ステッチボンドを形成する段階と、ワイヤを緩めながら上記キャピラリが上記ボンディングパッドより上記配線基板のボンディング位置へ移動させる段階と、上記ボンディング位置にワイヤを押し付けることにより上記配線基板のボンディング位置に第2ステッチボンドを形成する段階と、上記第2ステッチボンドを上記キャピラリ内部にあるワイヤから切断する段階とを有することを特徴とするワイヤボンディング方法を提供する。

半導体チップのボンディングパッドにボールバンプ予め形成するワイヤボンディング方法を提供する。

本発明は、ボールバンプを形成しているボンディングパッドを有する半導体チップが実装され、上記半導体チップの近方にボンディング位置を形成している配線基板を備える段階と、上記ボンディングパッドとボンディング位置を接続するためのボンディングワイヤを備える段階と、上記ボールバンプ上に上記ボンディングワイヤの第1ステッチボンドを形成する段階と、ワイヤを緩めながらキャピラリがボンディングパッドよりボンディング位置へ移動させる段階と、上記ボンディング位置に上記ボンディングワイヤの第2ステッチボンドを形成する段階と、上記第2ステッチボンドを上記キャピラリ内部にあるワイヤから切断する段階とを有する。

本発明による半導体チップは、基板のボンディング位置とワイヤボンディングのための少なくとも一つ以上のボンディングパッドと、その上に形成されたボールステッチバンプとを備える。

本発明による半導体パッケージは、基板の少なくとも一つ以上のボンディング位置とのワイヤボンディングのために、少なくとも一つ以上のボンディングパッドと、上記ボンディングパッド上に形成されているボールステッチバンプを備える半導体チップと、上記少なくとも一つ以上のボンディングパッドのボールステッチバンプとのワイヤボンディングのために、少なくとも一つ以上のボンディング位置の半導体基板とを備える。

本発明によるワイヤボンディング方法に用いるボンディングワイヤとして金線、アルミニウム線または銅線を有し、配線基板としてリードフレーム、印刷回路基板、セラミック基板またはフレキシブル回路基板等を挙げることができる。

以下、添付図面を参照して本発明の実施例をさらに詳細に説明する。図面において同様の図面符号は同様の構成要素を表す。

図1乃至図6は、本発明の実施例による半導体素子のワイヤボンディング方法を示す図である。

本実施形態によるワイヤボンディング工程は、図1に示すように、半導体チップ10が実装された配線基板20を備える段階からスタートする。半導体チップ10は、上面に多数個のボンディングパッド12が形成されており、ボンディングパッド12を除く上面は保護層14により被覆され保護されている。配線基板20の上面に半導体チップ10に近接して多数個のボンディング位置22が形成されている。配線基板20として、リードフレームをはじめとする印刷回路基板、セラミック基板、フレキシブル回路基板などが用いられる。

次に、図2及び図3に示すように、半導体チップ10のボンディングパッド12にボールバンプ42を形成する段階が行われる。EFO(Electric Frame Off)放電を通じてキャピラリ30の終端に突出したボンディングワイヤ40終端にボールを形成した後、半導体チップのボンディングパッド12に所定の荷重と超音波エネルギーをキャピラリ30の下端に伝達すると、ボール41が押し付けられボールバンプ42がボンディングパッド12に形成される。次いで、キャピラリ30が上昇しながらワイヤボンダのクランプ32を用いてボンディングワイヤ40を切断する。従って、ボールバンプ42は、ボンディングワイヤ40から切断されボンディングパッド12に位置するようになる。

さらに他の実施形態によると、半導体チップ製造過程において、ワイヤ40を使用せずボンディングパッド12にボールバンプ42を予め形成することもできる。

次いで、図4に示すように、ボールバンプ42上にボールステッチ状ステッチボンド44を形成する段階が行われる。すなわち、ボンディングワイヤ40を切断してボールバンプ42を形成した後、ボールバンプ42上にキャピラリ30が下降してくる。そして、キャピラリ30は、超音波エネルギーを使用したか否かに関係なくワイヤ40テールを所定の荷重により押し付けてボールバンプ42上にボールステッチ状ステッチボンド44を形成する。その後、ワイヤ40を緩めながら基板のボンディング位置22へ移動させる。

本発明の実施形態において、ボールバンプ42を形成した後、直に、ボールバンプ42上にボールステッチ状ステッチボンド44を形成するので、ボールステッチ状ステッチボンド44においてボールバンプ42とワイヤ40との間の接合の信頼性が著しく、且つ、良好な信頼性を確保することができる。

図5に示すように、配線基板のボンディング位置22にボンディングワイヤ40の別のステッチボンド46を形成する。すなわち、ボールバンプ42にボールステッチ状ステッチボンド44を形成した後、ワイヤを緩めながらキャピラリ30がボンディング位置22へ移動する。その後、キャピラリ30は、ワイヤ40を所定の圧力で押し付けてボンディング位置22にボンディングワイヤ40を押し付けてボンディング位置22にステッチボンド46を形成する。

図6に示すように、キャピラリ30が上昇するとき、クランプ32がワイヤを把持しているため、ステッチボンド46からワイヤ40が切断される。その後、キャピラリ30はボールを形成するために次のボンディングパッド12へ移動する。

図8に示すように、ワイヤボンディング方法において、キャピラリ30がボンディングパッド12よりボンディング位置22へ移動するために、再びボンディングパッド12に戻る必要がなく、キャピラリ30の移動経路を最小化することができる。従って、ワイヤボンディングにかかる時間が減少し、従来のワイヤボンディング作業に比べて著しく効率的である。

ボールステッチボンドやステッチ-ボールボンドとを用いた従来技術に比べて、本発明のワイヤボンディング技術は、ボールステッチ状ステッチボンドとステッチボンドとを用いて半導体チップと基板とを連結する。従って、ボールボンドを使用せず済むようになるので、ボールボンド上にワイヤループを形成する必要がなく、且つ、ワイヤの高さを減少させることができる。これは、半導体チップのボンディングパッドと基板のボンディング位置との間の高さが異なる場合において一層効果的である。従来では、半導体チップ上にワイヤループが突き出ていたが、本発明では、ワイヤの高さを半導体チップの高さに縮めることができた。

一方、本明細書と図面に開示された本発明の実施例は理解を助けるための特定の実施形態を例示したに過ぎず、本発明の範囲を限定するものではない。ここに開示された実施例の他にも本発明の技術的思想を逸脱しない範囲内における種々の変形例が実施可能であることは当業者には自明である。

本発明の実施形態による配線基板に半導体チップが実装されている状態を示す図である。 本発明の実施形態による半導体チップのボンディングパッド上にボールバンプを形成する段階を示す図である。 本発明の実施形態による半導体チップのボンディングパッド上にボールバンプを形成する段階を示す図である。 本発明の実施形態によるボールバンプにボンディングワイヤからなるボールステッチ状ステッチボンドを形成する段階を示す図である。 本発明の実施形態による配線基板にステッチボンドを形成する段階を示す図面である。 本発明の実施形態による配線基板にステッチボンドを形成する段階を示す図面である。 従来技術によるワイヤボンディング方法によるキャピラリの移動経路を示す図である。 本発明の実施形態によるワイヤボンディング方法によるキャピラリの移動経路を示す図である。

符号の説明

10 半導体チップ
12 ボンディングパッド
14 保護層
20 配線基板
22 リード
30 キャピラリ
32 ワイヤクランプ
40 ボンディングワイヤ
42 ボールバンプ
44 ボールステッチ状ステッチボンド
46 ステッチボンド

Claims (3)

  1. ボンディングパッドを有する半導体チップが実装され、前記半導体チップに近接してボンディング位置が形成される配線基板を備える段階と、
    前記ボンディングパッドとボンディング位置を接続するためにキャピラリを通じてボンディングワイヤを提供する段階と、
    前記キャピラリの下に出てきたボンディングワイヤの一端にボールを形成する段階と、
    前記ボンディングパッド上に前記ボンディングワイヤのボールを押し付けて前記半導体チップのボンディングパッド上にボールバンプを形成する段階と、
    前記ボールバンプをボンディングパッド上に保持するために前記ボンディングワイヤから切断する段階と、
    前記ボールバンプ上に前記ボンディングワイヤを押し付けて前記ボールバンプ上に前記ボンディングワイヤの第1ステッチボンドを形成する段階と、
    前記ボンディングワイヤを緩めながらボンディングパッドよりボンディング位置へ前記キャピラリを移動させる段階と、
    前記ボンディング位置に前記ボンディングワイヤを押し付けて前記ボンディング位置に前記ボンディングワイヤの第2ステッチボンドを形成する段階と、
    前記キャピラリ内部のボンディングワイヤから前記第2ステッチボンドを切断する段階と、
    を有することを特徴とする、ワイヤボンディング方法。
  2. 前記ボンディングワイヤは、金線、アルミニウム線、または銅線であることを特徴とする、請求項1に記載のワイヤボンディング方法。
  3. 前記配線基板は、リードフレーム、印刷回路基板、セラミック基板またはフレキシブル回路基板であることを特徴とする、請求項1に記載のワイヤボンディング方法。
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