CN105613374A - Male and female river crab separated pond culture method - Google Patents

Male and female river crab separated pond culture method Download PDF

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Publication number
CN105613374A
CN105613374A CN201511012952.6A CN201511012952A CN105613374A CN 105613374 A CN105613374 A CN 105613374A CN 201511012952 A CN201511012952 A CN 201511012952A CN 105613374 A CN105613374 A CN 105613374A
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crab
male
female
pond
water
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Inventor
常国亮
吴旭干
邓登
成永旭
吴楠
向朝林
张伟
潘正军
朱传坤
丁怀宇
王辉
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SHENZHEN ALPHA AGRICULTURE ANIMAL HUSBANDRY CO Ltd
Shanghai Maritime University
Huaiyin Normal University
Shanghai Ocean University
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SHENZHEN ALPHA AGRICULTURE ANIMAL HUSBANDRY CO Ltd
Shanghai Maritime University
Huaiyin Normal University
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Priority to CN201511012952.6A priority Critical patent/CN105613374A/en
Publication of CN105613374A publication Critical patent/CN105613374A/en
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    • YGENERAL TAGGING OF NEW TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENTS; GENERAL TAGGING OF CROSS-SECTIONAL TECHNOLOGIES SPANNING OVER SEVERAL SECTIONS OF THE IPC; TECHNICAL SUBJECTS COVERED BY FORMER USPC CROSS-REFERENCE ART COLLECTIONS [XRACs] AND DIGESTS
    • Y02TECHNOLOGIES OR APPLICATIONS FOR MITIGATION OR ADAPTATION AGAINST CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02ATECHNOLOGIES FOR ADAPTATION TO CLIMATE CHANGE
    • Y02A40/00Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production
    • Y02A40/80Adaptation technologies in agriculture, forestry, livestock or agroalimentary production in fisheries management
    • Y02A40/81Aquaculture, e.g. of fish

Abstract

The invention discloses a male and female river crab separated pond culture method which enables male and female river crabs to be separated and adopts different culture modes in different culture ponds. The male and female river crab separated pond culture method ensures normal ingestion of the female river crabs, facilitates improvement of growing-out size of the female river crabs, promotes synchronism of river crab exuviation in the same ponds and facilitates improvement of the culture survival rate. Scientific feeding and management are performed according to different growth and development laws and nutritional demands of the male and female river crabs, a food coefficient is reduced, and the quality of adult crabs is improved. The crabs are caught and supplied to the market according to different mature times of the male and female river crabs, the reduction of the labor intensity is facilitated, crab hurts are decreased, and the culture and management level and economic benefits are improved.

Description

The pond breeding method of river crab isolating female from male culture
Technical field
The invention belongs to technical field of aquaculture, it is specifically related to the pond breeding method of a kind of river crab isolating female from male culture.
Background technology
River crab (Eriocheirsinensis), formal name used at school mitten crab, is under the jurisdiction of Decapoda, Fang Xie section, Eriocheir genus. In the salt-fresh water being distributed widely in China's southeastern coast and freshwater, North gets the Liaohe River, reach the Oujiang River in the south and all produce, through fast development in recent years, now become a kind of extremely important economic crab of China, all there is cultivation in many provinces such as Jiangsu, Hubei, Henan, Shandong, Anhui, Liaoning, Xinjiang, annual production has been increased to 79.65 ten thousand tons of (China's fishery statistical yearbooks of 2014 from 23.24 ten thousand in 2002 tons, 2015), annual value of production is more than 40,000,000,000 yuan, wherein only namely Jiangsu Province's output reach 35.82 ten thousand tons, and the output value is more than 20,000,000,000 yuan.
At present, through the continuous effort of aquatic products scientific research these years, scientific and technical personnel, define cover foster mandarin fish in the crab pool in the one-tenth crab cultivation of river crab, freshwater shrimp supported by crab pool cover, many aquaculture models such as sand sleeper supported by crab pool cover, but these aquaculture models are all raised together with together by male and female river crab. From cultivation practice at present, male and female are raised together with exists some drawbacks: it is strong that (1) male crab robs food ability, and it is weak that female crab robs food ability, and female crab not easily gets bait, causes female crab forming specification to diminish; (2) the individual shell of male and female is asynchronous, particularly last ripe shell, and female crab shifts to an earlier date about 15 days than male crab usually, causes and is just easily massacreed by other crab the buckler of shell or just shell, thus reduces surviving rate; (3) female crab is different with the nutritional needs of male crab during gonad development, and both development times and development rate is also bigger there is difference. The female crab development of ovary just starts (Yangtze valley is from mid or late August) after ripe shell, to feed total lipid content demand more than 10%; Male crab testis development starts usually from late June, the growth of sexual accessory gland is mainly carried out after ripe shell, to feed total lipid content demand about 6% during male crab gonad development, but requiring higher to protein content in feed, therefore male and female are raised together with the Different Nutrition demand being unfavorable for according to male and female crab and are carried out science and throw something and feed; (4) female crab is different with the listing time of male crab, owing to sexual gland is the important edible part of river crab, female crab gonad development is annual mid or late October close to maturation, male crab gonad development is annual mid-November close to maturation, and the usual female crab listing time is annual 10��11 parts, and the male crab listing time is annual 11��December, so male and female raise together with fish for female crab list time, usually need to reject male crab, so not only inconvenient operation, and easily cause river crab damage dead.
Summary of the invention
It is an object of the invention to: the pond breeding method that a kind of river crab isolating female from male culture is provided, it is to increase become the surviving rate of crab cultivation, reduce aquaculture cost, be conducive to aquaculture management and fish for listing.
The pond breeding method that the technical solution of the present invention is this river crab isolating female from male culture comprises the following steps:
(1) pond prepares:Selecting two mouthfuls, east-west pond, area, at 20��40 mu, is around carried out and is prevented escaping facility, and pond surrounding has the zanjon of 1.2��1.6 meters; Micro-pore oxygenation system is installed in every mouthful of pond, each configuration Roche blower fan one, and is equipped with oxygen increasing disc; ?In the circular groove of pond or side, pond isolation net block and establish river crab Zan Yang community, area accounts for the 1/4 of pond area; Isolating side off the net is mesh sheet, and mesh sheet bottom is provided with gabion and imbeds in earth, is sewed with and prevents escaping plastic sheet above mesh sheet, prevents escaping the exaggerated higher than pond more than top water-level 20cm of mesh sheet;
(2) clean up the pond sterilization:Winter, the dry pool was fully tanned by the sun, and within removing mud to 5��10cm, starches full pool spilling head by 100kg being watered of unslaked lime, thorough disinfection for every mu, at the bottom of improvement pond, removes deleterious pathogens; Pond disinfection is after 1 week, and every mu is discharged 200kg and ferments ripe chicken excrement base manure, turn over, the degree of depth 10��15cm;
(3) pasture and water plantation:Plant hydrilla verticillata, eel grass and waterweed stage by stage, fraction of coverage 60%; Isolation net outer culture zone kind waterweed, central platform perches the pasture and water collocation plantation of three kinds, district, waterweed, eel grass each 20%, hydrilla verticillata 60%; Silk cover filtering water inlet 20��30cm at the beginning of 2 months, starts at culture zone shallow water place cuttage waterweed strain bundle, spacing in the rows 1.5m, line space 3m; Early March starts drilling or bar inserts hydrilla verticillata gemma or green bud, more than spacing 2m, and earthing 5cm; Sow the eel grass grass-seed rubbed out after soaking 3 days before by the end of March, mix soil and evenly broadcast sowing in area of space;
(4) spiral shell is thrown in:Throw in the spiral shell 200kg that lives for every mu, and respectively at the beginning of 4 months and mid or late July respectively mend and put 1 time, mend every time and put 100kg;
(5) seed is put in a suitable place to breed:Select 100��140/kg, specification is in the same size, appendage is complete, the anosis crab kind without wound, and female crab and male crab is separated, and female crab with male crab method of discrimination is: female crab plastron is for oval, and male crab plastron is Yangtze River Delta bar shaped; Time of putting in a suitable place to breed, in February, selects fair weather to carry out, with formalin, potassium permanganate or Operand soaking disinfection before the pool under crab kind; The female crab pool and Xiong Xietang specifically put situation in a suitable place to breed in table 1;
Mouth seed puts situation in a suitable place to breed on table 1 pool
(6) feeding and management:(1) suitably apply fertilizer spring, keep water quality to have certain fertile degree, ensure that freshwater shrimp has sufficient natural bait, promote pasture and water growth, suppress moss to grow; (2) whole process is thrown something and fed a material feed, during water temperature 8��10 DEG C, selecting the mixed feed of protein content 42% to throw something and feed, throw something and feed 1 time during 17:00 every afternoon, 0.5%��2%(that feeding volume is crab kind body weight adjusts according to water temperature, water quality, situation of ingesting every day); June, day feeding volume be increased to 5%(gradually from 2% and adjust every day according to water temperature, water quality, situation of ingesting), protein content of throwing something and feeding is the granulated feed of 36%; The female crab cultivating pool female body that starts to throw something and feed from late July urgees ripe feed, and its protein content is 36%, and total lipid content is 8%; Male crab cultivating pool male body of throwing something and feeding from mid-August urgees ripe feed, and its protein content is 40%; After ripe shell completes, female crab and male crab are thrown something and fed fattening feed respectively, promote the gonad development of male and female individuality; (3) on regulating and controlling water quality, take to add water, change water, it may also be useful to biotechnological formulation and in good time oxygenation, allow shrimp, crab, fish have good existence, a growing environment; Water-quality guideline requires to reach: pH value is 7.5��8.6, dissolved oxygen > 5mg/L, and transparency is 30��50cm, wherein 30��35cm in spring, and the pliotherm period is 40��50cm; (4) manage and protect pasture and water and Guan Shui, pipe substrate, pipe bait synchronously to carry out, protect grass by water transfer control grass, water transfer, throw foot bait and hinder grass less, prevent the residual rotten grass of bait bad water; According to pasture and water growing state in breeding process, carry out dredging in time to intensive pasture and water and cut, skim every day by the disconnected pasture and water emerged of crab folder, be convenient to pond waters flowing, ensure the not rotten grass of high temperature; (5) adhere to the principle of " put prevention first, anosis first anti-, ill morning control ", select green non-pollution fishing medicine, disappear outward and combining oral, stop the use of illegal drug;
(7) the fishing for of cultured product: freshwater shrimp catches starting wheel at the beginning of 5 months, and the instrument of fishing for is cage, cage end rope and bamboo pole is banded together during shrimping, and cage end port surfaces, and does not tighten cage end port, allows river crab crawl out, and freshwater shrimp is stayed in cage; Before and after National Day, carry out harvesting in batches according to river crab gonad development situation and market conditions, adopt cage to fish for, dusk or free-hand seizure at night; Finally the dry pool is by whole to river crab in pond, freshwater shrimp and mandarin fish harvesting.
The present invention has following outstanding advantage and technique effect:
(1) female crab divides pond culture with male crab, ensure that normally ingesting of female crab, is conducive to improving the forming specification of female crab.
(2) female crab divides pond culture with male crab, promotes the synchronism of river crab shell in same pond, is conducive to improving cultivation surviving rate.
(3) female crab divides pond culture with male crab, and according to the different growth-development law of male and female crab and nutritional needs, the science of carrying out is thrown something and fed and managed, and reduces feed coefficient, it is to increase become crab quality.
(4) female crab divides pond culture with male crab, according to the different maturation times of male and female river crab, fishes for listing respectively, is conducive to reducing labour intensity, reduces the damage to crab, it is to increase aquaculture management level and economic benefit.
Embodiment
The technical solution of the present invention being further described below in conjunction with specific embodiment, these embodiments can not be interpreted as it is restriction to the technology of the present invention solution.
Embodiment 1:According to following step, river crab is carried out male and female and divide pond culture
Pond prepares:Selecting 2 mouthfuls, east-west pond, the female crab of the cultivation that area is 20 mu, the male crab of the cultivation that area is 30 mu, around carries out and prevents escaping facility, and pond surrounding has the zanjon of 1.6 meters; Micro-pore oxygenation system is installed in every mouthful of pond, each configuration Roche blower fan 1, and is equipped with oxygen increasing disc; ?In the circular groove of pond or side, pond isolation net block and establish river crab Zan Yang community, area accounts for the 1/4 of pond area; Isolating side off the net is mesh sheet, and mesh sheet bottom is provided with gabion and imbeds in earth, is sewed with and prevents escaping plastic sheet above mesh sheet, prevents escaping the exaggerated higher than pond top water-level 25cm of mesh sheet;
Clean up the pond sterilization:Winter, the dry pool was fully tanned by the sun, and removes mud to 8cm, starches full pool spilling head by 100kg being watered of unslaked lime, thorough disinfection for every mu, at the bottom of improvement pond, removes deleterious pathogens; Pond disinfection is after 1 week, and every mu is discharged 200kg and ferments ripe chicken excrement base manure, turn over, degree of depth 12cm;
Pasture and water are planted:Plant hydrilla verticillata, eel grass and waterweed stage by stage, fraction of coverage 60%; Isolation net outer culture zone kind waterweed, central platform perches the pasture and water collocation plantation of three kinds, district, waterweed, eel grass each 20%, hydrilla verticillata 60%; Silk cover filtering water inlet 25cm at the beginning of 2 months, starts at culture zone shallow water place cuttage waterweed strain bundle, spacing in the rows 1.5m, line space 3m; Early March starts drilling or bar inserts hydrilla verticillata gemma or green bud, more than spacing 2m, and earthing 5cm; Sow the eel grass grass-seed rubbed out after soaking 3 days before by the end of March, mix soil and evenly broadcast sowing in area of space;
Spiral shell is thrown in:Throw in the spiral shell 200kg that lives for every mu, respectively mend in April 6 and July 20 respectively and put spiral shell 1 time, mend every time and put 100kg;
Seed is put in a suitable place to breed:Select 120/kg, specification is in the same size, appendage is complete, the anosis crab kind without wound, and female crab and male crab is separated, and female crab with male crab method of discrimination is: female crab plastron is for oval, and male crab plastron is Yangtze River Delta bar shaped; Time of putting in a suitable place to breed, in February, selects fair weather to carry out, with 15 �� potassium permanganate solution soaking disinfection 15 minutes before the pool under crab kind; The female crab pool and Xiong Xietang specifically put situation in a suitable place to breed in table 2:
Mouth seed puts situation in a suitable place to breed on table 2 pool
Feeding and management:(1) suitably apply fertilizer spring, keep water quality to have certain fertile degree, ensure that freshwater shrimp has sufficient natural bait, promote pasture and water growth, suppress moss to grow; (2) whole process is thrown something and fed a material feed, during water temperature 8��10 DEG C, select protein content be 42% mixed feed throw something and feed, throw something and feed during 17:00 every afternoon 1 time, 0.5%��2%(that feeding volume is crab kind body weight adjusts according to water temperature, water quality, situation of ingesting every day); June, day feeding volume be increased to 5%(gradually from 2% and adjust every day according to water temperature, water quality, situation of ingesting), protein content of throwing something and feeding is the granulated feed of 36%; Female crab cultivating pool female body of throwing something and feeding from July 28 urgees ripe feed, and its protein content is 36%, and total lipid content is 8%; Male crab cultivating pool male body of throwing something and feeding from August 12 urgees ripe feed, and its protein content is 40%; After ripe shell completes, female crab and male crab are thrown something and fed fattening feed respectively, promote the gonad development of male and female individuality; (3) on regulating and controlling water quality, take to add water, change water, it may also be useful to biotechnological formulation and in good time oxygenation, allow shrimp, crab, fish have good existence, a growing environment; Water-quality guideline requires to reach: pH value is 8.0, dissolved oxygen > 5mg/L, and transparency is 30��50cm, wherein 35cm in spring, and the pliotherm period is 50cm; (4) manage and protect pasture and water and Guan Shui, pipe substrate, pipe bait synchronously to carry out, protect grass by water transfer control grass, water transfer, throw foot bait and hinder grass less, prevent the residual rotten grass of bait bad water; According to pasture and water growing state in breeding process, carry out dredging in time to intensive pasture and water and cut, skim every day by the disconnected pasture and water emerged of crab folder, be convenient to pond waters flowing, ensure the not rotten grass of high temperature; (5) adhere to the principle of " put prevention first, anosis first anti-, ill morning control ", select green non-pollution fishing medicine, disappear outward and combining oral, stop the use of illegal drug;
Fishing for of cultured product: freshwater shrimp started wheel May 6 and catches, and the instrument of fishing for is cage, cage end rope and bamboo pole is banded together during shrimping, and cage end port surfaces, and does not tighten cage end port, allows river crab crawl out, and freshwater shrimp is stayed in cage; From September 25, carry out harvesting in batches according to river crab gonad development situation and market conditions, adopt cage to fish for, dusk or free-hand seizure at night; Finally the dry pool is by whole to river crab in pond, freshwater shrimp and mandarin fish harvesting.
Adopting the female crab of above embodiment to separate raising with male crab, compared with raising together with tradition male and female river crab, cultivation is to when becoming crab to list, it forms situation such as following table:
Embodiment 2:According to following step, river crab is carried out male and female and divide pond culture
Pond prepares:Selecting 2 mouthfuls, east-west pond, the female crab of the cultivation that area is 20 mu, the male crab of the cultivation that area is 30 mu, around carries out and prevents escaping facility, and pond surrounding has the zanjon of 1.2 meters; Micro-pore oxygenation system is installed in every mouthful of pond, each configuration Roche blower fan 1, and is equipped with oxygen increasing disc;In the circular groove of pond or side, pond isolation net block and establish river crab Zan Yang community, area accounts for the 1/4 of pond area; Isolating side off the net is mesh sheet, and mesh sheet bottom is provided with gabion and imbeds in earth, is sewed with and prevents escaping plastic sheet above mesh sheet, prevents escaping the exaggerated higher than pond top water-level 20cm of mesh sheet;
Clean up the pond sterilization:Winter, the dry pool was fully tanned by the sun, and removes mud to 5cm, starches full pool spilling head by 100kg being watered of unslaked lime, thorough disinfection for every mu, at the bottom of improvement pond, removes deleterious pathogens; Pond disinfection is after 1 week, and every mu is discharged 200kg and ferments ripe chicken excrement base manure, turn over, degree of depth 10cm;
Pasture and water are planted:Plant hydrilla verticillata, eel grass and waterweed stage by stage, fraction of coverage 60%; Isolation net outer culture zone kind waterweed, central platform perches the pasture and water collocation plantation of three kinds, district, waterweed, eel grass each 20%, hydrilla verticillata 60%; Silk cover filtering water inlet 20cm at the beginning of 2 months, starts at culture zone shallow water place cuttage waterweed strain bundle, spacing in the rows 1.5m, line space 3m; Early March starts drilling or bar inserts hydrilla verticillata gemma or green bud, more than spacing 2m, and earthing 5cm; Sow the eel grass grass-seed rubbed out after soaking 3 days before by the end of March, mix soil and evenly broadcast sowing in area of space;
Spiral shell is thrown in:Throw in the spiral shell 200kg that lives for every mu, respectively mend in April 4 and July 15 respectively and put spiral shell 1 time, mend every time and put 100kg;
Seed is put in a suitable place to breed:Select 100/kg, specification is in the same size, appendage is complete, the anosis crab kind without wound, and female crab and male crab is separated, and female crab with male crab method of discrimination is: female crab plastron is for oval, and male crab plastron is Yangtze River Delta bar shaped; Time of putting in a suitable place to breed, in February, selects fair weather to carry out, with 10mg/L formalin solution soaking disinfection 5 minutes before the pool under crab kind; The female crab pool and Xiong Xietang specifically put situation in a suitable place to breed in table 3:
Mouth seed puts situation in a suitable place to breed on table 3 pool
Feeding and management:(1) suitably apply fertilizer spring, keep water quality to have certain fertile degree, ensure that freshwater shrimp has sufficient natural bait, promote pasture and water growth, suppress moss to grow; (2) whole process is thrown something and fed a material feed, during water temperature 8��10 DEG C, select protein content be 42% mixed feed throw something and feed, throw something and feed during 17:00 every afternoon 1 time, 0.5%��2%(that feeding volume is crab kind body weight adjusts according to water temperature, water quality, situation of ingesting every day); June, day feeding volume be increased to 5%(gradually from 2% and adjust every day according to water temperature, water quality, situation of ingesting), protein content of throwing something and feeding is the granulated feed of 36%; Female crab cultivating pool female body of throwing something and feeding from July 26 urgees ripe feed, and its protein content is 36%, and total lipid content is 8%; Male crab cultivating pool male body of throwing something and feeding from August 18 urgees ripe feed, and its protein content is 40%; After ripe shell completes, female crab and male crab are thrown something and fed fattening feed respectively, promote the gonad development of male and female individuality; (3) on regulating and controlling water quality, take to add water, change water, it may also be useful to biotechnological formulation and in good time oxygenation, allow shrimp, crab, fish have good existence, a growing environment; Water-quality guideline require reach: pH value is 7.5, dissolved oxygen > 5mg/L, and transparency is 30��50cm, wherein, spring 30cm, the pliotherm period is 40cm; (4) manage and protect pasture and water and Guan Shui, pipe substrate, pipe bait synchronously to carry out, protect grass by water transfer control grass, water transfer, throw foot bait and hinder grass less, prevent the residual rotten grass of bait bad water; According to pasture and water growing state in breeding process, carry out dredging in time to intensive pasture and water and cut, skim every day by the disconnected pasture and water emerged of crab folder, be convenient to pond waters flowing, ensure the not rotten grass of high temperature; (5) adhere to the principle of " put prevention first, anosis first anti-, ill morning control ", select green non-pollution fishing medicine, disappear outward and combining oral, stop the use of illegal drug;
Fishing for of cultured product: freshwater shrimp started wheel May 2 and catches, and the instrument of fishing for is cage, cage end rope and bamboo pole is banded together during shrimping, and cage end port surfaces, and does not tighten cage end port, allows river crab crawl out, and freshwater shrimp is stayed in cage; From October 1, carrying out harvesting in batches according to river crab gonad development situation and market conditions, adopt cage to fish for, dusk or free-hand seizure at night, finally the dry pool is by whole to river crab in pond, freshwater shrimp and mandarin fish harvesting.
Adopting the female crab of above embodiment to separate raising with male crab, compared with raising together with tradition male and female river crab, cultivation is to when becoming crab to list, it forms situation such as following table:
Embodiment 3:According to following step, river crab is carried out male and female and divide pond culture
Pond prepares:Selecting 2 mouthfuls, east-west pond, the female crab of the cultivation that area is 30 mu, the male crab of the cultivation that area is 40 mu, around carries out and prevents escaping facility, and pond surrounding has the zanjon of 1.4 meters; Micro-pore oxygenation system is installed in every mouthful of pond, each configuration Roche blower fan 1, and is equipped with oxygen increasing disc; ?In the circular groove of pond or side, pond isolation net block and establish river crab Zan Yang community, area accounts for the 1/4 of pond area; Isolating side off the net is mesh sheet, and mesh sheet bottom is provided with gabion and imbeds in earth, is sewed with and prevents escaping plastic sheet above mesh sheet, prevents escaping the exaggerated higher than pond top water-level 22cm of mesh sheet;
Clean up the pond sterilization:Winter, the dry pool was fully tanned by the sun, and within removing mud to 8cm, starches full pool spilling head by 100kg being watered of unslaked lime, thorough disinfection for every mu, at the bottom of improvement pond, removes deleterious pathogens; Pond disinfection is after 1 week, and every mu is discharged 200kg and ferments ripe chicken excrement base manure, turn over, degree of depth 15cm;
Pasture and water are planted:Plant hydrilla verticillata, eel grass and waterweed stage by stage, fraction of coverage 60%; Isolation net outer culture zone kind waterweed, central platform perches the pasture and water collocation plantation of three kinds, district, waterweed, eel grass each 20%, hydrilla verticillata 60%; Silk cover filtering water inlet 30cm at the beginning of 2 months, starts at culture zone shallow water place cuttage waterweed strain bundle, spacing in the rows 1.5m, line space 3m; Early March starts drilling or bar inserts hydrilla verticillata gemma or green bud, more than spacing 2m, and earthing 5cm; Sow the eel grass grass-seed rubbed out after soaking 3 days before by the end of March, mix soil and evenly broadcast sowing in area of space;
Spiral shell is thrown in:Throw in the spiral shell 200kg that lives for every mu, respectively mend in April 2 and July 25 respectively and put spiral shell 1 time, mend every time and put 100kg;
Seed is put in a suitable place to breed:Select 120/kg, specification is in the same size, appendage is complete, the anosis crab kind without wound, and female crab and male crab is separated, and female crab with male crab method of discrimination is: female crab plastron is for oval, and male crab plastron is Yangtze River Delta bar shaped; Time of putting in a suitable place to breed, in February, is selected fair weather to carry out, sterilizes 5 minutes by 5ml/L povidone iodine (10%) solution soaking under crab kind before the pool; The female crab pool and Xiong Xietang specifically put situation in a suitable place to breed in table 4:
Mouth seed puts situation in a suitable place to breed on table 4 pool
Feeding and management:(1) suitably apply fertilizer spring, keep water quality to have certain fertile degree, ensure that freshwater shrimp has sufficient natural bait, promote pasture and water growth, suppress moss to grow; (2) whole process is thrown something and fed a material feed, during water temperature 8��10 DEG C, select protein content be 42% mixed feed throw something and feed, throw something and feed during 17:00 every afternoon 1 time, 0.5%��2%(that feeding volume is crab kind body weight adjusts according to water temperature, water quality, situation of ingesting every day); June, day feeding volume be increased to 5%(gradually from 2% and adjust every day according to water temperature, water quality, situation of ingesting), protein content of throwing something and feeding is the granulated feed of 36%; Female crab cultivating pool female body of throwing something and feeding from July 28 urgees ripe feed, and its protein content is 36%, and total lipid content is 8%; Male crab cultivating pool male body of throwing something and feeding from August 12 urgees ripe feed, and its protein content is 40%; After ripe shell completes, female crab and male crab are thrown something and fed fattening feed respectively, promote the gonad development of male and female individuality; (3) on regulating and controlling water quality, take to add water, change water, it may also be useful to biotechnological formulation and in good time oxygenation, allow shrimp, crab, fish have good existence, a growing environment; Water-quality guideline require reach: pH value is 8.6, dissolved oxygen > 5mg/L, and transparency is 30��50cm, wherein, spring 32cm, the pliotherm period is 45cm; (4) manage and protect pasture and water and Guan Shui, pipe substrate, pipe bait synchronously to carry out, protect grass by water transfer control grass, water transfer, throw foot bait and hinder grass less, prevent the residual rotten grass of bait bad water; According to pasture and water growing state in breeding process, carry out dredging in time to intensive pasture and water and cut, skim every day by the disconnected pasture and water emerged of crab folder, be convenient to pond waters flowing, ensure the not rotten grass of high temperature; (5) adhere to the principle of " put prevention first, anosis first anti-, ill morning control ", select green non-pollution fishing medicine, disappear outward and combining oral, stop the use of illegal drug;
Fishing for of cultured product: freshwater shrimp started wheel May 3 and catches, and the instrument of fishing for is cage, cage end rope and bamboo pole is banded together during shrimping, and cage end port surfaces, and does not tighten cage end port, allows river crab crawl out, and freshwater shrimp is stayed in cage; From October 6, carrying out harvesting in batches according to river crab gonad development situation and market conditions, adopt cage to fish for, dusk or free-hand seizure at night, finally the dry pool is by whole to river crab in pond, freshwater shrimp and mandarin fish harvesting.
Adopting the female crab of above embodiment to separate raising with male crab, compared with raising together with tradition male and female river crab, cultivation is to when becoming crab to list, it forms situation such as following table:

Claims (5)

1. the pond breeding method of river crab isolating female from male culture, is characterized in that this cultural method comprises the following steps:
(1) pond prepares:Selecting two mouthfuls, east-west pond, area, at 20��40 mu, is around carried out and is prevented escaping facility, and pond surrounding has the zanjon of 1.2��1.6 meters; Micro-pore oxygenation system is installed in every mouthful of pond, each configuration Roche blower fan one, and is equipped with oxygen increasing disc;Zan Yang district is set in pond;Isolating side off the net is mesh sheet, and mesh sheet bottom is provided with gabion and imbeds in earth, is sewed with and prevents escaping plastic sheet above mesh sheet, prevents escaping the exaggerated higher than pond more than top water-level 20cm of mesh sheet;
(2) clean up the pond sterilization:Winter, the dry pool was fully tanned by the sun, and within removing mud to 5��10cm, starches full pool spilling head by 100kg being watered of unslaked lime, thorough disinfection for every mu, at the bottom of improvement pond, removes deleterious pathogens; Pond disinfection is after 1 week, and every mu is discharged 200kg and ferments ripe chicken excrement base manure, turn over, the degree of depth 10��15cm;
(3) pasture and water plantation:Plant hydrilla verticillata, eel grass and waterweed stage by stage, fraction of coverage 60%; Isolation net outer culture zone kind waterweed, central platform perches the pasture and water collocation plantation of three kinds, district, waterweed, eel grass each 20%, hydrilla verticillata 60%; Silk cover filtering water inlet 20��30cm at the beginning of 2 months, starts at culture zone shallow water place cuttage waterweed strain bundle, spacing in the rows 1.5m, line space 3m; Early March starts drilling or bar inserts hydrilla verticillata gemma or green bud, more than spacing 2m, and earthing 5cm; Sow the eel grass grass-seed rubbed out after soaking 3 days before by the end of March, mix soil and evenly broadcast sowing in area of space;
(4) spiral shell is thrown in:Throw in the spiral shell 200kg that lives for every mu, and respectively at the beginning of 4 months and mid or late July respectively mend and put 1 time, mend every time and put 100kg;
(5) seed is put in a suitable place to breed:Select 100��140/kg, specification is in the same size, appendage is complete, the anosis crab kind without wound, and female crab and male crab is separated according to plastron shape; Time of putting in a suitable place to breed, in February, selects fair weather to carry out, with formalin, potassium permanganate or Operand soaking disinfection before the pool under crab kind; The female crab pool and Xiong Xietang specifically put situation in a suitable place to breed in table 5:
Mouth seed puts situation in a suitable place to breed on table 5 pool
(6) feeding and management:(1) suitably apply fertilizer spring, keep water quality to have certain fertile degree, ensure that freshwater shrimp has sufficient natural bait, promote pasture and water growth, suppress moss to grow; (2) whole process is thrown something and fed a material feed, during water temperature 8��10 DEG C, selects the mixed feed of protein content 42% to throw something and feed, throws something and feeds 1 time during 17:00 every afternoon, and feeding volume is the 0.5%��2% of crab kind body weight, adjusts every day according to water temperature, water quality, situation of ingesting; June, day feeding volume be increased to 5% gradually from 2%, adjust every day according to water temperature, water quality, situation of ingesting, protein content of throwing something and feeding is the granulated feed of 36%; The cultivation middle and later periods, female crab selects different short ripe time, short ripe feed and fattening feed from male crab; (3) on regulating and controlling water quality, take to add water, change water, it may also be useful to biotechnological formulation and in good time oxygenation, allow shrimp, crab, fish have good existence, a growing environment; Water-quality guideline requires to reach: pH value is 7.5��8.6, dissolved oxygen > 5mg/L, and transparency is 30��50cm; Wherein 30��35cm in spring, the pliotherm period is 40��50cm; (4) manage and protect pasture and water and Guan Shui, pipe substrate, pipe bait synchronously to carry out, protect grass by water transfer control grass, water transfer, throw foot bait and hinder grass less, prevent the residual rotten grass of bait bad water; According to pasture and water growing state in breeding process, carry out dredging in time to intensive pasture and water and cut, skim every day by the disconnected pasture and water emerged of crab folder, be convenient to pond waters flowing, ensure the not rotten grass of high temperature; (5) adhere to the principle of " put prevention first, anosis first anti-, ill morning control ", select green non-pollution fishing medicine, disappear outward and combining oral, stop the use of illegal drug;
(7) the fishing for of cultured product: the freshwater shrimp instrument of fishing for is cage, cage end rope and bamboo pole is banded together during shrimping, and cage end port surfaces, and does not tighten cage end port, allows river crab crawl out, and freshwater shrimp is stayed in cage; River crab adopts cage to fish for, dusk or free-hand seizure at night; Finally the dry pool is by whole to river crab in pond, freshwater shrimp and mandarin fish harvesting.
2. the pond breeding method of river crab isolating female from male culture according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: pond arranges Zan Yang district, blocking in pond with isolation net and establish river crab Zan Yang community, area accounts for about the 1/4 of pond area, in 3��May, male and female river crab Jun Zanyang district cultivates.
3. the pond breeding method of river crab isolating female from male culture according to claim 1, is characterized in that: female crab and male crab are separated according to plastron shape, and female crab plastron is oval, and male crab plastron is Yangtze River Delta bar shaped.
4. the pond breeding method of river crab isolating female from male culture according to claim 1, is characterized in that: the cultivation middle and later periods, and female crab selects different short ripe time, short ripe feed and fattening feed from male crab; The female crab cultivating pool female body that starts to throw something and feed from late July urgees ripe feed, and its protein content is 36%, and total lipid content is 8%; Male crab cultivating pool male body of throwing something and feeding from mid-August urgees ripe feed, and its protein content is 40%; After ripe shell completes, female crab and male crab are thrown something and fed fattening feed respectively, promote the gonad development of male and female individuality.
5. the pond breeding method of river crab isolating female from male culture according to claim 1, it is characterized in that: fishing for of freshwater shrimp should from May, fishing for of male and female river crab is fished for according to gonad development situation and market value in batches, female body fishes for listing usual mid-October in a large number, and male body fishes for listing in a large number in November usually.
CN201511012952.6A 2015-12-31 2015-12-31 Male and female river crab separated pond culture method Pending CN105613374A (en)

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