CN110622814B - Method for cultivating camellia bonsai by grafting camellia oleifera tree roots - Google Patents

Method for cultivating camellia bonsai by grafting camellia oleifera tree roots Download PDF

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CN110622814B
CN110622814B CN201910972772.4A CN201910972772A CN110622814B CN 110622814 B CN110622814 B CN 110622814B CN 201910972772 A CN201910972772 A CN 201910972772A CN 110622814 B CN110622814 B CN 110622814B
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grafting
camellia
tree
root
tree root
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CN110622814A (en
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马锦林
韦晓娟
吴方圆
伍思宇
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Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Forestry Research Institute
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Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Forestry Research Institute
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/30Grafting
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • A01G22/60Flowers; Ornamental plants
    • A01G22/67Dwarf trees, e.g. bonsai
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N37/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom having three bonds to hetero atoms with at the most two bonds to halogen, e.g. carboxylic acids
    • A01N37/10Aromatic or araliphatic carboxylic acids, or thio analogues thereof; Derivatives thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/02Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms
    • A01N43/04Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom
    • A01N43/22Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one or more oxygen or sulfur atoms as the only ring hetero atoms with one hetero atom rings with more than six members
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/34Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom
    • A01N43/36Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom five-membered rings
    • A01N43/38Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having rings with one nitrogen atom as the only ring hetero atom five-membered rings condensed with carbocyclic rings
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N43/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds
    • A01N43/90Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing heterocyclic compounds having two or more relevant hetero rings, condensed among themselves or with a common carbocyclic ring system
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N47/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom not being member of a ring and having no bond to a carbon or hydrogen atom, e.g. derivatives of carbonic acid
    • A01N47/08Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom not being member of a ring and having no bond to a carbon or hydrogen atom, e.g. derivatives of carbonic acid the carbon atom having one or more single bonds to nitrogen atoms
    • A01N47/10Carbamic acid derivatives, i.e. containing the group —O—CO—N<; Thio analogues thereof
    • A01N47/12Carbamic acid derivatives, i.e. containing the group —O—CO—N<; Thio analogues thereof containing a —O—CO—N< group, or a thio analogue thereof, neither directly attached to a ring nor the nitrogen atom being a member of a heterocyclic ring
    • A01N47/14Di-thio analogues thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N47/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom not being member of a ring and having no bond to a carbon or hydrogen atom, e.g. derivatives of carbonic acid
    • A01N47/08Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom not being member of a ring and having no bond to a carbon or hydrogen atom, e.g. derivatives of carbonic acid the carbon atom having one or more single bonds to nitrogen atoms
    • A01N47/10Carbamic acid derivatives, i.e. containing the group —O—CO—N<; Thio analogues thereof
    • A01N47/18Carbamic acid derivatives, i.e. containing the group —O—CO—N<; Thio analogues thereof containing a —O—CO—N< group, or a thio analogue thereof, directly attached to a heterocyclic or cycloaliphatic ring
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N47/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom not being member of a ring and having no bond to a carbon or hydrogen atom, e.g. derivatives of carbonic acid
    • A01N47/08Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing organic compounds containing a carbon atom not being member of a ring and having no bond to a carbon or hydrogen atom, e.g. derivatives of carbonic acid the carbon atom having one or more single bonds to nitrogen atoms
    • A01N47/28Ureas or thioureas containing the groups >N—CO—N< or >N—CS—N<
    • A01N47/34Ureas or thioureas containing the groups >N—CO—N< or >N—CS—N< containing the groups, e.g. biuret; Thio analogues thereof; Urea-aldehyde condensation products
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N65/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing material from algae, lichens, bryophyta, multi-cellular fungi or plants, or extracts thereof
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01NPRESERVATION OF BODIES OF HUMANS OR ANIMALS OR PLANTS OR PARTS THEREOF; BIOCIDES, e.g. AS DISINFECTANTS, AS PESTICIDES OR AS HERBICIDES; PEST REPELLANTS OR ATTRACTANTS; PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS
    • A01N65/00Biocides, pest repellants or attractants, or plant growth regulators containing material from algae, lichens, bryophyta, multi-cellular fungi or plants, or extracts thereof
    • A01N65/08Magnoliopsida [dicotyledons]
    • A01N65/22Lamiaceae or Labiatae [Mint family], e.g. thyme, rosemary, skullcap, selfheal, lavender, perilla, pennyroyal, peppermint or spearmint

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for cultivating camellia miniascape by grafting camellia oleifera roots, which comprises the procedures of cutting camellia oleifera, selecting tree roots, grafting, potting, managing after potting, shaping and trimming, wherein the proper tree roots of camellia oleifera are selected as grafting stocks, the annual or semi-annual excellent branches of camellia plants are collected as grafting scions, grafting is carried out by adopting a cutting method, and the grafted and alive camellia is trimmed and shaped according to the ideal shape of the miniascape by grafting and potting management after grafting. According to the method, the grafting of the roots of the camellia oleifera is adopted, the rapid seed changing of the camellia oleifera low-yield forest is realized, the existing large-area camellia oleifera low-yield forest transformation project in China is promoted, the resource waste is reduced, the full utilization of the camellia oleifera low-yield forest resources is realized, and the method has good economic benefits, social benefits and ecological benefits.

Description

Method for cultivating camellia bonsai by grafting camellia oleifera tree roots
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of economic forest tree species cultivation, and relates to a method for cultivating camellia bonsai by grafting camellia oleifera tree roots.
Background
The camellia oleifera is an important woody edible oil tree species peculiar to China, is called four major woody oil plants in the world together with olive, palm and coconut, and is called four major woody oil plants in China together with Chinese tallow tree, tung tree and walnut. At present, the area of the oil tea in China is about 6000 mu, and the oil tea is widely distributed in 18 provinces (regions) in the south.
About 60% of the existing oil-tea camellia forests in China belong to low-yield low-efficiency forests, therefore, a considerable part of the low-yield forests need to be transformed, wherein one of the most common transformation measures is to perform high-grafting seed change, namely, the high-quality oil-tea camellia varieties are replaced by adopting a grafting mode at the higher part of the oil-tea camellia tree body of the low-yield forests, so that the seed change is rapidly realized and the yield is improved, but in the specific oil-tea camellia improved variety transformation process, a considerable amount of low-yield oil-tea camellia forests are abandoned and eliminated due to various reasons, and great resource waste is caused.
Disclosure of Invention
Aiming at the defects of the prior art, the invention provides a method for cultivating a camellia miniascape by grafting camellia roots, which can realize the quick seed change of low-yield camellia forests and reduce the resource waste.
In order to achieve the above object, the technical solution of the present invention is as follows:
a method for cultivating camellia miniascape by grafting camellia oleifera tree roots comprises the procedures of cutting camellia oleifera, selecting tree roots, grafting, potting, managing after potting, shaping and trimming, wherein the tree roots suitable for camellia oleifera are selected as grafting stocks, annual or semi-annual excellent branches of camellia plants are collected as grafting scions, grafting is carried out by adopting a cutting grafting method, and the grafted and survived camellia is trimmed and modeled according to the ideal shape of the miniascape by grafting and potting management after grafting; the main operation steps are as follows:
(1) digging oil tea and selecting tree root
Preparing a nursery land: selecting a land with flat terrain, leeward and sunny appearance and good drainage and irrigation as a bonsai cultivation nursery land; the width of the footpath is 40cm, the width of the ridge is 1.2m, and the ridge length is according to the terrain, and furrows are dug and drained on site;
secondly, building a shed: building a shading shed on the prepared nursery for shading, wherein the height of the shading shed is 2.0-2.5 m, and the shading degree is 75-80%;
thirdly, mining and digging time: digging in the last ten days of 5 months to the last ten days of 10 months;
selecting tree roots: selecting proper tree roots of the camellia oleifera, and sectioning the tree roots by using sharp saws and knives; the cut tree root section is suitable for completing grafting and potting as soon as possible; if grafting cannot be completed in time, piling a layer of sand with the thickness of 30-40 cm in a cool and humid place, spraying water for wetting, soaking the root section of the tree with clean water, slightly and obliquely inserting the tree into the sand, covering the surface of the root section with sand for 5-10 cm, and storing for 3-5 d;
fifth, disinfection: soaking and disinfecting the cut tree root sections for 10-20 min by using a disinfection solution, taking out, washing by using clear water, and airing for 3-5 min to serve as the stock for later use;
(2) grafting
Firstly, scion collection: the scions are collected before 11 am and after 5 pm on cloudy or sunny days, and are collected after collection; collecting annual or semi-annual excellent branches of camellia plants as grafting scions; when the scion wood is transported for a long distance, the base part of the scion wood is packed and boxed by absorbent cotton which absorbs enough water, preferably transported at night, and moisture is kept in the process;
storing the ear strips: piling a layer of sand with the thickness of 20-25 cm in a cellar or an indoor cool and humid place, spraying water for wetting, soaking the scion wood with clear water, slightly burying the scion wood in the sand, covering the surface of the scion wood with the sand for 5-10 cm, and storing the scion wood for 5-7 days;
③ the grafting method: grafting by adopting a cutting grafting method, wherein 2-3 scions are grafted on each root section, and the intervals between every two scions are uniform;
(3) upper basin
Sterilizing: after grafting, spraying 1 time of disinfection solution on the whole grafted tree root section for primary disinfection;
processing a rooting solution: preparing a rooting solution, soaking the root sections below the grafting part for 0.5-1.0 h, and taking out for later use;
filling a matrix: firstly, laying a layer of clean and fresh river sand or pebbles with the thickness of 15-20 cm as a drainage layer on the bottom layer of a seedling culture container with proper size and good permeability, and then filling a substrate with the thickness of 35-45 cm on the drainage layer;
fourthly, potting and planting: completing potting and planting on the same day after the root grafting is completed; before planting, firstly drilling holes with the proper depth, wherein the holes are large as the appearance shape of the whole tree root section, vertically placing the grafted tree root section into the holes, most of the tree root section is embedded into the matrix, only the length of 3-5 cm at the upper part of the tree root section is left, the grafting port and the scion are exposed out of the surface of the matrix, compacting the matrix around the tree root section, pouring enough root fixing water, and neatly placing seedling containers on the prepared furrow surface, wherein the interval between every two seedling containers is 15-20 cm;
moisture preservation: each seedling raising container is independently moisturized; covering the whole agricultural film with the specification of 0.04mm from top to bottom to the lower part of the opening of the seedling container, and supporting the agricultural film by using 2-3 bamboo or wood strips, so that the agricultural film is in an arc arch shape, the agricultural film is not required to touch scions, and a bag opening below the opening of the seedling container is tightly tied to form a sealed moisture-preserving cover;
(4) management after potting
Management: spraying carbendazim or zineb and thiophanate methyl solution with the volume concentration of 0.3-0.5% for 1 time every 15-20 days, and spraying monopotassium phosphate or phylloxanthin with the volume concentration of 0.2-0.3% to the grafting scion; keeping the humidity in the moisture-keeping cover, and preventing and treating diseases and insect pests such as camellia anthracnose, camellia diamond back moth and the like according to a conventional method;
secondly, unbinding: removing the grafting bandage in spring of 12 months to next year; when the scion begins to sprout and expand leaves, removing the agricultural film;
transplanting: transplanting the grafted tree root segment after surviving in the pot for one year;
(5) pruning and pruning
And when the new tips grow to 23-26 cm and are basically lignified, pruning and shaping the grafted and alive camellia according to the ideal shape of the bonsai by combining the conventional procedures of pinching, bud picking, branch thinning, branch pulling and the like.
The varieties of the oil tea in the step (1) comprise fragrant flower oil tea, common oil tea and Luchuan oil tea; the camellia plants in the step (2) comprise camellia chrysantha and other camellia plants with strong ornamental value, such as black magic tea, maoya tea, middle east camellia chrysantha and the like.
The digging in the step (1) is to remove all the parts above the ground diameter of the camellia oleifera and only leave all the tree roots below the ground diameter; the tree roots dug do not have mud, and the original main root length and the lateral root systems of the camellia oleifera are kept as much as possible.
The suitable tree root in the step (1) is that the length of the longest part of each section of the tree root is 20-30 cm, the length of at least 2cm downwards from the top end of each section of the tree root is straight, and the diameter of the root at the position is 2-10 cm thick; and when the segmentation interception is carried out, the root section of each tree also keeps as many lateral root systems as possible.
The cutting and grafting method in the step (2) is that a smooth side is selected on the cross section of the upper end of the tree root section, a little edge is cut off to form an inclined edge, and then the inclined edge is vertically cut downwards from the cambium part along the inclined plane, and the depth of the cut is 1.0 cm-1.2 cm; the length of the scion is 4-5 cm, one side of the smooth back bud is selected, a smooth section is cut downwards at a position about 0.5 cm away from the bud and is deep to the xylem, the cut section length is consistent with the cut of the stock, a 20-30-degree inclined plane is cut at the lower end of the back surface of the stock to be intersected with the stock, the cut surface is smooth, and one bud with one leaf or two leaves and two buds are reserved; the cut scion is vertically inserted into the cut root of the tree, the cambium on one side is kept aligned, the bud is on the outer side, and finally the scion is tightly bound from bottom to top by a plastic film binding band special for grafting, the bud eye is noticed to be exposed, and the scion is tensioned during binding to prevent the scion from moving.
The disinfecting solution in the steps (1) and (3) is carbendazim or zineb and thiophanate methyl solution mixed with peppermint water; wherein the volume concentration of the carbendazim or zineb and thiophanate methyl solution is 0.3-0.5 percent, and the volume ratio of the peppermint water is 2.5 percent; the peppermint water is a leaching liquor obtained by soaking 10g of dried peppermint leaves in 1L of boiled water for 24 hours.
The rooting solution in the step (3) comprises the following raw materials: IBA 50-100 mg/L, ABT 50-100 mg/L, brassinolide 5-10 mg/L, folic acid 5-10 mg/L.
The seedling container in the step (3) is a tile pot or a non-woven fabric seedling bag; the specification is that the diameter of an opening is 60-80 cm, the height is 50-60 cm, and the diameter of the bottom is 30-40 cm.
The matrix is prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by mass: 85-90% of clean yellow core soil and 10-15% of clean fresh river sand, which are uniformly mixed; and (3) disinfecting the drainage layer and the matrix in the seedling culture container by using a potassium permanganate solution with the weight concentration of 0.2-0.5% 2-3 days before potting.
The number of the tree root segments planted in the pot in the step (3) is determined according to the size of the tree root segments: the diameter of the tree root section is 2-5 cm thick, the number of lateral root systems is small, 8-10 plants are preferably planted in each pot, and the interval between the tree root sections is 10-15 cm; the diameter of each tree root section is 6-10 cm thick, the number of lateral root systems is large, 3-5 plants are planted in each pot, and the interval between every two tree root sections is 15-20 cm; the planted tree root sections can not be overlapped in a crossing way.
Compared with the prior art, the invention has the following advantages:
1. according to the camellia miniascape cultivated by grafting, the scion and the stock can be quickly healed and sprout by virtue of the advantage of strong adaptability of the stocks, namely the camellia oleifera, the common camellia oleifera and the Luchuan camellia oleifera to natural environments of drought, waterlogging, acid, alkali, salt, high temperature and the like, the sprouting young sprout grows quickly, and the young sprout of the scion can grow to 30-50 cm in height after the survival of grafting is about 5-6 months.
2. The method for digging the camellia oleifera roots adopts a complete bare root mode to dig the camellia oleifera roots, and has the advantages of simple operation, convenient transportation, less labor and low cost on the treatment methods of the root systems, the lateral branches, the leaves and the like of the stumps; the intercepted tree root segments reserve lateral root systems as many as possible, wherein part of the reserved lateral roots reach certain thickness, and the banding and modeling of the part of the lateral roots are beneficial to modeling the camellia bonsai, so that the ornamental value is improved.
3. According to the method, grafting is carried out in 5-10 months, and then scion eyes of most camellia varieties are plump and robust, the grafting survival rate is high, young shoots germinate fast, the growth is vigorous, and pot culture forming is fast.
4. The grafting by the cutting grafting method is a one-step in-place grafting method, is a convenient and quick method with quick growth and easy crown formation, has better effect than other methods, and has the grafting survival rate of over 90 percent; in the grafting method, the cells of the scion and the phloem forming layer at the base part of the stock are actively divided, the vitality is vigorous, and the grafting survival rate is high.
5. According to the growth characteristics of the roots of the camellia oleifera, the prepared disinfection solution is not easily infected by germs in the cultivation process of the grafting root segments, and the disease and insect resistance is improved; the rooting solution is prepared before the grafting seedling is planted in the pot to soak the tree roots below the grafting part, so that the growth of the grafting root system can be promoted, the quality of the root system can be improved, the grafted seedling can grow rapidly, the adaptability is strong, and the survival rate is further improved.
6. The method adopts the grafting of the roots of the camellia oleifera to realize the rapid seed change of the camellia oleifera low-yield forest, promotes the existing large-area camellia oleifera low-yield forest transformation project in China, reduces the resource waste, realizes the full utilization of the camellia oleifera low-yield forest resources, and has better economic benefit, social benefit and ecological benefit.
Detailed Description
The present invention is further illustrated by the following specific examples.
Example 1:
in the middle and late 3 months of 2011, selecting a land block with flat terrain, leeward and sunny appearance and good drainage and irrigation as a bonsai cultivation nursery land; the width of the footpath is 40cm, the width of the ridge is 1.2m, and the ridge length is according to the terrain, and furrows are dug and drained on site. And (3) building a shadow shed on the prepared nursery for shading, wherein the height of the shadow shed is 2.0-2.5 m, and the shading degree is 75-80%.
Digging the camellia oleifera in 2011 in the last ten days of 5 months, completely removing the parts above the ground diameter, and only reserving all tree roots below the ground diameter; the tree roots dug do not have mud, and the original main root length and the lateral root systems of the camellia oleifera are kept as much as possible. Selecting a proper tree root, wherein the length of the longest part of each section of the tree root section is 20-30 cm, the length of at least 2cm downwards from the top end of each tree root section is straight, the root diameter of the straight part reaches 2-10 cm, sectioning and intercepting the tree root by using a sharp saw and a knife, and keeping lateral root systems of each section of the tree root section as much as possible when sectioning and intercepting. The cut tree root section is suitable for completing grafting and potting as soon as possible; if grafting cannot be completed in time, piling a layer of sand with the thickness of 30-40 cm in a shady and humid place, spraying water for wetting, soaking the tree root section with clean water, slightly and obliquely inserting the tree root section into the sand, covering the surface of the tree root section with sand for 5-10 cm, and storing for 3-5 d.
Soaking and sterilizing the cut tree root sections for 10min by using a sterilizing solution of a carbendazim solution mixed with peppermint water; wherein the volume concentration of the carbendazim solution is 0.5 percent, and the volume ratio of the peppermint water is 2.5 percent; the peppermint water is a leaching liquor obtained by soaking 10g of dried peppermint leaves in 1L of boiled water for 24 hours; and (5) taking out, washing with clear water, and airing for 3-5 min to serve as the stock for later use.
Collecting half-year-old lignified branches of common golden camellia as grafting scions; the scions are collected before 11 am and after 5 pm on cloudy or sunny days, and are collected after collection; when the ear strips need to be transported in a long distance, the base parts of the ear strips are packed by absorbent cotton which absorbs enough water and then are boxed, preferably transported at night, and moisture is kept in the process. If the ear strips need to be stored, a layer of sand with the thickness of 20-25 cm is piled in a cellar or a shady and humid place indoors, water is sprayed for wetting, the ear strips are soaked by clear water and are lightly buried in the sand, the surface of the ear strips is covered with the sand by 5-10 cm, and the ear strips can be stored for 5-7 days.
Adopting a cutting and grafting method for grafting, selecting a smoother side on the cross section of the upper end of the tree root section, cutting off a little edge to form an inclined edge, and vertically cutting downwards from a cambium part along an inclined plane, wherein the depth of the cut is 1.0 cm-1.2 cm; the length of the scion is 4-5 cm, one side of the smooth back bud is selected, a smooth section is cut downwards at a position about 0.5 cm away from the bud and is deep to the xylem, the cut section length is consistent with the cut of the stock, a 20-30-degree inclined plane is cut at the lower end of the back surface of the stock to be intersected with the stock, the cut surface is smooth, and one bud with one leaf or two leaves and two buds are reserved; the cut scion is vertically inserted into the cut root of the tree, the cambium on one side is kept aligned, the bud is on the outer side, and finally the scion is tightly bound from bottom to top by a plastic film binding band special for grafting, the bud eye is noticed to be exposed, and the scion is tensioned during binding to prevent the scion from moving. 2-3 scions are grafted on each root section, and the distance between every two scions is uniform.
After grafting, spraying 1 time of sterilizing solution of carbendazim solution mixed with peppermint water on the whole grafted tree root section for primary sterilization; wherein the volume concentration of the carbendazim is 0.5 percent, and the volume ratio of the peppermint water is 2.5 percent; the peppermint water is a leaching liquor obtained by soaking 10g of dried peppermint leaves in 1L of boiled water for 24 hours. Preparing a rooting solution, soaking the root sections below the grafting parts for 1.0h, and taking out for later use; the rooting solution comprises the following raw materials: IBA 50 mg/L, ABT 100 mg/L, brassinolide 5 mg/L, folic acid 5 mg/L.
Firstly, paving a layer of clean and fresh river sand or pebble with the thickness of 15-20 cm as a drainage layer on the bottommost layer of a tile basin with proper size and good permeability, wherein the specifications are that the opening diameter is 60cm, the height is 50cm and the bottom diameter is 30cm, and then filling a substrate with the thickness of 35-45 cm on the drainage layer; the matrix is prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by mass: 85% of clean yellow core soil and 15% of clean fresh river sand are uniformly mixed; and (3) disinfecting the drainage layer and the matrix in the tile pot by using a potassium permanganate solution with the weight concentration of 0.2% 2-3 days before planting.
Completing potting and planting on the same day after the root grafting is completed; before planting, a hole which is generally large in appearance shape of the whole tree root section is drilled in a matrix by a round stick, the depth is proper, then the grafted tree root section is vertically placed into the hole, most of the tree root section is embedded into the matrix, only the length of 3-5 cm of the upper part of the tree root section is left, a grafting opening and a scion are exposed out of the surface of the matrix, the matrix around the tree root section is compacted, the tile pots are placed on the prepared ridge surface regularly after sufficient root fixing water is poured, and the interval between every two tile pots is 15-20 cm. The number of the root segments planted in the pot is determined according to the size of the root segments: the diameter of the tree root section is 2-5 cm thick, the number of lateral root systems is small, 8-10 plants are preferably planted in each pot, and the interval between the tree root sections is 10-15 cm; the diameter of each tree root section is 6-10 cm thick, the number of lateral root systems is large, 3-5 plants are planted in each pot, and the interval between every two tree root sections is 15-20 cm; the planted tree root sections can not be overlapped in a crossing way. Each crock is independently moisturized; the agricultural film with the specification of 0.04mm is sleeved to the lower portion of the opening of the tile pot from top to bottom, 2-3 bamboo or wood strips are used for supporting in the agricultural film, the agricultural film is in an arc arch shape, the agricultural film is not allowed to touch the scion, and a bag opening below the opening of the tile pot is tightened to form a sealed moisture-preserving cover.
Spraying a carbendazim solution with the volume concentration of 0.3% for 1 time every 15-20 days, and simultaneously spraying monopotassium phosphate with the volume concentration of 0.2% on the grafting scions; keeping the humidity in the moisture-keeping cover, and preventing and treating diseases and insect pests such as camellia anthracnose, camellia diamond back moth and the like according to a conventional method. Removing the grafting bandage in spring of 12 months to next year; when the scion begins to sprout and expand leaves, the agricultural film is removed. Survival investigation is carried out after 40 days of grafting, the survival rate reaches 91.5 percent, and foliar fertilization, pest control and sprout removal are continuously carried out. And (4) transplanting the grafted tree root segment after the grafted tree root segment survives in the pot for one year. And when the new tips grow to 23-26 cm and are basically lignified, pruning and shaping the grafted and alive camellia according to the ideal shape of the bonsai by combining the conventional procedures of pinching, bud picking, branch thinning, branch pulling and the like. After cultivation for 18 months, investigation shows that the survival rate is 91%, the crown width of the common golden camellia is 50-60 cm, and the crown height is 40-50 cm.
Example 2:
in the middle and last 7 months in 2013, selecting a land block with flat terrain, leeward and sunny appearance and good drainage and irrigation as a bonsai cultivation nursery land; the width of the footpath is 40cm, the width of the ridge is 1.2m, and the ridge length is according to the terrain, and furrows are dug and drained on site. And (3) building a shadow shed on the prepared nursery for shading, wherein the height of the shadow shed is 2.0-2.5 m, and the shading degree is 75-80%.
Digging common oil tea in 8-month late ten days of 2013, completely removing parts above the ground diameter, and only reserving all tree roots below the ground diameter; the tree roots dug do not have mud, and the original main root length and the lateral root systems of the camellia oleifera are kept as much as possible. Selecting a proper tree root, wherein the length of the longest part of each section of the tree root section is 20-30 cm, the length of at least 2cm downwards from the top end of each tree root section is straight, the root diameter of the straight part reaches 2-10 cm, sectioning and intercepting the tree root by using a sharp saw and a knife, and keeping lateral root systems of each section of the tree root section as much as possible when sectioning and intercepting. The cut tree root section is suitable for completing grafting and potting as soon as possible; if grafting cannot be completed in time, piling a layer of sand with the thickness of 30-40 cm in a shady and humid place, spraying water for wetting, soaking the tree root section with clean water, slightly and obliquely inserting the tree root section into the sand, covering the surface of the tree root section with sand for 5-10 cm, and storing for 3-5 d.
Soaking and disinfecting the cut tree root sections for 15min by using a disinfecting solution of zineb solution mixed with peppermint water; wherein the volume concentration of the zineb solution is 0.3 percent, and the volume ratio of the peppermint water is 2.5 percent; the peppermint water is a leaching liquor obtained by soaking 10g of dried peppermint leaves in 1L of boiled water for 24 hours; and (5) taking out, washing with clear water, and airing for 3-5 min to serve as the stock for later use.
Collecting annual or semi-annual black magic camellia lignification branches as grafting scions; the scions are collected before 11 am and after 5 pm on cloudy or sunny days, and are collected after collection; when the ear strips need to be transported in a long distance, the base parts of the ear strips are packed by absorbent cotton which absorbs enough water and then are boxed, preferably transported at night, and moisture is kept in the process. If the ear strips need to be stored, a layer of sand with the thickness of 20-25 cm is piled in a cellar or a shady and humid place indoors, water is sprayed for wetting, the ear strips are soaked by clear water and are lightly buried in the sand, the surface of the ear strips is covered with the sand by 5-10 cm, and the ear strips can be stored for 5-7 days.
Adopting a cutting and grafting method for grafting, selecting a smoother side on the cross section of the upper end of the tree root section, cutting off a little edge to form an inclined edge, and vertically cutting downwards from a cambium part along an inclined plane, wherein the depth of the cut is 1.0 cm-1.2 cm; the length of the scion is 4-5 cm, one side of the smooth back bud is selected, a smooth section is cut downwards at a position about 0.5 cm away from the bud and is deep to the xylem, the cut section length is consistent with the cut of the stock, a 20-30-degree inclined plane is cut at the lower end of the back surface of the stock to be intersected with the stock, the cut surface is smooth, and one bud with one leaf or two leaves and two buds are reserved; the cut scion is vertically inserted into the cut root of the tree, the cambium on one side is kept aligned, the bud is on the outer side, and finally the scion is tightly bound from bottom to top by a plastic film binding band special for grafting, the bud eye is noticed to be exposed, and the scion is tensioned during binding to prevent the scion from moving. 2-3 scions are grafted on each root section, and the distance between every two scions is uniform.
After grafting, spraying a sterilizing solution of zineb solution mixed with peppermint water for 1 time on the whole grafted tree root section for primary sterilization and disinfection; wherein the volume concentration of the zineb solution is 0.3 percent, and the volume ratio of the peppermint water is 2.5 percent; the peppermint water is a leaching liquor obtained by soaking 10g of dried peppermint leaves in 1L of boiled water for 24 hours. Preparing a rooting solution, soaking the root sections below the grafting parts for 0.5h, and taking out for later use; the rooting solution comprises the following raw materials: IBA 100 mg/L, ABT 100 mg/L, brassinolide 10 mg/L, folic acid 10 mg/L.
Firstly, paving a layer of clean and fresh river sand or pebble with the thickness of 15-20 cm as a drainage layer on the bottommost layer of a tile basin with proper size and good permeability, wherein the specifications are that the opening diameter is 70cm, the height is 55cm and the bottom diameter is 35cm, and then filling a substrate with the thickness of 35-45 cm on the drainage layer; the matrix is prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by mass: 90% of clean yellow core soil and 10% of clean fresh river sand are uniformly mixed; and (3) disinfecting the drainage layer and the matrix in the tile pot by using a potassium permanganate solution with the weight concentration of 0.5% 2-3 days before planting.
Completing potting and planting on the same day after the root grafting is completed; before planting, a hole which is generally large in appearance shape of the whole tree root section is drilled in a matrix by a round stick, the depth is proper, then the grafted tree root section is vertically placed into the hole, most of the tree root section is embedded into the matrix, only the length of 3-5 cm of the upper part of the tree root section is left, a grafting opening and a scion are exposed out of the surface of the matrix, the matrix around the tree root section is compacted, the tile pots are placed on the prepared ridge surface regularly after sufficient root fixing water is poured, and the interval between every two tile pots is 15-20 cm. The number of the root segments planted in the pot is determined according to the size of the root segments: the diameter of the tree root section is 2-5 cm thick, the number of lateral root systems is small, 8-10 plants are preferably planted in each pot, and the interval between the tree root sections is 10-15 cm; the diameter of each tree root section is 6-10 cm thick, the number of lateral root systems is large, 3-5 plants are planted in each pot, and the interval between every two tree root sections is 15-20 cm; the planted tree root sections can not be overlapped in a crossing way. Each crock is independently moisturized; the agricultural film with the specification of 0.04mm is sleeved to the lower portion of the opening of the tile pot from top to bottom, 2-3 bamboo or wood strips are used for supporting in the agricultural film, the agricultural film is in an arc arch shape, the agricultural film is not allowed to touch the scion, and a bag opening below the opening of the tile pot is tightened to form a sealed moisture-preserving cover.
Spraying a zineb solution with the volume concentration of 0.4% for 1 time every 15-20 days, and spraying a grafting scion with a leaf surface treasure with the volume concentration of 0.3%; keeping the humidity in the moisture-keeping cover, and preventing and treating diseases and insect pests such as camellia anthracnose, camellia diamond back moth and the like according to a conventional method. Removing the grafting bandage in spring of 12 months to next year; when the scion begins to sprout and expand leaves, the agricultural film is removed. Survival investigation is carried out after 40 days of grafting, the survival rate reaches 93.3 percent, and foliar fertilization, pest control and sprout removal are continuously carried out. And (4) transplanting the grafted tree root segment after the grafted tree root segment survives in the pot for one year. And when the new tips grow to 23-26 cm and are basically lignified, pruning and shaping the grafted and alive camellia according to the ideal shape of the bonsai by combining the conventional procedures of pinching, bud picking, branch thinning, branch pulling and the like. After 18 months of cultivation, the survival rate is 92 percent, the width of the black magic tea corolla is 60 cm-70 cm, and the height of the corolla is 50 cm-60 cm.
Example 3:
in the middle and last 3 months of 2014, selecting a land block with flat terrain, leeward and sunny appearance and good drainage and irrigation as a bonsai cultivation nursery land; the width of the footpath is 40cm, the width of the ridge is 1.2m, and the ridge length is according to the terrain, and furrows are dug and drained on site. And (3) building a shadow shed on the prepared nursery for shading, wherein the height of the shadow shed is 2.0-2.5 m, and the shading degree is 75-80%.
Digging Luchuan oil tea in 5 th Lav of 2014, completely removing the parts above the ground diameter, and only reserving all tree roots below the ground diameter; the tree roots dug do not have mud, and the original main root length and the lateral root systems of the camellia oleifera are kept as much as possible. Selecting a proper tree root, wherein the length of the longest part of each section of the tree root section is 20-30 cm, the length of at least 2cm downwards from the top end of each tree root section is straight, the root diameter of the straight part reaches 2-10 cm, sectioning and intercepting the tree root by using a sharp saw and a knife, and keeping lateral root systems of each section of the tree root section as much as possible when sectioning and intercepting. The cut tree root section is suitable for completing grafting and potting as soon as possible; if grafting cannot be completed in time, piling a layer of sand with the thickness of 30-40 cm in a shady and humid place, spraying water for wetting, soaking the tree root section with clean water, slightly and obliquely inserting the tree root section into the sand, covering the surface of the tree root section with sand for 5-10 cm, and storing for 3-5 d.
Soaking and sterilizing the cut tree root sections for 20min by using a sterilizing solution of thiophanate methyl solution mixed with peppermint water; wherein the volume concentration of the thiophanate methyl solution is 0.4 percent, and the volume ratio of the peppermint water is 2.5 percent; the peppermint water is a leaching liquor obtained by soaking 10g of dried peppermint leaves in 1L of boiled water for 24 hours; and (5) taking out, washing with clear water, and airing for 3-5 min to serve as the stock for later use.
Collecting annual or semi-annual hairy purple tea lignified branches as grafting scions; the scions are collected before 11 am and after 5 pm on cloudy or sunny days, and are collected after collection; when the ear strips need to be transported in a long distance, the base parts of the ear strips are packed by absorbent cotton which absorbs enough water and then are boxed, preferably transported at night, and moisture is kept in the process. If the ear strips need to be stored, a layer of sand with the thickness of 20-25 cm is piled in a cellar or a shady and humid place indoors, water is sprayed for wetting, the ear strips are soaked by clear water and are lightly buried in the sand, the surface of the ear strips is covered with the sand by 5-10 cm, and the ear strips can be stored for 5-7 days.
Adopting a cutting and grafting method for grafting, selecting a smoother side on the cross section of the upper end of the tree root section, cutting off a little edge to form an inclined edge, and vertically cutting downwards from a cambium part along an inclined plane, wherein the depth of the cut is 1.0 cm-1.2 cm; the length of the scion is 4-5 cm, one side of the smooth back bud is selected, a smooth section is cut downwards at a position about 0.5 cm away from the bud and is deep to the xylem, the cut section length is consistent with the cut of the stock, a 20-30-degree inclined plane is cut at the lower end of the back surface of the stock to be intersected with the stock, the cut surface is smooth, and one bud with one leaf or two leaves and two buds are reserved; the cut scion is vertically inserted into the cut root of the tree, the cambium on one side is kept aligned, the bud is on the outer side, and finally the scion is tightly bound from bottom to top by a plastic film binding band special for grafting, the bud eye is noticed to be exposed, and the scion is tensioned during binding to prevent the scion from moving. 2-3 scions are grafted on each root section, and the distance between every two scions is uniform.
After grafting, spraying 1 time of a disinfection solution of thiophanate methyl solution mixed with peppermint water on the whole grafted tree root section for primary sterilization and disinfection; wherein the volume concentration of the thiophanate methyl solution is 0.4 percent, and the volume ratio of the peppermint water is 2.5 percent; the peppermint water is a leaching liquor obtained by soaking 10g of dried peppermint leaves in 1L of boiled water for 24 hours. Preparing a rooting solution, soaking the root sections below the grafting parts for 0.5h, and taking out for later use; the rooting solution comprises the following raw materials: IBA 50 mg/L, ABT 100 mg/L, brassinolide 5 mg/L, folic acid 10 mg/L.
Firstly, paving a layer of clean and fresh river sand or pebble with the thickness of 15-20 cm as a drainage layer on the bottommost layer of a tile basin with proper size and good permeability, wherein the specifications are that the opening diameter is 80cm, the height is 60cm and the bottom diameter is 40cm, and then filling a substrate with the thickness of 35-45 cm on the drainage layer; the matrix is prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by mass: 88 percent of clean yellow core soil and 12 percent of clean fresh river sand are uniformly mixed; and (3) disinfecting the drainage layer and the matrix in the tile pot by using a potassium permanganate solution with the weight concentration of 0.3 percent 2-3 days before planting.
Completing potting and planting on the same day after the root grafting is completed; before planting, a hole which is generally large in appearance shape of the whole tree root section is drilled in a matrix by a round stick, the depth is proper, then the grafted tree root section is vertically placed into the hole, most of the tree root section is embedded into the matrix, only the length of 3-5 cm of the upper part of the tree root section is left, a grafting opening and a scion are exposed out of the surface of the matrix, the matrix around the tree root section is compacted, the tile pots are placed on the prepared ridge surface regularly after sufficient root fixing water is poured, and the interval between every two tile pots is 15-20 cm. The number of the root segments planted in the pot is determined according to the size of the root segments: the diameter of the tree root section is 2-5 cm thick, the number of lateral root systems is small, 8-10 plants are preferably planted in each pot, and the interval between the tree root sections is 10-15 cm; the diameter of each tree root section is 6-10 cm thick, the number of lateral root systems is large, 3-5 plants are planted in each pot, and the interval between every two tree root sections is 15-20 cm; the planted tree root sections can not be overlapped in a crossing way. Each crock is independently moisturized; the agricultural film with the specification of 0.04mm is sleeved to the lower portion of the opening of the tile pot from top to bottom, 2-3 bamboo or wood strips are used for supporting in the agricultural film, the agricultural film is in an arc arch shape, the agricultural film is not allowed to touch the scion, and a bag opening below the opening of the tile pot is tightened to form a sealed moisture-preserving cover.
Spraying a 0.5% thiophanate methyl solution with the volume concentration for 1 time every 15-20 days, and spraying a 0.2% leaf surface treasure on the grafting scion; keeping the humidity in the moisture-keeping cover, and preventing and treating diseases and insect pests such as camellia anthracnose, camellia diamond back moth and the like according to a conventional method. Removing the grafting bandage in spring of 12 months to next year; when the scion begins to sprout and expand leaves, the agricultural film is removed. Survival investigation is carried out after 40 days of grafting, the survival rate reaches 92.8 percent, and foliar fertilization, pest control and sprout removal are continuously carried out. And (4) transplanting the grafted tree root segment after the grafted tree root segment survives in the pot for one year. And when the new tips grow to 23-26 cm and are basically lignified, pruning and shaping the grafted and alive camellia according to the ideal shape of the bonsai by combining the conventional procedures of pinching, bud picking, branch thinning, branch pulling and the like. After 15 months of cultivation, the survival rate is 91 percent, the width of the flower crown of the raw purple tea is 35 cm-45 cm, and the height of the crown is 30 cm-45 cm.
Example 4:
selecting a land with flat terrain, leeward and sunny appearance and good drainage and irrigation as a bonsai cultivation nursery land in the late 6 th month of 2015; the width of the footpath is 40cm, the width of the ridge is 1.2m, and the ridge length is according to the terrain, and furrows are dug and drained on site. And (3) building a shadow shed on the prepared nursery for shading, wherein the height of the shadow shed is 2.0-2.5 m, and the shading degree is 75-80%.
Digging the camellia oleifera in mid-7 th month of 2015, completely removing the part above the ground diameter, and only reserving all tree roots below the ground diameter; the tree roots dug do not have mud, and the original main root length and the lateral root systems of the camellia oleifera are kept as much as possible. Selecting a proper tree root, wherein the length of the longest part of each section of the tree root section is 20-30 cm, the length of at least 2cm downwards from the top end of each tree root section is straight, the root diameter of the straight part reaches 2-10 cm, sectioning and intercepting the tree root by using a sharp saw and a knife, and keeping lateral root systems of each section of the tree root section as much as possible when sectioning and intercepting. The cut tree root section is suitable for completing grafting and potting as soon as possible; if grafting cannot be completed in time, piling a layer of sand with the thickness of 30-40 cm in a shady and humid place, spraying water for wetting, soaking the tree root section with clean water, slightly and obliquely inserting the tree root section into the sand, covering the surface of the tree root section with sand for 5-10 cm, and storing for 3-5 d.
Soaking and sterilizing the cut tree root sections for 15min by using a sterilizing solution of a carbendazim solution mixed with peppermint water; wherein the volume concentration of the carbendazim solution is 0.3 percent, and the volume ratio of the peppermint water is 2.5 percent; the peppermint water is a leaching liquor obtained by soaking 10g of dried peppermint leaves in 1L of boiled water for 24 hours; and (5) taking out, washing with clear water, and airing for 3-5 min to serve as the stock for later use.
Collecting annual or semi-annual vein-revealing lignified branches of the golden scented tea as grafting scions; the scions are collected before 11 am and after 5 pm on cloudy or sunny days, and are collected after collection; when the ear strips need to be transported in a long distance, the base parts of the ear strips are packed by absorbent cotton which absorbs enough water and then are boxed, preferably transported at night, and moisture is kept in the process. If the ear strips need to be stored, a layer of sand with the thickness of 20-25 cm is piled in a cellar or a shady and humid place indoors, water is sprayed for wetting, the ear strips are soaked by clear water and are lightly buried in the sand, the surface of the ear strips is covered with the sand by 5-10 cm, and the ear strips can be stored for 5-7 days.
Adopting a cutting and grafting method for grafting, selecting a smoother side on the cross section of the upper end of the tree root section, cutting off a little edge to form an inclined edge, and vertically cutting downwards from a cambium part along an inclined plane, wherein the depth of the cut is 1.0 cm-1.2 cm; the length of the scion is 4-5 cm, one side of the smooth back bud is selected, a smooth section is cut downwards at a position about 0.5 cm away from the bud and is deep to the xylem, the cut section length is consistent with the cut of the stock, a 20-30-degree inclined plane is cut at the lower end of the back surface of the stock to be intersected with the stock, the cut surface is smooth, and one bud with one leaf or two leaves and two buds are reserved; the cut scion is vertically inserted into the cut root of the tree, the cambium on one side is kept aligned, the bud is on the outer side, and finally the scion is tightly bound from bottom to top by a plastic film binding band special for grafting, the bud eye is noticed to be exposed, and the scion is tensioned during binding to prevent the scion from moving. 2-3 scions are grafted on each root section, and the distance between every two scions is uniform.
After grafting, spraying 1 time of sterilizing solution of carbendazim solution mixed with peppermint water on the whole grafted tree root section for primary sterilization; wherein the volume concentration of the carbendazim solution is 0.3 percent, and the volume ratio of the peppermint water is 2.5 percent; the peppermint water is a leaching liquor obtained by soaking 10g of dried peppermint leaves in 1L of boiled water for 24 hours. Preparing a rooting solution, soaking the root sections below the grafting parts for 0.6h, and taking out for later use; the rooting solution comprises the following raw materials: IBA 60 mg/L, ABT 80 mg/L, brassinolide 8 mg/L, folic acid 6 mg/L.
Firstly, paving a layer of clean and fresh river sand or pebble with the thickness of 15-20 cm as a drainage layer on the bottommost layer of a non-woven fabric seedling raising bag with proper size and good permeability, wherein the specification is that the opening diameter is 80cm, the height is 60cm and the bottom diameter is 30cm, and then filling a substrate with the thickness of 35-45 cm on the drainage layer; the matrix is prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by mass: 85% of clean yellow core soil and 15% of clean fresh river sand are uniformly mixed; and (3) disinfecting the drainage layer and the matrix in the non-woven fabric seedling raising bag by using a potassium permanganate solution with the weight concentration of 0.2% 2-3 days before potting.
Completing potting and planting on the same day after the root grafting is completed; before planting, a hole which is generally large in appearance shape of the whole tree root section is drilled in a matrix by a round stick, the depth is proper, then the grafted tree root section is vertically placed into the hole, most of the tree root section is embedded into the matrix, only the length of 3-5 cm at the upper part of the tree root section is reserved, a grafting opening and a scion are exposed out of the surface of the matrix, the matrix around the tree root section is compacted, after sufficient root fixing water is poured, non-woven fabric seedling bags are neatly placed on the prepared furrow surface, and the interval between every two non-woven fabric seedling bags is 15-20 cm. The number of the root segments planted in the pot is determined according to the size of the root segments: the diameter of the tree root section is 2-5 cm thick, the number of lateral root systems is small, 8-10 plants are preferably planted in each pot, and the interval between the tree root sections is 10-15 cm; the diameter of each tree root section is 6-10 cm thick, the number of lateral root systems is large, 3-5 plants are planted in each pot, and the interval between every two tree root sections is 15-20 cm; the planted tree root sections can not be overlapped in a crossing way. Each non-woven fabric seedling raising bag is independently moisturized; the agricultural film with the specification of 0.04mm is sleeved to the lower part of the opening of the non-woven fabric seedling raising bag from top to bottom, 2-3 bamboo or wood strips are used for supporting in the agricultural film, the agricultural film is in an arc arch shape and does not touch the scions, and the bag opening below the opening of the non-woven fabric seedling raising bag is tightened to form a sealed moisture-preserving cover.
Spraying a 0.5% thiophanate methyl solution with the volume concentration for 1 time every 15-20 days, and simultaneously spraying monopotassium phosphate with the volume concentration of 0.3% on the grafting scion; keeping the humidity in the moisture-keeping cover, and preventing and treating diseases and insect pests such as camellia anthracnose, camellia diamond back moth and the like according to a conventional method. Removing the grafting bandage in spring of 12 months to next year; when the scion begins to sprout and expand leaves, the agricultural film is removed. Survival investigation is carried out after 40 days of grafting, the survival rate reaches 93.6 percent, and foliar fertilization, pest control and sprout removal are continuously carried out. And (4) transplanting the grafted tree root segment after the grafted tree root segment survives in the pot for one year. And when the new tips grow to 23-26 cm and are basically lignified, pruning and shaping the grafted and alive camellia according to the ideal shape of the bonsai by combining the conventional procedures of pinching, bud picking, branch thinning, branch pulling and the like. After 17 months of cultivation, investigation shows that the survival rate is 91%, the crown width of the pulse-developing scented tea is 45-50 cm, and the crown height is 40-50 cm.
Example 5:
in the middle and last ten days of 5 months in 2017, selecting a land block with flat terrain, leeward and sunny appearance and good drainage and irrigation as a bonsai cultivation nursery land; the width of the footpath is 40cm, the width of the ridge is 1.2m, and the ridge length is according to the terrain, and furrows are dug and drained on site. And (3) building a shadow shed on the prepared nursery for shading, wherein the height of the shadow shed is 2.0-2.5 m, and the shading degree is 75-80%.
Digging common oil tea in late 10 months in 2017, completely removing parts above the ground diameter, and only reserving all tree roots below the ground diameter; the tree roots dug do not have mud, and the original main root length and the lateral root systems of the camellia oleifera are kept as much as possible. Selecting a proper tree root, wherein the length of the longest part of each section of the tree root section is 20-30 cm, the length of at least 2cm downwards from the top end of each tree root section is straight, the root diameter of the straight part reaches 2-10 cm, sectioning and intercepting the tree root by using a sharp saw and a knife, and keeping lateral root systems of each section of the tree root section as much as possible when sectioning and intercepting. The cut tree root section is suitable for completing grafting and potting as soon as possible; if grafting cannot be completed in time, piling a layer of sand with the thickness of 30-40 cm in a shady and humid place, spraying water for wetting, soaking the tree root section with clean water, slightly and obliquely inserting the tree root section into the sand, covering the surface of the tree root section with sand for 5-10 cm, and storing for 3-5 d.
Soaking and sterilizing the cut tree root sections for 10min by using a sterilizing solution of thiophanate methyl solution mixed with peppermint water; wherein the volume concentration of the thiophanate methyl solution is 0.5 percent, and the volume ratio of the peppermint water is 2.5 percent; the peppermint water is a leaching liquor obtained by soaking 10g of dried peppermint leaves in 1L of boiled water for 24 hours; and (5) taking out, washing with clear water, and airing for 3-5 min to serve as the stock for later use.
Collecting fine branches of annual middle east golden camellia as grafting scions; the scions are collected before 11 am and after 5 pm on cloudy or sunny days, and are collected after collection; when the ear strips need to be transported in a long distance, the base parts of the ear strips are packed by absorbent cotton which absorbs enough water and then are boxed, preferably transported at night, and moisture is kept in the process. If the ear strips need to be stored, a layer of sand with the thickness of 20-25 cm is piled in a cellar or a shady and humid place indoors, water is sprayed for wetting, the ear strips are soaked by clear water and are lightly buried in the sand, the surface of the ear strips is covered with the sand by 5-10 cm, and the ear strips can be stored for 5-7 days.
Adopting a cutting and grafting method for grafting, selecting a smoother side on the cross section of the upper end of the tree root section, cutting off a little edge to form an inclined edge, and vertically cutting downwards from a cambium part along an inclined plane, wherein the depth of the cut is 1.0 cm-1.2 cm; the length of the scion is 4-5 cm, one side of the smooth back bud is selected, a smooth section is cut downwards at a position about 0.5 cm away from the bud and is deep to the xylem, the cut section length is consistent with the cut of the stock, a 20-30-degree inclined plane is cut at the lower end of the back surface of the stock to be intersected with the stock, the cut surface is smooth, and one bud with one leaf or two leaves and two buds are reserved; the cut scion is vertically inserted into the cut root of the tree, the cambium on one side is kept aligned, the bud is on the outer side, and finally the scion is tightly bound from bottom to top by a plastic film binding band special for grafting, the bud eye is noticed to be exposed, and the scion is tensioned during binding to prevent the scion from moving. 2-3 scions are grafted on each root section, and the distance between every two scions is uniform.
After grafting, spraying 1 time of a disinfection solution of thiophanate methyl solution mixed with peppermint water on the whole grafted tree root section for primary sterilization and disinfection; wherein the volume concentration of the thiophanate methyl solution is 0.5 percent, and the volume ratio of the peppermint water is 2.5 percent; the peppermint water is a leaching liquor obtained by soaking 10g of dried peppermint leaves in 1L of boiled water for 24 hours. Preparing a rooting solution, soaking the root sections below the grafting parts for 1.0h, and taking out for later use; the rooting solution comprises the following raw materials: IBA 50 mg/L, ABT 50 mg/L, brassinolide 10 mg/L, folic acid 10 mg/L.
Firstly, paving a layer of clean and fresh river sand or pebble with the thickness of 15-20 cm as a drainage layer on the bottommost layer of a tile basin with proper size and good permeability, wherein the specifications are that the opening diameter is 60cm, the height is 50cm and the bottom diameter is 30cm, and then filling a substrate with the thickness of 35-45 cm on the drainage layer; the matrix is prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by mass: 90% of clean yellow core soil and 10% of clean fresh river sand are uniformly mixed; and (3) disinfecting the drainage layer and the matrix in the tile pot by using a potassium permanganate solution with the weight concentration of 0.4% 2-3 days before planting.
Completing potting and planting on the same day after the root grafting is completed; before planting, a hole which is generally large in appearance shape of the whole tree root section is drilled in a matrix by a round stick, the depth is proper, then the grafted tree root section is vertically placed into the hole, most of the tree root section is embedded into the matrix, only the length of 3-5 cm of the upper part of the tree root section is left, a grafting opening and a scion are exposed out of the surface of the matrix, the matrix around the tree root section is compacted, the tile pots are placed on the prepared ridge surface regularly after sufficient root fixing water is poured, and the interval between every two tile pots is 15-20 cm. The number of the root segments planted in the pot is determined according to the size of the root segments: the diameter of the tree root section is 2-5 cm thick, the number of lateral root systems is small, 8-10 plants are preferably planted in each pot, and the interval between the tree root sections is 10-15 cm; the diameter of each tree root section is 6-10 cm thick, the number of lateral root systems is large, 3-5 plants are planted in each pot, and the interval between every two tree root sections is 15-20 cm; the planted tree root sections can not be overlapped in a crossing way. Each crock is independently moisturized; the agricultural film with the specification of 0.04mm is sleeved to the lower portion of the opening of the tile pot from top to bottom, 2-3 bamboo or wood strips are used for supporting in the agricultural film, the agricultural film is in an arc arch shape, the agricultural film is not allowed to touch the scion, and a bag opening below the opening of the tile pot is tightened to form a sealed moisture-preserving cover.
Spraying a carbendazim solution with the volume concentration of 0.5% for 1 time every 15-20 days, and spraying a leaf surface treasure with the volume concentration of 0.2% on the grafting scion; keeping the humidity in the moisture-keeping cover, and preventing and treating diseases and insect pests such as camellia anthracnose, camellia diamond back moth and the like according to a conventional method. Removing the grafting bandage in spring of 12 months to next year; when the scion begins to sprout and expand leaves, the agricultural film is removed. Survival investigation is carried out after grafting for 40 days, the survival rate reaches 94.3 percent, and foliar fertilization, pest control and sprout removal are continuously carried out. And (4) transplanting the grafted tree root segment after the grafted tree root segment survives in the pot for one year. And when the new tips grow to 23-26 cm and are basically lignified, pruning and shaping the grafted and alive camellia according to the ideal shape of the bonsai by combining the conventional procedures of pinching, bud picking, branch thinning, branch pulling and the like. After 16 months of cultivation, the survival rate is 92 percent, the crown width of the middle east golden camellia is 40 cm-50 cm, and the crown height is 35 cm-50 cm.

Claims (4)

1. A method for cultivating camellia miniascape by grafting camellia oleifera roots is characterized by comprising the following steps: the method comprises the steps of cutting camellia oleifera, selecting tree roots, grafting, potting, managing after potting, shaping and trimming, wherein the tree roots suitable for camellia oleifera are selected as grafting stocks, annual or semi-annual excellent branches of camellia plants are collected as grafting scions, grafting is carried out by adopting a cutting grafting method, and the grafted and alive camellia is trimmed and modeled according to the ideal shape of a bonsai through grafting and potting management after grafting; the main operation steps are as follows:
(1) digging oil tea and selecting tree root
Preparing a nursery land: selecting a land with flat terrain, leeward and sunny appearance and good drainage and irrigation as a bonsai cultivation nursery land; the width of the footpath is 40cm, the width of the ridge is 1.2m, and the ridge length is according to the terrain, and furrows are dug and drained on site;
secondly, building a shed: building a shading shed on the prepared nursery for shading, wherein the height of the shading shed is 2.0-2.5 m, and the shading degree is 75-80%;
thirdly, mining and digging time: digging in the last ten days of 5 months to the last ten days of 10 months; the digging is to completely remove the part above the ground diameter of the camellia oleifera and only leave all tree roots below the ground diameter; the excavated tree roots have no mud, and the original main root length and the lateral root systems of the camellia oleifera are kept as much as possible;
selecting tree roots: selecting proper tree roots of the camellia oleifera, and sectioning the tree roots by using sharp saws and knives; completing grafting and potting on the cut tree root sections on the same day; if grafting cannot be completed in time, piling a layer of sand with the thickness of 30-40 cm in a cool and humid place, spraying water for wetting, soaking the root section of the tree with clean water, slightly and obliquely inserting the tree into the sand, covering the surface of the root section with sand for 5-10 cm, and storing for 3-5 d;
the length of the longest part of each section of the root section of the proper tree root is 20-30 cm, the length of at least 2cm downwards from the top end of each section of the root section of the proper tree root is straight, and the diameter of the root is 2-10 cm thick; when segmentation interception is carried out, as many lateral root systems as possible are reserved in each tree root section;
fifth, disinfection: soaking and disinfecting the cut tree root sections for 10-20 min by using a disinfection solution, taking out, washing by using clear water, and airing for 3-5 min to serve as the stock for later use;
(2) grafting
Firstly, scion collection: the scions are collected before 11 am and after 5 pm on cloudy or sunny days and are collected at the same time; collecting annual or semi-annual excellent branches of camellia plants as grafting scions; when the scion wood is transported for a long distance, the base part of the scion wood is packed and boxed by absorbent cotton which absorbs enough water, and the scion wood is transported at night and moisturized in the process;
storing the ear strips: piling a layer of sand with the thickness of 20-25 cm in a cellar or an indoor cool and humid place, spraying water for wetting, soaking the scion wood with clear water, slightly burying the scion wood in the sand, covering the surface of the scion wood with the sand for 5-10 cm, and storing the scion wood for 5-7 days;
③ the grafting method: grafting by adopting a cutting grafting method, wherein 2-3 scions are grafted on each root section, and the intervals between every two scions are uniform;
(3) upper basin
Sterilizing: after grafting, spraying 1 time of disinfection solution on the whole grafted tree root section for primary disinfection;
processing a rooting solution: preparing a rooting solution, soaking the root sections below the grafting part for 0.5-1.0 h, and taking out for later use;
the rooting solution comprises the following raw materials: IBA 50-100 mg/L, ABT 50-100 mg/L, brassinolide 5-10 mg/L, folic acid 5-10 mg/L;
filling a matrix: firstly, laying a layer of clean and fresh river sand or pebbles with the thickness of 15-20 cm as a drainage layer on the bottom layer of a seedling culture container with proper size and good permeability, and then filling a substrate with the thickness of 35-45 cm on the drainage layer;
the matrix is prepared from the following raw materials in percentage by mass: 85-90% of clean yellow core soil and 10-15% of clean fresh river sand, which are uniformly mixed; disinfecting a drainage layer and a matrix in a seedling container by using a potassium permanganate solution with the weight concentration of 0.2-0.5% 2-3 days before potting;
fourthly, potting and planting: completing potting and planting on the same day after the root grafting is completed; before planting, firstly drilling holes with the proper depth, wherein the holes are large as the appearance shape of the whole tree root section, vertically placing the grafted tree root section into the holes, most of the tree root section is embedded into the matrix, only the length of 3-5 cm at the upper part of the tree root section is left, the grafting opening and the scion are exposed out of the surface of the matrix, compacting the matrix around the tree root section, pouring enough root fixing water, and neatly placing seedling containers on the prepared bed surface, wherein the interval between every two seedling containers is 15-20 cm;
the number of the tree root segments planted in the upper pot is determined according to the size of the tree root segments: the diameter of each tree root section is 2-5 cm thick, the number of lateral root systems is small, 8-10 plants are planted in each pot, and the interval between each tree root section is 10-15 cm; the diameter of each tree root section is 6-10 cm thick, the number of lateral root systems is large, 3-5 plants are planted in each pot, and the interval between every two tree root sections is 15-20 cm; the planted tree root sections cannot be overlapped in a crossing way;
moisture preservation: each seedling raising container is independently moisturized; covering the whole agricultural film with the specification of 0.04mm from top to bottom to the lower part of the opening of the seedling container, and supporting the agricultural film by using 2-3 bamboo or wood strips, so that the agricultural film is in an arc arch shape, the agricultural film is not required to touch scions, and a bag opening below the opening of the seedling container is tightly tied to form a sealed moisture-preserving cover;
(4) management after potting
Management: spraying carbendazim or zineb and thiophanate methyl solution with the volume concentration of 0.3-0.5% for 1 time every 15-20 days, and spraying monopotassium phosphate or phylloxanthin with the volume concentration of 0.2-0.3% to the grafting scion; keeping the humidity in the moisture-preserving cover, and preventing and treating the anthracnose and the diamond back moth of the oil tea by a conventional method;
secondly, unbinding: removing the grafting bandage in spring of 12 months to next year; when the scion begins to sprout and expand leaves, removing the agricultural film;
transplanting: transplanting the grafted tree root segment after surviving in the pot for one year;
(5) pruning and pruning
When the young shoots grow to 23-26 cm and are basically lignified, pruning and shaping the grafted and alive camellia according to the ideal shape of the bonsai by combining the procedures of pinching, bud picking, branch thinning and branch pulling;
the varieties of the oil tea in the step (1) comprise fragrant flower oil tea, common oil tea and Luchuan oil tea; the camellia plants in the step (2) comprise camellia chrysantha and other camellia plants with strong ornamental value.
2. The method for cultivating the camellia miniascape by adopting the camellia oleifera root grafting as claimed in claim 1, wherein: selecting a smoother side on the cross section of the upper end of the tree root section, cutting off a little edge to form an inclined edge, and vertically cutting downwards from a cambium part along an inclined plane, wherein the depth of the cut is 1.0 cm-1.2 cm; the length of the scion is 4-5 cm, one side of the smooth back bud is selected, a smooth section is cut downwards at a position about 0.5 cm away from the bud and is deep to the xylem, the cut section length is consistent with the cut of the stock, a 20-30-degree inclined plane is cut at the lower end of the back surface of the stock to be intersected with the stock, the cut surface is smooth, and one bud with one leaf or two leaves and two buds are reserved; the cut scion is vertically inserted into the cut root of the tree, the cambium on one side is kept aligned, the bud is on the outer side, and finally the scion is tightly bound from bottom to top by a plastic film binding band special for grafting, the bud eye is noticed to be exposed, and the scion is tensioned during binding to prevent the scion from moving.
3. The method for cultivating the camellia miniascape by adopting the camellia oleifera root grafting as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the disinfection solution in the steps (1) and (3) is carbendazim or zineb and thiophanate methyl solution mixed with peppermint water; wherein the volume concentration of the carbendazim or zineb and thiophanate methyl solution is 0.3-0.5 percent, and the volume ratio of the peppermint water is 2.5 percent; the peppermint water is a leaching liquor obtained by soaking 10g of dried peppermint leaves in 1L of boiled water for 24 hours.
4. The method for cultivating the camellia miniascape by adopting the camellia oleifera root grafting as claimed in claim 1, wherein: the seedling container in the step (3) is a tile pot or a non-woven fabric seedling bag; the specification is that the diameter of an opening is 60-80 cm, the height is 50-60 cm, and the diameter of the bottom is 30-40 cm.
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