CN109349078A - A kind of bog moss indoor cultivation method for Ganoderma of clean and environmental protection - Google Patents

A kind of bog moss indoor cultivation method for Ganoderma of clean and environmental protection Download PDF

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CN109349078A
CN109349078A CN201811196754.3A CN201811196754A CN109349078A CN 109349078 A CN109349078 A CN 109349078A CN 201811196754 A CN201811196754 A CN 201811196754A CN 109349078 A CN109349078 A CN 109349078A
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bog moss
peat soil
supernatant
cultivation
moss
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CN109349078B (en
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尤云桂
黄丽春
林鸾芳
陈慕松
李镇西
刘文婷
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NINGDE CITY INST OF AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G31/00Soilless cultivation, e.g. hydroponics

Abstract

The present invention provides a kind of bog moss indoor cultivation method for Ganoderma of clean and environmental protection, using water culture technique, on common solution culture facilities, pass through the processes such as fresh bog moss dissection processing, cultivating nutrient solution preparation, artificial growth, overlay film, temperature light management, harvesting, the bog moss product for producing clean and environmental protection can save artificial 3240 yuan/mu of uprooting weed production cost.

Description

A kind of bog moss indoor cultivation method for Ganoderma of clean and environmental protection
Technical field
The invention belongs to agriculture fields, are more particularly to bog moss field of plant cultivation, provide a kind of mud of clean and environmental protection Charcoal moss indoor cultivation method for Ganoderma.
Background technique
2007, world's last year need to be up to 1.3 ten thousand tons or so with bog moss total amount, still be passed every year with 25% quantity so far Increase.For the annual output of China's bog moss up to 1200 tons or so, Guizhou is most, up to more than 700 tons, almost entirely by the mud of harvesting nature growth Charcoal moss.However, the market demand due to bog moss is very big, various regions largely harvest the bog moss of nature growth, this is to bog moss The ecosystem of wetland damage it is huge, currently, Guizhou formd largely due to bog moss harvest and degenerate it is poor Lean wetland, such as Longli grassland, the grassland Gao Po, Hezhang rain cap mountain, Bijie the west of Guizhou Province Baili azalea grassland.China in Genus Sphagnum Endemic species --- more line bog mosses have entered Chinese endangered bryophytes Red List, become by weight Precious, Rare, Endangered object to be protected Kind.Therefore, in order to meet the ever-increasing market demand, the artificial growth of bog moss plant has been carried out both at home and abroad, but can not shape At large-scale production, in the market still based on wild product.
Domestic Cai Qiying, Zhu Guojin etc. issued more line bog moss artificial growths, Sphagnum squarrosum Crom at 2008 and 2014 3 artificial growth, heavy foliage bog moss artificial growth patents.Its artificial growth mode, mainly in the bog mosses nature place of production such as Guizhou It is produced using bionic cultivation mode under field planting and forest land, major defect and there are problems: first is that range is small, it can only Mountain area is waited in high cold air to plant;Second is that at high cost, bog moss growth is extremely slow, and one batch of production cycle is up to 18 months, Weeds are in growth vigor, therefore entire production cycle weeds sprawling always in a very long time, and artificial uprooting weed cost is too big, Seriously affect economic benefit;Three Production of Large Fields are affected by natural climate, and the production cycle is long.Thus current crop field artificial growth It is difficult to application throughout the country, commodity bog moss is harvested mainly by field.
This technology carries out bog moss production using artificial room's ciltivating process, can overcome the above problem, has following excellent Point: first is that not restricted by geographical environment, it is not solely restricted to the nice and cool area plantation of high mountain, as long as simple greenhouse or interior are set It applies, all parts of the country can produce;Second is that production process absolutely not weeds, manually uprooting weed, does not substantially reduce production cost;Three It is production process and products thereof clean and environmental protection;Four can be achieved on the factorial production.Therefore this technology has production cost low, raw The advantages that period is short, moss is high-quality is produced, is had a vast market foreground.
Summary of the invention
The main object of the present invention is to provide a kind of bog moss indoor cultivation method for Ganoderma of clean and environmental protection, using water culture technique, On common solution culture facilities, pass through fresh bog moss dissection processing, cultivating nutrient solution preparation, artificial growth, overlay film, temperature light The processes such as management, harvesting, produce the bog moss product of clean and environmental protection, can save artificial 3240 yuan/mu of uprooting weed production cost.
To achieve the above object, the present invention adopts the following technical scheme:
(1) production cultivation bed, cultivates bedside 1000-1500mm, the high 150mm in side, length is unlimited, bottom level, water-tight;If It is flat cement flooring, can directly be built into the slot of the wide high 150mm in the side 1000-1500mm as implant bed;
(2) fresh and alive bog moss is squeezed and removes moisture, torn the segment for being cut into 10 mm open, become nutrition propagule, be equably sprinkling upon cultivation bed On, dosage 50g/m2
(3) mill water culture nutrient solution peat soil supernatant, slowly inputs nutrient solution, and depth 5-10 mm not flood bog moss, and cover Lid film, and an aperture often is stabbed away from 300 mm sharp thing on film, it had not only kept humidity but also had kept ventilating;Or use solid state cultivation Peat soil is first layered in ice basin by matrix with peat soil, thickness 10mm, then test bog moss is laid on peat soil, is slightly pressed Real, watering is drenched, equally covering film;The peat soil supernatant pours into container the preparation method comprises the following steps: take peat soil 1kg, is added 5min is sufficiently stirred in 20 kg clear water, stands 1 h, precipitates peat soil, supernatant liquid is taken to use, on as 20 times of peat soils Clear liquid.
(4) after growing sprouting, bog moss is sprayed with 1-10ppm gibberellin liquid;
(5) peat soil supernatant is added, every 30d raises one jiao of film, and addition peat soil supernatant makes its height to 10 mm;Or Using the clear water of the addition isodose of peat soil cultivation matrix;
(6) keep natural temperature that can grow, 22 DEG C of speeds of growth are most fast, and summer is no more than 30 DEG C;Keep available light;
(7) 5 days sprout tillers sproutings of normal management, average every 30 days growth 10-15 mm, 1 year grow to 150-180 mm, then into Row harvesting.
Simple plastic greenhouse is built using vacant workshop or outdoor and makees production base, and plains region summer needs cooling installation to set Standby, Workplace temperature controls within 30 DEG C, then needs to cool down more than 30 DEG C.
The present invention has the advantages that
Commodity bog moss uses artificial field planting or the bionical plantation of hayashishita, but this skill mainly from wild harvesting, few part Art has a clear superiority, and is mainly manifested in: first is that high efficiency at low cost, this technology production process absolutely not weeds, not employment Work uprooting weed, greatly reduces production cost;Second is that in all parts of the country can produce, is not restricted, be not solely restricted to by geographical environment The nice and cool area plantation of high mountain, as long as simple greenhouse or inside plant, temperature can control 30 DEG C or less and can produce;Third is that raw Production process and products thereof clean and environmental protection, this technology is realized to be produced without soil, without solid matrix;Four can be achieved on the factorial production. Therefore bog moss water culture technique has a vast market foreground.
According to water culture technology mode, is produced by using bog moss artificial room's water culture technique, can achieve production Process absolutely not weeds save 3240 yuan/mu of artificial weeding cost or more, reach reduce production cost, shorten the production cycle, Improve production efficiency, not by a kind of bog moss artificial cultivation technique of geographical environment restriction, good product quality etc..
Detailed description of the invention
Fig. 1 preservative film covers the influence to bog moss plant height.
Specific embodiment
Embodiment 1
1. test material and method
1.1 test material
Fresh bog moss, peat soil, 20 times of source area fertile soil supernatants, 20 times of peat soil supernatants, 100ppm compound fertilizer (16:16:16) liquid, full dose nutrient solution, 1ppm gibberellin liquid, 5ppm gibberellin liquid, 10ppm gibberellin liquid.Peat soil comes from net The commodity peat soil of upper purchase, preparation method: weighing the peat soil of 50g, pour into the graduated cylinder of 1000ml, then is slowly added into clear Water, it is concordant with the graduation mark of 1000 ml, 5min is sufficiently stirred, stands 1 h, can be used after clarifying upper liquid.Fertile soil takes From the bog moss place of production of this test, preparation method is the same as peat soil supernatant.
Test apparatus mainly has: ice basin (38cm*28cm*8cm), preservative film, electronic scale, 20ml beaker, glass bar, amount Cylinder, scissors, 50ml spray bottle, electronic digital indicator, Hygrothermograph.
The village Wu Yang of the township Ningde City Xiapu County Bai Yang of Fujian Province of height above sea level 500m is picked up from test with fresh bog moss, and band rhizoid is adopted Under, it is installed with hermetic bag, it is labelled, laboratory is taken back, decontamination is chosen, after being rinsed well with clear water, is cut into the broken of 1cm or so Section is extracted spare after water.
1.2 test method
1.2.1 air humidity is tested
Test is equably laid in ice basin with bog moss, each ice basin bog moss dosage is 20g, and 20 times of humics are then added Native supernatant 200ml, deep 10mm or so not flood bog moss.Test ice basin is covered with preservative film, then with sticker in preservative film The aperture of upper stamp 20 or so, guarantees air humidity in necessary ventilation observation basin;Control ice basin does not cover preservative film, sight chamber Interior air humidity;3 basins of each processing.Or so each moon adds a fertile soil supernatant or clear water, usually keeps room temperature, When midsummer room temperature is more than 30 DEG C with air-conditioning temperature-reducing to 30 DEG C or less.5 plants of labels are respectively taken, it is every since on April 1st, 2017 Month measurement plant height on the 1st.Test observation air humidity, the speed of growth (plant height), test start on March 15th, 2017 to 2018 March, 1 end of day, lasted 350d.
1.2.2 temperature influences to observe on the speed of growth
Humid test combination humid test carries out simultaneously, the same humid test of test method, preservative film is covered, with fertile soil supernatant It for nutrient solution, is grown to budlet, arbitrarily takes 5 labels, the monthly measurement plant height on the 1st since on April 1st, 2017, each processing 3 A basin.Temperature, the speed of growth (plant height) in test observation basin.March in 2017,15 life started to 1 end of day March in 2018, went through When 350d.
1.2.3 cultivation matrix is tested
Test sets six processing, wherein 5 mill water culture nutrient solutions, 1 solid matrix, are grown to control naturally with field, be respectively as follows: The field CK grows naturally, T1Source area fertile soil supernatant, T2Peat soil supernatant, T3Compound fertilizer solution, T4Full dose nutrient solution, T5Clearly Water, T6Peat soil, 3 basins of each processing.Field nature growing location is on the township the Xiapu County Bai Yang village Wu Yang side mountain, height above sea level 500m, East longitude 120°30 ', north latitude 27.1°, 16.1 DEG C of average temperature of the whole year.
The mill water culture nutrient solution processing test same humid test of specific practice, covers preservative film;The processing of solid peat soil, first will Peat soil is layered in ice basin, thickness 10mm, then test bog moss is laid on peat soil, is slightly compacted, and watering is drenched, covers fresh-keeping Film.One month or so addition one time of nutrition liquid or clear water, usually keep room temperature, the air-conditioning when midsummer room temperature is more than 30 DEG C It is cooled to 30 DEG C or less.After growing sprouting, the every 30d measurement plant height of 5 plants of labels is respectively taken, dm is taken2Survey sprout tillers number and yield (dry weight). Temperature, the speed of growth (plant height), stem thick, sprout tillers number, yield (dry weight) etc. in test observation basin.It is tested May 27 in 2017 Life starts to 20 end of day June in 2018, lasts 390d.
1.2.4 gibberellin is tested
Test various concentration gibberellin liquid sprays bog moss, and test sets three processing, clear water to compare, is respectively as follows: that (CK is clear Water), T1(1ppm gibberellin liquid), T2(5ppm gibberellin liquid), T3(10ppm gibberellin liquid);3 basins of each 1 processing.Test is specific The same humid test of the practice covers preservative film.After growing sprouting, the gibberellin of 1ppm, 5ppm, 10ppm are prepared respectively, with micro- spray Water bottle installs, and is control with clear water sprinkling respectively toward appropriate gibberellin liquid is sprayed on bog moss;In test observation method and observation Hold and is tested with cultivation matrix.December in 2017,18 life started to 20 end of day June in 2018, lasted 188d.
2. test results and analysis
The influence that 2.1 air humiditys grow bog moss (test result is shown in Fig. 1)
It will be seen from figure 1 that growing 10.71cm in the bog moss experimental period of covering preservative film, control does not cover the life of preservative film After growing to 1cm or so, just almost stop growing, the two very different.When covering preservative film, humidity be may remain in basin 85% or more, indoor air humidity only has 35-65% when not covering preservative film.Illustrate as the wet environment of field grown, mud Charcoal moss only just grows in high humidity environment, when humidity deficit, grows extremely slow.Enter flourish rank quickly simultaneously Section, generates a large amount of spores.Therefore, when bog moss facility cultivation, it is necessary to create the environmental condition of high humidity, this is also to improve manually to set Apply one of the most critical factor of cultivation bog moss yield.
The influence that 2.2 environment temperatures grow bog moss (test result is shown in Table 1)
As it can be seen from table 1 for monthly mean temperature at 17.7-28.4 DEG C, Growth is big in 5-11 month basin in experimental period In 1 cm, wherein being maximum with 22.8 DEG C of temperature on average in October of 1.21 cm of Growth;When 12-4 month temperature is lower than At 14.5 DEG C, Growth is respectively less than 1 cm, wherein 0.47 cm of Growth when with 11.3 DEG C of the lowest temperature of 2 month is most It is small.When increment when test result is also shown that 17.7-28.4 DEG C of monthly mean temperature is greater than 14.7 DEG C of monthly mean temperature or less Increment;When 22.8 DEG C of monthly mean temperature of October, Growth reaches peak, as the moon is raised and lowered in monthly mean temperature Increment gradually becomes smaller.
In conclusion can be grown within 30 DEG C of temperature of bog moss Artificial facilities planting environment, wherein flat with October The speed of growth is most fast at equal 22.8 DEG C of temperature;Although life can be improved in (cold) area the Gao Liang of bog moss growth, Moderate High Temperature Long speed is suitble to various regions to carry out Artificial facilities cultivation.
Influence of 1 temperature of table to bog moss growing state
The influence that 2.3 cultivation matrixes grow bog moss (test result is shown in Table 2)
As can be seen from Table 2: in addition to T4Outside full dose nutrient solution, bog moss can in remaining mill water culture nutrient solution (including clear water) and Solid peat soil grown on matrix.
From the point of view of yield (dry weight), T2For 2.01 g/dm2, T6 be 1.87 g/dm2、 T1For 1.83 g/dm2It is above CK1.8 g/dm2, weight gain 11.7%, 3.9% and 1.7% respectively;T3For 1.62 g, T51.79 g are below CK, the underproduction -10% and - 0.5%;T4It is all dead, yield 0.Wherein T2Peat soil supernatant output of fluid highest, T6 peat soil take second place.
From the point of view of plant height and stem rugosity, plant height: T2For 12.08 cm, T1For 11.26 cm, T6For 11.25 cm, T3For 10.67 cm、T5It is all remarkably higher than CK4.75cm for 9.34 cm, wherein T2Peat soil supernatant plant height highest.Stem rugosity: T2 For 0.42mm, T1For 0.41mm, T6For 0.40mm, T3For 0.39mm, T5For 0.18mm, significantly less than CK4.75 mm.Cause For experimental enviroment illumination is weak, permanent high humidity, so that plant excessive growth, limb are relatively modest;Conversely, control group field grown ambient lighting By force, humidity is relatively small, and plant grows short strong, hence it is evident that internode is short, branch hat width is big.
From the point of view of sprout tillers number, T3For 109 plants/dm2、T1For 105 plants/dm2 、T5For 105 plants/dm2、T2For 103 plants/dm2、T6 For 78 plants/dm2, it is 72 plants/dm more than CK2.Where it can be seen that nutrient fluid cultivation processing is handled more than solid matrix, explanation Suspension culture is conducive to bog moss sprout tillers.
In conclusion 20 times of peat soil supernatant (T of this test2), 20 times of source area fertile soil supernatant (T1), 100ppm Compound fertilizer (T3) etc. 3 kinds of mill water culture nutrient solutions and solid matrix peat soil (T6) it can be used as bog moss facility cultivation matrix, wherein with For 20 times of peat soil supernatants most suitable as facility cultivation mill water culture nutrient solution, peat soil is suitable as Solid Cultivation substrates, respectively Than field nature growth-weight gain 11.7% and 3.9%;Bog moss requires very low, the nutritional ingredient of matrix or nutrient solution to nutriment Cannot be too high, it otherwise will lead to bog moss death;High humidity environment is liked in bog moss growth, this test peat soil supernatant output of fluid is high In peat soil, it may be possible to which the planting environment humidity ratio solid peat soil of supernatant is high
2 water planting based assays of table respectively handle growing state
2.4 GA3Influence to bog moss growth indexes (test result is shown in Table 3)
From table 3 it can be seen that the GA of 3 concentration processing3There is facilitation to the growth of bog moss.From the point of view of yield, from height To it is low successively are as follows: T2For 1.10 g/dm2、T1For 0.97 g/dm2、T3For 0.83 g/dm2, respectively than CK weight gain 39%, 23%, 5%.From the point of view of plant height, from high to low successively are as follows: T2For 7.67cm, T1For 6.11cm, T3For 5.72cm, it is all remarkably higher than CK4.35cm;From the point of view of stem slightly upper and sprout tillers number, 3 processing are little with CK difference.Therefore, dense with 1ppm, 5ppm, 10ppm The GA of degree3Liquid sprays bog moss, can promote bog moss growth, improves its yield, wherein the effect with 5ppm is best.
3 GA of table3Test each processing growing state
2.5 in conclusion can carry out bog moss Artificial facilities cultivation in plains region, cultivation ambient humidity 85% with Upper, 22.8 DEG C of optimum bog moss growths of monthly mean temperature, 20 times of peat soil supernatants and peat soil can be used as facility cultivation Nutrient solution and Solid Cultivation substrates, respectively than field nature growth-weight gain 11.7% and 3.9%, 5ppmGA3Sprinkling can promote to give birth to Long, raising yield.
Embodiment 2
(1) production cultivation bed, cultivates bedside 1200mm, the high 150mm in side, length is unlimited, bottom level, water-tight;
(2) fresh and alive bog moss is squeezed and removes moisture, torn the segment for being cut into 10 mm open, become nutrition propagule, be equably sprinkling upon cultivation bed On, dosage 50g/m2
(3) mill water culture nutrient solution peat soil supernatant slowly inputs nutrient solution, and 10 mm of depth not flood bog moss, covering Film, and an aperture often is stabbed away from 300 mm sharp thing on film, it had not only kept humidity but also had kept certain ventilation;
(4) after growing sprouting, bog moss is sprayed with 1ppm gibberellin liquid;
(5) peat soil supernatant is added, every 30d raises one jiao of film, and addition peat soil supernatant makes its height to 10 mm;
(6) 22 DEG C of natural temperature growths are kept, available light is kept;
(7) 5 days sprout tillers sproutings of normal management, average every 30 days 15 mm of growth, 1 year grow to 180 mm, are then harvested.
The method bog moss is than field nature growth-weight gain 11.7%, and survival rate is up to 100%.Save artificial weeding cost 3240 It is more than member/mu.
Embodiment 3
(1) production cultivation bed, cultivates bedside 1500mm, the high 150mm in side, length is unlimited, bottom level, water-tight;
(2) fresh and alive bog moss is squeezed and removes moisture, torn the segment for being cut into 10 mm open, become nutrition propagule, be equably sprinkling upon cultivation bed On, dosage 50g/m2
(3) first peat soil is layered in ice basin with peat soil using Solid Cultivation substrates, thickness 10mm, then bog moss will be tested It is laid on peat soil, is slightly compacted, watering is drenched, equally covering film;
(4) after growing sprouting, bog moss is sprayed with 1ppm gibberellin liquid;
(5) clear water is added, every 30d raises one jiao of film, adds the clear water of isodose;
(6) keep natural temperature that can grow, 22 DEG C of speeds of growth are most fast, keep available light;
(7) 5 days sprout tillers sproutings of normal management, average every 30 days 15 mm of growth, 1 year grow to 180 mm, are then harvested.
The method produces bog moss than field nature growth-weight gain 3.9%, and survival rate is up to 100%.Save artificial weeding cost 3240 yuan/mu or more.
The foregoing is merely presently preferred embodiments of the present invention, all equivalent changes done according to scope of the present invention patent with Modification, is all covered by the present invention.

Claims (2)

1. a kind of bog moss indoor cultivation method for Ganoderma of clean and environmental protection, it is characterised in that: the described method comprises the following steps:
(1) production cultivation bed, cultivates bedside 1000-1500mm, the high 150mm in side, length is unlimited, bottom level, water-tight;
(2) fresh and alive bog moss is squeezed and removes moisture, torn the segment for being cut into 10 mm open, become nutrition propagule, be equably sprinkling upon cultivation bed On, dosage 50g/m2
(3) mill water culture nutrient solution peat soil supernatant, slowly inputs nutrient solution, and depth 5-10 mm not flood bog moss, and cover Lid film, and an aperture often is stabbed away from 300 mm sharp thing on film, it had not only kept humidity but also had kept ventilating;Or use solid state cultivation Peat soil is first layered in ice basin by matrix with peat soil, thickness 10mm, then test bog moss is laid on peat soil, is slightly pressed Real, watering is drenched, equally covering film;
(4) after growing sprouting, bog moss is sprayed with 1-10ppm gibberellin liquid;
(5) peat soil supernatant is added, every 30d raises one jiao of film, and addition peat soil supernatant makes its height to 10 mm;Or Using the clear water of the addition isodose of peat soil cultivation matrix;
(6) keep natural temperature that can grow, summer is no more than 30 DEG C;Keep available light;
(7) 5 days sprout tillers sproutings of normal management, average every 30 days growth 10-15 mm, 1 year grow to 150-180 mm, then into Row harvesting.
2. a kind of bog moss indoor cultivation method for Ganoderma of clean and environmental protection according to claim 1, it is characterised in that: the peat Native supernatant pours into container the preparation method comprises the following steps: take peat soil 1kg, and 20 kg clear water are added, and 5min is sufficiently stirred, and stands 1 h, makes Peat soil precipitating, takes supernatant liquid to use, as peat soil supernatant.
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GB2594955A (en) * 2020-05-12 2021-11-17 Micropropagation Services E M Ltd Seedstocks of Sphagnum

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CN111053025A (en) * 2019-12-30 2020-04-24 江西师范大学 Large-scale artificial propagation method of physcomitrella acuminate
GB2594955A (en) * 2020-05-12 2021-11-17 Micropropagation Services E M Ltd Seedstocks of Sphagnum
GB2594955B (en) * 2020-05-12 2022-06-08 Micropropagation Services E M Ltd Seedstocks of Sphagnum

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