CN104719070A - Juicy peach cultivating method - Google Patents

Juicy peach cultivating method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN104719070A
CN104719070A CN201310710321.6A CN201310710321A CN104719070A CN 104719070 A CN104719070 A CN 104719070A CN 201310710321 A CN201310710321 A CN 201310710321A CN 104719070 A CN104719070 A CN 104719070A
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China
Prior art keywords
plant
reaches
fruit
greenhouse
planting
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Pending
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CN201310710321.6A
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Chinese (zh)
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不公告发明人
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Chongqing One Hundred Fruital Agricultural Development Co Ltd
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Chongqing One Hundred Fruital Agricultural Development Co Ltd
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Priority to CN201310710321.6A priority Critical patent/CN104719070A/en
Publication of CN104719070A publication Critical patent/CN104719070A/en
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods

Abstract

The invention relates to a juicy peach cultivating method. Dormancy period of plants can be effectively controlled by a physical method, and proper environment conditions can be given in the periods of planting, blossoming, fruiting and maturity. Under the condition of common daylight greenhouses, fruits are ripe and sold in January and February, yield per mu is higher than 1000 kilograms, and the problem of low yield of juicy peaches is solved.

Description

A kind of cultivation method of honey peach
Technical field
The present invention is a kind of cultivation of plants method, is specifically related to a kind of cultivation method of honey peach.
Background technology
Rose family honey peach mainly contains almond, Kubo peach, honey peach, cherry etc., and primary growth is in China's north latitude 33 ° of-41 ° of areas, and this fruit tree can be divided into two periods in 1 year, i.e. vegetative period and resting stage.Vegetative period, generally from late March to mid or late October, can be divided into the budding period again in vegetative period, the growth of young phase, the fructescence, until fallen leaves.Resting stage can be divided into physiological dormancy and be forced to resting stage.Physiological dormancy refers to that fruit tree under certain cryogenic conditions, under the temperature condition that longer a period of time (time length is different because kind is different) just can reach at suitable growth, must carry out normal growth growth after fallen leaves.Normal development can not can not be carried out smoothly by the plant of physiological dormancy phase.Being forced to dormancy refers to after plant is smoothly by physiological dormancy, and because external condition can not meet growth requirement, plant itself is still in resting state.The physiological dormancy of honey peach usually below 7.2 DEG C, and calculates with hourage, usually claims chilling requirement.Common peach chilling requirement is between 600-1200 hour.In northern China, smoothly by the physiological dormancy time greatly about late December to early January, but at this moment still can not reach the external environmental condition of sprout growth, mainly temperature condition can not reach growth requirement, plant itself is still in resting state, until mid or late March temperature gos up, rear plant starts growth.
Northern China greenhouse by solar heat or greenhouse cultivation are exactly in peach smoothly by after physiological dormancy, and the insulation of button canopy, plant immediately rudiment enters vegetative period.Profit in this way, the fructescence generally can be made to carry the first two months about.Daylight or the greenhouse of heating of adopting carries out forcing culture more abroad, and cultivation method is same as northern China Cultivation in Greenhouse substantially, its difference, and external facility condition is better than domestic, and final effect is substantially identical.
From planting type, countries in the world mostly adopt outdoor cropping mode at present, and the fruit tree of outdoor cropping, maturing stage Relatively centralized, add fruit not shelf-stable itself, economic benefit is on the low side, in maturing stage of the general outdoor cropping of China in 6-10 month, concentrate the maturing stage in 7-9 month.Greenhouse peach was widelyd popularize in China some areas over the past two years, and currently price is higher, and benefit is better.But under greenhouse experiment, many employings early-maturing variety and mid-term late variety carry out having little significance of Cultivation in Greenhouse, more Zao than open country about 2 months of early-maturing variety maturing stage, mostly concentrate on 4-5 month, maturing stage is too concentrated, and 4-5 month nonideal consumption peak period, if large area development, prospect allows of no optimist.
Summary of the invention
No matter adopt the mode of outdoor cropping and greenhouse by solar heat or booth forcing culture, all can not accomplish to make fruit in ripe listing around the Spring Festival, and 1-2 month is just as China's traditional festival, Spring Festival is on the occasion of consumption peak period, the market vacancy has not only been filled up in fresh fruit listing, simultaneously also for the producer brings significant economic benefit.
The object of the present invention is to provide a kind of cultivation method of honey peach, use the method that the fruit of fruit trees in plum line can be made in ripe listing around the Spring Festival.
The object of the invention is to be realized by following technical proposals: a kind of cultivation method of honey peach:
(1) seedling field planting is selected
In north latitude 33 ° of-41 ° of areas, get out seedling, late March is to early April, in nutritive cube seedling plants being colonizated in diameter 30-50 mm in size or nutritious bag, Nutrition Soil in nutritive cube adopt humus soil or with soil, the peat composed of rotten mosses and fertilizer by 1: 1: 1 ratio mixed mix even after, load in nutritive cube, seedling pressed the layout arrangement of every square metre of 4 strains in nursery, water after Seeding planting twice permeable, cover the plastic film of 0.01 millimeters thick then;
(2) bearing capacity is cultivated
When in nutritive cube, the new-tip length of plant reaches 30 cm, once, every strain liquid consumption 50 grams, utilizes artificial technology's spreading angle to the paclobutrazol of spray 1000-1500mg/kg simultaneously;
Spray the paclobutrazol of 800-1000mg/kg once when new-tip length reaches 40 cm, carry out pinching process simultaneously, promote branch, can plastic film be removed when ground temperature reaches 30 DEG C;
When the sublateral shoot length on young sprout reaches 25 cm, when individual plant sublateral shoot reaches more than 20, once, in nutritive cube, the relative water-holding capacity of soil rests in 60-80% to the paclobutrazol of spray 2000-3000mg/kg;
When plant strain growth is to October, individual plant fruit branch total amount is more than 20, and fruit branch length reaches more than 15 centimetres, and branch footpath reaches 0.5-1 cm, late October fallen leaves after water foot freeze water, guarantee safe overwintering;
(3) dormancy is controlled
Second Year is at the beginning of 3 months (soil thaw before), and transferred to by the plant possessing bearing capacity in the environment of 0 DEG C, (alternating temperature amplitude ± 1 DEG C), preserve 1 to 6 month, relative air humidity remains on 75-95%.
(4) plant in greenhouse
The plant of late variety was transferred in greenhouse at the beginning of 6 months, (plant of early-maturing variety was transferred in greenhouse at the beginning of 9 months), need after cultivation to carry out Shading treatment, prevent temperature too high, this phase Greenhouse day should below 25 DEG C, daytime 18-23 DEG C, night 15-18 DEG C, plantation density: equal 1 meter of spacing in the rows 0.5 meter, line-spacing 1 meter or spacing in the rows, line-spacing, every 667 square metres of field planting 666-1332 strain, to plant direction: north and south row to, main strain of planting is 6: 1-8: 1 with pollination plant ratio; Adopt high ridge hydroponics, ridge height 25-30 centimetre, 50 centimetres suitable for reading of row spacing, end opening 70 centimetres, cover plastic film on the ground, adopt under-film drip irrigation, if there is no condition of drip irrigation, twice permeable bonnet mulch film should be watered after cultivation;
Compared with the prior art, tool has the following advantages in the present invention:
1, by control effectively to plant resting stage, in field planting, bloom, growth of young and maturing stage give adapt circumstance condition, under common greenhouse by solar heat condition, reaches the listing of 1-2 month fruit maturation, every 667 square metres of output more than 1000 kilograms.
2, solving honey peach can only in a difficult problem for northern China result, and finishing south China (north latitude 23 ° of areass to the south) can not the history of open country plantation honey peach, and every 667 square metres of output of southern open country plantation reach more than 750 kilograms.
The invention of 3, planting system for 1 year one accelerates the update of kind, has promoted the development of fruit tree industry production.
Embodiment:
(1) seedling field planting is selected
In north latitude 33 ° of-41 ° of areas, for Beijing area, get out the strong seedling of peach, late March is to early April, in nutritive cube seedling plants being colonizated in diameter 30-50 mm in size or nutritious bag, Nutrition Soil in nutritive cube adopt humus soil or with scholar, the peat composed of rotten mosses and fertilizer in 1: 1: 1 ratio mixed mix even after, load in nutritive cube, seedling is pressed the layout arrangement of every square metre of 4 strains in nursery, water after Seeding planting twice permeable, then the plastic film of 0.01 millimeters thick is covered on, insulation, soil moisture conservation.
(2) bearing capacity is cultivated
When the new-tip length of plant in nutritive cube reaches 30 cm (this phase in Beijing about mid-May), once, every strain liquid consumption 50 grams, utilizes artificial technology's spreading angle to the paclobutrazol of 1000-1500mg/kg simultaneously;
Spray the paclobutrazol of 800-1000mg/kg once when new-tip length reaches 40 cm, carry out pinching process simultaneously, promote branch, can plastic film be removed when ground temperature reaches 30 DEG C;
When the sublateral shoot length on young sprout reaches 25 cm, when individual plant sublateral shoot reaches more than 20, once, in nutritive cube, the relative water-holding capacity of soil rests in 60-80% to the paclobutrazol of spray 2000-3000mg/kg.
This phase, the relative water-holding capacity of soil rested in 70% for best, impels plant to transform by nourishing and growing to reproductive growth direction comprehensively on the occasion of flower bud differentiation peak period.
When plant strain growth is to September, obviously observe bud form, when plant strain growth is to October, individual plant fruit branch total amount is more than 20, and fruit branch length reaches more than 15 centimetres, and branch footpath reaches 0.5-1 cm, late October fallen leaves after water foot freeze water, guarantee safe overwintering.
(3) dormancy (forcing dormancy) is controlled
Second Year is at the beginning of 3 months (soil thaw before), and transferred to by the plant possessing bearing capacity in the environment of 0 DEG C, (alternating temperature amplitude scholar 1 DEG C), be saved at the beginning of 6 months, relative air humidity remains on 75-95%; Best relative moisture remains on 85%.
(4) plant in greenhouse
The plant of late variety was transferred in greenhouse at the beginning of 6 months, cultivation need carry out Shading treatment, prevent temperature too high, this phase, Greenhouse day temperature less than 25 DEG C, optimum temperature is 18-23 DEG C on daytime, night 15-18 DEG C, plantation density: spacing in the rows 0.5 meter, line-spacing 1 meter, every 667 square metres of field planting 666-1332 strain, to plant direction: north and south row to, main strain of planting is 6: 1-8: 1 with pollination plant ratio; Adopt high ridge hydroponics, ridge height 25-30 centimetre, 50 centimetres suitable for reading of row spacing, end opening 70 centimetres, cover plastic film on the ground, adopt under-film drip irrigation, if there is no condition of drip irrigation, twice permeable bonnet mulch film should be watered after cultivation.
After plant rudiment, within about 25 days, enter flowering stage, before blooming, every 667 square metres chase after composite fertilizer one time 30 kilograms, florescence puts honeybee, every 667 square metre of one case, improves fruit-setting rate, fruit bagging is determined in time after bearing fruit, individual plant stays fruit amount with every 667 square metres of ultimate outputs 1000 kilograms for standard, and the individual plant of generally every 667 square metre of 666 strain stays fruit 1.5-2 kilogram, and concrete operations rationally should be determined according to different cultivars, fruit size.Nitrogen in composite fertilizer, phosphorus, potassium content are respectively 15%, every 667 square metres of growth of young phase chases after composite fertilizer one time 20 kilograms, canopy insulation should be detained on September 15, prevent frostbite, insulation principle, daytime 18-23 DEG C, night 8-12 DEG C, relative moisture 80%, during November in January, the 3rd, in canopy, gas concentration lwevel controls at 500-1000mg/kg, improves photosynthetic efficiency, 1-2 month fruit comes to the ripening period, color reddens, and release fragrance, soluble solid reaches more than 10% and can pluck, within first 25 days, extract bagging at fruit maturation, promote painted.Plant after harvesting shifts out greenhouse, cultivates once again.
In northern China by scientific utilization peach Mechanism of Dormancy, adopt modern artificial or chemical technology, promote and reach nursery stock form bud then and possess certain bearing capacity, to fruit maturation 20 months from cultivating seedlings, complete Annual growth cycle, and reach the listing of 1-2 month fruit maturation, on average every 667 square metres are produced more than 1000 kilograms, finish China can not produce fresh peach history in 1-2 month.

Claims (1)

1. the cultivation method of a honey peach, it is characterized in that: (1) selects seedling field planting in north latitude 33 ° of-41 ° of areas, get out the strong seedling of rose family Prunus, late March is to early April, in nutritive cube seedling plants being colonizated in diameter 30-50 mm in size or nutritious bag, Nutrition Soil in nutritive cube adopts fertile humus soil or with soil, the peat composed of rotten mosses and fertilizer in 1: 1: 1 ratio mixed mix even after, load in nutritive cube, seedling is arranged in nursery by the office of portion of every square metre of 4 strains, water after Seeding planting twice permeable, then the plastic film of 0.01 millimeters thick is covered on, (2) cultivate bearing capacity when the new-tip length of nutritive cube interplantation dwarf reaches 30 cm, once, every strain liquid consumption 50 grams, utilizes artificial technology's spreading angle to the paclobutrazol of spray 1000-1500 percentage concentration (ppm) simultaneously, spray 800-1000ppm paclobutrazol once when new-tip length reaches 40 cm, carry out pinching process simultaneously, promote branch, can plastic film be removed when ground temperature reaches 30 DEG C, when the sublateral shoot length on young sprout reaches about 25 lis, when individual plant sublateral shoot reaches more than 20, once, in nutritive cube, water capacity support is held in 60-80% to spray 2000-3000ppm paclobutrazol, when plant strain growth is to October, individual plant fruit branch total amount is more than 20, and fruit branch length reaches more than 15 centimetres, and branch footpath reaches 0.5-1 cm, late October fallen leaves after water foot freeze water, guarantee safe overwintering, (3) control dormancy Second Year at the beginning of 3 months (soil thaw before), transferred to by the plant possessing bearing capacity in the environment of 0 DEG C, (alternating temperature amplitude ± 1 DEG C), preserve 1 to 6 month, air humidity remains on 75-95%, (4) the plant plant of late variety of greenhouse was transferred in greenhouse at the beginning of 6 months, (plant of early-maturing variety was transferred in greenhouse at the beginning of 9 months), need after cultivation to carry out Shading treatment, prevent temperature too high, this phase Greenhouse day temperature is advisable with less than 25 DEG C, daytime 18-23 DEG C, night 15-18 DEG C, plantation density: equal 1 meter of spacing in the rows 0.5 meter, line-spacing 1 meter or spacing in the rows, line-spacing, mu field planting 666-1332 strain, to plant direction: north and south row to, main strain of planting is 6: 1-8: 1 with pollination plant ratio, adopt raised bed cultivate method, ridge height 25-30 centimetre, 50 centimetres suitable for reading of row spacing, end opening 70 centimetres, cover plastic film on the ground, adopt under-film drip irrigation, if there is no condition of drip irrigation, twice permeable bonnet mulch film should be watered after cultivation, to bloom after plant rudiment Qian Meimuzhui composite fertilizer one time 30 kilograms, florescence puts honeybee, every mu of case, fruit bagging is determined in time after bearing fruit, growth of young Qi Meimuzhui composite fertilizer one time 20 kilograms, canopy insulation should be detained on September 15, daytime about 25 DEG C, night about 12 DEG C, humidity 80%, during November in January, the 3rd, in canopy, gas concentration lwevel controls at 500-1000ppm, 1-2 month fruit comes to the ripening period, and within first 25 days, extracts bagging, promote painted at fruit maturation.
CN201310710321.6A 2013-12-22 2013-12-22 Juicy peach cultivating method Pending CN104719070A (en)

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Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105165525A (en) * 2015-09-18 2015-12-23 铜仁市万山区万兴珍禽生态养殖农民专业合作社 Planting method for juicy peaches
CN105359919A (en) * 2015-12-04 2016-03-02 江苏省农业科学院 Method for reducing runoff loss of soil phosphorus in juicy peach garden and improving quality of juicy peaches
CN105393876A (en) * 2015-11-16 2016-03-16 全椒县管坝民族玉龙生态农业发展有限公司 Transplanting method for USA California large and white peach trees in Quanjiao county, Anhui province
CN105918051A (en) * 2016-05-13 2016-09-07 王琼 Greenhouse cultivation method for nectarines
CN106489640A (en) * 2016-09-13 2017-03-15 淮南市农康生态农业有限公司 A kind of green organically honey peach implantation methods

Cited By (5)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN105165525A (en) * 2015-09-18 2015-12-23 铜仁市万山区万兴珍禽生态养殖农民专业合作社 Planting method for juicy peaches
CN105393876A (en) * 2015-11-16 2016-03-16 全椒县管坝民族玉龙生态农业发展有限公司 Transplanting method for USA California large and white peach trees in Quanjiao county, Anhui province
CN105359919A (en) * 2015-12-04 2016-03-02 江苏省农业科学院 Method for reducing runoff loss of soil phosphorus in juicy peach garden and improving quality of juicy peaches
CN105918051A (en) * 2016-05-13 2016-09-07 王琼 Greenhouse cultivation method for nectarines
CN106489640A (en) * 2016-09-13 2017-03-15 淮南市农康生态农业有限公司 A kind of green organically honey peach implantation methods

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Application publication date: 20150624