CN105830850B - A kind of sweet cherry grafting fast breeding method - Google Patents

A kind of sweet cherry grafting fast breeding method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105830850B
CN105830850B CN201610237673.8A CN201610237673A CN105830850B CN 105830850 B CN105830850 B CN 105830850B CN 201610237673 A CN201610237673 A CN 201610237673A CN 105830850 B CN105830850 B CN 105830850B
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Prior art keywords
grafting
cuttage
canopy
scion
seedling
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CN201610237673.8A
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CN105830850A (en
Inventor
孙玉刚
魏国芹
房中文
付全娟
韩大鹏
杨兴华
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Shandong Institute of Pomology
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Shandong Institute of Pomology
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    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G17/00Cultivation of hops, vines, fruit trees, or like trees
    • A01G17/005Cultivation methods
    • AHUMAN NECESSITIES
    • A01AGRICULTURE; FORESTRY; ANIMAL HUSBANDRY; HUNTING; TRAPPING; FISHING
    • A01GHORTICULTURE; CULTIVATION OF VEGETABLES, FLOWERS, RICE, FRUIT, VINES, HOPS OR SEAWEED; FORESTRY; WATERING
    • A01G2/00Vegetative propagation
    • A01G2/30Grafting

Abstract

The present invention relates to a kind of sweet cherry grafting fast breeding method, belong to field of plant cultivation, this method includes kind scion acquisition and preserves, and is managed after the cutting bed preparation of stock, cuttage, cuttage, the management process of nursery stock after the grafting and grafting of scion.By using the special cultivation of greenhouse, kind scion grafting is carried out in mid or late May, is out of the garden for the year after fallen leaves, is substantially reduced seedling raise period, be quickly obtained cherry grafting.Using the application method, sweet cherry from stock seedling to grafting scion variety time that is out of the garden be only 1 Growing season, be advanced by 1 year than conventional seedbed system.Outplanting after early winter fallen leaves, reaches 1.5 2.0 meters of height of seedling, and base portion rugosity 1.0m 1.5m, sprout is full, and germination rate is high, and seedling quality is high and healthy and strong.Since seedling raise period shortens 1 year, seedling cost is greatly reduced.

Description

A kind of sweet cherry grafting fast breeding method
Technical field
The invention belongs to field of plant cultivation, and in particular to a kind of sweet cherry grafting fast breeding method.
Background technology
Sweet cherry seedling-wood breeding, including rootstock seedling are cultivated, graft scion variety, grafting management and be out of the garden several stages. Rootstock seedling breeding is divided into seminal propagation, the mound layering of root turion seedling, tissue cultures and spray (or stiff wood) cutting propagation, seed and pressure Item breeding rootstock seedling, which reaches grafting rugosity, needed for 1 year, and tissue cultures or softwood cutting propagation rootstock seedling, which reach grafting rugosity, to be needed The 1-2 years;In scion variety grafting more (early September) and spring in next year (March) in the fall, grafting, which is out of the garden, needs growth 1 year Time, in this way calculate come, conventional sweet cherry grafting seedling, which is out of the garden, generally requires 2 years to 3 years.
And 2 years raw seedlings, sprout is full exposed, in lifting, ties up, is easy to be compromised in transportational process and falls off, needs to send out The position of branch does not have bud, and tree-like shaping is difficult, while affecting the proliferative speed of sweet cherry, affects economic benefit indirectly.
Invention content
The purpose of the present invention is to provide a kind of sweet cherry grafting fast breeding method, 1 year obtained fast seedling of life, bud Eye sticker lies prostrate in seedling stem, is not easy to damage.
To achieve the goals above, the present invention provides the following technical solutions:
A kind of sweet cherry grafting fast breeding method, includes the following steps:
One, scion acquisition and preservation:
Storage in cold bank is set into the scion of acquisition, mid or late May in next year starts to graft spare;
Two, the cutting propagation of stock:
(1) cuttings acquires:In the annual 6-8 months, the clip current year in stock cutting orchard healthy, through tissue culture detoxicating The stock fringe bar of newborn 10~15cm of length, cuts off radical leaves and the higher part of 2~3cm lignifyings, branch bottom end is tiltedly cut 40-50 °, it is semi-lignified state to make base portion, and lower cut will retain 2-4 piece leaves close to axillary bud, top;
(2) cuttings is handled:Cuttings base portion 5-10s is impregnated with ABT1 rooting powder solutions, cuttage is spare;
(3) cutting bed prepares:Cuttage carries out in warm canopy, warm canopy North and South direction, span 8.0m, the high 2.5m of ridge, length 70.0m stands cement pillar support, and warm canopy covers film, shading net is capped when summer temp is excessively high, in addition to north and south both ends are divulged information, It is aeration-cooling that east and west sides start plastic foil, and cutting medium is river sand in canopy;
(4) it is managed after cuttage and cuttage:Before cuttage, cutting bed is uniformly watered, cutting medium moisture content is made to reach 60%, Cuttings is inserted into the cutting bed, upward, cuttage depth is 3~5cm to cuttings face of blade, then by the cuttage around cuttings Matrix is compacted, and sprays remaining matrix on 1 permeable simultaneous flushing blade immediately, cutting medium moisture content is made to reach 90% or so, Cuttings is set to combine closely with cutting medium simultaneously;
(5) it is managed after cuttage:Keep warm 20-30 DEG C of temperature of shed, humidity 75%-85%, by covering shading net control Shading rate 75%, sprayed once sterilizing every 7 days after cuttage with 500 times of liquid of Bravo, and sprinkling selection is set in the sun with laggard Row stopped water spray before half an hour to morning sunrise before spraying;
Three, kind scion is grafted
(1) grafting canopy prepares
Graft canopy wide 8.5m, high 2.5m, matrix is quality than river sand in canopy: loam: organic fertilizer=1: 1: 1 mixture, The rootstock seedling of cutting survival is transplanted in grafting canopy by annual early March, and north and south is embarked on journey, line-spacing 40cm, spacing in the rows 15cm, reinforces fertilizer Water management keeps 25-30 DEG C of temperature of shed, humidity 55%-65%, it is ensured that reaches grafting rugosity at the beginning of lower sentence to 6 months in 5 months;
(2) it grafts:At the beginning of late May to 6 months, ready scion is taken out from freezer, it is liftoff that quick wooden bud is connected on stock Face 10cm or so place, when grafting bud callus is good, after bud is sprouted, the cut anvil at 1.0cm on bud promotes scion bud to sprout;
Four, grafting manages:Entire Growing season fast-growth, annual plastic covering film, summer and autumn temperature all in grafting canopy When spending high, north and south both ends and east and west sides are leaked informaton, and 25-35 DEG C of temperature of shed of grafting, humidity 55%-65% is kept to impose in time N, P, K composite fertilizer and promotion growth of watering, and pay attention to founding pillar, bracing wire holding nursery stock vertical growth, in due course medication prevents early stage Defoliation;
Five, rapid-result seedling is out of the garden:Outplanting after early winter fallen leaves, reaches 1.5-2.0 meters of height of seedling, rugosity 1.0cm-1.5cm is put It sets freezer or is planted in warm canopy overwintering.
The scion acquisition and preservation are specially:Tree body is fallen leaves after suspend mode, and healthy and strong plant, acquisition are selected in kind cutting orchard The full branch section of substantial sprout is educated in hair tonic in 1 year, arranges bundled, extension label, with 3-4 layers of fresh-keeping plastic foils wrapping, sets Storage in cold bank, Mid or late May in next year starts to graft spare.
Preferably, the temperature of ice house is -1~-4 DEG C.
Preferably, a concentration of 600-800mg/kg of the ABT1 rooting powder solutions.
Preferably, the organic fertilizer is sheep manure.
The beneficial effects of the invention are as follows:
The present invention is out of the garden only 1 year from stock seedling into canopy to grafting, and conventional seedbed system, and stock seedling moves March Crop field is planted, since rugosity is inadequate, it is necessary to which growing into September part could graft, and be grown 1 year after grafting, can just go out to the 2nd year end of the year Garden, therefore it is 2 years that conventional seedbed system is transplanted to the grafting outplanting time from stock seedling, present invention reduces the nursery time limits 1 year.
Due to using the special cultivation of greenhouse, seedling growth is quick, healthy and strong, and the full patch volt of bud eye is hardly damaged, holds after field planting It easily survives, germination rate is high.
Specific implementation mode
Experimental method used in following embodiments is conventional method unless otherwise specified.
The materials, reagents and the like used in the following examples is commercially available unless otherwise specified.
Embodiment 1
A kind of sweet cherry grafting fast breeding method, includes the following steps:
One, scion acquisition and preservation:
Scion variety is ' pioneer ', after tree body falls leaves suspend mode, healthy and strong plant, acquisition hair tonic in 1 year is selected to educate substantial sprout Full branch section arranges bundled, extension label, with 3 layers of insurance plastic foils wrapping, sets -1 DEG C of Storage in cold bank, next year is grafted standby by the end of May With;
Two, the cutting propagation of stock:
(1) cuttings acquires:Stock variety is " Gisela 6 ", in annual June, health, through tissue culture detoxicating The stock fringe bar of clip current year newborn long 10cm, cuts off radical leaves and the higher part of 2cm lignifyings in stock cutting orchard, Branch bottom end tiltedly cuts 40 °, and it is semi-lignified state to make base portion, and lower cut will retain 2 leaves close to axillary bud, top;
(2) cuttings is handled:Cuttings base portion 5s is impregnated with ABT1 rooting powder solutions, cuttage is spare, and the ABT1 root-inducing powders are molten A concentration of 600mg/kg of liquid;
(3) cutting bed prepares:Cuttage carries out in warm canopy, warm canopy North and South direction, span 8.0m, the high 2.5m of ridge, length 70.0m stands cement pillar support, and warm canopy covers film, shading net is capped when summer temp is excessively high, in addition to north and south both ends are divulged information, It is aeration-cooling that east and west sides start plastic foil, and cutting medium is river sand in canopy;
(4) it is managed after cuttage and cuttage:Before cuttage, cutting bed is uniformly watered, cutting medium moisture content is made to reach 60%, Cuttings is inserted into the cutting bed, upward, cuttage depth is 3cm to cuttings face of blade, then by the cuttage base around cuttings Matter is compacted, and is sprayed remaining matrix on 1 permeable simultaneous flushing blade immediately, so that cutting medium moisture content is reached 90% or so, together When so that cuttings is combined closely with cutting medium;
(5) it is managed after cuttage:Warm 20 DEG C of temperature of shed, humidity 75%% is kept to control shading rate by covering shading net 75%, once sterilizing was sprayed with 500 times of liquid of Bravo every 7 days after cuttage, sprinkling selection carries out after the sun sets, spray Stopped water spray before preceding half an hour to morning sunrise;
Three, kind scion is grafted
(1) grafting canopy prepares
Graft canopy wide 8.5m, high 2.5m, matrix is quality than river sand in canopy: loam: sheep manure=1: 1: 1 mixture, often Year, the rootstock seedling of cutting survival was transplanted in grafting canopy by early March, and north and south is embarked on journey, line-spacing 40cm, spacing in the rows 15cm, reinforces rich water Management keeps 25 DEG C of temperature of shed, humidity 55%, it is ensured that reach grafting rugosity at the beginning of mid or late May to 6 months;
(2) it grafts:At the beginning of late May to 6 months, ready scion is taken out from freezer, it is liftoff that quick wooden bud is connected on stock Face 10cm or so place, when grafting bud callus is good, after bud is sprouted, the cut anvil at 1.0cm on bud promotes scion bud to sprout;
Four, grafting manages:Entire Growing season fast-growth, annual plastic covering film, summer and autumn temperature all in grafting canopy When spending high, north and south both ends and east and west sides are leaked informaton, and keep 25 DEG C of temperature of shed of grafting, humidity 55% that it is compound to impose N, P, K in time Fertilizer and promotion growth of watering, and notice that vertical pillar, bracing wire keep nursery stock vertical growth, in due course medication to prevent early defoliation disease;
Five, rapid-result seedling is out of the garden:Outplanting after early winter fallen leaves, reaches 1.5 meters, rugosity 1.0cm of height of seedling, place freezer or Temporary planting is overwintering in warm canopy.
Embodiment 2
A kind of sweet cherry grafting fast breeding method, includes the following steps:
One, scion acquisition and preservation:
Scion variety is ' pioneer ', after tree body falls leaves suspend mode, healthy and strong plant, acquisition hair tonic in 1 year is selected to educate substantial sprout Full branch section arranges bundled, extension label, with 4 layers of insurance plastic foils wrapping, sets-Cool Room 4 DEG C storage, next year is grafted standby by the end of May With;
Two, the cutting propagation of stock:
(1) cuttings acquires:Stock variety is " Gisela 6 ", in annual July, health, through tissue culture detoxicating The stock fringe bar of clip current year newborn long 14cm, cuts off radical leaves and the higher part of 3cm lignifyings in stock cutting orchard, Branch bottom end tiltedly cuts 45 °, and it is semi-lignified state to make base portion, and lower cut will retain 3 leaves close to axillary bud, top;
(2) cuttings is handled:Cuttings base portion 8s is impregnated with ABT1 rooting powder solutions, cuttage is spare, and the ABT1 root-inducing powders are molten A concentration of 700mg/kg of liquid;
(3) cutting bed prepares:Cuttage carries out in warm canopy, warm canopy North and South direction, span 8.0m, the high 2.5m of ridge, length 70.0m stands cement pillar support, and warm canopy covers film, shading net is capped when summer temp is excessively high, in addition to north and south both ends are divulged information, It is aeration-cooling that east and west sides start plastic foil, and cutting medium is river sand in canopy;
(4) it is managed after cuttage and cuttage:Before cuttage, cutting bed is uniformly watered, cutting medium moisture content is made to reach 60%, Cuttings is inserted into the cutting bed, upward, cuttage depth is 4cm to cuttings face of blade, then by the cuttage base around cuttings Matter is compacted, and is sprayed remaining matrix on 1 permeable simultaneous flushing blade immediately, so that cutting medium moisture content is reached 90% or so, together When so that cuttings is combined closely with cutting medium;
(5) it is managed after cuttage:Warm 28 DEG C of temperature of shed, humidity 80% is kept to control shading rate by covering shading net 75%, once sterilizing was sprayed with 500 times of liquid of Bravo every 7 days after cuttage, sprinkling selection carries out after the sun sets, spray Stopped water spray before preceding half an hour to morning sunrise;
Three, kind scion is grafted
(1) grafting canopy prepares
Graft canopy wide 8.5m, high 2.5m, matrix is quality than river sand in canopy: loam: sheep manure=1: 1: 1 mixture, often Year, the rootstock seedling of cutting survival was transplanted in grafting canopy by early March, and north and south is embarked on journey, line-spacing 40cm, spacing in the rows 15cm, reinforces rich water Management keeps 28 DEG C of temperature of shed, humidity 60%, it is ensured that reach grafting rugosity at the beginning of mid or late May to 6 months;
(2) it grafts:At the beginning of late May to 6 months, ready scion is taken out from freezer, it is liftoff that quick wooden bud is connected on stock Face 10cm or so place, when grafting bud callus is good, after bud is sprouted, the cut anvil at 1.0cm on bud promotes scion bud to sprout;
Four, grafting manages:Entire Growing season fast-growth, annual plastic covering film, summer and autumn temperature all in grafting canopy When spending high, north and south both ends and east and west sides are leaked informaton, and keep 30 DEG C of temperature of shed of grafting, humidity 60% that it is compound to impose N, P, K in time Fertilizer and promotion growth of watering, and notice that vertical pillar, bracing wire keep nursery stock vertical growth, in due course medication to prevent early defoliation disease;
Five, rapid-result seedling is out of the garden:Outplanting after early winter fallen leaves, reaches 2.0 meters, rugosity 1.4cm of height of seedling, place freezer or Temporary planting is overwintering in warm canopy.
The present invention is out of the garden only 1 year from stock seedling into canopy to grafting, due to using the special cultivation of greenhouse, nursery stock life Long quick, healthy and strong, the full patch volt of bud eye is hardly damaged, is easy to survive after field planting, germination rate is high.

Claims (5)

1. a kind of sweet cherry grafting fast breeding method, which is characterized in that include the following steps:
One, scion acquisition and preservation:
Storage in cold bank is set into the scion of acquisition, mid or late May in next year starts to graft spare;
Two, the cutting propagation of stock:
(1) cuttings acquires:In the annual 6-8 months, clip current year is newborn in stock cutting orchard healthy, through tissue culture detoxicating 10~15cm of length stock fringe bar, cut off radical leaves and the higher part of 2~3cm lignifyings, 40- is tiltedly cut in branch bottom end 50 °, it is semi-lignified state to make base portion, and lower cut will retain 2-4 piece leaves close to axillary bud, top;
(2) cuttings is handled:Cuttings base portion 5-10s is impregnated with ABT1 rooting powder solutions, cuttage is spare;
(3) cutting bed prepares:Cuttage carries out in warm canopy, warm canopy North and South direction, span 8.0m, ridge high 2.5m, length 70.0m, Vertical cement pillar support, warm canopy covers film, shading net is capped when summer temp is excessively high, in addition to north and south both ends are divulged information, thing two It is aeration-cooling that side starts plastic foil, and cutting medium is river sand in canopy;
(4) it is managed after cuttage and cuttage:Before cuttage, cutting bed is uniformly watered, cutting medium moisture content is made to reach 60%, will be inserted Fringe is inserted into the cutting bed, and upward, cuttage depth is 3~5cm to cuttings face of blade, then by the cutting medium around cuttings Compacting sprays remaining matrix on 1 permeable simultaneous flushing blade, so that cutting medium moisture content is reached 90% or so, simultaneously immediately Cuttings is set to combine closely with cutting medium;
(5) it is managed after cuttage:Keep warm 20-30 DEG C of temperature of shed, humidity 75%-85%, by covering shading net control shading Rate 75% sprayed once sterilizing every 7 days after cuttage with 500 times of liquid of Bravo, and sprinkling selection carries out after the sun sets, spray Stopped water spray before medicine before half an hour to morning sunrise;
Three, kind scion is grafted
(1) grafting canopy prepares
Graft canopy wide 8.5m, high 2.5m, matrix is quality than river sand in canopy: loam: organic fertilizer=1: 1: 1 mixture, annual 3 The rootstock seedling of cutting survival is transplanted in grafting canopy by the first tenday period of a month moon, and north and south is embarked on journey, line-spacing 40cm, spacing in the rows 15cm, reinforces rich water pipe Reason keeps 25-30 DEG C of temperature of shed, humidity 55%-65%, it is ensured that reach grafting rugosity at the beginning of mid-May to 6 months;
(2) it grafts:At the beginning of late May to 6 months, ready scion is taken out from freezer, quick wooden bud is connected on stock from the ground The places 10cm or so, when grafting bud callus is good, after bud is sprouted, the cut anvil at 1.0cm on bud promotes scion bud to sprout;
Four, grafting manages:Fast-growth, annual plastic covering film, summer and autumn temperature are high all in grafting canopy for entire Growing season When, north and south both ends and east and west sides are leaked informaton, and 25-35 DEG C of temperature of shed of grafting, humidity 55%-65% is kept to impose N, P, K in time Composite fertilizer and promotion growth of watering, and pay attention to founding pillar, bracing wire holding nursery stock vertical growth, in due course medication prevents early leaf fall Disease;
Five, rapid-result seedling is out of the garden:Outplanting after early winter fallen leaves, reaches 1.5-2.0 meters, rugosity 1.0cm-1.5cm of height of seedling, places cold Library is planted overwintering in warm canopy.
2. sweet cherry grafting fast breeding method as described in claim 1, which is characterized in that the scion acquisition and preservation Specially:Tree body is fallen leaves after suspend mode, selects healthy and strong plant, acquisition hair tonic in 1 year to educate the full branch of substantial sprout in kind cutting orchard Section arranges bundled, extension label, with 3-4 layers of fresh-keeping plastic foils wrapping, sets Storage in cold bank, mid or late May in next year starts to graft standby With.
3. sweet cherry grafting fast breeding method as claimed in claim 2, which is characterized in that the temperature of ice house is -1 ~-4 DEG C.
4. sweet cherry grafting fast breeding method as claimed in claim 3, which is characterized in that the ABT1 rooting powder solutions A concentration of 600-800mg/kg.
5. sweet cherry grafting fast breeding method as claimed in claim 4, which is characterized in that the organic fertilizer is sheep manure.
CN201610237673.8A 2016-04-18 2016-04-18 A kind of sweet cherry grafting fast breeding method Expired - Fee Related CN105830850B (en)

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Cited By (1)

* Cited by examiner, † Cited by third party
Publication number Priority date Publication date Assignee Title
CN110057403A (en) * 2019-05-06 2019-07-26 山东省烟台市农业科学研究院 A kind of evaluation method of 2 years raw sweet cherry seedling qualities

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CN106256192A (en) * 2016-09-28 2016-12-28 甘肃金立源科工贸有限公司 The method for culturing seedlings that a kind of Populus hopeiensis bud grafting and cuttage combine
CN106982823A (en) * 2017-05-09 2017-07-28 薛军宏 The new-type method for preserving of fruit persimmon tree scion
CN107242099A (en) * 2017-08-08 2017-10-13 合肥润雨农业科技有限公司 A kind of hybrid breeding method for improving cherry winter resistance
CN107873288B (en) * 2017-11-22 2020-12-11 上海交通大学 Short low-temperature sweet cherry grafting seedling method
CN109121773A (en) * 2018-11-14 2019-01-04 房县八里旺樱桃种植专业合作社 The summer cottage method of cherry sapling
CN109526432B (en) * 2018-12-28 2021-04-23 云南省农业科学院高山经济植物研究所 Sweet cherry seedling raising and garden building method in high-altitude cold areas
CN111034578A (en) * 2019-12-24 2020-04-21 河北省农林科学院昌黎果树研究所 Dwarfing sweet cherry greenhouse potting method
CN111084046A (en) * 2019-12-24 2020-05-01 河北理查德农业科技有限公司 Cherry breeding method

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CN110057403A (en) * 2019-05-06 2019-07-26 山东省烟台市农业科学研究院 A kind of evaluation method of 2 years raw sweet cherry seedling qualities
CN110057403B (en) * 2019-05-06 2021-09-24 山东省烟台市农业科学研究院 Evaluation method for quality of 2-year-old sweet cherry seedlings

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