A kind of new cultural method of tortoise
The present invention relates to aquacultures, refer in particular to a kind of new cultural method of tortoise.
Tortoise is one of the most common type in China's Chelonian, and in China, distribution is very wide, and meat and ovum are the delicious food nourished；
Tortoiseshell is then common Chinese medicine.For tortoise again for ornamental, tortoise is long-lived animal, is long-lived symbol, and feeding tortoise can enrich people's
Life.The viability of tortoise is very strong, and adaptability is very wide, and feeding habits are miscellaneous, and feeding management very simple is convenient, and investment is small, and economic benefit is big,
Raising can be developed in many places in China.
But tortoise propagates existing more problems artificially at present.For example, in the cultivation of close tortoise, usually selective body
Matter is healthy and strong, power of looking for food is strong, 6 tortoise more than age in winter, disease-free and injury-free, and female-male proportion is 2:1 or 3:1.600 grams of female tortoise weight with
On, 750 grams of male tortoise or more.This method is to allow tortoise up to sexal maturity by the growth of nature, and the tortoise then chosen is into breeding.The party
Method feature is: growing up by the natural law；The disadvantage is that: growth time is long, and it is slow to generate value.For another example, in reproductive process, generally
It is raised together naturally using tortoise male and female, 4-8 month natural mating, next year the 4-8 month lays eggs in batches, can produce within 1 year 2-3 batches.Female tortoise is mostly at dusk
Or lay eggs when dawn, it lays eggs 4-7 pieces every time.After oviposition, soil is taken off with hind leg ovum operculum is good, and equalled soil pressure with body.Laying season
It saves after picking up ovum daily, spawning ground surface is flattened, cheat and manually look for ovum with the oviposition tortoise digging oviposition for being conducive to later.Dry day
Gas, can water drenching is primary on sandy soil, prevent from lacking moisture content and making tortoise ovum dehydration, influence hatching rate.This method feature is: operation letter
It is single；The disadvantage is that: female tortoise is bothered vulnerable to male tortoise, and the loss of public tortoise is big, causes the phenomenon of weak, the easy death of constitution.
Summary of the invention
The purpose of the present invention is being improved and being innovated for disadvantage present in background technique and problem, a kind of crow is provided
The new cultural method of tortoise.
1) present invention is the following steps are included: build pond；2) close tortoise is cultivated；3) it breeds；4) artificial incubation；5) young tortoise is brought up；6)
It is raised at tortoise；7) enemy and disease prevention and cure；Wherein:
The specific method is as follows: First Year for close tortoise cultivation: emergence starts to feed according to a conventional method, is lower than to weather temperature by the end of September
22 DEG C start to put greenhouse cultivation, then heating cultivation slowly drops to natural temperature cultivation to temperature in second year April close to 20 DEG C；
Second year: September starts to start heating cultivation by the method for First Year, supports third year 2 months, is then cooled to natural temperature and supports
It grows, and no longer gives tortoise feeding；Third year: year start to cultivate by the method for second year；4th year: year started the production of tortoise maturation
Ovum can enter reproductive stage.
The specific method is as follows for breeding: separately being cultivated using public tortoise, then the latter before the oestrus of tortoise, that is, Mid-autumn Festival
In month, the public tortoise of health is put into close tortoise aquaculture pond, it is allowed to mate；Public tortoise is caught out again after one month and is placed in public tortoise pond
Cultivation, female tortoise then conventional cultivation to hibernation.
The warm temperature that the close tortoise is cultivated in one of the embodiments, is controlled in 20-25 degree.
The method for building pond is as follows in one of the embodiments: pond build on the sunny side, secluded, irrigation and drainage easily
Side；Pond surrounding builds 0.8 meter of high enclosure wall together, and the wall base buries 30 centimetres, prevents tortoise from getting into the cave flight；1.5-2.5 meters are stayed in enclosure wall
Wide vacant lot spreads fine sand, covers rain shade above, makees tortoise rest and oviposition is used；1.2 meters of the pond center depth of water, mud depth 20-
It is more shallow more to arrive bank in 12-16 degree or so for 30CM, gradient；In addition, can be that close tortoise builds rest according to tortoise pond size selectivity
Pavilion is had a rest for it.
The method of the artificial incubation is as follows in one of the embodiments: pond is first dug, or with tub, wooden case, by it
Bottom spreads 3.5 centimetres of river sands, and white end, that is, animal pole ovum is upward, is emitted on sand bed, then covers one layer of fine sand again, protects
Holding temperature is 20-30 DEG C, and water content 7-10% is hatched young tortoise for 50-60 days.
The method that the young tortoise is brought up in one of the embodiments, is as follows: the young tortoise of rigid broken shell, receives to dry take off of umbilical cord
After holding back, is sterilized with 10% physiological saline, be subsequently placed in 24-30 DEG C of water temperature of water tank, change daily water 2-3 times；It is fed after 2-3 days
Food, when daily 3-5 in afternoon, feed；It is transferred to outdoor examination after the raising in a week and supports pond raising；Great Chi raising is moved into after 20 days；45
After it, when daily morning 9-10, when 3-5 in afternoon, respectively feeds primary, and being eaten when feeding again below feeding volume has a small amount of residue to be advisable；And want and
When remove residual bait, to prevent ruining water quality；When water temperature drops to 15 DEG C or less, kept warm with plastic film covering overwintering.
Preferably, the food that the young tortoise feeds are as follows: cooked wheat bran, egg, watermelon, rice bran mixture, or chopping
Fish, freshwater mussel, spiral shell meat, pluck and butcher leftover bits and pieces.
The method at tortoise raising is as follows in one of the embodiments: before and after grain rains, tortoise revives from hibernation
Movable out, temperature starts to ingest when reaching 18 DEG C, most prosperous with 26-30 DEG C of appetite, mid or late October appetite decline, until hibernation
Stop eating, tortoise stocking rate is per acre with 400-600；The ratio that feeds of animal fodder and plant feed is 4:6 during raising
Or 5:5, daily ration of feeding are the 5-10% of tortoise total weight, are fed daily 2 times, when morning 8-9, when afternoon 5-6, is fed, and feed needs
It minces and feeds；Water is often changed during raising, spring, autumn changed water 1 time every 12-15 days, changed within summer 5-7 days water 1 time, changed water every time
Amount is about 1/5-1/3.
Preferably, when the tortoise is put in a suitable place to breed, while the herbivorous fishes of 10-20%, carp, the crucian of 30-40% being raised together.
The method of the enemy and disease prevention and cure is as follows in one of the embodiments: the main enemy of tortoise is ant
Ant, mouse, snake, mosquito and other birds endanger tortoise ovum, young tortoise and bite into tortoise, cause death, must prevention；It was found that the oral cavity of tortoise, pharynx
When the positions parasitisms such as lower and nostril have a large amount of leech, the intraoral leech of sick tortoise is killed with 7/10000ths lime liquor.
The method of the present invention in Hunan area particularly suitable for implementing.
Advantages of the present invention and the utility model has the advantages that
The present invention mainly cultivates in close tortoise and makes innovation in propagation method, and the tortoise individual for cultivating out by this method is strong
Strong, the death rate is low.It is cultivated by close tortoise, realizes the 4th year tortoise with regard to Maturation and spawning, the tortoise than growing under pure natural conditions shifts to an earlier date
2-3 oviposition, improves economic benefit of aquaculture.By the propagation method of separated cultivation, first is that ensure that this female tortoise is normal
Life, is not bothered by public tortoise, can normally be fed, and guarantees physical health；Second is that reducing the loss of this public tortoise, the public affairs of mixed breeding
Tortoise loss is bigger, because long-term disorderly mating, causes constitution weak, easy death of passing the winter also strives mating power and fight with other public tortoises
Injury etc.；Third is that separately support can also reduce during oviposition male tortoise to female tortoise bother and male tortoise steals egg situation.The method of the present invention
Strong operability, invests small, and economic benefit is big, while the problem of overcome existing tortoise breeding again.
It is of the invention for ease of understanding, the embodiment of the present invention is shown below.But the present invention can be with many different
Form is realized, however it is not limited to embodiment described herein.On the contrary, purpose of providing these embodiments is makes to the present invention
Disclosure it is more thorough and comprehensive.
Unless otherwise defined, the skill of all technical and scientific terms and technical field of the invention used herein
The normally understood meaning of art personnel is identical.Term used in the description is intended merely to describe specifically to implement purpose, is not
It is designed to limit the invention.
One, pond is built.Pond to build on the sunny side, secluded, irrigation and drainage are easily local.Pond surrounding is built 0.8 meter of high enclosure wall, the wall base together and is entered
30 centimetres of soil prevents tortoise from getting into the cave flight.1.5-2.5 meters of wide vacant lots are stayed in enclosure wall, spread fine sand, cover sugarcane awning above,
It is used for tortoise rest and oviposition.The pond center depth of water needs 1.2 meters, and mud depth 20-30CM, gradient slowly more arrives bank at 15 degree or so
More shallow, the big close tortoise that should be in tortoise pond builds a break pavilion, has a rest for it.
Two, the cultivation of close tortoise.First Year: emergence starts to feed by normal method, to weather temperature lower than 22 degree (in Hunan
About by the end of September) start to put greenhouse cultivation, heating cultivation to second year April (warm temperature is controlled in 20-25 degree), then slowly
Slowly natural temperature cultivation is cooled to.Second year September starts to start heating cultivation by the method for First Year, supports third year 2 months, so
After be cooled to natural temperature cultivation, tortoise no longer feeding.Because 2 months are 1 year temperature minimum time, this when, tortoise can be at once
Into deep hibernation, normal condition is that September starts not eat, and just enters deep hibernation to November, and the intermediate time there are three the moon to be
The small dormancy phase, influence the health condition of tortoise, people equally sleep wake up be it is bad, the hibernation of tortoise cannot be bothered after hibernation.
Third year, in the 4th year, tortoise was with regard to Maturation and spawning, than under pure natural conditions by the cultivation of method as second year
The tortoise tortoise of growth shifts to an earlier date 2--3 oviposition, increases economic efficiency.
Three, it breeds.Public tortoise separately cultivates, first is that ensure that this female tortoise normally lives, is not bothered by public tortoise, can be with
It is normal to feed, guarantee physical health, second is that, the loss of this public tortoise is reduced, the public tortoise loss of mixed breeding is bigger, because long-term random
Mating, causes constitution weak, easy death of passing the winter, and also strives mating with other public tortoises and weighs injury etc. of fighting.The oestrus of general tortoise exists
The public tortoise of health is put into aquaculture pond within the time of this month by the latter moon before the Mid-autumn Festival, is allowed it to mate, can be mentioned
High rate of fertilization, and reduce loss, catches out public tortoise to be placed in public tortoise pond and cultivates again after one month, and female tortoise then normally cultivated to the winter
It sleeps.Third is that separately support can also reduce during oviposition male tortoise to female tortoise bother and male tortoise steals egg situation.
Four, artificial incubation.It first to dig pond, or with tub, wooden case, its bottom be spread into 3.5 centimetres of river sands, the white end of ovum
(animal pole) upwards, is emitted on sand bed, then covers one layer of fine sand again, keeps 20-30 DEG C of its temperature, water content 7-10%
(should sprinkle water keep humidity daily).About young tortoise can be hatched through 50-60 days.
Five, young tortoise is brought up.The young tortoise of rigid broken shell is sterilized with 10% physiological saline after the dry de- convergence of umbilical cord, is then set
In 24-30 DEG C of water temperature of water tank, change daily water 2-3 times, summer can sprinkle water more.Fed after 2-3 days cooked wheat bran, egg,
The mixtures such as watermelon, rice bran, or feed the fish shredded, freshwater mussel, spiral shell meat, pluck and butcher leftover bits and pieces.It is thrown when daily 3-5 in afternoon
Hello.It is transferred to outdoor examination after the raising in a week and supports pond raising.Great Chi raising is moved into after 20 days.After about 45 days, daily morning 9-
It is respectively fed when 10, when 3-5 in afternoon primary.Being eaten when feeding again below feeding volume has a small amount of residue to be advisable.And residual bait is removed in time, to prevent
Ruin water quality.Winter children tortoise is allowed to safe overwintering it is noted that warming.When water temperature drops to 15 DEG C or less, need to be covered with plastic film
Six, it is raised at tortoise.Before and after grain rains, tortoise revives from hibernation comes out activity.Temperature starts to ingest when reaching 18 DEG C,
It is most prosperous with 26-30 DEG C of appetite, mid or late October appetite decline, until hibernation is stopped eating.The palatable bait of tortoise have small fish shrimp,
Loach, earthworm, spiral shell, mussel meat, yellow catch eel, domestic animals and fowls internal organ, insect, silkworm chrysalis and cereal, melon and fruit, soya-bean cake, wheat bran, corn
Powder, vegetables etc..The ratio of animal fodder and plant feed is 4:6 or 5:5.Daily ration of feeding can be the 5- of tortoise total weight
10%, it feeds daily 2 times, when general morning 8-9, when 5-6 in afternoon is fed.Bait can be thrown on pool side slope or on food platform.
Animal fodder and fruit melon etc. should all be minced and be fed.The viability of tortoise is very strong, and some months is not jejunitas also dead, very easily raising.It is diligent
Cleaning kills and devour, and with anti-metamorphic, influences water quality.Pond, which should be noted that, often changes water.Spring, autumn changed water 1 time every 15 days or so, summer
A couple of days changes water 1 time, and each quantity of exchanged water is about 1/5-1/3.Tortoise stocking rate is only advisable with 400-600 per acre, can raise together 10- simultaneously
20% herbivorous fishes, carp, the crucian of 30-40%.
Seven, enemy and disease prevention and cure.The main enemy of tortoise has ant, mouse, snake, mosquito and other birds, endangers tortoise ovum, children
Tortoise and tortoise is bitten into, causes death, notably take precautions against.
Tortoise adaptability and premunition are strong, and disease is few.But it was found that the oral cavity of tortoise, swallow and the positions such as nostril can parasitism have greatly
The leech of amount, causes that tortoise is furious swollen, cornea is rotten to the corn, eyeball is covered by white secretion, or even causes blindness and dead.
The intraoral leech of sick tortoise can be killed with seven lime liquor very much.
Embodiment of the present invention is only the description carried out to the preferred embodiment of the present invention, not to the present invention
Conception and scope is defined, and under the premise of not departing from design philosophy of the present invention, engineers and technicians are to this hair in this field
The all variations and modifications that bright technical solution is made should all fall into protection scope of the present invention, the claimed skill of the present invention
Art content, is all described in the claims.