WO2017107032A1 - Simulated ecological breeding method for odontobutis obscura - Google Patents

Simulated ecological breeding method for odontobutis obscura Download PDF

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WO2017107032A1
WO2017107032A1 PCT/CN2015/098166 CN2015098166W WO2017107032A1 WO 2017107032 A1 WO2017107032 A1 WO 2017107032A1 CN 2015098166 W CN2015098166 W CN 2015098166W WO 2017107032 A1 WO2017107032 A1 WO 2017107032A1
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pond
water
broodstock
fish
breeding
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PCT/CN2015/098166
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Chinese (zh)
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唐金贵
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唐金贵
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01KANIMAL HUSBANDRY; CARE OF BIRDS, FISHES, INSECTS; FISHING; REARING OR BREEDING ANIMALS, NOT OTHERWISE PROVIDED FOR; NEW BREEDS OF ANIMALS
    • A01K61/00Culture of aquatic animals
    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

Disclosed is a simulated ecological breeding method for Odontobutis obscura, comprising the following steps: (1) constructing a simulated ecological pond; (2) selecting, breeding and maturing parent fish; (3) incubating parent fish for oviposition and fertilization; (4) protecting and hatching of eggs by parent fish; and (5) cultivating fry. The method can obtain Odontobutis obscura fry in batches and its operation is simple, and the demands for the fish pond are not high, making same easy to propagate.

Description

沙塘鳢仿生态繁育方法Sand pond imitation ecological breeding method 技术领域Technical field
本发明属于水产养殖技术领域,特别涉及一种沙塘鳢的繁育方法。The invention belongs to the technical field of aquaculture, and particularly relates to a method for breeding sand ponds.
背景技术Background technique
沙塘鳢(Odontobutis obscura)又称沙乌鳢、蒲鱼、土布鱼、沙鳢、虎头鱼等,隶属于鲈形目(Perciformes)、塘鳢科(Eleotridae)、沙塘鳢属(Odontobutis),在我国广泛分布于长江、珠江、钱塘江、闽江等水系;沙塘鳢肉多刺少、品味鲜美、营养丰富,受到消费者追捧被视为名贵鱼类,具有极高的经济价值。Odontobutis obscura, also known as sand scorpion, squid, Tubu fish, sand scorpion, tiger head fish, etc., belong to Perciformes, Eleotridae, Odontobutis. It is widely distributed in the Yangtze River, the Pearl River, the Qiantang River, the Lancang River and other water systems. The Shatang meat is less prickly, tastes delicious, and is rich in nutrients. It is regarded as a valuable fish by consumers and has a very high economic value.
沙塘鳢在自然条件下多生活于湖泊和河沟的底层,是底栖穴居鱼类,喜栖于水草较多、有一定微流水,泥沙、杂草和砾石相混杂的浅水区,最喜欢藏匿在石缝隙之间。游泳能力较弱,冬季潜伏在泥沙中越冬。繁殖时沙塘鳢雄鱼在湖岸和湖湾的浅水处寻找合适的产卵巢穴,引诱雌鱼入内产卵。卵主要产在石坝的缝隙、空贝壳、较密的芦苇根部、石块、瓦片或其它基质构成的隐蔽洞穴中,卵块附着于洞穴的顶壁或侧壁。卵块呈圆形或椭圆形,卵粒以一端的粘丝附着于基质,另一端游离,相互紧密排列。雄鱼有守巢护卵习性。Shatangyu lived in the bottom layer of lakes and river ditch under natural conditions. It is a benthic burrowing fish. It is a shallow water area with a lot of water, grass, weeds and gravel. Hidden between the stone gaps. The swimming ability is weak, and the winter is lurking in the sand for winter. During breeding, the males in the sand ponds search for suitable ovarian acupoints in the shallow waters of the lakeshore and the lake bay to attract females to lay eggs. Eggs are mainly produced in the gaps of stone dams, empty shells, dense reed roots, stones, tiles or other hidden caves formed by the matrix, and the eggs are attached to the top or side walls of the cave. The egg mass is round or elliptical, and the egg is attached to the matrix with an adhesive filament at one end, and the other end is free and closely arranged. Male fish have the habit of guarding the nest and protecting the eggs.
目前沙塘鳢渔产品几乎完全依赖天然捕捞,产量很低。由于过度捕捞很多水体沙塘鳢种群已遭受严重破坏,沙塘鳢捕获物锐减,市场价格一度走高(市场价格达100元/kg以上)。解决沙塘鳢的人工繁育,是开发沙塘鳢为新的名贵水产养殖品种的基础,也是通过人工放流,实现天然水体沙塘鳢资源恢复的关键技术环节。At present, Shatang's fishery products are almost entirely dependent on natural fishing, and the yield is very low. Due to the excessive destruction of many water bodies, the population of Shatang carp has been seriously damaged. The catch of Shatang carp has been sharply reduced, and the market price has once risen (the market price has reached 100 yuan/kg or more). Solving the artificial breeding of Shatang carp is the basis for the development of Shatang carp as a new valuable aquaculture species, and also a key technical link for the restoration of natural water body Shatang carp resources through artificial discharge.
然而沙塘鳢繁殖季节在3月下旬至5月初,水温低(16~22℃)、受精卵孵化时间长(30~22d),人工繁殖过程中,极易发生水霉病,孵化率极低。有学者通过控制光照强度、提高水温的方法来缩短鱼苗孵化时间,降低水霉病发生,提高孵化率。此方法需要有较高精度的孵化设施,普通养殖场难以实现,不具备生产推广价值;另外,沙塘鳢的人工繁殖,需要通过宰杀亲鱼获得受精卵,加之沙塘鳢繁殖力低(仅870~8112粒/尾),导致大批量亲本浪费,繁殖成本极高,很难实现规模化苗种培育。However, in the breeding season of Shatang, from late March to early May, the water temperature is low (16-22 °C) and the fertilized eggs hatch for a long time (30-22d). During the artificial breeding process, water mold is easy to occur, and the hatching rate is extremely low. . Some scholars can shorten the hatching time of fish fry by controlling the light intensity and increasing the water temperature, reduce the occurrence of water mold and increase the hatching rate. This method requires a high-precision incubator, which is difficult to achieve in ordinary farms and does not have the value of production and promotion; in addition, the artificial reproduction of Shatang carp requires the fertilization of the broodstock to obtain fertilized eggs, and the fertility of the sand ponds is low (only 870) ~8112 tablets / tail), resulting in a large amount of parental waste, high reproductive costs, it is difficult to achieve large-scale seedling cultivation.
发明内容Summary of the invention
本发明的目的是提供一种沙塘鳢仿生态繁育方法,该方法根据沙塘鳢的生活习性和繁殖特点,通过仿生态技术方法对其进行批量化繁育,无需宰杀亲本。The object of the present invention is to provide a sand pond imitation ecological breeding method, which is based on the living habits and breeding characteristics of the sand pond, and is mass-produced by imitation ecological techniques, without slaughtering the parents.
本发明的目的是这样实现的:一种沙塘鳢仿生态繁育方法,包括如下步骤:The object of the present invention is achieved as follows: a sand pond imitation ecological breeding method, comprising the following steps:
1)仿生态池塘构建 1) Imitation ecological pond construction
A、选择水源充足,水质良好、进排水方便的池塘,池塘为无水泥护坡的全泥底,池底淤泥<10cm,塘埂坡比(1:2.5)~(1:3.0);A. Choose a pond with sufficient water source, good water quality, convenient drainage and drainage, the pond is a full mud bottom without cement slope, the sludge at the bottom of the pool is <10cm, and the ratio of pond to slope is 1:5 to 1:3.0.
B、生石灰干法清塘,生石灰用量为70~100kg/亩;B. Dry lime method clear pond, the amount of quicklime is 70-100kg/mu;
C、清塘10~14天后,施用经发酵的有机肥20~50kg/亩;C. After 10 to 14 days of clearing pond, apply fermented organic fertilizer 20~50kg/mu;
D、施肥后,池塘进水10~20cm,沿进出水口走向成行种植水草,所种水草为伊乐藻和/或轮叶黑藻,水草行距0.8~1.2m;D. After fertilization, the pond is filled with water 10~20cm, and the plants are planted along the water inlet and outlet to plant aquatic plants. The water plants are Elodea and/or Hydrilla verticillata, and the distance between water plants is 0.8~1.2m;
E、采用脊瓦对扣捆扎成筒状作为沙塘鳢亲鱼栖息鱼巢,沿着成行的水草根部置于池底,鱼巢长度方向间隔0.8~1.2m;E. The ridge tile is bundled into a tube shape to be used as a nest for the squid broodstock in the sand pond, and the roots of the water grass are placed along the bottom of the row, and the length of the fish nest is 0.8-1.2 m.
F、池塘进水,提高水位至60~80cm;F, the pond water, increase the water level to 60 ~ 80cm;
G、待水草生长茂盛后,在池塘中放养青虾苗1~2kg/亩、抱卵虾2~3kg/亩,并搭配鲢30~50尾/亩、鳙10~30尾/亩;G. After the water plants grow lush, the shrimps are stocked in the pond for 1~2kg/mu, and the prawn is 2~3kg/mu, and the 鲢30~50/mu, 鳙10~30/mu;
2)亲鱼选育催熟2) Breeding and breeding of broodstock
A、池塘构建好后,挑选经一周年人工亲鱼培育,且性腺发育成熟、体表正常、无伤的健康沙塘鳢,进行雌雄配对,雌雄比为(1:1.1)~(1:1.2);A. After the pond is constructed, select the healthy sardines that have been cultivated by the first year of artificial broodstock, and the gonads are mature, the body surface is normal, and there is no injury. The male and female pairs are paired, and the ratio of male to female is (1:1.1)~(1:1.2) ;
B、配对后的亲鱼采用背鳍基本注射催熟药物,注射方式为一次性注射,将注射好催熟药物的亲鱼消毒后放入仿生态池塘;所述催熟药物由LRH-A2和HCG组成,每kg雌鱼LRH-A2注射剂量为25~30μg,每kg雌鱼HCG注射剂量为200~230IU,雄鱼注射剂量减半;B. After pairing, the broodstock is basically injected with ripening drugs on the dorsal fin. The injection method is a one-time injection, and the broodstock injected with the ripening drug is disinfected and put into the imitation ecological pond; the ripening drug is composed of LRH-A2 and HCG. The dose of LRH-A2 per kg of female fish is 25-30 μg, the dose of HCG per kg female fish is 200-230 IU, and the dose of male fish is halved.
3)诱导亲鱼产卵受精3) Inducing broodstock to fertilize and fertilize
亲鱼在仿生态池塘适应3~5d后,进入人工诱导产卵阶段,通过流水刺激来促进亲鱼集中同步产卵和自然受精;流水速度为7~12m/min;After the broodstock adapts to the ecological pond for 3 to 5 days, it enters the stage of artificial induction of spawning, and promotes the simultaneous spawning and natural fertilization of the broodstock by running water stimulation; the flow rate is 7~12m/min;
4)亲鱼护卵孵化4) broodstock hatching
雌亲鱼排卵附着在对扣的脊瓦内壁,随即雄亲鱼对其授精而形成受精卵,产卵授精结束后,雌鱼离开鱼巢,雄鱼在鱼巢中护卵孵化,此时将水流速度降低到3~5m/min,并下地笼将雌亲鱼捕捞出来;在雄亲鱼护卵孵化过程中保持水质清新,水温在18~22℃,沙塘鳢受精卵孵化周期为30~22d,孵化结束前3~5d逐渐培肥水质,为鱼苗提供天然饵料生物;The ovulation of the female broodstock is attached to the inner wall of the ridge tile of the buckle, and then the male broodstock is inseminated to form a fertilized egg. After the insemination is completed, the female fish leaves the fish nest, and the male fish hatches in the fish nest, and the water flow speed is at this time. Reduced to 3 ~ 5m / min, and the female cage fish is caught in the lower cage; the water quality is kept fresh during the hatching process of the male broodstock, the water temperature is 18 ~ 22 ° C, the hatching cycle of the fertilized eggs of Shatang carp is 30 ~ 22d, the end of the incubation The first 3 to 5 days gradually fertilize the water quality to provide natural bait organisms for the fry;
5)鱼苗培育5) fry breeding
待沙塘鳢受精卵全部破膜出苗后,下地笼将雄亲鱼捕出,开始进行鱼苗培育。After all the fertilized eggs of Shatang carp have been ruptured, the male broodstock will be caught in the lower cage and the fry breeding will begin.
本发明通过对沙塘鳢生物学特性及繁殖特点的掌握,成功构建了沙塘鳢繁育仿生态鱼池,并通过人工催熟建立了沙塘鳢仿生态繁育方法。与现有技术相比,在沙塘鳢的繁育过程中无需宰杀亲本,大大降低繁殖成本;利用雄亲鱼护卵孵化,可有效避免水霉病发生,极 大提高鱼苗孵化率;另外该方法操作简便,对鱼池要求不高(只需进排水方便即可,一般鱼池都能到达),所需材料易得,适用性强、容易推广。The invention successfully constructed the imitation ecological fish pond of Shatangyu by grasping the biological characteristics and reproductive characteristics of the sand pond, and established a sand pond imitation ecological breeding method through artificial ripening. Compared with the prior art, it is not necessary to slaughter the parent in the breeding process of Shatangjing, which greatly reduces the breeding cost; the use of male broodstock to protect the eggs can effectively prevent the occurrence of water mold. The hatching rate of the fry is greatly improved; in addition, the method is easy to operate, and the requirement for the fish pond is not high (it is convenient to enter and drain, and the fish pond can be reached in general), the required materials are easy to obtain, the applicability is strong, and it is easy to promote.
为确保鱼苗培育良好,在鱼苗培育的前期泼洒豆浆培肥水质,保持水体肥活,10~15d后,向池塘补充青虾苗2~8kg/亩,待鱼苗长到3~4.5cm,完成鱼苗培育。青虾苗一方面可以净化水体,在保证水体清洁的同时,还为鱼苗的生长提供了足够的食物。In order to ensure that the fry are well cultivated, in the early stage of fry breeding, the water quality of the soybean milk is poured and the water body is maintained. After 10 to 15 days, the shrimp seedlings are supplemented with 2-8 kg/mu, and the fry are grown to 3 to 4.5 cm to complete the fry. Cultivate. On one hand, the green shrimp can purify the water body, and while ensuring the cleanness of the water body, it also provides enough food for the growth of the fry.
为进一步保证亲鱼繁殖良好,在人工亲鱼培育时,采用土池培育,水深1.5~2m,放养密度2~5尾/m2,投喂虾苗、杂鱼活作饵料,4~8d投喂一次,培育期间保持水质良好。In order to further ensure that the broodstock breeds well, in the cultivation of artificial broodstock, the soil pond is cultivated, the water depth is 1.5~2m, the stocking density is 2~5 tails/m 2 , the shrimp seedlings and the miscellaneous fish are fed as bait, and the feeding is carried out in 4~8d. Maintain good water quality during the incubation period.
具体实施方式detailed description
一种沙塘鳢仿生态繁育方法,其步骤如下:A sand pond imitation ecological breeding method, the steps are as follows:
先进行一周年的亲鱼培育:2012年3月12~23日,收购网捕或地笼捕捞野生沙塘鳢267.7kg(8247尾),于2.7亩土池培育。3月25日,投喂青虾苗85kg(虾苗规格1200尾/kg),4~5月期间,据沙塘鳢摄食情况,4~8d适量补充投喂虾苗(虾苗规格800~1200尾/kg),使青虾尾数维持在沙塘鳢尾数的12倍左右;6~7月主要投喂鲫、草、团头鲂乌仔及夏花鱼种,投喂量控制在沙塘鳢尾数的10倍左右,并补充2倍左右的青虾;8~10月投喂渔场自己培育的麦穗鱼,投喂量控制在沙塘鳢尾数的15倍左右,11月沙塘鳢摄食量减少,麦穗鱼投喂量控制在10倍左右;12月~翌年1月停止投喂。翌年2月开始投喂麦穗鱼和青虾,并增加青虾投喂比例(麦穗鱼:青虾=1:2,强化培育沙塘鳢亲鱼),麦穗鱼和青虾总投喂量控制在沙塘鳢亲鱼尾数的15倍左右;同时每周更换池水一次,增加池水流动,促进亲鱼性腺发育成熟。另外,在整个亲鱼培育期间内都要保持水质清新,适水质情况及时增添、更换新水。First broodstock breeding: On March 12-23, 2012, 267.7kg (8247) of wild sand ponds were harvested from net catches or cages, and cultivated in 2.7 acres of earthen ponds. On March 25th, 85kg of green shrimp seedlings (1200 tails/kg of shrimp seedlings) were fed. During the period from April to May, according to the feeding situation of Shatang, 4 to 8 days, the amount of shrimps was supplemented and fed (shrimp size 800-1200). Tail / kg), the number of blue shrimp tails is maintained at about 12 times the number of tails in Shatang; from June to July, the main species are fed sorghum, grass, scorpion scorpion and summer squid, and the feeding amount is controlled in Shatang 鳢The tail number is about 10 times, and the green shrimp is supplemented by about 2 times. From August to October, the wheat ear fish raised by the fishery is fed, and the feeding amount is controlled about 15 times of the number of the tail of the sand pond. Reduced, the feeding amount of wheat ears is controlled at about 10 times; from December to January, the feeding is stopped. In February of the next year, we began feeding wheat and green prawn, and increased the proportion of shrimp feeding (wheat fish: green shrimp = 1:2, intensive cultivation of Shatang brood), total feeding of wheat and green prawn Control the number of tails of the broodstock in Shatang 15 about 15 times; at the same time, change the pool water once a week to increase the flow of water and promote the development of gonads. In addition, the water quality should be kept fresh throughout the broodstock cultivation period, and the water quality should be timely added and replaced with new water.
经一年培育后,可进一步进行沙塘鳢仿生态繁育,其繁育方法的步骤如下:After one year of cultivation, the sand pond imitation ecological breeding can be further carried out. The steps of the breeding method are as follows:
1、仿生态池塘构建1. Imitation ecological pond construction
2013年3月1日,选择水源充足,水质良好、进排水方便的池塘5个,分别标记为1号、2号、3号、4号和5号;其中1号池塘面积1.2亩、2号池塘面积1.6亩、3号池塘面积1.5亩、4号池塘面积1.2亩和5号池塘面积1.8亩。On March 1, 2013, 5 ponds with sufficient water source, good water quality and convenient drainage are listed as No. 1, No. 2, No. 3, No. 4 and No. 5; among them, No. 1 pond area is 1.2 mu and No. 2 The pond area is 1.6 mu, the pond area of No. 3 is 1.5 mu, the pond area of No. 4 is 1.2 mu, and the pond area of No. 5 is 1.8 mu.
要求池塘为无水泥护坡的全泥底,池底淤泥<10cm,塘埂坡比(1:2.5)~(1:3.0)之间;采用生石灰干法清塘,生石灰用量为70~100kg/亩;1~5号池塘具体用量分别为100kg、150kg、150kg、84kg、180kg。The pond is required to be a full mud bottom without cement slope. The silt at the bottom of the pond is <10cm, and the ratio of pond to slope is (1:2.5) to (1:3.0). The method is to clean the pond with quicklime and the amount of quicklime is 70-100kg/mu. The specific dosages of ponds 1 to 5 are 100kg, 150kg, 150kg, 84kg and 180kg respectively.
清塘10~14天后,施用经发酵的有机肥20~50kg/亩;有机肥采用豆粕发酵而成,1~5号池塘有机肥用量分别对应的干豆粕为24kg、48kg、60kg、60kg、40kg,施肥时间为 3月13日;After 10 to 14 days in Qingtang, the fermented organic fertilizer is applied 20~50kg/mu; the organic fertilizer is fermented by soybean meal, and the amount of organic fertilizer used in ponds 1~5 is 24kg, 48kg, 60kg, 60kg, 40kg respectively. , the fertilization time is March 13;
施肥后,池塘进水10~20cm,沿进出水口走向成行种植水草,所种水草为伊乐藻和/或轮叶黑藻,水草行距0.8~1.2m;其中1号池塘所种水草为伊乐藻,2号池塘所种水草为轮叶黑藻,3号池塘所种水草为伊乐藻和轮叶黑藻间排种植,4号池塘种水草为伊乐藻和轮叶黑藻在同排中间隔种植,5号池塘种水草为伊乐藻和轮叶黑藻随机种植;After fertilization, the pond is filled with water 10~20cm, and the plants are planted along the water inlet and outlet. The water plants are Elodea and/or Hydrilla verticillata. The distance between the plants is 0.8-1.2m. The water plants in the No.1 pond are Elodea. The water plants in the No. 2 pond are the Hydrilla verticillata, the water plants in the No. 3 pond are planted in the row between the Elodea and the Hydrilla verticillata, and the No. 4 pond is planted in the same row in the same row as the Elaeagnus and the Hydrilla verticillata. The aquatic plants are randomly planted with Elodea and Hydrilla verticillata;
水草种植后,再采用脊瓦对扣捆扎成筒状作为沙塘鳢亲鱼栖息鱼巢,沿着成行的水草根部置于池底,鱼巢长度方向间隔0.8~1.2m;1~5号池塘的鱼巢数目分别为700、950、900、730、1150个;After the plants are planted, the ridges are bundled into a tube shape to be used as a nest for the broodstock in the sand pond. The roots of the plants are placed along the bottom of the row, and the length of the fish nest is 0.8-1.2 m. The ponds 1 to 5 The number of fish nests is 700, 950, 900, 730, and 1150, respectively;
鱼巢布置好后,向池塘进水,提高水位至60~80cm;After the fish nest is arranged, water is poured into the pond to raise the water level to 60-80 cm;
待水草生长茂盛后,于3月28日,在池塘中放养青虾苗1~2kg/亩、抱卵虾2~3kg/亩(亲虾规格体长4~6cm),并搭配鲢30~50尾/亩(规格10~16尾/kg)、鳙10~30尾/亩(规格10~20尾/kg);After the lush vegetation grows, on March 28th, 1 to 2 kg/mu of green shrimp seedlings, 2 to 3 kg/mu of prawn eggs (4 to 6 cm in length), and 30 to 50 tails are placed in the pond. /mu (specification 10 ~ 16 tails / kg), 鳙 10 ~ 30 tails / acre (size 10 ~ 20 tails / kg);
2、亲鱼选育催熟2, broodstock breeding ripening
2013年4月2日,挑选经一周年人工亲鱼培育,且性腺发育成熟、体表正常、无伤的健康沙塘鳢,进行雌雄配对,雌雄比为(1:1.1)~(1:1.2);配对后的亲鱼采用背鳍基本注射催熟药物,注射方式为一次性注射,将注射好催熟药物的亲鱼消毒后放入仿生态池塘;所述催熟药物由LRH-A2和HCG组成,每kg雌鱼LRH-A2注射剂量为25~30μg,每kg雌鱼HCG注射剂量为200~230IU,雄鱼注射剂量减半;其中1号池塘内的沙塘鳢注射剂量为每kg雌鱼注射LRH-A2 25μg,HCG 200IU,雄鱼注射剂量减半,注射好催熟药物的亲鱼消毒后放入1号池塘,共计750组(♂830尾),即750尾雌鱼、830尾雄鱼进行配对。4月14日,2号池塘配对1100组(♂1310尾),注射剂量为每kg雌鱼注射LRH~A2 30μg,HCG220IU,雄鱼注射剂量减半。其余池塘内的沙塘鳢的注射计量参见表一。On April 2, 2013, a healthy sand pond with mature gonads, normal body surface and no injury was selected for the first year of artificial broodstock breeding. Male and female pairing was performed. The ratio of male to female was (1:1.1)~(1:1.2). The paired broodstock adopts the dorsal fin to basically inject the ripening drug, and the injection method is a one-time injection, and the broodstock injected with the ripening drug is disinfected and put into the imitation ecological pond; the ripening drug is composed of LRH-A2 and HCG, each The dose of LRH-A2 in kg female fish is 25-30 μg, the dose of HCG per kg female fish is 200-230 IU, and the dose of male fish is halved. The dose of Shatang carp in pond No. 1 is LRH injected per kg of female fish. -A2 25μg, HCG 200IU, the male fish injection dose is halved, the broodstock injected with ripening drugs is disinfected and placed in the No. 1 pond, a total of 750 groups (♂ 830 tails), that is, 750 female fish, 830 male fish for pairing . On April 14th, Pond No. 2 was paired with 1100 groups (♂1310), and the injection dose was 30μg of LRH~A2 per kg of female fish, HCG220IU, and the dose of male fish was halved. See Table 1 for the injection measurements of the Shatang carp in the remaining ponds.
3、诱导亲鱼产卵受精3, induced broodstock spawning fertilization
催熟后的亲鱼在仿生态池塘适应3~5d后,进入人工诱导产卵阶段。分别在2013年4月6日和19日,对1-5号池塘控制流水速度刺激亲鱼,促进其集中同步产卵和自然受精。1-5号池塘水流速度分别是7m/min、10m/min、12m/min、9m/min和10m/min。After ripening, the broodstock enters the artificial induction spawning stage after being adapted to the ecological pond for 3 to 5 days. On April 6 and 19, 2013, respectively, the control of the flow rate of the No. 1-5 pond stimulated the broodstock, promoting its concentrated simultaneous spawning and natural fertilization. The water flow rates of the No. 1-5 ponds were 7 m/min, 10 m/min, 12 m/min, 9 m/min and 10 m/min, respectively.
4、亲鱼护卵孵化4, broodstock protection eggs hatching
雌亲鱼排卵附着在对扣的脊瓦内壁,随即雄亲鱼对其授精而形成受精卵,产卵授精结束后,雌鱼离开鱼巢,雄鱼在鱼巢中护卵孵化,2013年4月8日~4月21日,分别在1~5号池塘随机抽取20个鱼巢~30个鱼巢,其中具有受精卵的鱼巢占比超过75%。此时将水流速度降 低到3~5m/min,并下地笼将雌亲鱼捕捞出来,捕出的亲鱼杀菌、消毒后专池培育;在雄亲鱼护卵孵化过程中保持水质清新,水温在18~22℃,沙塘鳢受精卵孵化周期为30~22d,孵化结束前3~5d施用肥水膏逐渐培肥水质,为鱼苗提供天然饵料生物;The female brooder ovulates on the inner wall of the ridge tile of the buckle, and then the male brooder insemination forms the fertilized egg. After the insemination is finished, the female fish leaves the fish nest, and the male fish hatches in the fish nest, April 8, 2013 From day to April 21, 20 fish nests to 30 fish nests were randomly selected from ponds 1 to 5, and the proportion of fish nests with fertilized eggs was over 75%. At this point, the water flow rate is lowered. As low as 3~5m/min, the female broodstock is caught in the lower cage, and the broodstock caught after sterilization and disinfection is cultivated in the special pool; the water quality is kept fresh during the hatching process of the male broodstock, and the water temperature is 18-22 °C, Shatang The hatching cycle of the fertilized eggs is 30 to 22 days, and the fertilizer water is gradually applied to the fish for 3 to 5 days before the end of the hatching to provide natural bait organisms for the fry;
5、鱼苗培育5, fry breeding
待池塘中发现大批量平游鱼苗,表示沙塘鳢已经破膜出苗,待沙塘鳢受精卵全部破膜出苗后,下地笼将雄亲鱼捕出,开始进行鱼苗培育。为确保鱼苗培育良好,在鱼苗培育的前期泼洒豆浆培肥水质,保持水体肥活,10~15d后,向池塘补充青虾苗2~8kg/亩(规格1300~1500尾/kg),待鱼苗长到3~4.5cm,完成鱼苗培育。青虾苗一方面可以净化水体,在保证水体清洁的同时,还为鱼苗的生长提供了足够的食物。5月30日至于6月7日分别统计1~5号池塘,鱼苗平均体长在3~4.5cm范围内,可对各池塘的沙塘鳢鱼苗进行分塘养殖。A large number of flat fish fry were found in the pond, indicating that the Shatang carp had already ruptured and emerged. After all the fertilized eggs of Shatang carp were ruptured, the male broodstock was caught in the lower cage and the fry cultivation began. In order to ensure that the fry are well cultivated, in the early stage of fry cultivation, the water quality of the soybean milk is poured and the water body is maintained. After 10 to 15 days, the shrimp seedlings are supplemented with 2-8 kg/mu (size 1300-1500/kg) to the pond. It grows to 3 to 4.5 cm and completes fry breeding. On one hand, the green shrimp can purify the water body, and while ensuring the cleanness of the water body, it also provides enough food for the growth of the fry. From May 30th to June 7th, the ponds Nos. 1 to 5 were counted respectively. The average length of the fry was in the range of 3 to 4.5 cm, and the pond carp fry in each pond could be cultured in separate ponds.
本方法通过对沙塘鳢生物学特性及繁殖特点的掌握,成功构建了沙塘鳢繁育仿生态鱼池,并通过人工催熟建立了沙塘鳢仿生态繁育方法。与现有技术相比,在沙塘鳢的繁育过程中无需宰杀亲本,大大降低繁殖成本;利用雄亲鱼护卵孵化,可有效避免水霉病发生,极大提高鱼苗孵化率;另外该方法操作简便,对鱼池要求不高,只需进排水方便即可,所需材料易得,适用性强、容易推广。By mastering the biological characteristics and reproductive characteristics of Shatang, the method successfully constructed the imitation ecological fish pond in Shatang, and established a method of ecological breeding in Shatang by artificial ripening. Compared with the prior art, it is not necessary to slaughter the parent in the breeding process of Shatangjing, which greatly reduces the breeding cost; the hatching of the male broodstock can effectively prevent the occurrence of water mold and greatly increase the hatching rate of the fry; It is simple, the requirements for the fish pond are not high, and it is convenient to enter and drain. The required materials are easy to obtain, and the applicability is strong and easy to promote.
表一:1~5号池塘仿生态繁育相关参数汇总表Table 1: Summary Table of Parameters Related to Imitation Ecological Breeding of Ponds No.1~5
Figure PCTCN2015098166-appb-000001
Figure PCTCN2015098166-appb-000001
表中的LRH-A2:HCG为雌鱼的注射剂量,雄鱼减半注射。 LRH-A2 in the table: HCG is the injected dose of female fish, and male fish is halved.
本发明并不局限于上述实施例,在本发明公开的技术方案的基础上,本领域的技术人员根据所公开的技术内容,不需要创造性的劳动就可以对其中的一些技术特征作出一些替换和变形,这些替换和变形均在本发明的保护范围内。 The present invention is not limited to the above embodiments, and based on the technical solutions disclosed by the present invention, those skilled in the art can make some substitutions for some of the technical features without any creative labor according to the disclosed technical content. Modifications, such substitutions and modifications are within the scope of the invention.

Claims (3)

  1. 一种沙塘鳢仿生态繁育方法,其特征在于包括如下步骤:A sand pond imitation ecological breeding method, characterized in that the method comprises the following steps:
    1)仿生态池塘构建1) Imitation ecological pond construction
    A、选择水源充足,水质良好、进排水方便的池塘,池塘为无水泥护坡的全泥底,池底淤泥<10cm,塘埂坡比(1:2.5)~(1:3.0);A. Choose a pond with sufficient water source, good water quality, convenient drainage and drainage, the pond is a full mud bottom without cement slope, the sludge at the bottom of the pool is <10cm, and the ratio of pond to slope is 1:5 to 1:3.0.
    B、生石灰干法清塘,生石灰用量为70~100kg/亩;B. Dry lime method clear pond, the amount of quicklime is 70-100kg/mu;
    C、清塘10~14天后,施用经发酵的有机肥20~50kg/亩;C. After 10 to 14 days of clearing pond, apply fermented organic fertilizer 20~50kg/mu;
    D、施肥后,池塘进水10~20cm,沿进出水口走向成行种植水草,所种水草为伊乐藻和/或轮叶黑藻,水草行距0.8~1.2m;D. After fertilization, the pond is filled with water 10~20cm, and the plants are planted along the water inlet and outlet to plant aquatic plants. The water plants are Elodea and/or Hydrilla verticillata, and the distance between water plants is 0.8~1.2m;
    E、采用脊瓦对扣捆扎成筒状作为沙塘鳢亲鱼栖息鱼巢,沿着成行的水草根部置于池底,鱼巢长度方向间隔0.8~1.2m;E. The ridge tile is bundled into a tube shape to be used as a nest for the squid broodstock in the sand pond, and the roots of the water grass are placed along the bottom of the row, and the length of the fish nest is 0.8-1.2 m.
    F、池塘进水,提高水位至60~80cm;F, the pond water, increase the water level to 60 ~ 80cm;
    G、待水草生长茂盛后,在池塘中放养青虾苗1~2kg/亩、抱卵虾2~3kg/亩,并搭配鲢30~50尾/亩、鳙10~30尾/亩;G. After the water plants grow lush, the shrimps are stocked in the pond for 1~2kg/mu, and the prawn is 2~3kg/mu, and the 鲢30~50/mu, 鳙10~30/mu;
    2)亲鱼选育催熟2) Breeding and breeding of broodstock
    A、池塘构建好后,挑选经一周年人工亲鱼培育,且性腺发育成熟、体表正常、无伤的健康沙塘鳢,进行雌雄配对,雌雄比为(1:1.1)~(1:1.2);A. After the pond is constructed, select the healthy sardines that have been cultivated by the first year of artificial broodstock, and the gonads are mature, the body surface is normal, and there is no injury. The male and female pairs are paired, and the ratio of male to female is (1:1.1)~(1:1.2) ;
    B、配对后的亲鱼采用背鳍基本注射催熟药物,注射方式为一次性注射,将注射好催熟药物的亲鱼消毒后放入仿生态池塘;所述催熟药物由LRH-A2和HCG组成,每kg雌鱼LRH-A2注射剂量为25~30μg,每kg雌鱼HCG注射剂量为200~230IU,雄鱼注射剂量减半;B. After pairing, the broodstock is basically injected with ripening drugs on the dorsal fin. The injection method is a one-time injection, and the broodstock injected with the ripening drug is disinfected and put into the imitation ecological pond; the ripening drug is composed of LRH-A2 and HCG. The dose of LRH-A2 per kg of female fish is 25-30 μg, the dose of HCG per kg female fish is 200-230 IU, and the dose of male fish is halved;
    3)诱导亲鱼产卵受精3) Inducing broodstock to fertilize and fertilize
    亲鱼在仿生态池塘适应3~5d后,进入人工诱导产卵阶段,通过流水刺激来促进亲鱼集中同步产卵和自然受精;流水速度为7~12m/min;After the broodstock adapts to the ecological pond for 3 to 5 days, it enters the stage of artificial induction of spawning, and promotes the simultaneous spawning and natural fertilization of the broodstock by running water stimulation; the flow rate is 7~12m/min;
    4)亲鱼护卵孵化4) broodstock hatching
    雌亲鱼排卵附着在对扣的脊瓦内壁,随即雄亲鱼对其授精而形成受精卵,产卵授精结束后,雌鱼离开鱼巢,雄鱼在鱼巢中护卵孵化,此时将水流速度降低到3~5m/min,并下地笼将雌亲鱼捕捞出来;在雄亲鱼护卵孵化过程中保持水质清新,水温在18~22℃,沙塘鳢受精卵孵化周期为30~22d,孵化结束前3~5d逐渐培肥水质,为鱼苗提供天然饵料生物;The ovulation of the female broodstock is attached to the inner wall of the ridge tile of the buckle, and then the male broodstock is inseminated to form a fertilized egg. After the insemination is completed, the female fish leaves the fish nest, and the male fish hatches in the fish nest, and the water flow speed is at this time. Reduced to 3 ~ 5m / min, and the female cage fish is caught in the lower cage; the water quality is kept fresh during the hatching process of the male broodstock, the water temperature is 18 ~ 22 ° C, the hatching cycle of the fertilized eggs of Shatang carp is 30 ~ 22d, the end of the incubation The first 3 to 5 days gradually fertilize the water quality to provide natural bait organisms for the fry;
    5)鱼苗培育5) fry breeding
    待沙塘鳢受精卵全部破膜出苗后,下地笼将雄亲鱼捕出,开始进行鱼苗培育。After all the fertilized eggs of Shatang carp have been ruptured, the male broodstock will be caught in the lower cage and the fry breeding will begin.
  2. 根据权利要求1所述的沙塘鳢仿生态繁育方法,其特征在于:鱼苗培育时,前期泼洒豆 浆培肥水质,保持水体肥活,10~15d后,向池塘补充青虾苗2~8kg/亩,待鱼苗长到3~4.5cm,完成鱼苗培育。The method for ecological breeding of sand pond imitation according to claim 1, characterized in that: when the fry is cultivated, the bean is splashed in the early stage. The quality of the slurry is fertilized and the water body is maintained. After 10 to 15 days, the shrimps are supplemented with 2 to 8 kg/mu of the shrimps, and the fry are grown to 3 to 4.5 cm to complete the fry cultivation.
  3. 根据权利要求1所述的沙塘鳢仿生态繁育方法,其特征在于:人工亲鱼培育时,采用土池培育,水深1.5~2m,放养密度2~5尾/m2,投喂虾苗、杂鱼活作饵料,4~8d投喂一次,培育期间保持水质良好。 The sand pond imitation ecological breeding method according to claim 1, characterized in that: when the artificial broodstock is cultivated, the soil pond is cultivated, the water depth is 1.5 to 2 m, the stocking density is 2 to 5 tails/m 2 , and the shrimp and the fish are fed. As a bait, it is fed once every 4 to 8 days, and the water quality is maintained during the cultivation.
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