CN1694792B - 注塑装置和用于迫使熔体流入到注塑装置的模腔中的方法 - Google Patents

注塑装置和用于迫使熔体流入到注塑装置的模腔中的方法 Download PDF

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CN1694792B
CN1694792B CN038250691A CN03825069A CN1694792B CN 1694792 B CN1694792 B CN 1694792B CN 038250691 A CN038250691 A CN 038250691A CN 03825069 A CN03825069 A CN 03825069A CN 1694792 B CN1694792 B CN 1694792B
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melt
nozzle
die cavity
flow
passage
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CN1694792A (zh
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I·奥卡穆拉
G·奥拉鲁
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Mold Masters 2007 Ltd
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C45/00Injection moulding, i.e. forcing the required volume of moulding material through a nozzle into a closed mould; Apparatus therefor
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
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    • B29C45/26Moulds
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
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    • B29C2945/00Indexing scheme relating to injection moulding, i.e. forcing the required volume of moulding material through a nozzle into a closed mould
    • B29C2945/76Measuring, controlling or regulating
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    • B29C2945/00Indexing scheme relating to injection moulding, i.e. forcing the required volume of moulding material through a nozzle into a closed mould
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    • B29C2945/00Indexing scheme relating to injection moulding, i.e. forcing the required volume of moulding material through a nozzle into a closed mould
    • B29C2945/76Measuring, controlling or regulating
    • B29C2945/76177Location of measurement
    • B29C2945/76254Mould
    • B29C2945/76274Mould runners, nozzles
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    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
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    • B29C2945/00Indexing scheme relating to injection moulding, i.e. forcing the required volume of moulding material through a nozzle into a closed mould
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    • B29C2945/76381Injection
    • BPERFORMING OPERATIONS; TRANSPORTING
    • B29WORKING OF PLASTICS; WORKING OF SUBSTANCES IN A PLASTIC STATE IN GENERAL
    • B29CSHAPING OR JOINING OF PLASTICS; SHAPING OF MATERIAL IN A PLASTIC STATE, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; AFTER-TREATMENT OF THE SHAPED PRODUCTS, e.g. REPAIRING
    • B29C45/00Injection moulding, i.e. forcing the required volume of moulding material through a nozzle into a closed mould; Apparatus therefor
    • B29C45/17Component parts, details or accessories; Auxiliary operations
    • B29C45/26Moulds
    • B29C45/27Sprue channels Runner channels or runner nozzles
    • B29C45/2725Manifolds

Abstract

一种注塑装置,包括可在具有可动阀针(28)的喷嘴(18)内滑动的注射活塞(50)。注射活塞(50)可从退回位置运动到伸出位置,以便将熔体压向模腔(26)。在活塞(50)的前端处设有阀(52),其可选择性地阻塞设置在活塞(50)的外壁(51)中且邻近于阀(52)的凹槽(48)与喷嘴(18)的熔体腔(54)之间的连通。注射活塞(50)从退回位置朝向伸出位置的运动使阀(52)关闭,因此在阀针(28)打开模具浇口(24)时,处于阀(52)下方的预定体积的熔体被迫流入到模腔(26)中。

Description

注塑装置和用于迫使熔体流入到注塑装置的模腔中的方法
技术领域
[0001] 本发明大体上涉及一种注塑装置,更具体地涉及用于可将预定量的熔体注射到模
腔中的热流道喷嘴的计量装置。背景技术
[0002] 在注塑装置中,歧管从机器喷嘴中接受高压熔体流。歧管将熔体流分配到多个喷嘴中,熔体被迫使经过喷嘴而进入到多个模腔中。然后熔体在模腔中冷却,释放模制品,这样就可以开始另一个循环。
[0003] 传送到各喷嘴中的熔体的量会因例如歧管中的剪切所致的流动不平衡等效应而产生变化。为了补偿这种效应,并且保证有足量的熔体传送到各模腔中,机器喷嘴施加在熔体流上的压力必须非常高。对于例如薄壁容器和微型模制品的注塑的应用来说,甚至需要更高的喷嘴压力以生产出质量合格的模制产品。结果,机器喷嘴必须非常大,以便产生足够的压力来将熔体正确地分布在模腔中。然而在许多情况下,增大机器喷嘴的尺寸是不实际的。因此需要有用于增大产生于各个单独喷嘴中的压力的另选解决方案。[0004] 对于薄壁模制品和微型模制品来说,精确地测量在各次注射中传送的熔体体积也是非常重要的。这尤其在处理通常仅重几分之一克的微型模制品时提出了特殊的挑战。已经研制出若干现有技术的装置来控制被注射到模腔中的熔体体积。这些装置通常在将超过一种材料注射到一个模腔中时使用,并且比较复杂且制造成本很高。
[0005] 授予Akselrud等人的美国专利No. 5112212公开了一种射料槽(shooting pod),其可用作计量装置并用在共注塑装置中。该射料槽设置在远离热流道喷嘴的位置处,并用于控制注射到模腔中的两种熔融材料之一的体积。射料槽包括可在气缸内轴向运动的活塞,以迫使熔融材料从气缸进入到通向模腔的喷嘴中。气缸包括进口,其可将熔体从熔体源传送到位于活塞下端的储槽中。活塞可转动以使储槽不与进口相通而是将其密封起来,这样,在活塞下降时就可迫使已知体积的熔体进入到模腔中。
[0006] 授予Schad等人的美国专利No. 4863369公开了一种注塑装置,其使用了射料槽来将准确测量的一定量熔体传送到模腔中。在熔体源和各喷嘴之间的导管内设有阀。 一旦射料槽和喷嘴充满了熔体,阀便关闭,并且模具浇口打开。射料槽的活塞向前推进到其触到气缸的底部,从而将精确量的熔体传送到模腔中。
[0007] 设置在远离喷嘴和模腔的位置处的射料槽的缺点在于,已知的或经测定的熔体体积会在从一次注塑循环到下一次注塑循环中变化。其产生原因是在射料槽和模腔之间存在有大量体积的熔体,即处于喷嘴中的熔体、处于歧管通道中的熔体和处于射料槽中的熔体。这一较大体积的熔体引入了多个变量。例如,温度或压力的微小差异会导致该已知体积的显著变化。射料槽和模腔之间的较大距离还会导致熔体在一个制品到下一制品的注射之间在喷嘴外停留较长的时间。这导致了模制品无法具有最佳的质量,这是因为来自射料槽的熔体的温度处于加热不足或过热的状态下。
[0008] 因此,本发明的目的是提供一种用于注塑装置的喷嘴的计量装置,其可避免或减轻至少一项上述缺点。发明内容
[0009] 根据本发明的一个方面,提供了一种注塑装置,包括:
[0010] 歧管,其具有用于接受处于压力下的可模塑材料的熔体流的歧管通道,该歧管通道具有用于将熔体流传送到喷嘴的喷嘴通道中的出口 ;
[0011] 用于从喷嘴中接受熔体流的模腔,喷嘴通道通过模具浇口与模腔相通;[0012] 用于选择性地关闭模具浇口的浇口机构;
[0013] 延伸穿过喷嘴的喷嘴通道并可在其中滑动的活塞,活塞的外壁靠在喷嘴通道的内壁上,活塞可从退回位置运动到伸出位置,从而将熔体压向模腔;
[0014] 设于活塞前端处的阀,该阀可选择性地运动以阻塞设置在活塞外壁中且邻近于阀的凹槽与喷嘴通道的熔体腔之间的连通,阀在活塞处于退回位置时打开,以允许熔体从歧管通道流到凹槽中,并流到喷嘴通道的熔体腔中;
[0015] 其中,活塞朝向伸出位置的运动迫使处于喷嘴通道的熔体腔中的熔体流入到模腔中。
[0016] 根据本发明的另一方面,提供了一种用于迫使熔体流入到注塑装置的模腔中的方法,该方法包括:
[0017] 关闭模腔的模具浇口,以便阻止熔体流从喷嘴的喷嘴通道流入到模腔中;[0018] 将设于喷嘴通道中的活塞保持在退回位置,其中打开设于活塞前端处的阀,以允许熔体流从歧管的歧管通道经由设置在活塞前端附近处的凹槽而流入到喷嘴通道的熔体腔中,从而用熔体来填充喷嘴通道;
[0019] 关闭阀以阻止熔体流在凹槽与喷嘴通道的熔体腔之间的流动;[0020] 打开模具浇口 ;禾口
[0021] 使活塞朝向伸出位置运动,从而迫使处于喷嘴通道的熔体腔中的熔体流入到模腔中。
[0022] 根据本发明的另一方面,提供了一种用于注塑装置的喷嘴的活塞,其包括:
[0023] 设于活塞前端的阀,该阀可选择性地关闭以阻塞设置在活塞外壁中且邻近于阀的
凹槽与喷嘴通道的熔体腔之间的连通;禾口
[0024] 该阀在活塞处于退回位置时打开以允许熔体从凹槽流过阀,在活塞朝向伸出位置运动时阀关闭,以便迫使熔体流入到模腔中。
[0025] 根据本发明的另一方面,提供了一种注塑装置,其包括:
[0026] 歧管,其具有用于接受处于压力下的可模塑材料的熔体流的歧管通道,该歧管通道具有用于将熔体流传送到喷嘴的喷嘴通道中的出口 ;
[0027] 用于从喷嘴通道中接受熔体流的模腔,喷嘴通道通过模具浇口与模腔相通;[0028] 用于选择性地关闭模具浇口的浇口机构;
[0029] 设于喷嘴通道中且邻近于模具浇口的熔体腔,其具有预定的体积;
[0030] 设于歧管通道的出口与熔体腔之间的阀,该阀可选择性地运动以控制熔体从歧管
通道到熔体腔的流动;禾口
[0031] 其中,该预定体积的熔体在一次注射中被注入到模腔中。[0032] 根据本发明的另一实施例,提供了一种用于将预定体积的熔融材料注射到模腔中的方法,包括:
[0033] a)经热流道歧管将熔融材料注射到阀浇口式热流道喷嘴中,该热流道喷嘴包括可动的阀针,该阀针处于与模具浇口相接合的关闭位置中;[0034] b)打开模具浇口 ;
[0035] c)通过使至少部分地设于喷嘴内的注射活塞运动来将熔融材料经由模具浇口注
射到模腔中,从而将预定体积的熔融材料从热流道喷嘴传送到模腔中;
[0036] d)通过使阀针运动到与模具浇口相接合来关闭热流道喷嘴与模腔之间的连通。
[0037] 根据本发明的另一实施例,提供了一种用于将预定体积的熔融材料注入到模腔中
的方法,其包括:
[0038] a)经热流道歧管将熔融材料注射到阀浇口式热流道喷嘴中,该热流道喷嘴包括可动的阀针,该阀针处于与模具浇口相接合的关闭位置中;[0039] b)阻塞热流道歧管与热流道喷嘴之间的连通;[0040] c)打开模具浇口 ;
[0041] d)使至少部分地设于喷嘴内的注射活塞朝向模具浇口运动,从而将预定体积的熔融材料从热流道喷嘴传送到模腔中;
[0042] e)通过使阀针运动到与模具浇口相接合来关闭喷嘴与模腔之间的连通。[0043] 本发明提供了可以稳定地将经计量的一定量熔体传送到模腔中的优点。
附图说明
[0044] 下面将参考附图来更完整地描述本发明的实施例,在图中:
[0045] 图1是本发明注塑装置的侧剖视图;
[0046] 图2是图1所示活塞的阀的侧剖视图;
[0047] 图3是沿图2中线3-3的剖视图;
[0048] 图4是沿图3中线4-4的剖视图;
[0049] 图5到9是在注射循环的不同阶段中的图1所示一部分的示意性侧视图;
[0050] 图10是本发明注塑装置的另一实施例的示意性侧剖视图。
具体实施方式
[0051] 参见图1,图中以标号10显示了注塑装置的一部分。注塑装置10包括歧管12,其具有用于接受来自歧管衬套16的处于压力下的可模塑材料熔体流的歧管熔体通道14。歧管衬套16与机器喷嘴(未示出)相通。孔20在歧管熔体通道14的末端处延伸穿过歧管12。孔20与熔体通道14连通,并与之大致正交地延伸。
[0052] 在歧管12的下表面上连接了热流道喷嘴18。各喷嘴18的喷嘴通道22与相应的孔20对齐,以便从歧管12中接受可模塑材料的熔体流。模具浇口 24设于各喷嘴18的嘴头附近。模具浇口24可打开以允许将熔体流传送到相应的模腔26中。可采用任何数量的喷嘴18来为一个或多个模腔26供料。模腔26可具有相同的尺寸和形状,也可具有不同的尺寸和形状。歧管加热器(未示出)和喷嘴加热器32将熔体流保持在所需的温度下,冷却通道(未示出)可促进模腔26的冷却。[0053] 形式为热流道注射活塞40的计量装置可在歧管12的孔20和喷嘴18内滑动。阀针28延伸穿过注射活塞40的中心孔42,并可在其中滑动以打开和关闭模具浇口 24。注射活塞40和阀针28可被独立地驱动,并且相互间运动。阀针28可被在气缸34内滑动的阀活塞30气动式驱动。注射活塞40可被在第二气缸46内滑动的第二活塞44气动式驱动。注射活塞40和阀针28不限于于被气动式驱动,它们可被液压式驱动,或者被任何其它适当的装置包括电动机和电磁电机来驱动。另外,阀针28可由其它类型的浇口机构来代替。[0054] 注射活塞40还包括从第二活塞44中向外伸出的活塞体50。活塞体50通过紧固件(未示出)连接在第二活塞44上。或者,活塞体50可与活塞44形成一体。活塞体50包括外表面51,其可在活塞体50朝向模腔26的运动期间阻塞歧管通道14与喷嘴通道22之间的连通。在活塞体50的外表面51中设有环形凹槽48。可以理解,环形凹槽48不必围绕着外表面51的整个圆周延伸。在活塞体50的前端处邻近凹槽48地设置了阀52。阀52可打开以在凹槽48与喷嘴通道22的熔体腔54之间形成连通。喷嘴通道22的熔体腔54设于模具浇口 24与阀52之间。当注射活塞40处于退回位置且阀针28处于关闭位置时,喷嘴18的熔体腔54内的熔体体积是已知的。熔体腔54内的熔体的该已知体积对应于将注射到各模腔26中的熔体体积。待注射熔体和模腔26的已知体积的紧密接近性减少了在现有技术装置中所经历到的变化量。
[0055] 参见图2-4,其中更好地显示了阀52。阀包括法兰56,其从活塞体50的下端向外延伸出来。如图3所示,法兰56包括一组围绕着其圆周间隔开的切口 58。圆盘66可相对于法兰56轴向运动。圆盘66包括第二组围绕着其圆周间隔开的切口 72。圆盘66定向成使得第二组切口 72在角度上与法兰56的一组切口 58偏开。圆盘66和法兰56具有相同的外径。这种设置保证了在圆盘66靠在法兰56上时,没有熔体能够在任何方向上流经阀52,这样就可将处于熔体腔54内的所需量的熔体注射到模腔26中。
[0056] 圆盘66还包括从中向外伸出的杆68以及安装在杆68的端部上的扩大头部70。在活塞体50的下端中设有中心室60,其用来容纳扩大头部70并且限制其行程。当阀52处于完全打开的位置中时,该扩大头部70靠在中心室60的台肩62上。杆68可轴向地运动穿过方形孔64,以便使圆盘66往复运动而与法兰56接合和脱离。采用方形来防止圆盘66相对于法兰56转动。可以理解,杆68可具有任何能够防止圆盘66转动的形状或构造,例如,杆68可以是带有用来容纳管销的沟槽的圆形。由于喷嘴通道中的熔体施加在其上的力,因此圆盘66可与活塞体50 —起运动,也可独立于其运动。注射活塞40的退回通过在法兰56和圆盘66之间形成间隙80而使阀52打开,而注射活塞40的伸出通过消除该间隙80而使阀52关闭。可采用其它设置来提供能执行相同功能的阀。
[0057] 在操作中,高压熔体流流经歧管衬套16而到达歧管12的歧管通道14。参见图5,循环始于模具浇口 24处于关闭位置,其中阀针28与模具浇口 24接合,而注射活塞40处于退回位置。在退回位置中,凹槽48与歧管通道14对齐以从中接受熔体。熔体从歧管12流到凹槽48中,这便迫使阀52进入到完全打开的位置,从而允许填充喷嘴通道22。 一旦喷嘴18充满了熔体,注射活塞40便如图6中箭头82所示地朝向伸出位置运动。注射活塞40的向前运动导致圆盘66被迫朝向法兰56运动,从而关闭了阀52。同时,活塞体50的外表面51切断了歧管通道14与喷嘴通道22之间的连通。在这一位置中,没有其它熔体能够进入到熔体腔54中。参见图7,一旦熔体腔54已经与喷嘴通道22的其余部分隔离开,模具浇口 24便通过如箭头84所示地使阀针28退回而打开。如图8所示,如箭头86所示的注射活塞40的向前行程迫使处于喷嘴通道22的熔体腔54内的熔体进入到模腔26中。然后通过如图9中箭头88所示地伸出阀针28来关闭模具浇口 24,注射活塞40如箭头90所示地返回到退回位置。这便使注射活塞40和阀针28回到图5所示的位置,这样便可重复该循环。可以理解,这种设置保证了将注射到模腔26中的熔体的体积对各模腔26来说是相等的,对每次循环来说是恒定的。
[0058] 参见图10,图中显示了注塑装置110的另一实施例。对于与已经介绍过的零部件相对应的零部件来说,采用与介绍图1时使用的标号再加上100来表示。注塑装置110类似于图l所示的注塑装置10,但其增设了压力传感器200,202和204,它们分别设置在模腔126、喷嘴通道122和歧管通道114中。压力传感器200,202和204发送信息给热流道和模具控制器206,以用于控制注射活塞140和阀针128的运动的时间和顺序。可以理解,不必使用所有三个压力传感器200, 202和204。如果需要的话,可以仅使用压力传感器200, 202和204中的一个或两个。
[0059] 设置了温度传感器208和210来分别测量模腔126和喷嘴118内的熔体的温度。可在歧管112内设置额外的传感器(未示出)。与压力传感器200, 202和204类似,温度传感器208, 210也发送信息给控制器206,以用于控制注射活塞140和阀针128的运动的时间和顺序。控制器206可与运动驱动装置216进行通信,而运动驱动装置216又可与位置传感器212和214进行通信。采用位置传感器212,214来分别控制注射活塞140和阀针128的位置和运动。传感器可以是任何类型的传感器,例如光学传感器或感应式传感器。在一些情况下,仅使用了位置传感器212和214以简化注塑装置110。
[0060] 这种设置在所有模腔均具有相同尺寸的注塑装置110中特别有用。可采用传感器200, 202和204来保证各模腔126内的压力大致相等,并且压力在模制品的不同批次产品之间也相等。传感器200,202和204还可用在成套制品模具中,其中各模腔126内的压力不同并且对应于预定的值。
[0061] 由于歧管通常支撑了超过一个喷嘴,因此本领域的技术人员可以理解,各喷嘴的单独活塞的运动可以错开,使得来自机器喷嘴的压力可以保持稳定。
[0062] 在另一实施例中,模腔26具有不同的尺寸。为了正确地填充各模腔26,各喷嘴18的熔体腔54的尺寸必须制成为可容纳正确体积的熔体。与各模腔26有关的喷嘴18是相同的,然而各注射活塞40必须被制成为具有相应的尺寸。
[0063] 虽然已经介绍了本发明的优选实施例,然而本领域的技术人员可以理解,在不脱离由所附权利要求限定的精神和范围的前提下,可以对本发明进行变更和改进。
7

Claims (8)

  1. 一种注塑装置,包括:歧管,其具有用于接受处于压力下的可模塑材料的熔体流的歧管通道,所述歧管通道具有用于将熔体流传送到喷嘴的喷嘴通道中的出口;用于从所述喷嘴中接受所述熔体流的模腔,所述喷嘴通道通过模具浇口与所述模腔相通;用于选择性地关闭所述模具浇口的浇口机构;延伸穿过所述喷嘴的所述喷嘴通道并能在所述喷嘴通道中滑动的注射活塞,所述注射活塞的外壁靠在所述喷嘴通道的内壁上,所述注射活塞能够从退回位置运动到伸出位置,从而将熔体压向所述模腔;设于所述注射活塞的前端处的阀,所述阀能够选择性地运动以阻塞设置在所述注射活塞外壁中且邻近于所述阀的凹槽与所述喷嘴通道的熔体腔之间的连通,所述阀在所述注射活塞处于所述退回位置时打开,以允许熔体从所述歧管通道流到所述凹槽中,并流到所述喷嘴通道的所述熔体腔中;其中,所述注射活塞朝向所述伸出位置的运动迫使处于所述喷嘴通道的所述熔体腔中的熔体流入到所述模腔中。
  2. 2. 根据权利要求1所述的注塑装置,其特征在于,在所述喷嘴通道的所述熔体腔中设 有预定体积的熔体。
  3. 3. 根据权利要求1所述的注塑装置,其特征在于,所述浇口机构是由活塞驱动的阀针。
  4. 4. 根据权利要求2所述的注塑装置,其特征在于,所述注射活塞从所述退回位置到所 述伸出位置的运动导致所述阀关闭。
  5. 5. 根据权利要求2所述的注塑装置,其特征在于,所述注射活塞从所述伸出位置到所 述退回位置的运动导致所述阀打开。
  6. 6. 根据权利要求2所述的注塑装置,其特征在于,所述注射活塞的运动由控制器来控 制,所述控制器能够接受来自压力传感器的信息,所述压力传感器能够检测所述模腔、所述 喷嘴通道和所述歧管通道中的至少一个的压力。
  7. 7. 根据权利要求6所述的注塑装置,其特征在于,所述控制器还能够接受来自温度传 感器的信息,所述温度传感器能够检测所述模腔、所述喷嘴通道和所述歧管通道中的至少 一个的温度。
  8. 8. —种用于迫使熔体流入到注塑装置的模腔中的方法,所述方法包括: 关闭所述模腔的模具浇口,以便阻止熔体流从喷嘴的喷嘴通道流入到所述模腔中; 将设于所述喷嘴通道中的注射活塞保持在退回位置,其中打开设于所述注射活塞前端处的阀,以允许熔体流从歧管的歧管通道经由设置在所述注射活塞的所述前端附近处的凹 槽而流入到所述喷嘴通道的熔体腔中,从而用熔体来填充所述喷嘴通道;关闭所述阀以阻止熔体流在所述凹槽与所述喷嘴通道的所述熔体腔之间的流动;打开所述模具浇口 ;禾口使所述注射活塞朝向伸出位置运动,从而迫使处于所述喷嘴通道的所述熔体腔中的熔 体流入到所述模腔中。
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US6884061B2 (en) 2005-04-26
US20050266117A1 (en) 2005-12-01
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US7192268B2 (en) 2007-03-20
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US20040051195A1 (en) 2004-03-18
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