CN105993810B - Method for quickly planting fruits in forest by burying mulberries in strips - Google Patents

Method for quickly planting fruits in forest by burying mulberries in strips Download PDF

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CN105993810B
CN105993810B CN201610564294.XA CN201610564294A CN105993810B CN 105993810 B CN105993810 B CN 105993810B CN 201610564294 A CN201610564294 A CN 201610564294A CN 105993810 B CN105993810 B CN 105993810B
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mulberry
strips
branches
soil
burying
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CN105993810A (en
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朱方容
邱长玉
林强
崔秋英
朱光书
张朝华
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GUANGXI SERICULTURE TECHNOLOGY PROMOTION STATION
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G22/00Cultivation of specific crops or plants not otherwise provided for
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G7/00Botany in general
    • A01G7/06Treatment of growing trees or plants, e.g. for preventing decay of wood, for tingeing flowers or wood, for prolonging the life of plants

Abstract

The invention discloses a method for burying mulberry twigs and quickly producing forest and fruit, which comprises the steps of clipping mulberry twigs, pruning according to planting specifications and burying the twigs into mulberry field, and giving appropriate conditions to ensure that the buried twigs grow roots and germinate to form stem roots; reserving buds according to the plant spacing specification, cultivating the buds to be dry, and cultivating more than one trunk; and taking multi-stage branch and fruit branch growth promoting measures to cultivate the same root and multiple branches. The method utilizes the totipotency of mulberry branches, exerts the advantages of sufficient nutrition of whole branches, rich growth active substances and mature root protomer at the base of the branches, and carries out whole branch and burying on scion branches in a mulberry field to form plants with multiple branches and multiple stems on the same root, thereby realizing orchard establishment in the current year and large-scale fruit production in the next year. The method is simple to operate, low in investment and easy to popularize, is suitable for common mulberry varieties, and is suitable for quickly expanding mulberry gardens in sandy soil, sandy loam soil, river sand materials and other fields.

Description

Method for quickly planting fruits in forest by burying mulberries in strips
Technical Field
The invention belongs to the technical field of mulberry fine variety breeding and mulberry cultivation, and particularly relates to a method for quickly planting and producing fruits by burying mulberry twigs in forest.
Background
A perennial deciduous tree of the genus Morus (Morus L) of the family Moraceae. The mulberry is divided into male and female mulberry, and the female mulberry has female flowers and fruits and is called fruit mulberry. Mulberry fruit, also called mulberry, contains rich fructose, fruit acid, pectin, natural pigment, resveratrol, 7 vitamins such as Vc, B1, B2 and the like, and trace elements and amino acids required by human body, has various medical and health care functions of enriching blood, tonifying kidney, improving eyesight, blackening hair, resisting aging, lowering blood pressure, preventing chronic hepatitis, treating insomnia, neurasthenia and the like, and is listed in a list of 'being food and medicine' by the Ministry of health. The mulberry can be eaten fresh, can also be used as a raw material for processing mulberry beverages and various mulberry foods, and has good market development prospect. The mulberry can be planted to produce the mulberry and can also be used for silkworm breeding, and the economic benefit is higher.
The improved mulberry seed breeding usually adopts asexual breeding techniques such as grafting and cutting, the seedling period is long, the cost is high, the investment for building mulberry gardens is large, and the orchard establishment can be carried out in 2 years after the mulberry seed breeding enters the high-yield period. How to reduce the investment of mulberry plantation and quicken the forest production is a key problem for restricting the development of mulberry and the promotion of fine breed breeding.
Disclosure of Invention
The invention aims to provide a simple and practical method for quickly planting fruits in forests by burying mulberries in strips, which has low cost, quick production and good benefit, and is suitable for quickly building mulberry gardens in sandy soil, sandy loam soil, river sand materials and other lands.
In order to solve the technical problems, the invention adopts the following technical scheme: a method for quickly planting mulberry trees by burying the mulberry branches in forest comprises the steps of shearing mulberry branches, pruning according to planting specifications and burying the mulberry branches in a mulberry field, so that the buried branches grow roots and germinate to form stem roots; reserving buds according to the plant spacing specification, cultivating the buds to be dry, and cultivating more than one trunk; and taking multi-stage branch and fruit branch growth promoting measures to cultivate the same root and multiple branches.
The method for quickly foresting and producing the fruits by burying the mulberries into the strips comprises the following steps:
(1) preparing soil, ditching and preparing soil; (2) collecting whole-branch spike strips; (3) burying strips; (4) water spraying and film covering; (5) protecting buds and culturing the stems; (6) multi-stage branching; (7) promoting growth of fruit branches.
The step (1) is carried out according to the following operations: selecting sandy soil and sandy loam as mulberry garden land, digging a mulberry row line according to the row spacing of 130cm-150cm before burying strips, digging a planting ditch, applying base fertilizer, backfilling the soil to 3cm-5cm away from the original ground to form a strip burying shallow ditch with the depth of 3cm-5cm, and smashing the residual dug soil into fine sandy soil for covering the buried strips. If other soil is used for garden, river sand or sandy soil is additionally prepared for covering soil for burying strips.
The step (2) is carried out according to the following operations: and selecting straight branches in a high-quality-variety fruit mulberry field 2-3 weeks before winter buds of the mulberry sprout, shearing off whole branches from the base, and shearing off tender tips to obtain the spike strips with buried strips.
The step (3) is carried out according to the following operations: and (3) horizontally placing the scion wood in the buried stripe shallow trench 2 weeks before the winter buds of the mulberry are germinated according to mulberry lines, wherein the spacing between every two scion wood is 80-150 cm, the scion wood is subjected to bud fixing according to the distance of 30-50 cm, a bud opening is reserved without covering soil, and the rest part of the scion wood is covered with the prepared buried stripe covering soil.
The step (4) is carried out according to the following operations: after covering soil on the spike strips, sprinkling water until the covered soil is wet, and covering with a transparent mulching film.
The step (5) is carried out according to the following operations: after the scion sprouts, artificial membrane rupture is carried out to ensure that mulberry buds grow out, when the mulberry buds grow into new shoots with the height of 10cm-15cm, soil loosening, ridging, protecting the shoots, and spraying water fertilizer or applying compound fertilizer in ditches to cultivate the new shoots to form trunks.
The step (6) is carried out according to the following operations: when the young shoots grow to 30cm high, topping for the first time to enable the young shoots to grow into first-level young shoots to form first-level branches; when the primary young shoots grow to 15cm-20cm, secondary topping is carried out, and secondary young shoots grow out to form secondary branches; and when the second-level young shoots grow to 15-20 cm, topping for the third time to grow third-level young shoots to form third-level branches.
The step (7) is carried out according to the following operations: and (3) applying a compound fertilizer for topdressing in time to promote the growth of new shoots, so that fruiting mother branches grow high and strong, and the number of flower buds is increased.
Aiming at the problems of high cost and slow production in the existing mulberry improved variety breeding orchard establishment, the inventor establishes a method for burying mulberry branches and quickly growing forest and producing fruits, the mulberry branches are cut, whole branches are buried in mulberry fields according to the planting specification, and proper conditions are given to ensure that the buried branches grow roots and germinate to form stem roots; reserving buds according to the plant spacing specification, cultivating the buds to be dry, and cultivating more than one trunk; and taking multi-stage branch and fruit branch growth promoting measures to cultivate the same root and multiple branches. The method utilizes the totipotency of mulberry branches, exerts the advantages of sufficient nutrition of whole branches, rich growth active substances and mature root protomer at the base of the branches, and carries out whole branch and burying on scion branches in a mulberry field to form plants with multiple branches and multiple stems on the same root, thereby realizing orchard establishment in the current year and large-scale fruit production in the next year. The mulberry variety cultivated by the method can maintain the original excellent characters of the parent, can quickly form a garden, saves the time and cost required by grafting seedling or cutting seedling, and achieves the aims of planting the garden in the current year, producing fruits in large quantities in the next year, and advancing the delivery period and the high yield period by 1 year. In a word, the method is simple to operate, low in investment and easy to popularize, is suitable for common mulberry varieties, and is suitable for quickly expanding mulberry gardens in sandy soil, sandy loam soil, river sand materials and the like.
Detailed Description
Example 1
(1) Soil preparation, ditching and soil preparation
The land for building the mulberry orchard is red loam in the south-Ning suburban area, and river sand is planned to be used as buried strips to cover the soil. Locally grown mulberry varieties typically germinate in the middle of 1 month. Ploughing the land by using a tractor in the middle ten days of 12 months, digging mulberry row lines and digging planting ditches 1 week before winter solstice according to the line spacing of 135cm, wherein the width of each ditch is 30cm, the depth of each ditch is 30cm, 500kg of chicken manure is applied to each mu of land as base fertilizer, and backfilling soil is about 5cm away from the original ground to form a buried stripe shallow ditch with the depth of about 5 cm; 5m of river sand prepared for burying strips and covering soil per mu3
(2) Collecting whole spike
Collecting spike strips in late 12 months, selecting straight branches grown after summer pruning in a mulberry field with good variety of Yuesha big 10, shearing off whole branches from the base, shearing off tender tips and lateral branches to obtain the spike strips buried with strips, and storing the spike strips indoors. About 120-200 cm of spike strips are needed per mu and 200 pieces are needed.
(3) Buried strip
And (3) burying the strips at the beginning of 1 month, flatly placing the scion strips in a shallow trench for burying the strips according to mulberry lines, keeping the spacing of each scion strip at 100cm, fixing the buds on the scion strips according to the distance of 40cm, reserving bud openings without covering soil, covering the scion strips with prepared buried strip covering soil on the rest parts, leveling the ground and preventing water accumulation.
(4) Water spraying cover film
After covering soil on the ear strips, sprinkling water until the covered soil is wet, and covering a transparent mulching film with the width of 50cm so as to keep the covered soil to be proper in moisture.
(5) Bud-protecting and stem-cultivating method
The method comprises the steps of burying the mulberry shoots, sprouting the mulberry shoots about 20 days after the mulberry shoots are buried, then, in rainy days at low temperature for a long time, slowly growing the mulberry shoots until the mulberry shoots break a mulch film in the last ten days of 2 months, enabling part of the mulberry shoots to grow out in the middle of the mulberry shoots after artificial mulch film breaking, loosening the soil, forming shallow trenches on one side of the mulberry shoots, applying 5kg of compound fertilizer (15-15-15 type) to each mu of the mulberry shoots, combining with the mulch fertilizer, earthing up on two sides of the buried shoots, promoting the buried shoots to grow roots comprehensively, accelerating the mulberry shoots to generate new shoots, and cultivating the new shoots to form trunks.
(6) Multiple branch
When the young shoots (trunk) grow to 30cm high, topping for the first time to enable the young shoots to grow into first-level young shoots to form first-level branches; and (3) when the primary young shoots grow to 15-20 cm, carrying out secondary topping, and applying topdressing 30kg of compound fertilizer (15-15-15 type) per mu. After a while, growing new shoots and growing second-level new shoots to form second-level branches; and (4) when the second-level young shoots grow to 15-20 cm in the middle ten days of 8 months, topping for the third time, and growing third-level young shoots to form third-level branches.
(7) Fruit branch for promoting growth
And (3) no topping is carried out in the last ten days of 8 months, topdressing is carried out once in the last ten days of 9 months, 60kg of compound fertilizer (15-15-15) is applied to each mu, growth of new shoots is promoted, branches grow tall and strong, and growth stops at the end of 11 months in the year. According to investigation, 1 buried spike is bred into 4 to 6 trunks, and the trunks are 920 in each mu; growing 12-18 fruiting mother branches on each trunk, and growing 13650 fruiting mother branches per mu; the height of each bearing mother branch is 130cm-180cm, the branches are luxuriant, and the trees are grown in the same year to form a garden.
(8) Topping after winter solstice, cutting off the tip, removing all leaves, weeding and cleaning the garden; ditching and applying winter fertilizer, applying 1000kg of farmyard manure (organic fertilizer) and 50kg of compound fertilizer (15-15-15), and covering thick soil after applying fertilizer.
(9) The winter buds (namely flower buds) germinate in the next 1 month, and the irrigation is carried out for 1 time, so that the flower buds are promoted to germinate orderly; protecting flowers and fruits, and continuously maturing mulberries at the bottom of 3 months; timely harvesting the mulberry to reduce the loss of the ground fruits.
The implementation benefit is as follows: from strip burying to fruit production, only 15 months are needed, and the yield of mulberry per mu in the first year of production reaches 1100 kg.

Claims (1)

1. A method for quickly planting fruits by burying mulberries in a forest is characterized by comprising the following steps:
(1) soil preparation, ditching and soil preparation
The land for constructing the mulberry field is red loam, and river sand is used as buried stripe covering soil; the planted fruit mulberry sprouts in the middle 1 monthPloughing the land in the middle ten days of 12 months by using a tractor, digging mulberry row lines and digging planting ditches 1 week before winter solstice according to the line spacing of 135cm, wherein the width of each ditch is 30cm, the depth of each ditch is 30cm, 500kg of chicken manure is applied to each mu of land as base fertilizer, and backfilling is carried out to about 5cm away from the original ground to form a buried shallow ditch with the depth of about 5 cm; 5m of river sand prepared for burying strips and covering soil per mu3
(2) Collecting whole spike
Collecting spike strips in the last ten days of 12 months, selecting straight branches grown after summer cutting in a high-quality-variety mulberry field, shearing off whole branches from a base, shearing off tender tips and side branches to obtain spike strips for burying strips, and storing the spike strips indoors; 160-200 spike strips of 120-200 cm are needed per mu;
(3) buried strip
Burying the strips at the beginning of 1 month, horizontally placing the scion strips in a shallow trench for burying the strips according to mulberry lines, keeping the spacing of each scion strip at 100cm, fixing the buds on the scion strips according to the distance of 40cm, reserving bud openings without covering soil, covering the scion strips with prepared buried strip covering soil on the rest parts, and leveling the ground to prevent water accumulation;
(4) water spraying cover film
After covering soil on the ear strips, sprinkling water until the covered soil is wet, and covering a transparent mulching film with the width of 50cm so as to keep the covered soil to be proper in moisture;
(5) bud-protecting and stem-cultivating method
The method comprises the following steps of (1) sprouting scion strips 20 days after burying strips, until a mulberry bud breaks a mulch film at the top of 2 months, extending out a part of the mulberry bud only by manually breaking the mulch film, loosening the soil and opening a shallow trench on one side of the scion strips when the mulberry bud grows to a new tip with the height of 10cm-15cm, applying 5kg of 15-15-15 type compound fertilizer to each mu, combining with the mulch fertilizer, ridging on two sides of the buried strips, promoting the buried strips to grow roots comprehensively, accelerating the mulberry bud to generate a new tip, and cultivating the new tip to form a trunk;
(6) multiple branch
When the trunk grows to be 30cm high, topping for the first time to enable a first-stage new shoot to grow out and form a first-stage branch; when the primary young shoots grow to 15-20 cm, carrying out secondary topping, applying topdressing, and applying 15-15-15 type compound fertilizer 30kg per mu; growing secondary young shoots to form secondary branches; when the second-level young shoots grow to 15-20 cm in the middle ten days of 8 months, topping for the third time, and growing third-level young shoots to form third-level branches;
(7) fruit branch for promoting growth
In the last ten days of 8 months, topping is not performed, topdressing is performed once in the last ten days of 9 months, and 60kg of 15-15-15 type compound fertilizer is applied per mu, so that growth of new shoots is promoted, branches grow tall and strong, and growth stops at the end of 11 months in the year; 1 buried spike is bred into 4 to 6 trunks, and the trunks are 920 in each mu; growing 12-18 fruiting mother branches on each trunk, and growing 13650 fruiting mother branches per mu; each bearing mother branch is 130cm-180cm high, the branches are luxuriant, and the trees are grown in the same year to form a garden;
(8) topping after winter solstice, cutting off the tip, removing all leaves, weeding and cleaning the garden; ditching and applying winter fertilizer, applying 1000kg of farmyard manure and 50kg of 15-15-15 type compound fertilizer, and covering thick soil after applying fertilizer;
(9) the winter buds germinate in the next 1 month, and the irrigation is carried out for 1 time, so that the flower buds are promoted to germinate orderly; protecting flowers and fruits, and continuously maturing mulberries at the bottom of 3 months; fruit mulberries are harvested in time, and the loss of fruits falling to the ground is reduced.
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CN107242089A (en) * 2017-07-20 2017-10-13 内蒙古自治区林业科学研究院 A kind of mongolian bluebeard shrub as plant sand block material sand-protecting barrier build and plant technology
CN108271558A (en) * 2018-01-26 2018-07-13 玉林市晟源农业科技有限公司 One seed pod mulberry tree type dressing method

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
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CN104719077A (en) * 2015-04-19 2015-06-24 黄振忠 Method for cultivating mulberry trees by means of burying branches

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Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN102870566A (en) * 2012-10-07 2013-01-16 刘万顺 Mulberry orchard establishment method by level planting of overall mulberry seedlings
CN104719077A (en) * 2015-04-19 2015-06-24 黄振忠 Method for cultivating mulberry trees by means of burying branches

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